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Sample records for aero earth global

  1. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  2. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  3. Global Images of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Global images of Earth from Galileo. In each frame, the continent of Antarctica is visible at the bottom of the globe. South America may be seen in the first frame (top left), the great Pacific Ocean in the second (bottom left), India at the top and Australia to the right in the third (top right), and Africa in the fourth (bottom right). Taken at six-hour intervals on December 11, 1990, at a range of between 2 and 2.7 million kilometers (1.2 to 1.7 million miles). P-37630

    These images were taken during Galileo's first Earth flyby. This gravity assist increased Galileo's speed around the Sun by about 5.2 kilometers per second (or 11,600 miles per hour) and substantially redirected Galileo as required for its flybys of the asteroid Gaspra in October 1991 and Earth in 1992. Galileo's closest approach (960 kilometers, or 597 miles, above the Earth's surface) to the Earth was on December 8, 1990, 3 days before these pictures were taken.

    Each of these images is a color composite, made up using images taken through red, green, and violet filters. The four images are part of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 256-frame time-lapse motion picture that shows a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics. The movie gives scientists a unique overall view of global weather patterns, as opposed to the limited view of weather satellite images.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  4. Global Mobile Satellite Service Interference Analysis for the AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Apaza, Rafael D..; Hall, Ward; Phillips, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based on the IEEE 802.16-2009 mobile wireless standard, is envisioned as the wireless network which will cover all areas of airport surfaces for next generation air transportation. It is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band which is also occupied by mobile satellite service uplinks. Thus the AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. Simulations using Visualyse software were performed utilizing a global database of 6207 airports. Variations in base station and subscriber antenna distribution and gain pattern were examined. Based on these simulations, recommendations for global airport base station and subscriber antenna power transmission limitations are provided.

  5. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  6. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of a low ballistic coefficient deployable capsule in Earth re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppardi, G.; Savino, R.; Mongelluzzo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with a microsatellite and the related deployable recovery capsule. The aero-brake is folded at launch and deployed in space and is able to perform a de-orbiting controlled re-entry. This kind of capsule, with a flexible, high temperature resistant fabric, thanks to its lightness and modulating capability, can be an alternative to the current "conventional" recovery capsules. The present authors already analyzed the trajectory and the aerodynamic behavior of low ballistic coefficient capsules during Earth re-entry and Mars entry. In previous studies, aerodynamic longitudinal stability analysis and evaluation of thermal and aerodynamic loads for a possible suborbital re-entry demonstrator were carried out in both continuum and rarefied regimes. The present study is aimed at providing preliminary information about thermal and aerodynamic loads and longitudinal stability for a similar deployable capsule, as well as information about the electronic composition of the plasma sheet and its possible influence on radio communications at the altitudes where GPS black-out could occur. Since the computer tests were carried out at high altitudes, therefore in rarefied flow fields, use of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes was mandatory. The computations involved both global aerodynamic quantities (drag and longitudinal moment coefficients) and local aerodynamic quantities (heat flux and pressure distributions along the capsule surface). The results verified that the capsule at high altitude (150 km) is self-stabilizing; it is stable around the nominal attitude or at zero angle of attack and unstable around the reverse attitude or at 180° angle of attack. The analysis also pointed out the presence of extra statically stable equilibrium trim points.

  7. Technical Note: Simulation of detailed aerosol chemistry on the global scale using MECCA-AERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, A.; Sander, R.; Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-06-01

    We present the MESSy submodel MECCA-AERO, which simulates both aerosol and gas phase chemistry within one comprehensive mechanism. Including the aerosol phase into the chemistry mechanism increases the stiffness of the resulting set of differential equations. The numerical aspects of the approach followed in MECCA-AERO are presented. MECCA-AERO requires input of an aerosol dynamical/microphysical model to provide the aerosol size and particle number information of the modes/bins for which the chemistry is explicitly calculated. Additional precautions are required to avoid the double counting of processes, especially for sulphate in the aerosol dynamical and the chemistry model. This coupling is explained in detail. To illustrate the capabilities of the new aerosol submodel, examples for species usually treated in aerosol dynamical models are shown. The aerosol chemistry as provided by MECCA-AERO is very sumptuous and not readily applicable for long-term simulations, though it provides a reference to evaluate simplified approaches.

  8. Technical Note: simulation of detailed aerosol chemistry on the global scale using MECCA-AERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, A.; Sander, R.; Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-03-01

    We present the MESSy submodel MECCA-AERO, which simulates both aerosol and gas phase chemistry with the same mechanism. Including the aerosol phase into the chemistry mechanism increases the stiffness of the resulting set of differential equations. The numerical aspects of the approach followed in MECCA-AERO are presented. MECCA-AERO requires input of an aerosol dynamical/microphysical model to provide the aerosol size and particle number information of the modes/bins for which the chemistry is explicitly calculated. Additional precautions are required to avoid the double counting of processes, especially for sulphate in the aerosol dynamical and the chemistry model. This coupling is explained in detail. To illustrate the capabilities of the new aerosol submodel, examples for species usually treated in aerosol dynamical models are shown. The aerosol chemistry as provided by MECCA-AERO is very sumptuous and not readily applicable for long-term simulations, though it provides a reference to evaluate simplified approaches.

  9. Global Partnership in Global Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    The emergence of a global partnership on earth observations will crucially drive the configuration of future observing systems and consequently shape how socio-economic benefits are generated. In this paper we take a game-theoretical approach to model cooperation on building global earth observation systems. We consider several societies whose economies are subject to shocks mimicking major natural disasters. Economies operate optimally and lead to the best possible expected value for the social welfares in the future. In order to increase its welfare even more society can make a decision to invest into a global alerting system which lowers the risk of disasters. We start our investigation from a single-society case and show conditions under which benefits of such investment can be reaped. The propensity to invest increases with economic affluence and degree of vulnerability to natural disasters. We find that for poor and/or less vulnerable countries it is better to forbear from investment. If to consider a situation of multiple societies a strategic gaming situation emerges motivated by the fact that every society will benefit from a global system regardless of whether they invested or not. Our analysis of possible equilibrium solutions shows that similar to the formation of trading blocks (e.g. EU, NAFTA) only in the case of similar societies we will observe cooperation behavior (when all invest) and otherwise we will observe free-riding. This insight, that we might face a prisoners dilemma problem in the formation of a GEOSS, has important implications for the GEO process.

  10. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Müller, J.-F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, S.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34-144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of

  11. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Müller, J.-F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, N. L.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-10-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34-144 Tg a-1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and

  12. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    DOE PAGES

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; ...

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemicalmore » and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a−1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a−1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a−1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a−1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6–2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8–9.6 days

  13. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Müller, J. -F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, N. L.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models.

    The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a−1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a−1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a−1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a−1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0

  14. Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

  15. Aerosol single-scattering albedo over the global oceans: Comparing PARASOL retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom models estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Bian, Huisheng; Curci, Gabriele; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Schulz, Michael; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-27

    The aerosol Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) over the global oceans is evaluated based on polarimetric measurements by the PARASOL satellite. The retrieved values for SSA and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) agree well with the ground-based measurements of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The global coverage provided by the PARASOL observations represents a unique opportunity to evaluate SSA and AOD simulated by atmospheric transport model runs, as performed in the AeroCom framework. The SSA estimate provided by the AeroCom models is generally higher than the SSA retrieved from both PARASOL and AERONET. On the other hand, the mean simulated AOD is about right or slightly underestimated compared with observations. An overestimate of the SSA by the models would suggest that these simulate an overly strong aerosol radiative cooling at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and underestimate it at surface. This implies that aerosols have a potential stronger impact within the atmosphere than currently simulated.

  16. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Fred

    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthlyand geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, Earth-GRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-00) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of the GUACA and MAP datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which produce wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99. In addition, the dispersions are more normally distributed, especially at the extremes.

  17. Evaluation of the aerosol vertical distribution in global aerosol models through comparison against CALIOP measurements: AeroCom phase II results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Bréon, François-Marie; Dentener, Frank; Steensen, Birthe Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevâg, Alf; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, Ulrike; Myhre, Gunnar; Rasch, Phil; Seland, Åyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, Philip; Tackett, Jason; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Vuolo, Maria Raffaella; Yoon, Jinho; Zhang, Kai

    2016-06-01

    The ability of 11 models in simulating the aerosol vertical distribution from regional to global scales, as part of the second phase of the AeroCom model intercomparison initiative (AeroCom II), is assessed and compared to results of the first phase. The evaluation is performed using a global monthly gridded data set of aerosol extinction profiles built for this purpose from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Layer Product 3.01. Results over 12 subcontinental regions show that five models improved, whereas three degraded in reproducing the interregional variability in Zα0-6 km, the mean extinction height diagnostic, as computed from the CALIOP aerosol profiles over the 0-6 km altitude range for each studied region and season. While the models' performance remains highly variable, the simulation of the timing of the Zα0-6 km peak season has also improved for all but two models from AeroCom Phase I to Phase II. The biases in Zα0-6 km are smaller in all regions except Central Atlantic, East Asia, and North and South Africa. Most of the models now underestimate Zα0-6 km over land, notably in the dust and biomass burning regions in Asia and Africa. At global scale, the AeroCom II models better reproduce the Zα0-6 km latitudinal variability over ocean than over land. Hypotheses for the performance and evolution of the individual models and for the intermodel diversity are discussed. We also provide an analysis of the CALIOP limitations and uncertainties contributing to the differences between the simulations and observations.

  18. Global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    A global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere is defined. An introduction to numerical methods for solving the MHD equations is given with emphasis on the shock-capturing technique. Finally, results concerning the shape of the magnetosphere and the plasma flows inside the magnetosphere are presented.

  19. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  20. The global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, José

    2010-05-01

    Recognizing the growing need for improved Earth observations, 140 governments and leading international organizations have established the Group on Earth Observations, or GEO, to collaborate and implement a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) by the year 2015. Countries and organizations are contributing their respective Earth monitoring systems, from satellites in space and in situ instruments on land, in the oceans and in the atmosphere. They are interlinking these systems so that, together, they provide a more complete picture of Earth's systems dynamics. GEO is developing common technical standards to pool observations and ensure their cross calibration and validation. It is building a web-based infrastructure to ensure easy access to the wealth of data and services contributed to, or generated by, GEOSS. GEO has been promoting the free and open sharing and dissemination of Earth observation data which has already driven significant changes in data distribution policies of several key Earth observing satellites: Landsat, Cbers and the future Sentinels of GMES. GEO is also reflecting on solutions to transition research systems into operational observing systems and ensure their long-term sustainability. First, the current status of GEOSS implementation and these core activities of GEO will be presented. Then, examples of global data sets and information systems or services developed through GEOSS will be presented: - a high-resolution global digital elevation model (DEM) based on Aster data was released by Japan and the USA. In situ measurements are now being used to improve the model as well as the stacking procedure used to develop it; - the Supersites initiative ensures coordinated access to data and information on natural hazards in geologically active regions. In light of the recent tragedy in Haiti, this project created a dedicated web site regularly updated with maps of seismicity, tectonics, Coulomb stress changes, topography, real and

  1. Evaluation of the aerosol vertical distribution in global aerosol models through comparison against CALIOP measurements: AeroCom phase II results: AEROSOL PROFILES IN AEROCOM II GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Bréon, François-Marie; Dentener, Frank; Steensen, Birthe Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, Ulrike; Myhre, Gunnar; Rasch, Phil; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, Philip; Tackett, Jason; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Vuolo, Maria Raffaella; Yoon, Jinho; Zhang, Kai

    2016-06-27

    The ability of eleven models in simulating the aerosol vertical distribution from regional to global scales, as part of the second phase of the AeroCom model inter-comparison initiative (AeroCom II) is assessed and compared to results of the first phase. The evaluation is performed using a global monthly gridded dataset of aerosol extinction profiles built on purpose from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Layer Product 3.01. Results over 12 sub-continental regions show that five models improved whereas three degraded in reproducing the Zα 0-6 km mean extinction height diagnostic, which is computed over the 0-6 km altitude range for each studied region and season. While the models’ performance remains highly variable, it has generally improved in terms of inter-regional diversity and seasonality. The biases in Zα 0-6 km have notably decreased in the U.S. and European industrial and downwind maritime regions, whereas the timing of the Zα 0-6 km peak season has improved for all but two models. However, most of the models now show a Zα 0-6 km underestimation over land, notably in the dust and biomass burning regions in Asia and Africa. At global scale, the AeroCom II models better reproduce the Zα 0-6 km latitudinal variability over ocean than over land. Hypotheses for the (changes in the) the performance of the individual models and for the inter-model diversity are discussed. We also provide an analysis of the CALIOP limitations and uncertainties that can contribute to the differences between the simulations and observations.

  2. The global aerosol-cloud first indirect effect estimated using MODIS, MERRA, and AeroCom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, D. T.; Bender, F. A.-M.; Mohrmann, J. K. C.; Hartmann, D. L.; Wood, R.; Grosvenor, D. P.

    2017-02-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) represent a significant source of forcing uncertainty in global climate models (GCMs). Estimates of radiative forcing due to ACI in Fifth Assessment Report range from -0.5 to -2.5 W m-2. A portion of this uncertainty is related to the first indirect, or Twomey, effect whereby aerosols act as nuclei for cloud droplets to condense upon. At constant liquid water content this increases the number of cloud droplets (Nd) and thus increases the cloud albedo. In this study we use remote-sensing estimates of Nd within stratocumulus regions in combination with state-of-the-art aerosol reanalysis from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA2) to diagnose how aerosols affect Nd. As in previous studies, Nd is related to sulfate mass through a power law relationship. The slope of the log-log relationship between Nd and SO4 in maritime stratocumulus is found to be 0.31, which is similar to the range of 0.2-0.8 from previous in situ studies and remote-sensing studies in the pristine Southern Ocean. Using preindustrial emissions models, the change in Nd between preindustrial and present day is estimated. Nd is inferred to have more than tripled in some regions. Cloud properties from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are used to estimate the radiative forcing due to this change in Nd. The Twomey effect operating in isolation is estimated to create a radiative forcing of -0.97 ± 0.23 W m-2 relative to the preindustrial era.

  3. Global ENA Imaging of Earth's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between singly charged ions of Earth's magnetosphere and its neutral exosphere and upper atmosphere gives rise to Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs). This has enabled several missions to remotely image the global injection dynamics of the ring current and plasma sheet, the outflow of ions from Earth's polar regions, and the location of the sub-solar magnetopause. In this presentation we review ENA observations by the Astrid, IMAGE, TWINS and IBEX missions. We focus on results from the IMAGE/HENA Camera including observations of proton and oxygen ion injections in to the ring current and their impact on the force-balance and ionospheric coupling in the inner magnetosphere. We report also on the status of inversion techniques for retrieving the ion spatial and pitch-angle distributions from ENA images. The presentation concludes with a discussion of future next steps in ENA instrumentation and analysis capabilities required to deliver the science as recommended by the Heliophysics Decadal Survey.

  4. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    We are all becoming more aware of concerns such as the ozone hole and ozone layer depletion, the build-up of greenhouse gasses and the potential for global climate change, the damage to our lakes and forests from acid rain, and the loss of species and genetic diversity. These are not only of scientific interest, but are of growing public media, federal governmental, and international concern, with the potential for major impacts on the international economy, potential for future development, and global standard of living. Yet our current understanding of how our global environment behaves is embryonic, and does not allow us to predict with confidence the consequences or long term significance of these phenomena. NASA has a significant national responsibility in Global Change research, which will require a major agency investment over the next few decades in obtaining the science data associated with understanding the Earth as a total system. Technology research and development is a natural complement to this national scientific program. In her report to the NASA Administrator, Dr. Sally K. Ride states that Mission to Planet Earth "requires advances in technology to enhance observations, to handle and deliver the enormous quantities of data, and to ensure a long operating life." These three themes (1) space-based observation technologies, (2) data/information technologies, and (3) spacecraft/operations technologies form the basis for NASA's efforts to identify the technologies needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth. In the observation area, developments in spacecraft and space-based instrument technologies are required to enable the accurate measurement of key parameters crucial to the understanding of global change. In the data/information area, developments in technologies are required to enable the long-term documentation of these parameters and the timely understanding of the data. And in the spacecraft/operations area, developments in spacecraft

  5. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  6. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  7. European grid services for global earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.

    2012-04-01

    Force is already providing a cloud infrastructure through a few committed NGIs. This is being made available to research communities participating in the Task Force and the long-term aim is to integrate these national clouds into a pan-European infrastructure for scientific communities. • The MPI group provides support for application developers to port and scale up parallel applications to the global European Grid Infrastructure. • A lively portal developer and provider community that is able to setup and operate custom, application and/or community specific portals for members of the Earth Science community to interact with EGI. • A project to assess the possibilities for federated identity management in EGI and the readiness of EGI member states for federated authentication and authorisation mechanisms. • Operating resources and user support services to process data with new types of services and infrastructures, such as desktop grids, map-reduce frameworks, GPU clusters.

  8. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  9. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  10. Earth system science: A program for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  11. NASA's Earth Day #GlobalSelfie

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the first time in more than a decade, five NASA Earth-observing missions will be launched into space in a single year. To celebrate this milestone, NASA is inviting people all around the world ...

  12. One earth, one future. Our changing global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, C.S.; Defries, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    This book reports on deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and other matters concerning the global environment. From the perspective that humankind is an increasingly powerful agent changing the planet, the volume describes the Earth as a unified system - exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system - and points out the seemingly paradoxical need for economic growth to alleviate such global environmental problems.

  13. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  14. AeroStat: NASA Giovanni Tool for Statistical Intercomparison of Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Petrenko, M.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Lynnes, C.; Da Silva, D.; Hegde, M.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Giovanni is a NASA's interactive online visualization and analysis tool for exploring very large global Earth science datasets. One of the new Giovanni analytical and statistical tools is called AeroStat, and it is designed to perform the direct statistical intercomparison of global aerosol parameters. Currently, we incorporate the MAPSS (A Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System) data that provides spatio-temporal statistics for multiple spatial spaceborne Level 2 aerosol products (MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, MISR, POLDER, OMI and CALIOP) sampled over AERONET ground stations. The dataset period, 1997-2011 (up to date), is long enough to encompass a number of scientifically challenging cases of long-term global aerosol validation from multi-sensors. AeroStat allows users to easily visualize and analyze in details the statistical properties of such cases, including data collected from multiple sensors and quality assurance (QA) properties of these data. One of the goals of AeroStat is to also provide a collaborative research environment, where aerosol scientists can share pertinent research workflow information, including data cases of interest, algorithms, best practices, and known errors, with the broader science community and enable other users of the system to easily reproduce and independently verify their results. Furthermore, AeroStat provides an easy access to the data provenance (data lineage) and quality information, which allows for a convenient tracing of scientific results back to their original input data, thus further ensuring the reliability of these results. Case studies will be presented to show the described functionality and capabilities of AeroStat, and possible directions of the future development.

  15. Technologies for global change earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

  16. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  17. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  18. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  19. Resourceful earth: a response to global 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.L.; Kahn, H.

    1984-01-01

    Dismayed by the negativism of the Carter Administration's report Global 2000 and suspicious of the political uses being made of it, Professor Simon of the University of Maryland and the late Herman Kahn, with support from the Heritage Foundation, put together these studies by experts to correct what they think are fundamental errors. They call their rather optimistic statements about the future of population, food, water, resources, climate and other things unconditional predictions in the absence of an unforeseeable catastrophe - their underlying assumption being that people will do the right things to adjust constructively to change.

  20. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  1. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  2. Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C. L.; Pringle, K. J.; Schulz, M.; Asmi, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Ridley, D. A.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Lee, L. A.; Zhang, Kai; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Stier, P.; Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Bauer, S.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Strunk, A.; Vignati, E.; Bellouin, N.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; Bergman, T.; Kokkola, H.; Von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Petzold, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Clarke, A. D.; Ogren, J. A.; Gras, J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kaminski, U.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D. C.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Ulevicius, V.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Zdimal, V.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Swietlicki, E.; Henzing, J. S.

    2014-05-13

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by twelve global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the results suggest that most global aerosol microphysics models simulate the global variation of the particle size distribution

  3. Rare Earth Elements in Global Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, C.; Karamalidis, A.; Dzombak, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    We are examining the occurrence and abundance of rare earth elements (REE) associated with produced waters from shale gas development, and factors controlling aqueous REE concentrations in geochemical environments, to provide information for: (1) potential recovery of REE as a valuable byproduct, and (2) utilization of unique REE signatures as a risk assessment tool. REE include the lanthanide series of elements - excluding short-lived, radioactive promethium - and yttrium. These elements are critical to a wide variety of high-tech, energy efficient applications such as phosphors, magnets, and batteries. Escalating costs of REE resulting from divergent supply and demand patterns motivates the first goal. The second goal relates to the search for a reliable, naturally occurring tracer to improve understanding of fluid migration and water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and natural gas recovery. We compiled data from 100 studies of REE occurrence and concentrations in groundwaters, ocean waters, river waters, and lake waters. In the groundwater systems documented, total dissolved REE concentrations ranged over eight orders of magnitude; however the average concentrations across the lanthanides varied by less than two orders of magnitude. This leads to exceptional inter-element correlations, with a median correlation coefficient greater than 0.98, implying potential usefulness of REE ratios for groundwater signatures. Reports describing reactions governing REE solubilization were also investigated. We assembled information about important solution chemistries and performed equilibrium modeling using PHREEQC to examine common hypotheses regarding the factors controlling REE compositions. In particular, effects of pH, Eh, and common complexing ligands were evaluated. Produced and connate waters of the Marcellus shale are well characterized for their major chemical elements. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, regarding the occurrence of REE in

  4. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  5. One technique for refining the global Earth gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koneshov, V. N.; Nepoklonov, V. B.; Polovnev, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the theoretical and experimental research on the technique for refining the global Earth geopotential models such as EGM2008 in the continental regions are presented. The discussed technique is based on the high-resolution satellite data for the Earth's surface topography which enables the allowance for the fine structure of the Earth's gravitational field without the additional gravimetry data. The experimental studies are conducted by the example of the new GGMplus global gravity model of the Earth with a resolution about 0.5 km, which is obtained by expanding the EGM2008 model to degree 2190 with the corrections for the topograohy calculated from the SRTM data. The GGMplus and EGM2008 models are compared with the regional geoid models in 21 regions of North America, Australia, Africa, and Europe. The obtained estimates largely support the possibility of refining the global geopotential models such as EGM2008 by the procedure implemented in GGMplus, particularly in the regions with relatively high elevation difference.

  6. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) Applications for the NASA Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, EarthGRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-OO) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of these datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may also provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which include wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99.

  7. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  8. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  9. Aero dopes and varnishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, H T S

    1927-01-01

    Before proceeding to discuss the preparation of dope solutions, it will be necessary to consider some of the essential properties which should be possessed of a dope film, deposited in and on the surface of an aero fabric. The first is that it should tighten the material and second it should withstand weathering.

  10. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  11. The global S1 tide and Earth's nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Diurnal S1 tidal atmospheric oscillations induced by the cyclic heating of air masses through solar radiation elicit a small contribution to Earth's prograde annual nutation at a level of 100 μas (microarcseconds). Previously published estimates of this Sun-synchronous perturbation based on angular momentum series from global geophysical fluid models have however diverged, and within the present conventional nutation theory, the effect has been instead accounted for in an empirical manner based on analyzing residual spectra of observed celestial pole offsets. This study constitutes a first, tentative reassessment of the S1 signal in nutation by resorting to modern-day atmospheric reanalyses as well as available hydrodynamic solutions for diurnal oceanic angular momentum changes that are driven by daily air pressure variations at the water surface. We elucidate the global character of the S1 tide with particular regard to Earth rotation variations and investigate to which extent atmospheric and oceanic excitation terms from various sources can be superimposed. The combined influence of the principal diurnal tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a sound agreement with its observational evidence from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  12. Common oscillations in Global Earth Temperature, Sea Level, and Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, Leonid; Bizouard, Christian; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) of Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) and Global Average Earth Temperature (HadCRUT4) data after global warming trends subtraction revealed presence of quasi-periodic components with periods of 60, 20 and 10 years in both time series. 60-year component of sea level is anticorrelated with long-periodic changes in temperature, while 10 and 20-year components are correlated. Simultaneous presence of 60-year component in secular Earth rotation rate changes rises a question of interrelations between Earth rotation and Climate. Quasi-20-year changes in GMSL and HadCRUT4 have maxima and minima well corresponding to the amplitude changes of recently reconstructed Chandler wobble excitation, which could be caused by the 18.6-year cycle of the Moon orbital nodes regression. The cause of 10-year oscillations in climate characteristics is enigmatic. It could be related to El Nino variability, Volcanoes, or Solar activity, but correlation with each of those processes found to be small. Looks like it is correlated with 9.3 yr tidal wave.

  13. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  14. Aero/structural tailoring of engine blades (AERO/STAEBL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the Aero/Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (AERO/STAEBL) program, which is a computer code used to perform engine fan and compressor blade aero/structural numerical optimizations. These optimizations seek a blade design of minimum operating cost that satisfies realistic blade design constraints. This report documents the overall program (i.e., input, optimization procedures, approximate analyses) and also provides a detailed description of the validation test cases.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  16. Global-scale teleconnections in the Earth's middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, T. G.

    2009-05-01

    The global-scale circulation of the Earth's middle atmosphere is driven by angular momentum transfers effected by waves propagating up from the more turbulent, thermally-driven troposphere. The resulting effects on the middle atmosphere are largest in polar regions. This 'mechanical forcing' is an indirect response to the direct thermal forcing of the atmosphere by the Sun, and can act in a thermally-indirect manner, i.e. as a refrigerator. As it involves wave propagation, it can also act anti-diffusively, and non-locally. The basic physics of the process is described and examples given of how it can lead to global-scale teleconnections, both vertically and latitudinally. Parallels with the dynamics of the Sun will be mentioned.

  17. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  18. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  19. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  20. The global impact distribution of Near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Clemens; Lewis, Hugh G.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-02-01

    Asteroids that could collide with the Earth are listed on the publicly available Near-Earth object (NEO) hazard web sites maintained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The impact probability distribution of 69 potentially threatening NEOs from these lists that produce 261 dynamically distinct impact instances, or Virtual Impactors (VIs), were calculated using the Asteroid Risk Mitigation and Optimization Research (ARMOR) tool in conjunction with OrbFit. ARMOR projected the impact probability of each VI onto the surface of the Earth as a spatial probability distribution. The projection considers orbit solution accuracy and the global impact probability. The method of ARMOR is introduced and the tool is validated against two asteroid-Earth collision cases with objects 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA. In the analysis, the natural distribution of impact corridors is contrasted against the impact probability distribution to evaluate the distributions' conformity with the uniform impact distribution assumption. The distribution of impact corridors is based on the NEO population and orbital mechanics. The analysis shows that the distribution of impact corridors matches the common assumption of uniform impact distribution and the result extends the evidence base for the uniform assumption from qualitative analysis of historic impact events into the future in a quantitative way. This finding is confirmed in a parallel analysis of impact points belonging to a synthetic population of 10,006 VIs. Taking into account the impact probabilities introduced significant variation into the results and the impact probability distribution, consequently, deviates markedly from uniformity. The concept of impact probabilities is a product of the asteroid observation and orbit determination technique and, thus, represents a man-made component that is largely disconnected from natural processes. It is important to consider impact

  1. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  2. Global Modeling and Projection of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    In predicting and mitigating future global warming, short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced

  3. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  4. Aero-optics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn D.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command (USASDC) has several ongoing and planned programs that utilize optical sensors aboard missiles traveling at hypersonic velocities in the atmosphere. Central to the missile homing problem are aero-optical effects upon a missile-borne sensor/seeker which looks through both an electromagnetic window and the flow field about the vehicle. Aspects of the problem include modeling and simulation of the flow field on incident radiation from a target, and finally, predicting the resultant image imperfections and error in apparent object position as perceived by the sensor.

  5. ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities and global Earth figure variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métivier, Laurent; Rouby, Hélène; Rebischung, Paul; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the GNSS station vertical velocities provided by the new solution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the ITRF2014. Constructed from a global network of approximately 1500 stations of the different space geodetic techniques, this new solution provides two times more GNSS station velocities than the ITRF2008, and shows a global pattern of vertical velocities very homogeneous regionally. As in the ITRF2008 solution, large vertical velocities can be seen over North America, Northern Europe, or Antarctica, probably induced predominantly by the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) still occurring today since the last deglaciation. But the ITRF2014 solution shows also large vertical velocities over regions such as Greenland and Alaska clearly larger than in the ITRF2008, probably related to last decadal ice melting and its possible acceleration. We investigate different methods to calculate low degree spherical harmonics coefficient from ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities. We particularly focus on the components related to the geocenter motion, the ellipticity of the solid Earth, and the J2 rate, and we present time tendencies with respect to different GIA and recent ice melting models.

  6. Aero-Assisted Spacecraft Missions Using Hypersonic Waverider Aeroshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Jeremy

    optimized outcome. In examining an aero-capture of Mars, it was found that with a lifting body, the increased maneuverability can allow completion of multiple mission objectives along with the aero-capture, such as atmospheric profiling or up to 80 degrees of orbital plane change. Completing a combined orbital plane change and aero-capture might save as much as 4.5 km/s of velocity increment while increasing the feasible entry corridor by an order of magnitude. Analyzing a higher energy mission type, a database of maximum aero-gravity assist performance is developed at Mars, Earth and Venus. Finally, a methodology is presented for designing end-to-end interplanetary missions using aero-gravity assists. As a means of demonstrating the method, promising trajectories are propagated which reduce the time of flight of an interstellar probe mission by up to 50%.

  7. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  8. The NASA MSFC Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2007 Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, F.W.; Justus, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability, and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes) as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. A unique feature of GRAM is that, addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations in these atmospheric parameters (e.g. fluctuations due to turbulence and other atmospheric perturbation phenomena). A summary comparing GRAM features to characteristics and features of other reference or standard atmospheric models, can be found Guide to Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models. The original GRAM has undergone a series of improvements over the years with recent additions and changes. The software program is called Earth-GRAM2007 to distinguish it from similar programs for other bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, Neptune, and Titan). However, in order to make this Technical Memorandum (TM) more readable, the software will be referred to simply as GRAM07 or GRAM unless additional clarity is needed. Section 1 provides an overview of the basic features of GRAM07 including the newly added features. Section 2 provides a more detailed description of GRAM07 and how the model output generated. Section 3 presents sample results. Appendices A and B describe the Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) data and the Global Gridded Air Statistics (GGUAS) database. Appendix C provides instructions for compiling and running GRAM07. Appendix D gives a description of the required NAMELIST format input. Appendix E gives sample output. Appendix F provides a list of available

  9. Global X-ray Imaging of the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2012-04-01

    Plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in situ, or by remote sensing. In situ measurements return precise information about plasma composition, instabilities and dynamics, but cannot provide the global view necessary to understand the overall behaviour and evolution of the plasma, which instead can be explored by remote imaging. We propose a new approach by remote global X-ray imaging, now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge-exchange X-ray emission; this has been found, by observatories such as XMM-Newton, to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere and to peak in the sub-solar magnetosheath, where both solar wind and neutral exospheric densities are high. We describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the Earth's dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with temporal and spatial resolutions sufficient to address key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with planetary magnetospheres. This medium-size mission incorporates a wide-field soft X-ray telescope, using micropore optics and CCD detectors, for imaging and spectroscopy, a proton and alpha particle sensor designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an ion composition analyser which aims to characterise the populations of minor ions in the solar wind, and a magnetometer for accurate measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field. Details of the mission profile will be presented, as well as simulations of the expected performance for possible mission configurations. The AXIOM Team: G. Branduardi-Raymont(1), S. F. Sembay(2), J. P. Eastwood(3), D. G. Sibeck(4), A. Abbey(2), P. Brown(3), J. A. Carter(2), C. M. Carr(3), C. Forsyth(1), D. Kataria(1), S. Milan(2), C. J. Owen(1), A. M. Read(2), C. S. Arridge(1), A. J. Coates(1), M. R. Collier(4), S. W. H. Cowley(2), G. Fraser(2), G

  10. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Berntsen, Terje; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Gimoux, Paul; Gong, Sunling; Horowitz, Larry W.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevag, Alf; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, Gunnar; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z-alpha) is defined to quantitatively assess the models' performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z-alpha climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z-alpha than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z-alpha is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z-alpha is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  11. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schultz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, D.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Berntsen, T.; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, G.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.

    2012-05-19

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z{sub a}) is defined to quantitatively assess the models performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z{sub a} climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z{sub a} than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z{sub a} is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z{sub a} is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  12. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  13. Adaptive guidance for an aero-assisted boost vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Price, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    An adaptive guidance system incorporating dynamic pressure constraint is studied for a single stage to low earth orbit (LEO) aero-assist booster with thrust gimbal angle as the control variable. To derive an adaptive guidance law, cubic spline functions are used to represent the ascent profile. The booster flight to LEO is divided into initial and terminal phases. In the initial phase, the ascent profile is continuously updated to maximize the performance of the boost vehicle enroute. A linear feedback control is used in the terminal phase to guide the aero-assisted booster onto the desired LEO. The computer simulation of the vehicle dynamics considers a rotating spherical earth, inverse square (Newtonian) gravity field and an exponential model for the earth's atmospheric density. This adaptive guidance algorithm is capable of handling large deviations in both atmospheric conditions and modeling uncertainties, while ensuring maximum booster performance.

  14. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM99): Short Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    Earth-GRAM is a FORTRAN software package that can run on a variety of platforms including PC's. For any time and location in the Earth's atmosphere, Earth-GRAM provides values of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, pressure, density, winds, constituents, etc.. Dispersions (perturbations) of these parameters are also provided and have realistic correlations, means, and variances - useful for Monte Carlo analysis. Earth-GRAM is driven by observations including a tropospheric database available from the National Climatic Data Center. Although Earth-GRAM can be run in a "stand-alone" mode, many users incorporate it into their trajectory codes. The source code is distributed free-of-charge to eligible recipients.

  15. [New aero-allergens].

    PubMed

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Global Change in Earth's Atmosphere: Natural and Anthropogenic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, J.

    2013-12-01

    To what extent is human activity, such as the emission of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse' gases, influencing Earth's atmosphere, compared with natural variations driven by, for example, the Sun or volcanoes? Why has Earth's surface warmed barely, if at all, in the last decade? Why is the atmosphere at just 20 km above the surface cooling instead of warming? When - and will - the ozone layer recover from its two-decade decline due to chlorofluorocarbon depletion? Natural and anthropogenic factors are changing Earth's atmosphere, each with distinct temporal, geographical and altitudinal signatures. Increasing greenhouse gases, for example, warm the surface but cool the stratosphere and upper atmosphere. Aerosols injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption warm the stratosphere but cool the surface. Increases in the Sun's brightness warm Earth's atmosphere, throughout. This talk will quantify and compare a variety of natural and human influences on the Earth's atmosphere, extracted statistically from multiple datasets with the goal of understanding how and why Earth's atmosphere is changing. The extent to which responses to natural influences are presently masking or exacerbating ongoing responses to human activity is examined. Scenarios for future levels of anthropogenic gases and solar activity are then used to speculate how Earth's atmosphere might evolve in future decades, according to both statistical models of the databases and physical general circulation models.

  17. Global distribution of microbursts in the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, Alexander Bennett

    The dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts are governed by the interplay between the various source and loss terms. Electron microbursts represent a particular form of electron loss through precipitation to the atmosphere. Moreover, assessing the total significance of microburst loss to radiation belt dynamics is an important and still unresolved question. This thesis seeks to qualify and quantify the scale and properties of microburst precipitation. Accordingly, the thesis has 4 main guiding goals: (1) to understand the similarities and differences in characteristics among the microburst event population; (2) to create constraints for models and theories of microburst generation; (3) to detail how past observations inform and direct the development of the next set of microburst observations; and (4) to assess the global scale of microburst loss. To accomplish these goals 1 draw on existing observations of microburst from the SAMPEX and Freja missions, as well as operational planning and design for the upcoming FIREBIRD CubeSat. In particular, the nearly 15 years and -685,000 individual microburst events from SAMPEX provide a comprehensive description of the microburst population, showing that microbursts are generally seen on the dawnside from L of approximately 4 to 8, with event frequencies that typically follow power-law like distributions and typical event du rations ~100 ms. Utilizing measurements of keV level microbursts from Freja 1 show how we can map the source locations of individual microbursts. Using a time-of-flight analysis 1 show that microbursts observed by Freja, typically originate from equatorial source locations along the dawnside in a similar set of locations to the MeV energy events observed by SAMPEX and correlate well with measurements of chorus waves. The upcoming FIREBIRD CubeSat mission utilizes these observations to drive instrument requirements as well as a science operations plan to address the goals of understanding the spatial

  18. Hypersonic Interplanetary Flight: Aero Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Banks, Dan; Randolph, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The use of aero-gravity assist during hypersonic interplanetary flights is highlighted. Specifically, the use of large versus small planet for gravity asssist maneuvers, aero-gravity assist trajectories, launch opportunities and planetary waverider performance are addressed.

  19. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Scientists have eagerly anticipated the performance capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Hawk for over a decade. In 2009 this capability becomes operational. One of the most desired performance capabilities of the Global Hawk aircraft is very long endurance. The Global Hawk aircraft can remain airborne longer than almost all other jet-powered aircraft currently flying, and longer than all other aircraft available for airborne science use. This paper describes the NASA Global Hawk system, payload accommodations, concept of operations, and the first scientific data-gathering mission: Global Hawk Pacific 2009.

  20. A Noachian "Greenhouse": Earth Models for a Global Hydrologic Budget of the Mars Northern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Parker, T. J.; Jewell, P. W.; Komatsu, G.; Ormö, J.

    2012-05-01

    Prominent eustatic highs in Earth history provide models for comparisons to a Mars ocean. A Noachian "greenhouse" assisted by a high global water budget could preserve an extensive stratigraphic record in combination with shoreline evidence.

  1. Distribution Characteristics of Global Significant Earthquakes and Possible Connection Between Earthquakes and Earth's Variable Rotation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li-Hua; Han, Yan-Ben; Yin, Zhi-Qiang

    2007-12-01

    Based on global earthquake catalog released from Paula K. Dunbar et al., the authors investigate distribution characteristics of global significant earthquakes (Ms >=7.5) during 1832-1994, and discuss possible connection between global earthquakes and Earth's variable rotation rate. It is shown that spatial distribution characteristics of earthquakes in this catalog are similar to modern observations, mainly locating in circum-Pacific and Mediterranean-Himalayan seismic belt, and Earth variable rotation rate is highly related to the number of global great earthquakes.

  2. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ardanuy, P.E.; Kyle, H.L.; Hoyt, D. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1992-10-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent. 41 refs.

  3. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

  4. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  5. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  6. Emergence of global scaling behaviour in the coupled Earth-atmosphere interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Bijan; Saberi, Abbas Ali; Sodoudi, Sahar

    2016-09-01

    Scale invariance property in the global geometry of Earth may lead to a coupled interactive behaviour between various components of the climate system. One of the most interesting correlations exists between spatial statistics of the global topography and the temperature on Earth. Here we show that the power-law behaviour observed in the Earth topography via different approaches, resembles a scaling law in the global spatial distribution of independent atmospheric parameters. We report on observation of scaling behaviour of such variables characterized by distinct universal exponents. More specifically, we find that the spatial power-law behaviour in the fluctuations of the near surface temperature over the lands on Earth, shares the same universal exponent as of the global Earth topography, indicative of the global persistent role of the static geometry of Earth to control the steady state of a dynamical atmospheric field. Such a universal feature can pave the way to the theoretical understanding of the chaotic nature of the atmosphere coupled to the Earth’s global topography.

  7. Emergence of global scaling behaviour in the coupled Earth-atmosphere interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Bijan; Saberi, Abbas Ali; Sodoudi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Scale invariance property in the global geometry of Earth may lead to a coupled interactive behaviour between various components of the climate system. One of the most interesting correlations exists between spatial statistics of the global topography and the temperature on Earth. Here we show that the power-law behaviour observed in the Earth topography via different approaches, resembles a scaling law in the global spatial distribution of independent atmospheric parameters. We report on observation of scaling behaviour of such variables characterized by distinct universal exponents. More specifically, we find that the spatial power-law behaviour in the fluctuations of the near surface temperature over the lands on Earth, shares the same universal exponent as of the global Earth topography, indicative of the global persistent role of the static geometry of Earth to control the steady state of a dynamical atmospheric field. Such a universal feature can pave the way to the theoretical understanding of the chaotic nature of the atmosphere coupled to the Earth’s global topography. PMID:27666675

  8. The artifact of nature: 'Spaceship Earth' and the dawn of global environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Deese, R S

    2009-06-01

    The metaphor of 'Spaceship Earth' employed by a diverse array of scientists, economists and politicians during the 1960s and 1970s points to the Cold War origins of the first global environmentalist movement. With the advent of Spaceship Earth, nature itself became at once technological artifact and a vital object of Cold War gamesmanship. The evolution of this metaphor uncovers the connections between Cold War technologies such as nuclear weapons, space travel and cybernetics, and the birth of the first global environmentalist movement. Revisiting Spaceship Earth may help us to better understand the implicit assumptions that have both empowered and limited that movement.

  9. Scientific Contributions to GEO Global Earth Observation Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L.; Ledrew, E.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous counties and non-governmental organizations have produced documents, held workshops, and published reports in the past decade that identify Earth observation needs to meet their particular objectives. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has conducted a review of these documents, workshops, and reports to identify the priority observations common to many societal benefit areas. GEO has made a concerted effort to include materials from a broad range of user types, including scientific researchers, resource managers, and policy makers. GEO has also sought an international breadth in the materials reviewed, including observation priorities from developing countries. The activity will help GEO optimize the observations in GEOSS that are most likely to provide societal benefits, and GEO members will use the results of this meta-analysis to support investment decisions. The Earth observations in GEOSS serve scientific research and applications endeavors. As a primary user of ground-based, airborne, in situ, and space-based observations of the Earth, the scientific community has a significant voice and vested interest in the observations offered through GEOSS. Furthermore, the science and technology community will have opportunities to identify critical scientific/technological advances needed to produce any observations that are needed yet not currently available. In this paper, we will discuss this GEO effort to identify Earth observations priorities. We will present initial findings for some societal benefit areas and the overall meta-analysis. We will also discuss possible roles for the science and technology community to contribute to those priorities, such as scientific advances needed to achieve the observations or to realize societal benefits from the observations.

  10. The Emergence of Land Use as a Global Force in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human societies have emerged as a global force capable of transforming the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and climate. As a result, the long-term dynamics of the Earth system can no longer be understood or predicted without understanding their coupling with human societal dynamics. Here, a general causal theory is presented to explain why behaviorally modern humans, unlike any prior multicellular species, gained this unprecedented capacity to reshape the Earth system and how this societal capacity has changed from the Pleistocene to the present and future. Sociocultural niche construction theory, building on existing theories of ecosystem engineering, niche construction, the extended evolutionary synthesis, cultural evolution, ultrasociality and social change, can explain both the long-term upscaling of human societies and their unprecedented capacity to transform the Earth system. Regime shifts in human sociocultural niche construction, from the clearing of land using fire, to shifting cultivation, to intensive agriculture, to global food systems dependent on fossil fuel combustion, have enabled human societies to scale up while gaining the capacity to reshape the global patterns and processes of biogeography, ecosystems, landscapes, biomes, the biosphere, and ultimately the functioning of the Earth system. Just as Earth's geophysical climate system shapes the long-term dynamics of energy and material flow across the "spheres" of the Earth system, human societies, interacting at global scale to form "human systems", are increasingly shaping the global dynamics of energy, material, biotic and information flow across the spheres of the Earth system, including a newly emerged anthroposphere comprised of human societies and their material cultures. Human systems and the anthroposphere are strongly coupled with climate and other Earth systems and are dynamic in response to evolutionary changes in human social organization, cooperative ecosystem

  11. The solid earth: An introduction to global geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book addresses major topics to be presented in a modern overview course. These topics include terrestrial seismology, gravity, earth's magnetic field and paleomagnetism, radiometric age dating, and heat flow. All are related throughout to the structure and dynamics of the interior of the earth, plate tectonics (including the geometry of tectonics on a sphere), and the nature of the continental and into such aspects as reflection coefficients and Zoeppritz equations, velocity analysis, migration, and Fresnel zone limitation on resolution. Appendices treat the elastic wave equations, inversion of earthquake time-distance curves, and a glossary of geological and geophysical terms. After noting that the book is intended for both geologists and physicists, as well as those marrying the disciplines into geophysics, the author adds that most geophysicists look for oil.

  12. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  13. Google Earth Engine: a new cloud-computing platform for global-scale earth observation data and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. T.; Hansen, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Google Earth Engine is a new technology platform that enables monitoring and measurement of changes in the earth's environment, at planetary scale, on a large catalog of earth observation data. The platform offers intrinsically-parallel computational access to thousands of computers in Google's data centers. Initial efforts have focused primarily on global forest monitoring and measurement, in support of REDD+ activities in the developing world. The intent is to put this platform into the hands of scientists and developing world nations, in order to advance the broader operational deployment of existing scientific methods, and strengthen the ability for public institutions and civil society to better understand, manage and report on the state of their natural resources. Earth Engine currently hosts online nearly the complete historical Landsat archive of L5 and L7 data collected over more than twenty-five years. Newly-collected Landsat imagery is downloaded from USGS EROS Center into Earth Engine on a daily basis. Earth Engine also includes a set of historical and current MODIS data products. The platform supports generation, on-demand, of spatial and temporal mosaics, "best-pixel" composites (for example to remove clouds and gaps in satellite imagery), as well as a variety of spectral indices. Supervised learning methods are available over the Landsat data catalog. The platform also includes a new application programming framework, or "API", that allows scientists access to these computational and data resources, to scale their current algorithms or develop new ones. Under the covers of the Google Earth Engine API is an intrinsically-parallel image-processing system. Several forest monitoring applications powered by this API are currently in development and expected to be operational in 2011. Combining science with massive data and technology resources in a cloud-computing framework can offer advantages of computational speed, ease-of-use and collaboration, as

  14. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX): Earth science collaborative for global change science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Global change research is conducted in a highly collaborative manner by teams of researchers including climate scientists, hydrologists, biologists, economists, social scientists and resource managers distributed around the world. Their work is characterized by use of community-developed models and analysis codes and by a need to access a broad range of large datasets found in geographically distributed research and data centers. Stovepipes and segmentation currently limit collaboration and often lead to duplication of efforts. As we move forward, we can be more effective and efficient, both scientifically and fiscally. For example, as the length and diversity of the hydrologic observations grow, modeling and analyses of hydrospheric conditions increasingly requires multiple terabytes of data from a diversity of models and sensors. With network bandwidth beginning to flatten, transmission of these data from centralized data archives presents an increasing challenge, and costs associated with local storage and management of data and compute resources are often significant for individual research and application development efforts. Sharing community valued intermediary data sets, results and codes from individual efforts with others that are not in direct funded collaboration can also be a challenge with respect to time, cost and expertise. Over the past two years, we have been working on the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), a data, modeling and knowledge center that houses NASA satellite data, climate data and ancillary data where a focused community may come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform. NEX tries to accomplish this by providing scientists with four key capabilities: 1) A web-based collaborative environment that includes, among others, social networking and publication tools. 2) A data management environment providing streamlined discovery and access to key datasets, both

  15. Geocenter location and variations in earth orientation using global positioning system measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S. C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the use of GPS ground and flight tracking data to measure short-period earth orientation variations and changes in geocenter location. Comparisons between GPS-estimated earth rotation variations and those calculated from ocean tide models suggest that observed subdaily variations in earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Our preliminary GPS estimates for geocenter location agree with an independent satellite laser ranging estimates to 10-15 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low-earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales less than 1 day.

  16. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela, Ed.

    This teacher's guide helps students explore the connection between human population growth and the well-being of the planet. Twelve readings and 34 activities introduce high school students to global society and environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, gender equality, economics, poverty, energy, wildlife endangerment, waste…

  17. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  18. Adventures on Earth: Exploring Our Global Links. A Classroom Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Stefanie, Ed.

    This classroom guide uses a series of interactive lessons to provide middle and high school students with the foundation to address complex issues of how people use the environment, the factors (demographic, socioeconomic, political, and cultural) that affect human use of resources, and the local and global environmental impact of people's actions…

  19. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the Globally Integrated Spectral Variability of the Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  20. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  1. Use of global positioning system measurements to determine geocentric coordinates and variations in Earth orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geocentric tracking station coordinates and short-period Earth-orientation variations can be measured with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Unless calibrated, geocentric coordinate errors and changes in Earth orientation can lead to significant deep-space tracking errors. Ground-based GPS estimates of daily and subdaily changes in Earth orientation presently show centimeter-level precision. Comparison between GPS-estimated Earth-rotation variations, which are the differences between Universal Time 1 and Universal Coordinated Time (UT1-UTC), and those calculated from ocean tide models suggests that observed subdaily variations in Earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Preliminary GPS estimates for the geocenter location (from a 3-week experiment) agree with independent satellite laser-ranging estimates to better than 10 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for Earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low Earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low Earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales of less than 1 day.

  2. a Near-Global Bare-Earth dem from Srtm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, J. C.; Read, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The near-global elevation product from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) has been widely used since its release in 2005 at 3 arcsecond resolution and the release of the 1 arcsecond version in late 2014 means that the full potential of the SRTM DEM can now be realised. However the routine use of SRTM for analytical purposes such as catchment hydrology, flood inundation, habitat mapping and soil mapping is still seriously impeded by the presence of artefacts in the data, primarily the offsets due to tree cover and the random noise. This paper describes the algorithms being developed to remove those offsets, based on the methods developed to produce the Australian national elevation model from SRTM data. The offsets due to trees are estimated using the GlobeLand30 (National Geomatics Center of China) and Global Forest Change (University of Maryland) products derived from Landsat, along with the ALOS PALSAR radar image data (JAXA) and the global forest canopy height map (NASA). The offsets are estimated using several processes and combined to produce a single continuous tree offset layer that is subtracted from the SRTM data. The DEM products will be made freely available on completion of the first draft product, and the assessment of that product is expected to drive further improvements to the methods.

  3. How to protect the Earth from Global warming by means of Sunlight Shield Equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Earth is getting warmer because excess carbon dioxide of the Earth's atmosphere. Many studies are proceeding in the world in order to prevent global warming. Three methods are studied: (1) How to reduce carbon dioxide of the Earth's atmosphere. For example, more trees will be planted and carbon dioxide is changed to oxygen and carbon. (2) How to reduce carbon dioxide emission that human activity makes. (3) How to protect the Earth from global warming. The first or the second method has been studied, and they do not immediately protect the Earth from global warming. On the other hand the third method has an immediate effect. Sunlight shield effects of a cloud or tiny sulfur in the air have been studied. The author has proposed a sunlight shield equipment which is composed of a flat balloon. Balloon's surface has a mirror function. The sunlight shield equipment is set at the stratosphere and its surface reflects sunlight to the space. It is different temperature between daytime and night time, because the earth is heated by the sun during only daytime. Temperature of the Earth could be controlled by controlling an amount of a sunlight power which the earth receives from the sun. In other word, when many sunlight shield equipments are set and operated at the stratosphere, and an amount of sunlight, which the earth receives from the sun, could be controlled. For example, when an amount of the sunlight power, which the earth receives, decreases one percent, a mean value of the earth temperature deceases about one centigrade. In order to decrease one percent of a sunlight power which the earth receives, it is required that many sunlight shield equipments are distributively set and operated, and the gross area of many sunlight shield equipments is equal to 5,060,000 km squares. When a size of a sunlight shield equipment is equal to 5 km squares, about one million of sunlight shield equipments are necessary, and a large scale of cost is required. Therefore, an

  4. Uncovering the global life cycles of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  5. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  6. War: The Global Battlefield. Our Only Earth. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; McKisson, Micki

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land, and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  7. Earth System Dynamics: The Determination and Interpretation of the Global Angular Momentum Budget using the Earth Observing System. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation has been to examine the mass and momentum exchange between the atmosphere, oceans, solid Earth, hydrosphere, and cryosphere. The investigation has focused on changes in the Earth's gravity field, its rotation rate, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, global sea level change, ice sheet change, and global ground water circulation observed by contemporary sensors and models. The primary component of the mass exchange is water. The geodetic observables provided by these satellite sensors are used to study the transport of water mass in the hydrological cycle from one component of the Earth to another, and they are also used to evaluate the accuracy of models. As such, the investigation is concerned with the overall global water cycle. This report provides a description of scientific, educational and programmatic activities conducted during the period July 1, 1999 through June 30,2000. Research has continued into measurements of time-varying gravity and its relationship to Earth rotation. Variability of angular momentum and the related excitation of polar motion and Earth rotation have been examined for the atmosphere and oceans at time-scales of weeks to several years. To assess the performance of hydrologic models, we have compared geodetic signals derived from them with those observed by satellites. One key component is the interannual mass variability of the oceans obtained by direct observations from altimetry after removing steric signals. Further studies have been conducted on the steric model to quantify its accuracy at global and basin-scales. The results suggest a significant loss of water mass from the Oceans to the land on time-scales longer than 1-year. These signals are not reproduced in any of the models, which have poorly determined interannual fresh water fluxes. Output from a coupled atmosphere-ocean model testing long-term climate change hypotheses has been compared to simulated errors from the Gravity Recovery and

  8. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  9. Global single ion effects within the Earth's plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, Paul L.; Yates, G. Kenneth

    Two global properties of single ion motion in the magnetotail are examined. The first effect is caused by the magnetic field in the plasma sheet directing boundary ions to the neutral sheet. Exact solutions to the Lorentz equation indicate that these ions can have sufficient energy to trigger the ion tearing mode if Bo/aBz > 6.0, where Bo is the tail lobe magnetic field, Bz is the magnetic field in the north-south direction and `a' is a parameter related to the growth of the ion tearing instability. It is found that this effect occurs at a lower energy for oxygen than for protons. The second global property is related to the thinning or expansion of the plasma sheet. The results indicate that in the absence of reconnection the plasma sheet adiabatically maintains equilibruim by allowing plasma and magnetic flux to cross the boundaries. The presence of reconnection modifies the flow across the boundaries as well as the spatial distribution of the induced electric field.

  10. Global single ion effects within the earth's plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, P. L.; Yates, G. K.

    Two global properties of single-ion motion in the magnetotail are examined. The first effect is caused by the magnetic field in the plasma sheet directing boundary ions to the neutral sheet. Exact solutions to the Lorentz equation indicate that these ions can have sufficient energy to trigger the ion tearing mode if B0/aBz is greater than 6.0, where B0 is the tail-lobe magnetic field, Bz is the magnetic field in the north-south direction, and a is a parameter related to the growth of the ion tearing instability. It is found that this effect occurs at a lower energy for oxygen than for protons. The second global property is related to the thinning or expansion of the plasma sheet. In the absence of reconnection, the plasma sheet adiabatically maintains equilibrium by allowing plasma and magnetic flux to cross the boundaries. The presence of reconnection modifies the flow across the boundaries as well as the spatial distribution of the induced electric field.

  11. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  12. Global Cooperation in the Science of Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Davila, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The international space science community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP and the International Living with a Star (ILWS) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle the scientific issues related to short and long term variability of the Sun and the consequences in the heliosphere. The ISWI program is a continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 program in focusing on science, observatory deployment, and outreach. The IHY/ISWI observatory deployment has not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. The ISWI schools and UN workshops are the primary venues for interaction and information exchange among scientists from developing and developed countries that lead to collaborative efforts in space weather. This paper presents a summary of ISWI activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  13. Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Nicola; Grigolini, Paolo; Imholt, Timothy; Roberts, Jim; West, Bruce J

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of solar activity on the earth's temperature. In particular, we focus on the repercussion of the fluctuations of the solar irradiance on the temperature of the Northern and Southern hemispheres as well as on land and ocean regions. While solar irradiance data are not directly analyzed, we make use of a published solar irradiance reconstruction for long-time-scale fluctuations, and for short-time-scale fluctuations we hypothesize that solar irradiance and solar flare intermittency are coupled in such a way that the solar flare frequency fluctuations are stochastically equivalent to those of the solar irradiance. The analysis is based upon wavelet multiresolution techniques and scaling analysis methods for processing time series. The limitations of the correlation analysis applied to the short-time-scale fluctuations are discussed. The scaling analysis uses both the standard deviation and the entropy of the diffusion generated by the temperature signals. The joint use of these two scaling methods yields evidence of a Lévy component in the temporal persistence of the temperature fluctuations within the temporal range from a few weeks to a few years. This apparent Lévy persistence of the temperature fluctuations is found, by using an appropriate model, to be equivalent to the Lévy scaling of the solar flare intermittency. The mean monthly temperature data sets cover the period from 1856 to 2002.

  14. Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Judith E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

  15. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  16. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  17. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  18. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly after the data are recorded at each station. The infrasound network defined in the Protocol of the CTBT comprises 60 infrasound array stations. Each array is built according to the same technical specifications, it is typically composed of 4 to 9 sensors, with 1 to 3 km aperture geometry. At the end of 2000 only one infrasound station was transmitting data to the IDC. Since then, 41 additional stations have been installed and 70% of the infrasound network is currently certified and contributing data to the IDC. This constitutes the first global infrasound network ever built with such a large and uniform distribution of stations. Infrasound data at the IDC are processed at the station level using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) method for the detection and measurement of infrasound signals. The algorithm calculates the signal correlation between sensors at an infrasound array. If the signal is sufficiently correlated and consistent over an extended period of time and frequency range a detection is created. Groups of detections are then categorized according to their propagation and waveform features, and a phase name is assigned for infrasound, seismic or noise detections. The categorization complements the PMCC algorithm to avoid overwhelming the IDC automatic association algorithm with false alarm infrasound events. Currently, 80 to 90% of the detections are identified as noise by the system. Although the noise detections are not used to build events in the context of CTBT monitoring

  19. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  20. GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS (GEOSS) REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION GATEWAY DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    How do forest fires in a state or country impact the health of residents, living thousands of miles away? How do we better track the effects of heavy urban rain runoff into nearby lakes to provide unprecedented access to and use of global Earth observation information to track, ...

  1. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  2. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rare earths elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for the emerging green (low-carbon) energy technologies and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at a compound annual rate of 5% by 2020. Such high growth rate would require a steady supply base of REEs in the long ru...

  3. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) was founded in 1989 as a non-profit corporation dedicated to facilitating access to, use and understanding of global change information worldwide. The Consortium was created to cooperate and coordinate with organizations and researchers throughout the global change community to further access the most advanced technology, the latest scientific research, and the best information available for critical environmental decision making. CIESIN study efforts are guided by Congressional mandates to 'convene key present and potential users to assess the need for investment in integration of earth science information,' to 'outline the desirable pattern of interaction with the scientific and policy community,' and to 'develop recommendations and draft plans to achieve the appropriate level of effort in the use of earth science data for research and public policy purposes.' In addition, CIESIN is tasked by NASA to develop a data center that would extend the benefits of Earth Observing System (EOS) to the users of global change information related to human dimensions issues. For FY 1991, CIESIN focused on two main objectives. The first addressed the identification of information needs of global change research and non-research user groups worldwide. The second focused on an evaluation of the most efficient mechanisms for making this information available in usable forms.

  4. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have

  5. Earth's magnetic field anomalies that precede the M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    In this work has been analyzed the Earth's magnetic field variations and the M6+ global seismic activity to verify if M6+ earthquakes are preceded by a change of the Earth's magnetic field. The data of Earth's magnetic field used to conduct the study of correlation are provided by the induction magnetometer of Radio Emissions Project's station (Lat: 41°41'4.27"N, Long: 12°38'33,60"E, Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy), equipped with a ELF receiver prototype (with a vertically aligned coil antenna) capable to detect the variations of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field on Z magnetic component. The M6+ global seismic activity data are provided in real-time by USGS, INGV and CSEM. The sample of data used to conduct the study refers to the period between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. The Earth's magnetic field variations data set has been marked with the times (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale and has been verified the existence of disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the time interval that preceded the M6+ global seismic activity. The correlation study showed that all M6+ earthquakes recorded on 2012 were preceded by an increase of the Earth's magnetic field, detected in the Z magnetic component. The authors measured the time lag elapsed between the maximum increment of the Earth's magnetic field recorded before an earthquake M6+ and the date and time at which this occurred, and has been verified that the minimum time lag recorded between the Earth's magnetic field increase and the earthquake M6+ has been 1 minute (9 October 2012, Balleny Islands, M6,4); while, the maximum time lag recorded has been 3600 minutes (26 June 2012, China, M6,3). The average time lag has been 629.47 minutes. In addition, the average time lag is deflected in relation to the magnitude increase. Key words: Seismic Geomagnetic Precursor (SGP), Interplanetary Seismic Precursor (ISP), Earth's magnetic field variations, earthquakes, prevision.

  6. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis for Coupled Aero-structural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunta, Anthony A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for calculating gradients of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for an aeroelastic aircraft model. This method uses the Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) to account for the aero-structural coupling, and a reduced-order modal analysis approach to condense the coupling bandwidth between the aerodynamic and structural models. Parallel computing is applied to reduce the computational expense of the numerous high fidelity aerodynamic analyses needed for the coupled aero-structural system. Good agreement is obtained between aerodynamic force and moment gradients computed with the GSE/modal analysis approach and the same quantities computed using brute-force, computationally expensive, finite difference approximations. A comparison between the computational expense of the GSE/modal analysis method and a pure finite difference approach is presented. These results show that the GSE/modal analysis approach is the more computationally efficient technique if sensitivity analysis is to be performed for two or more aircraft design parameters.

  8. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  9. Data sharing: A critical foundation to advance global integrated Earth system science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Doldirina, Catherine; Withee, Gregory

    A critical foundation for a successful Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the exchange of observations recorded from in-situ, aircraft, and satellite networks in a full and open manner with minimum time delay and minimum cost, recognizing relevant international instruments and national policies and legislation. This is, in its simplest form, the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles, which initially were adopted at the First Earth Observation Summit on 31 July 2003 in Washington, United States. It was restated in the 2006-2015 GEOSS Implementation Plan, which is adopted by Group on Earth Observation (GEO) Members and Participating Organizations. Currently, there are 90 Members and 77 Participating Organizations. This paper will describe the evolution of data sharing within the GEO since announcing a principle, creating an action plan, establishing mechanisms, and witnessing progress. Topics include highlights from the 2009 Implementation Guidelines, 2010 GEOSS Data Sharing Action Plan, and GEO infrastructure activities such as the GEO Data Sharing Working Group, GEOSS Data-CORE, GEOSS Data Quality Guidelines, and others. The paper will conclude with audience suggestions on how to improve sharing of Earth observations to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system.

  10. Iridium NEXT partnership for Earth observation: exploiting global satellite constellations for new remote sensing capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Om P.

    2008-08-01

    A unique opportunity exists to host up to 66 earth observation sensors on the Iridium NEXT LEO constellation in a manner that can revolutionize earth observation and weather predictions. A constellation approach to sensing, using the real-time communications backbone of Iridium, will enable unprecedented geospatial and temporal sampling for now-casting of weather on a global basis as well as global climate monitoring. The Iridium NEXT constellation, with 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of earth observation missions. The opportunity is proposed as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) allowing for the sharing of infrastructure by government agencies. This has the potential to augment current and planned climate and weather observation programs in a very cost effective manner not achievable in any other way. Iridium, with the assistance of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), NASA, NOAA, and ESA, has evaluated a number of sensing missions that would be a good fit to the Iridium NEXT constellation. These include GPS radio occultation sensors, earth radiation budget measurements, radio altimetry, tropospheric and stratospheric winds measurements including polar winds measurements, and atmospheric chemistry. Iridium NEXT launches start in 2013 and constellation operational life will extend beyond 2030. Detailed feasibility studies on specific missions are planned to begin later this year.

  11. Aero-optimum hovering kinematics.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2015-08-07

    Hovering flight for flapping wing vehicles requires rapid and relatively complex reciprocating movement of a wing relative to a stationary surrounding fluid. This note develops a compact analytical aero-kinematic model that can be used for optimization of flapping wing kinematics against aerodynamic criteria of effectiveness (maximum lift) and efficiency (minimum power for a given amount of lift). It can also be used to make predictions of required flapping frequency for a given geometry and basic aerodynamic parameters. The kinematic treatment is based on a consolidation of an existing formulation that allows explicit derivation of flapping velocity for complex motions whereas the aerodynamic model is based on existing quasi-steady analysis. The combined aero-kinematic model provides novel explicit analytical expressions for both lift and power of a hovering wing in a compact form that enables exploration of a rich kinematic design space. Good agreement is found between model predictions of flapping frequency and observed results for a number of insects and optimal hovering kinematics identified using the model are consistent with results from studies using higher order computational models. For efficient flight, the flapping angle should vary using a triangular profile in time leading to a constant velocity flapping motion, whereas for maximum effectiveness the shape of variation should be sinusoidal. For both cases the wing pitching motion should be rectangular such that pitch change at stroke reversal is as rapid as possible.

  12. Determination of global Earth outgoing radiation at high temporal resolution using a theoretical constellation of satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristey, Jake J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Gurney, Robert J.; Han, Shin-Chan; Morcrette, Cyril J.

    2017-01-01

    New, viable, and sustainable observation strategies from a constellation of satellites have attracted great attention across many scientific communities. Yet the potential for monitoring global Earth outgoing radiation using such a strategy has not been explored. To evaluate the potential of such a constellation concept and to investigate the configuration requirement for measuring radiation at a time resolution sufficient to resolve the diurnal cycle for weather and climate studies, we have developed a new recovery method and conducted a series of simulation experiments. Using idealized wide field-of-view broadband radiometers as an example, we find that a baseline constellation of 36 satellites can monitor global Earth outgoing radiation reliably to a spatial resolution of 1000 km at an hourly time scale. The error in recovered daily global mean irradiance is 0.16 W m-2 and -0.13 W m-2, and the estimated uncertainty in recovered hourly global mean irradiance from this day is 0.45 W m-2 and 0.15 W m-2, in the shortwave and longwave spectral regions, respectively. Sensitivity tests show that addressing instrument-related issues that lead to systematic measurement error remains of central importance to achieving similar accuracies in reality. The presented error statistics therefore likely represent the lower bounds of what could currently be achieved with the constellation approach, but this study demonstrates the promise of an unprecedented sampling capability for better observing the Earth's radiation budget.

  13. An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Lebsock, Matthew; Andrews, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Climate change is governed by changes to the global energy balance. At the top of the atmosphere, this balance is monitored globally by satellite sensors that provide measurements of energy flowing to and from Earth. By contrast, observations at the surface are limited mostly to land areas. As a result, the global balance of energy fluxes within the atmosphere or at Earth's surface cannot be derived directly from measured fluxes, and is therefore uncertain. This lack of precise knowledge of surface energy fluxes profoundly affects our ability to understand how Earth's climate responds to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In light of compilations of up-to-date surface and satellite data, the surface energy balance needs to be revised. Specifically, the longwave radiation received at the surface is estimated to be significantly larger, by between 10 and 17 Wm-2, than earlier model-based estimates. Moreover, the latest satellite observations of global precipitation indicate that more precipitation is generated than previously thought. This additional precipitation is sustained by more energy leaving the surface by evaporation -- that is, in the form of latent heat flux -- and thereby offsets much of the increase in longwave flux to the surface.

  14. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  15. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  16. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era. PMID:28117324

  17. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2017-01-24

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  18. Towards a Seamless Global Long-Term Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Su, W.; Kratz, D. P.; Kato, S.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, and energy released to space in the form of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) nearly balances ASR, ensuring a relatively stable climate. Owing to human activities, there is currently less emitted thermal radiation than absorbed solar radiation, leading to an accumulation of energy into the Earth's system, which is driving global warming. Achieving an understanding of Earth's energy flows requires an accurate description of how radiant energy at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), within the atmosphere, and at the surface is distributed spatially, and how this changes with time. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is the production of a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget from the TOA down to the surface along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence this budget. The CERES team relies on a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers that measure incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, high-resolution spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. While TOA radiation budget is determined from accurate broadband radiometer measurements, the surface radiation budget is derived indirectly through radiative transfer model calculations initialized using imager-based cloud and aerosol retrievals and meteorological assimilation data. In order to accurately capture changes in Earth's radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales, satellite instruments used to produce these data records must be radiometrically stable and the input data stream must be free of artificial discontinuities. Otherwise, distinguishing real climate system changes from

  19. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Deep, Akash; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2016-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and 'smart' electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.

  20. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  1. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  2. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  3. A Multipurpose Method for Global Capacity Building in Using Earth Observations for Wetlands and Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and surveying biodiversity and wetlands involves the collection of vast amounts of data, most of which are Earth observations. Observations on the ground or from space and everything in between, across all time and spatial scales, represent precious information for our understanding and management of both biodiversity and wetlands. Cross-disciplinary problem solving and development of new tools are the most efficient ways to enhance our capabilities to monitor biodiversity and wetlands. To accomplish that, experts from different communities need to refresh and upgrade their knowledge of other field(s). An event based method that consists of both live active participation and the production of capacity building material for re-use in other settings, will be presented. The method includes using the vast global networks of international organizations representing the application areas as well as the field of Earth observations. An example from a cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential.

  4. Laboratory test simulation for non-flat response calibration of global Earth albedo monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Sehyun; Kim, Sug-Whan; Ryu, Dongok; Hong, Jinsuk; Lockwood, Mike

    2012-09-01

    In this report, we present laboratory test simulation for directional responsivity of a global Earth albedo monitoring instrument. The sensor is to observe the Sun and the Earth, alternately, and measure their shortwave (<4μm) radiations around the L1 halo orbit to obtain global Earth albedo. The instrument consists of a broadband scanning radiometer (energy channel instrument) and an imager (visible channel instrument) with ±2° field-of-view. In the case of the energy channel instrument, radiations arriving at the viewing ports from the Sun and the Earth are directed toward the pyroelectric detector via two spherical folding mirrors and a 3D compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The instrument responsivity is defined by the ratio of the incident radiation input to the instrument output signal. The radiometer's relative directional responsivity needs to be characterized across the field-of-view to assist output signal calibration. For the laboratory test, the distant small source configuration consists of an off-axis collimator and the instrument with adjustable mounts. Using reconstructed 3D CPC surface, the laboratory test simulation for predicting the instrument directional responsivity was conducted by a radiative transfer computation with ray tracing technique. The technical details of the laboratory test simulation are presented together with future plan.

  5. Galactic cosmic rays - atmosphere clouds effect and bifurcation model of the Earth global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Alexander

    The possible physical linkage between the cosmic rays, atmosphere cloud and indirect aerosol effects is discussed using analysis of first indirect aerosol effect (Twomey effect) and its experimental representation as the dependence of mean cloud droplet effective radius versus aerosol index defining the column aerosol number. It is shown that the main kinetic equation of Earth climate energy-balance model [1] is described by the bifurcation equation (relative to the Earth surface temperature) in the form of fold catastrophe with two controlling parameters defining the variations of insolation and Earth magnetic field (or cosmic rays intensity in the atmosphere) respectively. The results of comparative analysis on the time-dependent solution (time series of global paleotemperature ) of Earth climate energy-balance model taking into account nontrivial role of galactic cosmic rays and the known experimental data on the palaeotemperature from the EPICA Dome C and Vostok ice core are pre-sented. It is discussed the sin-earth mechanism of arising the abnormal temperature breaks which are observed in the EPICA Dome C and Vostok experiments. It has been found its link with the ‘order-chaos' transitions in evolution of the convection in the Earth liquid core which are responsible for mechanism of arising inversions of the magnetic field of the Earth. It should be noted a stabilization role of the slow nuclear burning [1] georeactor with power 30 TW) on the boundary of the liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core in evolution of convection in the Earth liquid core and magnetic field. In the bifurcation model (i) the possibility of abrupt glacial climate changes analogous to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events due to stochastic resonance is theoretically argued, (ii) the concept of the climatic sensitivity of water (vapour and liquid) in the atmosphere is introduced. This concept reveals the property of temperature instability in a form of so-called hysteresis loop. It is

  6. Paleoproterozoic snowball earth: extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Gaidos, E. J.; Bertani, L. E.; Beukes, N. J.; Gutzmer, J.; Maepa, L. N.; Steinberger, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation ("snowball Earth" conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O(2) are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution.

  7. Paleoproterozoic snowball earth: extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, J L; Gaidos, E J; Bertani, L E; Beukes, N J; Gutzmer, J; Maepa, L N; Steinberger, R E

    2000-02-15

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation ("snowball Earth" conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O(2) are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution.

  8. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  9. AeroMACS C-Band Interference Modeling and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A new C-band (5091-5150 MHz) airport communications system designated as Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being planned under the Federal Aviation Administration s NextGen program. It is necessary to establish practical limits on AeroMACS transmission power from airports so that the threshold of interference into the Mobile Satellite Service (Globalstar) feeder uplinks is not exceeded. To help provide guidelines for these limits, interference models have been created with the commercial software Visualyse Professional. In this presentation, simulation results were shown for the aggregate interference power at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at each of up to 757 airports in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the surrounding area. Both omni-directional and sectoral antenna configurations were modeled. Effects of antenna height, beamwidth, and tilt were presented.

  10. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of the Benefits of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Scholes, R. J.; Obersteiner, M.; Bouma, J.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to contribute to human wellbeing though improving the information available to decision-makers at all levels relating to human health and safety, protection of the global environment, the reduction of losses from natural disasters, and achieving sustainable development. Specifically, GEOSS proposes that better international co-operation in the collection, interpretation and sharing of Earth Observation information is an important and cost-effective mechanism for achieving this aim. While there is a widespread intuition that this proposition is correct, at some point the following question needs to be answered: how much additional investment in Earth Observation (and specifically, in its international integration) is enough? This leads directly to some challenging subsidiary questions, such as how can the benefits of Earth Observation be assessed? What are the incremental costs of GEOSS? Are there societal benefit areas where the return on investment is higher than in others? The Geo-Bene project has developed a `benefit chain' concept as a framework for addressing these questions. The basic idea is that an incremental improvement in the observing system (including its data collection, interpretation and information-sharing aspects) will result in an improvement in the quality of decisions based on that information. This will in turn lead to better societal outcomes, which have a value. This incremental value must be judged against the incremental cost of the improved observation system. Since in many cases there will be large uncertainties in the estimation of both the costs and the benefits, and it may not be possible to express one or both of them in monetary terms, we show how order-of-magnitude approaches and a qualitative understanding of the shape of the cost-benefit curves can help guide rational investment decision in Earth Observation systems.

  12. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  13. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  14. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  15. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  16. NASA Global Hawk: A Unique Capability for the Pursuit of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2007-01-01

    For more than 2 years, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been preparing for the receipt of two Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Global Hawk air vehicles from the United States Air Force. NASA Dryden intends to establish a Global Hawk Project Office, which will be responsible for developing the infrastructure required to operate this unmanned aerial system and establishing a trained maintenance and operations team. The first flight of a NASA Global Hawk air vehicle is expected to occur in 2008. The NASA Global Hawk system can be used by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. Initially, the main focus of the research activities is expected to be Earth science related. A combination of the vehicle s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume, and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system from all other platforms available to the science community. This report describes the NASA Global Hawk system and current plans for the NASA air vehicle concept of operations, and provides examples of potential missions with an emphasis on science missions.

  17. Globalization and Mobilization of Earth Science Education with GeoBrain Geospatial Web Service Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; di, L.

    2005-12-01

    The needs for Earth science education to prepare students as globally-trained geoscience workforce increase tremendously with globalization of the economy. However, current academic programs often have difficulties in providing students world-view training or experiences with global context due to lack of resources and suitable teaching technology. This paper presents a NASA funded project with insights and solutions to this problem. The project aims to establish a geospatial data-rich learning and research environment that enable the students, faculty and researchers from institutes all over the world easily accessing, analyzing and modeling with the huge amount of NASA EOS data just like they possess those vast resources locally at their desktops. With the environment, classroom demonstration and training for students to deal with global climate and environment issues for any part of the world are possible in any classroom with Internet connection. Globalization and mobilization of Earth science education can be truly realized through the environment. This project, named as NASA EOS Higher Education Alliance: Mobilization of NASA EOS Data and Information through Web Services and Knowledge Management Technologies for Higher Education Teaching and Research, is built on profound technology and infrastructure foundations including web service technology, NASA EOS data resources, and open interoperability standards. An open, distributed, standard compliant, interoperable web-based system, called GeoBrain, is being developed by this project to provide a data-rich on-line learning and research environment. The system allows users to dynamically and collaboratively develop interoperable, web-executable geospatial process and analysis modules and models, and run them on-line against any part of the peta-byte archives for getting back the customized information products rather than raw data. The system makes a data-rich globally-capable Earth science learning and research

  18. Global maps of the magnetic thickness and magnetization of the Earth's lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan

    2015-10-01

    We have constructed global maps of the large-scale magnetic thickness and magnetization of Earth's lithosphere. Deriving such large-scale maps based on lithospheric magnetic field measurements faces the challenge of the masking effect of the core field. In this study, the maps were obtained through analyses in the spectral domain by means of a new regional spatial power spectrum based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism. A series of regional spectral analyses were conducted covering the entire Earth. The R-SCHA surface power spectrum for each region was estimated using the NGDC-720 spherical harmonic (SH) model of the lithospheric magnetic field, which is based on satellite, aeromagnetic, and marine measurements. These observational regional spectra were fitted to a recently proposed statistical expression of the power spectrum of Earth's lithospheric magnetic field, whose free parameters include the thickness and magnetization of the magnetic sources. The resulting global magnetic thickness map is compared to other crustal and magnetic thickness maps based upon different geophysical data. We conclude that the large-scale magnetic thickness of the lithosphere is on average confined to a layer that does not exceed the Moho.

  19. Visualizing global change: earth and biodiversity sciences for museum settings using HDTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duba, A.; Gardiner, N.; Kinzler, R.; Trakinski, V.

    2006-12-01

    Science Bulletins, a production group at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA), brings biological and Earth system science data and concepts to over 10 million visitors per year at 27 institutions around the U.S.A. Our target audience is diverse, from novice to expert. News stories and visualizations use the capabilities of satellite imagery to focus public attention on four general themes: human influences on species and ecosystems across all observable spatial extents; biotic feedbacks with the Earth's physical system; characterizing species and ecosystems; and recent events such as natural changes to ecosystems, major findings and publications, or recent syntheses. For Earth science, we use recent natural events to explain the broad scientific concepts of tectonic activity and the processes that underlie climate and weather events. Visualizations show the global, dynamic distribution of atmospheric constituents, ocean temperature and temperature anomaly, and sea ice. Long-term changes are set in contrast to seasonal and longer-term cycles so that viewers appreciate the variety of forces that affect Earth's physical system. We illustrate concepts at a level appropriate for a broad audience to learn more about the dynamic nature of Earth's biota and physical processes. Programming also includes feature stories that explain global change phenomena from the perspectives of eminent scientists and managers charged with implementing public policy based on the best available science. Over the past two and one-half years, biological science stories have highlighted applied research addressing lemur conservation in Madagascar, marine protected areas in the Bahamas, effects of urban sprawl on wood turtles in New England, and taxonomic surveys of marine jellies in Monterey Bay. Earth science stories have addressed the volcanic history of present-day Yellowstone National Park, tsunamis, the disappearance of tropical mountain glaciers, the North Atlantic

  20. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  1. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive (60)Fe.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Feige, J; Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Fifield, L K; Golser, R; Honda, M; Linnemann, U; Matsuzaki, H; Merchel, S; Rugel, G; Tims, S G; Steier, P; Yamagata, T; Winkler, S R

    2016-04-07

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth's vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is (60)Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the (60)Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for (60)Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal (60)Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh (60)Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  2. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching the Spherical Earth Model to Preservice Teachers Using the Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Youngjin; Schwenz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an inquiry-based lesson to deepen preservice teachers' understanding of the spherical Earth model using the Global Positioning System. The lesson was designed with four learning goals: (1) to increase preservice teachers' conceptual knowledge of the spherical Earth model; (2) to develop preservice teachers'…

  3. Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: Extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Gaidos, Eric J.; Bertani, L. Elizabeth; Beukes, Nicholas J.; Gutzmer, Jens; Maepa, Linda N.; Steinberger, Rachel E.

    2000-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation (“snowball Earth” conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O2 are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution. PMID:10677473

  4. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-10-09

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASAWorld Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the hot spot areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geovisualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  5. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASA World Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the "hot spot" areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geo-visualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  6. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  7. Dynamics of global vegetation biomass simulated by the integrated Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Thornton, P. E.; Piao, S.; Yang, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.

    2014-12-01

    The global vegetation biomass stores huge amounts of carbon and is thus important to the global carbon budget (Pan et al., 2010). For the past few decades, different observation-based estimates and modeling of biomass in the above- and below-ground vegetation compartments have been comprehensively conducted (Saatchi et al., 2011; Baccini et al., 2012). However, uncertainties still exist, in particular for the simulation of biomass magnitude, tendency, and the response of biomass to climatic conditions and natural and human disturbances. The recently successful coupling of the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) (Di Vittorio et al., 2014; Bond-Lamberty et al., 2014), which links the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), Global Land-use Model (GLM), and Community Earth System Model (CESM), offers a great opportunity to understand the biomass-related dynamics in a fully-coupled natural and human modeling system. In this study, we focus on the systematic analysis and evaluation of the iESM simulated historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) biomass changes and the response of the biomass dynamics to various impact factors, in particular the human-induced Land Use/Land Cover Change (LULCC). By analyzing the iESM simulations with and without the interactive LULCC feedbacks, we further study how and where the climate feedbacks affect socioeconomic decisions and LULCC, such as to alter vegetation carbon storage. References Pan Y et. al: A large and persistent carbon sink in the World's forests. Science 2011, 333:988-993. Saatchi SS et al: Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011, 108:9899-9904. Baccini A et al: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps. Nature Clim Change 2012, 2:182-185. Di Vittorio AV et al: From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for

  8. Precise determination of earth's center of mass using measurements from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1992-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.

  9. An Inundated Wetlands Earth System Data Record: Global Monitoring of Wetland Extent and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K.; Chapman, B.; Hess, L.; Moghaddam, M.; Kimball, J. S.; Matthews, E.; Prigent, C.

    2008-12-01

    Wetlands exert major impacts on global biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biological diversity. The extent and seasonal, interannual, and decadal variation of inundated wetlands play key roles in ecosystem dynamics. Despite the importance of these environments in the global cycling of carbon and water and to current and future climate, the extent and dynamics of global wetlands remain poorly characterized and modeled. This is primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote-sensing data for characterizing wetland distribution and dynamics. As part of a NASA MEaSUREs project, we are constructing a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of inundated wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR is being generated using legacy algorithms developed from spaceborne remote sensing data sets and is comprised of two complementary components. The first are fine resolution (100 m) maps of wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation dynamics, derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), for continental-scale areas covering crucial wetland regions. The second are global monthly maps of inundation extent at ~25 km resolution for the period 1992- 2009, derived from multiple satellite observations. We present details of the ESDR construction including remote sensing algorithm applications, cross-product harmonization, and planned data set distribution. The status of current efforts to assemble this ESDR, including data processing, wetland classifications, and open water change mappings derived from L-band data for the state of Alaska and select basins in Eurasia are presented. This ESDR will provide the first accurate, consistent and comprehensive global-scale data set of wetland inundation and vegetation, including continental-scale multitemporal and multi-year monthly inundation dynamics at multiple scales. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion

  10. modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those

  11. Discrete Global Grid Systems - A Framework for the next Era in Big Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, P. R.; Percivall, G.; Purss, M. B. J.; Samavati, F.; Gibb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) are spatial reference systems that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. DGGS are designed to portray real-world phenomena by providing a digital framework on a common discrete geospatial data structure and they are commonly used to create virtual globes. DGGS differ from conventional geographic coordinate reference systems in that they are designed to be an information grid not a navigation grid. Conventional coordinate reference systems address the globe using tuples of "real" numbered coordinates. DGGS, however, address the entire planet by partitioning it into a hierarchical tessellation of integer-based nested cells thereby providing a truly discrete, rather than continuous, reference frame for repeating the location of measured Earth observations, feature interpretations, and extrapolated predictions. Formal development of DGGS began in the 1980s with the promising value of global analysis coinciding with the increased use of geographic information systems and the availability of global mapping data and positioning systems. However, following the initial excitement about DGGS as a technology the lack of availability of suitable cloud and High Performance Computing (HPC) environments has limited the uptake and application of DGGS - until now! The maturation of accessible cloud and HPC infrastructures has enabled DGGS to emerge from the 'trough of disillusionment' and to provide a path to realizing the vision of the Digital Earth, and the future of CyberGIS. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is developing an international standard for DGGS that will formally define the essential properties of a DGGS and specify protocols that will facilitate interoperability between multiple DGGS and traditional data infrastructures. The OGC DGGS Standards Working Group is finalizing its work based on inputs and review from experts around the world with experinence using multiple DGGSs. By

  12. Resolution requirements for aero-optical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Ali Wang Meng; Moin, Parviz

    2008-11-10

    Analytical criteria are developed to estimate the error of aero-optical computations due to inadequate spatial resolution of refractive index fields in high Reynolds number flow simulations. The unresolved turbulence structures are assumed to be locally isotropic and at low turbulent Mach number. Based on the Kolmogorov spectrum for the unresolved structures, the computational error of the optical path length is estimated and linked to the resulting error in the computed far-field optical irradiance. It is shown that in the high Reynolds number limit, for a given geometry and Mach number, the spatial resolution required to capture aero-optics within a pre-specified error margin does not scale with Reynolds number. In typical aero-optical applications this resolution requirement is much lower than the resolution required for direct numerical simulation, and therefore, a typical large-eddy simulation can capture the aero-optical effects. The analysis is extended to complex turbulent flow simulations in which non-uniform grid spacings are used to better resolve the local turbulence structures. As a demonstration, the analysis is used to estimate the error of aero-optical computation for an optical beam passing through turbulent wake of flow over a cylinder.

  13. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  14. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Tkemura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  15. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Allen, J; Alling, A; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S

    2003-01-01

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere.

  16. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  17. Global land ice measurements from space (GLIMS): remote sensing and GIS investigations of the Earth's cryosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michael P.; Olsenholler, Jeffrey A.; Shroder, John F.; Barry, Roger G.; Rasup, Bruce H.; Bush, Andrew B. G.; Copland, Luke; Dwyer, John L.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kaab, Andreas; Paul, Frank; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Molnia, Bruce F.; Trabant, Dennis C.; Wessels, Rick L.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns over greenhouse‐gas forcing and global temperatures have initiated research into understanding climate forcing and associated Earth‐system responses. A significant component is the Earth's cryosphere, as glacier‐related, feedback mechanisms govern atmospheric, hydrospheric and lithospheric response. Predicting the human and natural dimensions of climate‐induced environmental change requires global, regional and local information about ice‐mass distribution, volumes, and fluctuations. The Global Land‐Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project is specifically designed to produce and augment baseline information to facilitate glacier‐change studies. This requires addressing numerous issues, including the generation of topographic information, anisotropic‐reflectance correction of satellite imagery, data fusion and spatial analysis, and GIS‐based modeling. Field and satellite investigations indicate that many small glaciers and glaciers in temperate regions are downwasting and retreating, although detailed mapping and assessment are still required to ascertain regional and global patterns of ice‐mass variations. Such remote sensing/GIS studies, coupled with field investigations, are vital for producing baseline information on glacier changes, and improving our understanding of the complex linkages between atmospheric, lithospheric, and glaciological processes.

  18. GLOBAL MAPPING OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS FROM SCATTERED LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka

    2010-09-10

    Scattered lights from terrestrial exoplanets provide valuable information about their planetary surface. Applying the surface reconstruction method proposed by Fujii et al. to both diurnal and annual variations of scattered light, we develop a reconstruction method of land distribution with both longitudinal and latitudinal resolutions. We find that one can recover a global map of an idealized Earth-like planet on the following assumptions: (1) cloudlessness, (2) a face-on circular orbit, (3) known surface types and their reflectance spectra, (4) lack of atmospheric absorption, (5) known rotation rate, (6) a static map, and (7) the absence of a moon. Using the dependence of light curves on planetary obliquity, we also show that the obliquity can be measured by adopting the {chi}{sup 2} minimization or the extended information criterion. We demonstrate the feasibility of our methodology by applying it to a multi-band photometry of a cloudless model Earth with future space missions such as the occulting ozone observatory (O3). We conclude that future space missions can estimate both the surface distribution and the obliquity at least for cloudless Earth-like planets within 5 pc.

  19. To a Question About Orientation of Search Technological Disasters at Global Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    Technological activity of the human being unreasonable consumption to the detriment of the nature have brought mankind to a point of bifurcation from which any evolution is possible even to become extinct as biological species in connection with obvious loss of stability of biosphere and with an opportunity of its transition in a new condition which can appear unsuitable for a life Global Earth Observation supposes passive recording a condition of the Earth s atmosphere ocean and land surface with a view to improving the well-being of mankind Active supervision are demanding the scientific substantiated knowledge of dangerous places on the Earth not only from point of view technological of pollution but also in view of the humanistic relation of people living in these places to the Nature The mathematical model which allows predict evolution of universum with consideration of intellectual world and an spiritual world of mankind is offered in the report It threeunity has something in common with unity of three worlds -- physical mental and Plato s world of ideas which has presented Roger Penrose Developing ideas of Roger Penrose E Popper I Ostrezov we have constructed model of the relation between the parameters describing these worlds - rational R-- the empirical information on the physical world irrational I - the information received by the intellectual world from input medium - transcendental mental spiritual T including creativity

  20. Comparisons of global topographic/isostatic models to the Earth's observed gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Rapp, Richard H.; Suenkel, Hans; Tscherning, C. Christian

    1988-01-01

    The Earth's gravitational potential, as described by a spherical harmonic expansion to degree 180, was compared to the potential implied by the topography and its isostatic compensation using five different hypothesis. Initially, series expressions for the Airy/Heiskanen topographic isostatic model were developed to the third order in terms of (h/R), where h is equivalent rock topography and R is a mean Earth radius. Using actual topographic developments for the Earth, it was found that the second and third terms of the expansion contributed 30 and 3 percents, of the first of the expansion. With these new equations it is possible to compute depths (D) of compensation, by degree, using 3 different criteria. The results show that the average depth implied by criterion I is 60 km while it is about 33 km for criteria 2 and 3 with smaller compensation depths at the higher degrees. Another model examined was related to the Vening-Meinesz regional hypothesis implemented in the spectral domain. Finally, oceanic and continental response functions were derived for the global data sets and comparisons made to locally determined values.

  1. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L. K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S. G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for 60Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  2. The effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance - Global analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of fractional area coverage by cloud types in the energy balance of the earth is investigated through joint use of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud data and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband energy flux data for the one-year period March 1985 through February 1986. Multiple linear regression is used to relate the radiation budget data to the cloud data. Comparing cloud forcing estimates obtained from the ISCCP-ERBE regression with those derived from the ERBE scene identification shows generally good agreement except over snow, in tropical convective regions, and in regions that are either nearly cloudless or always overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement in longwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identification does not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low clouds make the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the Earth, because they cover such a large area and because their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High, optically thick clouds can also very effectively reduce the energy balance, however, because their very high albedos overcome their low emission temperatures.

  3. Global Evolution of the Earth's Magnetosphere in Response to a Sudden Ring Current Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, Jincheol; Choe, Gwangson; Park, Geunseok

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical evolution of the Earth's magnetosphere loaded with a transiently enhanced ring current is investigated by global magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Two cases with different values of the primitive ring current are considered. In one case, the initial ring current is strong enough to create a magnetic island in the magnetosphere. The magnetic island readily reconnects with the earth-connected ambient field and is destroyed as the system approaches a steady equilibrium. In the other case, the initial ring current is not so strong, and the initial magnetic field configuration bears no magnetic island, but features a wake of bent field lines, which is smoothed out through the relaxing evolution of the magnetosphere. The relaxation time of the magnetosphere is found to be about five to six minutes, over which the ring current is reduced to about a quarter of its initial value. Before reaching a steady state, the magnetosphere is found to undergo an overshooting expansion and a subsequent contraction. Fast and slow magnetosonic waves are identified to play an important role in the relaxation toward equilibrium. Our study suggests that a sudden injection of the ring current can generate an appreciable global pulsation of the magnetosphere.

  4. Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay

    2015-07-01

    We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.

  5. Power from space for use on earth: An emerging global option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Earth as a closed ecological system is addressed from the point of view of the availability and use of energy from space and its potential influence on the economies of both developed and developing countries. The results of past studies of the solar power satellite (SPS) are reviewed, and the current international activities exploring various aspects of an SPS are mentioned. The functions of an SPS, including collection of solar energy in orbit, conversion to an intermediate form of energy, transmission of energy from orbit to Earth, and conversion to useful energy in the most appropriate form are discussed. Directions for future developments are addressed including a suggested planning framework. Salient aspects of SPS technologies are presented, and the potential benefits of the uses of lunar materials for the SPS construction are outlined. Scenarios within the context of international participation in a global SPS system are presented. The conclusion is drawn that an SPS system is one of the few promising, globally applicable power generation options that has the potential to meet energy demands in the 21st Century and to achieve the inevitable transition to inexhaustible and renewable energy sources.

  6. Data Mining for Global Change: A Vision for "Big Data" in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhaeuser, K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the Earth sciences have undergone a rapid transformation from a historically data-poor to a relatively data-rich environment. This development is largely due to significant improvements in observation technologies (notably satellites since the 1970s) on one hand, and advances in computational tools (both hardware and software) on the other. As a result the Earth sciences are primed to enter the Fourth Paradigm, a term coined by the late Jim Gray to describe a new realm of scientific discovery driven by data analysis - the other three being theory, experimentation, and computer simulation. In particular, observations from remote sensors on satellites and weather radars, in situ sensors and sensor networks, along with outputs of global climate or Earth system models from large-scale simulations as well as regional modeling studies, produce data approaching the Tera- and Petabyte scales. These massive and information-rich datasets offer a significant opportunity for advancing our understanding of the global climate system and in turn our ability to make better informed projections of future climate change, yet current data analysis techniques are not able to realize their full potential. We will outline a vision for the application of "Big Data" tools and technologies in the Earth sciences, which have the potential to make a transformative impact on the toolbox available to the scientist as well as the way science is conducted. For instance, data mining and machine learning could provide novel computational tools that empower scientists to perform analyses more efficiently and effectively than ever before: tedious routine tasks become automated, existing methods scale to significantly larger datasets, and innovative methods may provide new capabilities altogether. Most notably we are not interested in leveraging computation for simulations of increasing scale or resolution but rather in the analysis of datasets of increasing size and

  7. Sequential Imaging of Earth by Astronauts: 50 Years of Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, astronauts have collected sequential imagery of the Earth. In fact, the collection of astronaut photography comprises one of the earliest sets of data (1961 to present) available to scientists to study the regional context of the Earth s surface and how it changes. While today s availability of global high resolution satellite imagery enables anyone with an internet connection to examine specific features on the Earth s surface with a regional context, historical satellite imagery adds another dimension (time) that provides researchers and students insight about the features and processes of a region. For example, one of the geographic areas with the longest length of record contained within the astronaut photography database is the lower Nile River. The database contains images that document the flooding of Lake Nasser (an analog to today s flooding behind China s Three Gorges Dam), the changing levels of Lake Nasser s water with multiyear cycles of flood and drought, the recent flooding and drying of the Toshka Lakes, as well as urban growth, changes in agriculture and coastal subsidence. The imagery database allows investigations using different time scales (hours to decades) and spatial scales (resolutions and fields of view) as variables. To continue the imagery collection, the astronauts on the International Space Station are trained to understand basic the Earth Sciences and look for and photograph major events such as tropical storms, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, and document landscapes undergoing change (e.g., coastal systems, cities, changing forest cover). We present examples of selected sequences of astronaut imagery that illustrate the interdependence of geological processes, climate cycles, human geography and development, and prompt additional questions about the underlying elements of change.

  8. Global electric field determination in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using energetic charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.; Sheldon, R.; Hamilton, D.

    1995-01-01

    Although many properties of the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured and quantified in the past 30 years since it was discovered, one fundamental measurement (for zeroth order MHD equilibrium) has been made infrequently and with poor spatial coverage - the global electric field. This oversight is due in part to the neglect of theorists. However, there is renewed interest in the convection electric field because it is now realized to be central to many magnetospheric processes, including the global MHD equilibrium, reconnection rates, Region 2 Birkeland currents, magnetosphere ionosphere coupling, ring current and radiation belt transport, substorm injections, and several acceleration mechanisms. Unfortunately the standard experimental methods have not been able to synthesize a global field (excepting the pioneering work of McIlwain's geostationary models) and we are left with an overly simplistic theoretical field, the Volland-Stern electric field model. Single point measurements of the plasmapause were used to infer the appropriate amplitudes of this model, parameterized by K(sub p). Although this result was never intended to be the definitive electric field model, it has gone nearly unchanged for 20 years. The analysis of current data sets requires a great deal more accuracy than can be provided by the Volland-Stern model. The variability of electric field shielding has not been properly addressed although effects of penetrating magnetospheric electric fields has been seen in mid-and low-latitude ionospheric data sets. The growing interest in substorm dynamics also requires a much better assessment of the electric fields responsible for particle injections. Thus we proposed and developed algorithms for extracting electric fields from particle data taken in the Earth's magnetosphere. As a test of the effectiveness of these new techniques, we analyzed data taken by the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft in equatorial orbit from 1984 to 1989.

  9. The Global S[Formula: see text] Tide in Earth's Nutation.

    PubMed

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    Diurnal S[Formula: see text] tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S[Formula: see text] terms that deviate by more than 30 [Formula: see text]as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S[Formula: see text] tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S[Formula: see text] tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]as (MERRA) and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  10. DSMC aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of a sample-return capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppardi, Gennaro; Savino, Raffaele; Boffa, Chiara; Carandente, Valerio

    2012-11-01

    A rarefied aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of a sample Earth Return Capsule during the high energy, high altitude re-entry path from an exploration mission is presented. The altitude interval 70-120 km is considered, where the capsule experiences different flow fields. In fact, the flow regime ranges from continuum low density to near free molecular flow and, even though the free stream velocity is almost constant (13 km/s) in the whole altitude interval, the Mach number changes from 44 to 32 and the Reynolds number, based on the capsule diameter, ranges from 4.92×104 to 9. The computations have been carried out using two direct simulation Monte Carlo codes: DS2V to compute local quantities such as heat flux, thermal and aerodynamic loads at zero angle of attack and DS3V to compute global aerodynamic coefficients in the range of the angle of attack 0-60 deg; The results verified that in this altitude interval the heat flux and the thermal load reasonably satisfy specific requirements for the thermal protection system and that the capsule is longitudinally stable up to an angle of attack of about 40 deg..

  11. Global land surface albedo maps from MODIS using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitraka, Zina; Benas, Nikolaos; Gorelick, Noel; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios

    2016-04-01

    The land surface albedo (LSA) is a critical physical variable, which influences the Earth's climate by affecting the energy budget and distribution in the Earth-atmosphere system. Its role is highly significant in both global and local scales; hence, LSA measurements provide a quantitative means for better constraining global and regional scale climate modelling efforts. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms, provides the parameters needed for the computation of LSA on an 8-day temporal scale and a variety of spatial scales (ranging between 0.5 - 5 km). This dataset was used here for the LSA estimation and its changes over the study area at 0.5 km spatial resolution. More specifically, the MODIS albedo product was used, which includes both the directional-hemispherical surface reflectance (black-sky albedo) and the bi-hemispherical surface reflectance (white-sky albedo). The LSA was estimated for the whole globe on an 8-day basis for the whole time period covered by MODIS acquisitions (i.e. 2000 until today). To estimate LSA from black-sky and white-sky albedos, the fraction of the diffused radiation is needed, a function of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). Required AOT information was acquired from the MODIS AOT product at 1̊ × 1̊ spatial resolution. Since LSA also depends on solar zenith angle (SZA), 8-day mean LSA values were computed as averages of corresponding LSA values for representative SZAs covering the 24-hour day. The estimated LSA was analysed in terms of both spatial and seasonal characteristics, while LSA changes during the period examined were assessed. All computation were performed using the Google Earth Engine (GEE). The GEE provided access to all the MODIS products needed for the analysis without the need of searching or downloading. Moreover, the combination of MODIS products in both temporal and spatial terms was fast and effecting using the GEE API (Application

  12. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  13. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  14. Analysis of MMIC arrays for use in the ACTS Aero Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M.; Lee, R.; Rho, E.; Zaman, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The Aero Experiment is designed to demonstrate communication from an aircraft to an Earth terminal via the ACTS. This paper describes the link budget and antenna requirements for a 4.8 kbps full-duplex voice link at Ka-Band frequencies. Three arrays, one transmit array developed by TI and two receive arrays developed by GE and Boeing, were analyzed. The predicted performance characteristics of these arrays are presented and discussed in the paper.

  15. Contributions to global earth sciences integration. A special issue on the 3rd Young Earth Scientists Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cónsole-Gonella, Carlos; Yidana, Sandow Mark

    2016-10-01

    The Young Earth Scientists (YES) Network is an association of early-career geoscientists who are primarily under the age of 35 years from universities, geoscience organizations and companies from across the world (http://www.networkyes.org)

  16. Ion Acceleration at Earth, Saturn and Jupiter and its Global Impact on Magnetospheric Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2016-07-01

    The ion plasma pressures at Earth, Saturn and Jupiter are significant players in the electrodynamic force-balance that governs the structure and dynamics of these magnetospheres. There are many similarities between the physical mechanisms that are thought to heat the ion plasma to temperatures that even exceed those of the solar corona. In this presentation we compare the ion acceleration mechanisms at the three planetary magnetospheres and discuss their global impacts on magnetopsheric structure. At Earth, bursty-bulk flows, or "bubbles", have been shown to accelerate protons and O+ to high energies by the earthward moving magnetic dipolarization fronts. O+ ions display a more non-adiabatic energization in response to these fronts than protons do as they are energized and transported in to the ring-current region where they reach energies of several 100's keV. We present both in-situ measurements from the NASA Van Allen Probes Mission and global Energetic Neutral (ENA) images from the High-Energy Neutral Atom (HENA) Camera on board the IMAGE Mission, that illustrate these processes. The global impact on the magnetospheric structure is explored by comparing the empirical magnetic field model TS07d for given driving conditions with global plasma pressure distributions derived from the HENA images. At Saturn, quasi-periodic energization events, or large-scale injections, occur beyond about 9 RS around the post-midnight sector, clearly shown by the Ion and Neutral Atom Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini mission. In contrast to Earth, the corotational drift dominates even the energetic ion distributions. The large-scale injections display similar dipolarization front features can be found and there are indications that like at Earth the O+ responds more non-adiabatically than protons do. However, at Saturn there are also differences in that there appears to be energization events deep in the inner magnetosphere (6-9 RS) preferentially occurring in the pre

  17. Evaluation of recent Earth's global gravity field models with terrestrial gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, Alexander P.; Kanushin, Vadim F.; Ganagina, Irina G.; Goldobin, Denis N.; Kosarev, Nikolay S.; Kosareva, Alexandra M.

    2016-03-01

    In the context of the rapid development of environmental research technologies and techniques to solve scientific and practical problems in different fields of knowledge including geosciences, the study of Earth's gravity field models is still important today. The results of gravity anomaly modelling calculated by the current geopotential models data were compared with the independent terrestrial gravity data for the two territories located in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. Statistical characteristics of comparison results for the models under study were obtained. The results of investigations show that about 70% of the differences between the gravity anomaly values calculated by recent global geopotential models and those observed at the points in flat areas are within ±10 mGal, in mountainous areas are within ±20 mGal.

  18. Global geologic applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Evans, Cynthia; Wilkinson, M. J.; Pitts, David; Amsbury, David

    1993-01-01

    The advantages of the astronaut photography during Space Shuttle missions are briefly examined, and the scope and applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database are discussed. The global and multidisciplinary nature of the data base is illustrated by several examples of geologic applications. These include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippine Islands), heat flow and ice cover on Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia), and windblown dust in South America. It is noted that hand-held photography from the U.S. Space Shuttle provides unique remotely-sensed data for geologic applications because of the combination of varying perspectives, look angles, and illumination, and changing resolution resulting from different lenses and altitudes.

  19. Sunsynchronous low Earth orbit spacecraft concepts and technology requirements for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Taback, Israel; Garn, Paul A.; Burrowbridge, Donald R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative listing of instruments for operation in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits contain 21 entries, of which 20 are carried aboard multi-instrument spacecraft. This list identifies the temporal requirements for repetition of measurements and also includes groups of instruments that make complementing measurements. Definitions for individual spacecraft follows the temporal and grouping requirements to establish constellations which will provide the measurement data. The definitions of constellations for multi-instrument spacecraft show two alternatives: a constellation of 10 spacecraft, each compatible with launch by a Delta booster; a constellation of 4 spacecraft, each requiring a Titan booster. Operating subsystems for the individual spacecraft can use modular concepts that are adaptations based upon current plans for improving the performance of the NASA-Goddard Multimission Modular units. The descriptions of the spacecraft and constellations begins with a compilation of instrument related requirements that define the principal system performance parameters and operating capabilities.

  20. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  1. An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (≫300 yr) model spinup times.

  2. An earth-gridded SSM/I data set for cryospheric studies and global change monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.

    1995-08-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has distributed DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature grids for the Polar Regions on CD-ROM since 1987. In order to expand this product to include all potential snow covered regions, the area of coverage is now global. The format for the global SSM/I data set is the Equal Area SSM/I Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) developed at NSIDC. The EASE-Grid has been selected as the format for the NASA/NOAA Pathfinder Program Level 3 Products which include both SSM/I and SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer) data (1978-1987). Providing both data sets in the EASE-Grid will result in a 15 year time-series of satellite passive microwave data in a common format. The extent and variability of seasonal snow cover is recognized to be an important parameter in climate and hydrologic systems and trends in snow cover serve as an indicator of global climatic changes. Passive microwave data from satellites afford the possibility to monitor temporal and spatial variations in snow cover on the global scale, avoiding the problems of cloud cover and darkness. NSIDC is developing the capability to produce daily snow products from the DMSP-SSM/I satellite with a spatial resolution of 25 km. In order to provide a standard environment in which to validate SSM/I algorithm output, it is necessary to assemble baseline data sets using other, more direct, methods of measurement. NSIDC has compiled a validation data set of surface station measurements for the northern hemisphere with specific focus on the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. Digital image subtraction is applied to compare the surface station and satellite measurements.

  3. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L.K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S.G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of supernovae (SNe) in our local galactic neighborhood within a distance of ~100 parsec from Earth (1 parsec (pc)=3.26 light years) is estimated at 1 SN every 2-4 million years (Myr), based on the total SN-rate in the Milky Way (2.0±0.7 per century1,2). Recent massive-star and SN activity in Earth’s vicinity may be evidenced by traces of radionuclides with half-lives t1/2 ≤100 Myr3-6, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System (SS). One such radionuclide is 60Fe (t1/2=2.6 Myr)7,8 which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars1,2,9. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts10,11, is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. Deep-sea archives from all major oceans were analyzed for 60Fe deposition via accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results, based on 60Fe atom-counting at state-of-the-art sensitivity8, reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth 1.7–3.2 Myr and 6.5–8.7 Myr ago. The measured signal implies that a few percent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ~10 Myr at nearby distances ≤100 pc. PMID:27078565

  4. Evidence of long term global decline in the Earth's thermospheric densities apparently related to anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Tolson, R. H.; Bradford, M. S.

    2000-05-01

    A study was performed of the long-term orbital decay of five Earth satellites with perigee altitudes averaging near 350km. To decouple long-term trend measurements from the effects of solar variability, measurements were evaluated during the years of solar minimum (1976, 1986 and 1996). Atmospheric densities derived from these essentially global measurements showed substantial evidence of a decline averaging 9.8 ± 2.5% in thermospheric density over 20 years pointing toward a long-term cooling of the upper atmosphere. Increases in greenhouse gases induced by human activity are hypothesized to warm the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere, but strongly cool the upper atmosphere. Assuming that the 10% increase in CO2 over these 20 years caused cooling resulting in the 10% decline in density, a doubling of CO2 could cause the thermospheric densities measured near 350km to decrease by a factor of 3. This decrease may shrink the altitude of a constant density surface by 40km before the end of the 21st century.

  5. High-Precision Global Geodetic Systems: Revolution And Revelation In Fluid And 'Solid' Earth Tracking (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J. H.; Altamimi, Z.; Blewitt, G.; Carter, W. E.; Cazenave, A. A.; Davis, J. L.; Dragert, H.; Feary, D. A.; Herring, T.; Larson, K. M.; Ries, J. C.; Sandwell, D. T.; Wahr, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past half-century, space geodetic technologies have changed profoundly the way we look at the planet, not only in the matter of details and accuracy, but also in the matter of how the entire planet changes with time, even on “human” time scales. The advent of space geodesy has provided exquisite images of the ever-changing land and ocean topography and global gravity field of the planet. We now enjoy an International Terrestrial Reference System with a time-dependent geocenter position accurate to a few millimeters. We can image small and large tectonic deformations of the surface before, during, and after earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. We measure both the past subtle changes as well as the recent dramatic changes in the ice sheets, and track global and regional sea-level change to a precision of a millimeter per year or better. The remarkable achievements of Earth observing missions over the past two decades, and the success of future international missions described in the Decadal Survey depend both implicitly and explicitly on the continued availability and enhancement of a reliable and resilient global infrastructure for precise geodesy, and on ongoing advances in geodetic science that are linked to it. This allows us to deal with global scientific, technological and social issues such as climate change and natural hazards, but the impact of the global precise geodetic infrastructure also permeates our everyday lives. Nowadays drivers, aviators, and sailors can determine their positions inexpensively to meter precision in real time, anywhere on the planet. In the foreseeable future, not only will we be able to know a vehicle’s position to centimeter accuracy in real time, but also to control that position, and thus introduce autonomous navigation systems for many tasks which are beyond the reach of “manual” navigation capabilities. This vision will only be realized with sustained international support of the precise global geodetic

  6. New altimeter concept for next-generation global Earth topography microwave instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelli, Carlo; Sorge, S.; Croci, R.; Mavrocordatos, Constantin E.

    1999-12-01

    Pulse limited radar altimeters (Geosat, ERS1/2, Topex/Poseidon) have demonstrated excellent ability in performing measurements of the ocean topography from space with a high degree of accuracy. Data continuity will be ensured through follow on missions like TOPEX-POSEIDON Follow- on and ENVISAT RA2 (developed by ALENIA AEROSPAZIO under ESA contract) in this case providing also the chance for a global Earth topography mapping not more limited to ocean but extended to land and ice regions thanks to innovative design features like resolution adaptivity and robust on board tracking. Earth sciences are now demanding for systems with extensive capability to get topographic measurements over non- ocean surfaces (ice and land regions) but with improved spatial resolution, in the order of 100 - 300 meters respect to the several hundreds of meters provided by nadir looking pulse limited systems. A real step forward in high resolution topography with microwave instrumentation is represented by the application of synthetic aperture and interferometric techniques to the conventional pulse limited altimeter concept, a solution proposed in the literature and extensively exploited by ALENIA AEROSPAZIO in the frame of the ESA studies TOS (Topography Observing Systems) and HSRRA (High Spatial Resolution Radar Altimeter) and proposed in late 1998 for the Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission CRYOSAT. In the high spatial resolution altimeter synthetic aperture processing applied along the direction of motion will allow to improve the resolution in the along track while dual antenna observation geometry will enable reconstruction of surface topography within each synthesized Doppler filter from the phase difference between the radar returns at the two antennas. Thanks to a proper baseline selection, a unique interference fringe can be generated within the observed swath thus avoiding the troubles of phase unwrapping otherwise required in conventional interferometric processing. Aim of

  7. Global-scale water circulation in the Earth's mantle: Implications for the mantle water budget in the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Spiegelman, Marc W.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the influence of the mantle water content in the early Earth on that in the present mantle using numerical convection simulations that include three processes for redistribution of water: dehydration, partitioning of water into partially molten mantle, and regassing assuming an infinite water reservoir at the surface. These models suggest that the water content of the present mantle is insensitive to that of the early Earth. The initial water stored during planetary formation is regulated up to 1.2 OMs (OM = Ocean Mass; 1.4 ×1021 kg), which is reasonable for early Earth. However, the mantle water content is sensitive to the rheological dependence on the water content and can range from 1.2 to 3 OMs at the present day. To explain the evolution of mantle water content, we computed water fluxes due to subducting plates (regassing), degassing and dehydration. For weakly water dependent viscosity, the net water flux is almost balanced with those three fluxes but, for strongly water dependent viscosity, the regassing dominates the water cycle system because the surface plate activity is more vigorous. The increased convection is due to enhanced lubrication of the plates caused by a weak hydrous crust for strongly water dependent viscosity. The degassing history is insensitive to the initial water content of the early Earth as well as rheological strength. The degassing flux from Earth's surface is calculated to be approximately O (1013) kg /yr, consistent with a coupled model of climate evolution and mantle thermal evolution.

  8. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  9. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity. PMID:24891832

  10. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Parr, Cynthia S; Wilson, Nathan; Leary, Patrick; Schulz, Katja S; Lans, Kristen; Walley, Lisa; Hammock, Jennifer A; Goddard, Anthony; Rice, Jeremy; Studer, Marie; Holmes, Jeffrey T G; Corrigan, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity.

  11. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kawamiya, M.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs), which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite) which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO) including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model); a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE); and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario. By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model) of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4.0 K

  12. The global impacts of foreshock phenomena on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hartinger, M.; Plaschke, F.; Kellerman, A.; Weygand, J.; Michell, R.

    2012-04-01

    Earth's ion foreshock is characterized by suprathermal ions backstreaming into the solar wind upstream of the bow shock. These ions interact with the incident solar wind plasma producing a variety of wave activity and other kinetic phenomena. Pressure variations resulting from transient foreshock events, such as foreshock cavities (FCs), hot flow anomalies (HFAs), and the recently discovered foreshock bubbles (FBs), can propagate through the magnetosheath and impact the magnetosphere. However, we don't yet have a good quantitative understanding of just how much these impacts drive global magnetospheric activity. Here, we present new, multipoint observations from THEMIS, GOES, Cluster, and SuperDARN during the THEMIS dayside season (July - October) of 2008. We first show examples of several types of transient kinetic events observed in the foreshock, including FCs, HFAs, and FBs. We discuss the characteristics of each with a particular emphasis on the similarities and differences between HFAs and FBs. We stress the importance of multipoint observations when classifying these two phenomena, which appear very similar from single spacecraft observations but are truly very different in a global sense. Next, using a fortuitous alignment of spacecraft and ground facilities on Bastille Day (14 July) 2008, we demonstrate the importance of transient foreshock phenomena for driving global magnetospheric activity. During this period of interest, THEMIS-B (TH-B) and TH-C are upstream of the bowshock and spend a considerable amount of time in the ion foreshock. TH-E and -D are near apogee along the dayside magnetopause, and they observe rapid magnetopause motion in response to HFAs and FBs observed upstream by TH-B and -C. GOES and Cluster spacecraft are used to examine the effects of these transient foreshock events on compressional and ULF wave activity, both of which reveal an increase in activity during active foreshock periods. The THEMIS ground magnetometer network, which

  13. Bioremediation at a global scale: from the test tube to planet Earth.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, Víctor; Marlière, Philippe; Solé, Ricard

    2016-09-01

    Planet Earth's biosphere has evolved over billions of years as a balanced bio-geological system ultimately sustained by sunpower and the large-scale cycling of elements largely run by the global environmental microbiome. Humans have been part of this picture for much of their existence. But the industrial revolution started in the XIX century and the subsequent advances in medicine, chemistry, agriculture and communications have impacted such balances to an unprecedented degree - and the problem has nothing but exacerbated in the last 20 years. Human overpopulation, industrial growth along with unsustainable use of natural resources have driven many sites and perhaps the planetary ecosystem as a whole, beyond recovery by spontaneous natural means, even if the immediate causes could be stopped. The most conspicuous indications of such a state of affairs include the massive change in land use, the accelerated increase in the levels of greenhouse gases, the frequent natural disasters associated to climate change and the growing non-recyclable waste (e.g. plastics and recalcitrant chemicals) that we release to the Environment. While the whole planet is afflicted at a global scale by chemical pollution and anthropogenic emissions, the ongoing development of systems and synthetic biology, metagenomics, modern chemistry and some key concepts from ecological theory allow us to tackle this phenomenal challenge and propose large-scale interventions aimed at reversing and even improving the situation. This involves (i) identification of key reactions or processes that need to be re-established (or altogether created) for ecosystem reinstallation, (ii) implementation of such reactions in natural or designer hosts able to self-replicate and deliver the corresponding activities when/where needed in a fashion guided by sound ecological modelling, (iii) dispersal of niche-creating agents at a global scale and (iv) containment, monitoring and risk assessment of the whole process.

  14. Global variations in azimuthal anisotropy of the Earth's upper mantle and crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation within the Earth's crust and mantle often results in crystallographic preferred orientations that produce measurable seismic anisotropy. Shear wave splitting measurements have the benefit of excellent lateral resolution and are an unambiguous indicator of the presence of seismic anisotropy; however, they suffer from poor depth resolution (integrated measurement from CMB to surface), in addition to being geographically limited (measurements only made at seismometer locations). The analysis of surface wave propagation also provides insight into the azimuthal variations in wave-speed, but with significantly better depth resolution. Thanks to the rapid increase in the number of seismic stations around the world, increasingly accurate, high-resolution 3D models of azimuthal anisotropy can be calculated using surface-wave tomography. We present our new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the upper mantle and the crust. Compared to its recent predecessor, SL2013sv (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013), it is constrained by an even larger waveform fit dataset (>900,000 versus 712,000 vertical-component seismograms, respectively) and was computed using a more precise regularization of anisotropy, tuned to honour the amplitude and orientation of the anisotropic terms uniformly, including near the poles. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with complementary high-resolution regional arrays (including USArray) and global network sub-sets within it, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. The model also reveals smaller scale patterns of 3D anisotropy variations related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, in particular in densely sampled regions. In oceanic regions, we examine the strength of azimuthal anisotropy, as a function of

  15. Integrating NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Data Into Global Agricultural Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Chiu, L.; Doraiswamy, P.; Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Tetrault, R.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of U.S. agricultural products and for global food security. Two major operational users of satellite remote sensing for global crop monitoring are the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP). The primary goal of FAS is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The WFP uses food to meet emergency needs and to support economic and social development. Both use global agricultural decision support systems that can integrate and synthesize a variety of data sources to provide accurate and timely information on global crop conditions. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has begun a project to provide operational solutions to FAS and WFP, by fully leveraging results from previous work, as well as from existing capabilities of the users. The GES DAAC has effectively used its recently developed prototype TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) to provide ESE data and information to the WFP for its agricultural drought monitoring efforts. This prototype system will be evolved into an Agricultural Information System (AIS), which will operationally provide ESE and other data products (e.g., rainfall, land productivity) and services, to be integrated into and thus enhance the existing GIS-based, decision support systems of FAS and WFP. Agriculture-oriented, ESE data products (e.g., MODIS-based, crop condition assessment product; TRMM derived, drought index product) will be input to a crop growth model in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, to generate crop condition and yield prediction maps. The AIS will have the capability for remotely accessing distributed data, by being compliant with community-based interoperability standards, enabling easy access to

  16. AERO: A Decision Support Tool for Wind Erosion Assessment in Rangelands and Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloza, M.; Webb, N.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind erosion is a key driver of global land degradation, with on- and off-site impacts on agricultural production, air quality, ecosystem services and climate. Measuring rates of wind erosion and dust emission across land use and land cover types is important for quantifying the impacts and identifying and testing practical management options. This process can be assisted by the application of predictive models, which can be a powerful tool for land management agencies. The Aeolian EROsion (AERO) model, a wind erosion and dust emission model interface provides access by non-expert land managers to a sophisticated wind erosion decision-support tool. AERO incorporates land surface processes and sediment transport equations from existing wind erosion models and was designed for application with available national long-term monitoring datasets (e.g. USDI BLM Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring, USDA NRCS Natural Resources Inventory) and monitoring protocols. Ongoing AERO model calibration and validation are supported by geographically diverse data on wind erosion rates and land surface conditions collected by the new National Wind Erosion Research Network. Here we present the new AERO interface, describe parameterization of the underpinning wind erosion model, and provide a summary of the model applications across agricultural lands and rangelands in the United States.

  17. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  18. An investigation of climate patterns on Earth-like planets using the NASA GISS global climate model II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elowitz, Robert Mark

    To determine the capability of NASA's GISS GCM-II global climate model, the user-friendly EdGCM interface to the 3-D climate model code was evaluated by simulating global climate patterns that Earth-like planets may experience. The simulation scenarios involved different greenhouse gas emissions trends, planetary orbital parameters, and solar irradiance variations. It is found that the EdGCM interface to the GCM-II 3-D climate model is capable of studying climate patterns on hypothetical Earth-like planets, with some limitations involved. Studying extreme climate patterns on Earth-like planets as a function of planetary obliquity, orbital eccentricity, atmospheric composition, solar irradiance variations, and location with the host star's habitable zone is needed to determine whether such planets are habitable for life as we know it. Studying the behavior of climate on hypothetical Earth-like planet also provides insight into the future climate of our own planet. A database of climate models based on hypothetical Earth-like worlds will provide a valuable resource to the astrobiology community in support of future detections of exoplanets with masses, sizes, and composition similar to Earth. At present, most studies involved the use of 1-D, or 2-D climate models to explore planetary climate on Earth-like planets. This is due to the difficulty of using very complex 3-D climate model codes that typically have poor user interfaces or interfaces that are very difficult to use. EdGCM provides scientists with a user-friendly interface to a full 3-D climate model capable of simulating the climate on Earth-like planets. However, EdGCM is extremely limited in studying global climate on exo-Earth planets outside our solar system. The user is able to change the simulation initial conditions, including different greenhouse gas concentrations and their associated trends, solar irradiance and its trend over time, planetary obliquity and orbit eccentricity, and heliocentric

  19. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  20. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  1. The UNH Earth Systems Observatory: A Regional Application in Support of GEOSS Global-Scale Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Braswell, B.; Fekete, B.; Glidden, S.; Hartmann, H.; Magill, A.; Prusevich, A.; Wollheim, W.; Blaha, D.; Justice, D.; Hurtt, G.; Jacobs, J.; Ollinger, S.; McDowell, W.; Rock, B.; Rubin, F.; Schloss, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Northeast corridor of the US is emblematic of the many changes taking place across the nation's and indeed the world's watersheds. Because ecosystem and watershed change occurs over many scales and is so multifaceted, transferring scientific knowledge to applications as diverse as remediation of local ground water pollution, setting State-wide best practices for non-point source pollution control, enforcing regional carbon sequestration treaties, or creating public/private partnerships for protecting ecosystem services requires a new generation of integrative environmental surveillance systems, information technology, and information transfer to the user community. Geographically complex ecosystem interactions justify moving toward more integrative, regionally-based management strategies to deal with issues affecting land, inland waterways, and coastal waterways. A unified perspective that considers the full continuum of processes which link atmospheric forcings, terrestrial responses, watershed exports along drainage networks, and the final delivery to the coastal zone, nearshore, and off shore waters is required to adequately support the management challenge. A recent inventory of NOAA-supported environmental surveillance systems, IT resources, new sensor technologies, and management-relevant decision support systems shows the community poised to formulate an integrated and operational picture of the environment of New England. This paper presents the conceptual framework and early products of the newly-created UNH Earth Systems Observatory. The goal of the UNH Observatory is to serve as a regionally-focused yet nationally-prominent platform for observation-based, integrative science and management of the New England/Gulf of Maine's land, air, and ocean environmental systems. Development of the UNH Observatory is being guided by the principles set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and is cast as an end-to-end prototype for GEOSS

  2. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Contributions to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundersen, L.

    2006-05-01

    As the lead Federal agency responsible for terrestrial observations of the Earth's natural systems, the USGS is uniquely poised to contribute critical data and observing systems, scientific interpretation, data archiving, standards, interoperability support, and education resources to GEOSS. In addition, USGS manages the current Landsat satellites and is working with NASA on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission, to launch the next generation of a Landsat-type Earth surface observing satellite. One of the largest imagery archives in the world is also served through the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. USGS contributions to GEOSS include improvement of the global seismographic networks and 24/7 monitoring through the USGS National Earthquake Information Center. Additions to our seismic network are being installed in the Caribbean, telemetry and earthquake analysis being improved globally, and new products like the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) are being developed. We are partnering with numerous agencies and institutions to provide a global tsunami warning system, as well as a more extensive warning system in the United States The USGS and its partners are developing, harmonizing, and analyzing a wide range of data that provide diverse social benefits including base maps, land use, land cover change, and terrestrial observations of ecologic, geologic, and hydrologic conditions to understand global issues such as water availability and quality, ecosystem health, the effects of drought, vulnerability to famine, and the spread of zoonotic and other diseases. USGS is a member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites working with the earth satellite community to provide accessibility and coordination of Landsat data and other satellite assets.

  3. Results of the AEROS satellite program: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerzahl, P.; Rawer, K.; Roemer, N.

    1980-01-01

    Published literature reporting aeronomic data collected on two AEROS missions is summarized. The extreme ultraviolet solar radiation and other significant parameters of the thermosphere/ionosphere were investigated. Kinetic pressure, the quantity of atomic nitrogen, and partial densities of helium, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and atomic nitrogen were determined. The thermal electron population, superthermal energy distribution, plasma density, ion temperature, and composition according to ion types were measured. The chief energy supply in the thermosphere was calculated. Aeronomic calculations showing that variations in the parameters of the ionosphere cannot be correlated with fluctuations of extreme ultraviolet solar radiation were performed. The AEROS data were compared with data from S3-1, ISIS, and AE-C satellites. Models of the thermosphere and ionosphere were developed.

  4. Transient aero-thermal simulations for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    Aero-thermal simulations are an integral part of the design process for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). These simulations utilize Computational Solid-Fluid Dynamics (CSFD) to estimate wind jitter and blur, dome and mirror seeing, telescope pointing error due to thermal drift, and to predict thermal effects on performance of components such as the primary mirror segments. Design guidance obtained from these simulations is provided to the Telescope, Enclosure, Facilities and Adaptive Optics groups. Computational advances allow for model enhancements and inclusion of phenomena not previously resolved, such as transient effects on wind loading and thermal seeing due to vent operation while observing or long exposure effects, with potentially different flow patterns corresponding to the beginning and end of observation. Accurate knowledge of the Observatory aero-thermal environment will result in developing reliable look-up tables for effective open loop correction of key active optics system elements, and cost efficient operation of the Observatory.

  5. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  6. Large divergence of satellite and Earth system model estimates of global terrestrial CO2 fertilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P; Anderegg, William R. L.; Wieder, William R.; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mass balance analyses suggest that terrestrial carbon (C) storage is increasing, partially abating the atmospheric [CO2] growth rate, although the continued strength of this important ecosystem service remains uncertain. Some evidence suggests that these increases will persist owing to positive responses of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP) to rising atmospheric [CO2] (that is, ‘CO2 fertilization’). Here, we present a new satellite-derived global terrestrial NPP data set, which shows a significant increase in NPP from 1982 to 2011. However, comparison against Earth system model (ESM) NPP estimates reveals a significant divergence, with satellite-derived increases (2.8 ± 1.50%) less than half of ESM-derived increases (7.6  ±  1.67%) over the 30-year period. By isolating the CO2 fertilization effect in each NPP time series and comparing it against a synthesis of available free-air CO2 enrichment data, we provide evidence that much of the discrepancy may be due to an over-sensitivity of ESMs to atmospheric [CO2], potentially reflecting an under-representation of climatic feedbacks and/or a lack of representation of nutrient constraints. Our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects on NPP needs rapid improvement to enable more accurate projections of future C cycle–climate feedbacks; we contend that better integration of modelling, satellite and experimental approaches offers a promising way forward.

  7. Earth as humans' habitat: global climate change and the health of populations.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced climate change, with such rapid and continuing global-scale warming, is historically unprecedented and signifies that human pressures on Earth's life-supporting natural systems now exceed the planet's bio-geo-capacity. The risks from climate change to health and survival in populations are diverse, as are the social and political ramifications. Although attributing observed health changes in a population to the recent climatic change is difficult, a coherent pattern of climate- and weather-associated changes is now evident in many regions of the world. The risks impinge unevenly, especially on poorer and vulnerable regions, and are amplified by pre-existing high rates of climate-sensitive diseases and conditions. If, as now appears likely, the world warms by 3-5oC by 2100, the health consequences, directly and via massive social and economic disruption, will be severe. The health sector has an important message to convey, comparing the health risks and benefits of enlightened action to avert climate change and to achieve sustainable ways of living versus the self-interested or complacent inaction.

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  9. Hoop column soil moisture spacecraft in low Earth orbit for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A subset of the total Global Change Technology Initiative instruments are required to be in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits. There is one instrument, however, that requires its own specialized spacecraft; the Soil Moisture Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). The characteristic structure of the instrument is the 118 m hoop column support structure. The hoop is supported by an axially placed column. Tension cables support and shape an electromagnetically reflective mesh surface. The instrument is capable of detecting frequencies in the 1.4 GHz range (Soil Moisture and Sea Salinity). Three apertures are used to reduce the degree of paraboloid offset and improve the beam quality. The spacecraft configuration is determined by the instrument support requirements and the requirement that it can fit into the Titan IV cargo bay. The configuration is derived by cross referencing the instrument performance requirements with the performance of the spacecraft. The spacecraft design is similar with the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft in terms of size and packaging. A description of the spacecraft's features will yield a summary of the technologies needed for the SMMR spacecraft.

  10. Assimilation of oceanic observations in a global coupled Earth system model with the SEIK filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sebastian; Nerger, Lars; Baehr, Johanna

    2015-12-01

    We present results from the assimilation of observed oceanic 3-D temperature and salinity fields into the global coupled Max Planck Institute Earth system model with the SEIK filter from January 1996 to December 2010. Our study is part of an effort to perform and evaluate assimilation and prediction within the same coupled climate model without the use of re-analysis data. We use two assimilation setups, one where oceanic observations over the entire water column are assimilated, and one where only oceanic observations below 50 m depth are assimilated. We compare the results from both assimilations with an unconstrained control experiment. While we do not find significant improvements due to assimilation in terms of the root-mean-square error of simulated temperature, 0-700 m heat content, sea surface height (SSH), and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) against observations, we find the variability in terms of correlation with observations significantly improved due to assimilation, most prominently in the tropical oceans. Improvements over the control experiment are stronger in the sub-50 m assimilation experiment and in integrated quantities (SSH, AMOC).

  11. Soil polarization data collected for the global undisturbed/disturbed Earth (GUIDE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Thomas E.; Lord, Elizabeth; Morgan, Cliff

    2016-05-01

    A key product of the global undisturbed/disturbed earth (GUIDE) program is the development of a soils database of broadband, hyperspectral, and polarized data. As a part of the GUIDE program, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conducted a testing series involving a large variety of instrumentation at several sites at the Yuma Test Center (YTC) in fiscal year 2015 under the auspices of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (now the Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency), generating approximately 17 terabytes of data. Most of this data, available through the ERDC, comprises hyperspectral polarimetric scientific data in the visible, near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and longwave infrared bands. As part of this testing series the performance of six handheld devices was characterized. We discuss the process of this data collection at YTC focusing on the polarimetric data, including the two handheld devices that relied on polarization for detection. Although some other polarization states discriminate soils better in some other wavelengths, for certain visible and near-infrared bands the Stokes S2 parameter provided the best discrimination.

  12. Leaf respiration (GlobResp) - global trait database supports Earth System Models

    DOE PAGES

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Warren, Jeffrey; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-03-20

    Here we detail how Atkin and his colleagues compiled a global database (GlobResp) that details rates of leaf dark respiration and associated traits from sites that span Arctic tundra to tropical forests. This compilation builds upon earlier research (Reich et al., 1998; Wright et al., 2006) and was supplemented by recent field campaigns and unpublished data.In keeping with other trait databases, GlobResp provides insights on how physiological traits, especially rates of dark respiration, vary as a function of environment and how that variation can be used to inform terrestrial biosphere models and land surface components of Earth System Models. Althoughmore » an important component of plant and ecosystem carbon (C) budgets (Wythers et al., 2013), respiration has only limited representation in models. Seen through the eyes of a plant scientist, Atkin et al. (2015) give readers a unique perspective on the climatic controls on respiration, thermal acclimation and evolutionary adaptation of dark respiration, and insights into the covariation of respiration with other leaf traits. We find there is ample evidence that once large databases are compiled, like GlobResp, they can reveal new knowledge of plant function and provide a valuable resource for hypothesis testing and model development.« less

  13. Leaf respiration (GlobResp) - global trait database supports Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Warren, Jeffrey; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-03-20

    Here we detail how Atkin and his colleagues compiled a global database (GlobResp) that details rates of leaf dark respiration and associated traits from sites that span Arctic tundra to tropical forests. This compilation builds upon earlier research (Reich et al., 1998; Wright et al., 2006) and was supplemented by recent field campaigns and unpublished data.In keeping with other trait databases, GlobResp provides insights on how physiological traits, especially rates of dark respiration, vary as a function of environment and how that variation can be used to inform terrestrial biosphere models and land surface components of Earth System Models. Although an important component of plant and ecosystem carbon (C) budgets (Wythers et al., 2013), respiration has only limited representation in models. Seen through the eyes of a plant scientist, Atkin et al. (2015) give readers a unique perspective on the climatic controls on respiration, thermal acclimation and evolutionary adaptation of dark respiration, and insights into the covariation of respiration with other leaf traits. We find there is ample evidence that once large databases are compiled, like GlobResp, they can reveal new knowledge of plant function and provide a valuable resource for hypothesis testing and model development.

  14. Global measurements of wind fields using the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

    1988-01-01

    The technology for measuring global wind fields in space by the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) to be flown on the Earth Observing System (EOS) is discussed. Studies initiated by NASA to determine the feasibility of using Doppler lidar from a platform in space to measure the wind globally have shown the general feasibility of the technique and have identified the technological problems that need to be resolved. Among the lidar systems being evaluated, CO2 coherent detection lidar is given special consideration. A comprehensive research program, the Global Backscatter Experiment, has been established to study global distribution of naturally occurring atmospheric aerosols that provide signal return at the wavelengths used by the techniques under consideration. Wind profiles from space will provide essential information for advancing the skill of numerical weather prediction, furthering the present knowledge of the large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics, and of global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles.

  15. Formation and evolution of periglacial landforms in context of global warming: Comparison Earth-Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Marmo, C.

    2012-04-01

    potential ice-wedges and subsequent subsidence of the ground producing pits. The scalloped depressions are similar in shape and size to thermokarst lakes. They are thought to be due to degradation of ground-ice by melting or sublimation of ground-ice and subsidence of the ground. Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in Utopia Planitia indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. We suggest that this permafrost were formed during cold climatic periods and then were degraded during a relatively recent global warming. Our results show that the permafrost was degraded during a high obliquity periods of Mars. But the question is how major climate-changes could occur on Mars. Mars is thought to have undergone important variations in the orbital parameters during the last 10 Myr dramatically changing the climate. Therefore, Utopia Planitia is probably a marker of one of the last major climate change that occurred on Mars.

  16. Global Reach: A View of International Cooperation in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Improving life on Earth and understanding and protecting our home planet are foremost in the Vision and Mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA's Earth Science Enterprise end eavors to use the unique vantage point of space to study the Earth sy stem and improve the prediction of Earth system change. NASA and its international partners study Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, a nd biota and seek to provide objective scientific knowledge to decisi onmakers and scientists worldwide. This book describes NASA's extensi ve cooperation with its international partners.

  17. Variations of the earth's magnetic field and rapid climatic cooling: A possible link through changes in global ice volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A possible relationship between large scale changes in global ice volume, variations in the earth's magnetic field, and short term climatic cooling is investigated through a study of the geomagnetic and climatic records of the past 300,000 years. The calculations suggest that redistribution of the Earth's water mass can cause rotational instabilities which lead to geomagnetic excursions; these magnetic variations in turn may lead to short-term coolings through upper atmosphere effects. Such double coincidences of magnetic excursions and sudden coolings at times of ice volume changes have occurred at 13,500, 30,000, 110,000, and 135,000 YBP.

  18. AeroCOM Biomass Burning Emissions Experiment-Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M. M.; Chin, M.; Kahn, R. A.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is one of the major sources of optically and chemically potent carbonaceous aerosols, gaseous aerosol precursors, and volatile organic compounds. It is, therefore, important to represent these emissions as accurately as possible in the global and regional models. To correctly simulate BB emissions from a fire, the model needs two key inputs: emission source strength for the fire and the emission injection height. Based on pilot studies of injection height by M. Val Martin et al. (2010, 2012), and of source strength by M. Petrenko et al. (2012), we proposed an AeroCom-coordinated multi-model BB experiment. The core objectives of the experiment are: To inter-compare and quantify the accuracy and diversity of the AeroCom model simulated BB AOD using a common emissions inventory. To propose a region-by-region emission correction scheme based on the comparisons of model output with satellite snapshots of smoke-plume optical depth from the MODIS and MISR instruments. This will allow us to bring the widely used GFED v3 emissions inventory to the levels needed to improve model-observation comparisons. To test smoke injection height-emission intensity relationships used in global models against MISR multi-angle smoke-plume-height retrievals. With the first stage of the BB experiment focused on the source strength, this talk will provide an update on development and testing the method of using satellite-measured aerosol optical depth snapshots to constrain BB aerosol emissions in the global models. The global datasets of fire-and-smoke events, observed by MISR and MODIS during 2006, 2007 and 2008, to be used for model-satellite comparisons, will also be described. These events were selected according to a number of criteria to be suitable for model-observation comparison at the scales of global model resolution. In addition, we will showcase preliminary results of model inter-comparisons within the BB experiment, outline plans for future output analysis

  19. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Variations in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle can have far-reaching effects on living conditions on our planet. While climate change discussions often revolve around possible consequences of future temperature changes, the adaptation to changes in the hydrological cycle may pose a bigger challenge to societies and ecosystems. Floods and droughts are already today amongst the most damaging natural hazards, with floods being globally the most significant disaster type in terms of loss of human life (Jonkman 2005). From an economic perspective, changes in the hydrological cycle can impose great pressures and damages on a variety of industrial sectors, such as water management, urban planning, agricultural production and tourism. Despite their obvious environmental and societal importance, our understanding of the causes and magnitude of the variations of the hydrological cycle is still unsatisfactory (e.g., Ramanathan et al 2001, Ohmura and Wild 2002, Allen and Ingram 2002, Allan 2007, Wild et al 2008, Liepert and Previdi 2009). The link between radiation balance and hydrological cycle Globally, precipitation can be approximated by surface evaporation, since the variability of the atmospheric moisture storage is negligible. This is the case because the fluxes are an order of magnitude larger than the atmospheric storage (423 x 1012 m3 year-1 versus 13 x 1012 m3 according to Baumgartner and Reichel (1975)), the latter being determined by temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron). Hence the residence time of evaporated water in the atmosphere is not more than a few days, before it condenses and falls back to Earth in the form of precipitation. Any change in the globally averaged surface evaporation therefore implies an equivalent change in precipitation, and thus in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle. The process of evaporation requires energy, which it obtains from the surface radiation balance (also known as surface net radiation), composed of the

  20. The climate in China over the past 2000 years in a global Earth System Model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Eduardo; Wagner, Sebastian; Luterbacher, Jürg; Zhang, Huan

    2016-04-01

    The climate in China over the past 2000 years is analysed based on a global simulation with the Earth System Model MPI-ESM-P. This model has been used for the past millennium simulations of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project version 5. The model includes an atmospheric sub-model (ECHAM6), the ocean and sea-ice submodel MPI-OM. The carbon cycle and vegetation submodels of MPI-ESM-P were switched-off in the version of the Earth System Model. The climate model was forced by reconstructions of past volcanic activity, solar irradiance, greenhouse gases and land-use changes. Over the second millennium, these forcings are the same those used in the past-millennium CMIP5 simulations with the model MPI-ESM-P. For the first millennium, reconstructions of these forcings have been implemented, as described below. The reconstruction of the volcanic forcing is based on the sulphate data set of Sigl et al. (2013) and applying the algorithm of Crowley and Unterman (2012). The sulphate records are scaled to the Crowley and Unterman (2012) reconstruction used within CMIP5 in the second millennium. The solar forcing is based on the reconstruction of Vieira et al. (2011). Long-term changes represent a 0.1% difference between the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715 AD) and present-day values (1950-2000 AD). Land-use changes have been prescribed according to the CMIP5 protocol from 800 onwards and kept constant before this period. This global simulation is currently analysed, thus the presentation will show preliminary results on the past climate variations over China for the Common Era. The spatially averaged annual mean temperature clearly displays the known phases of a relatively warm Roman period, followed by colder conditions during the 'Dark Ages', warmer temperatures again during the Mediaeval Warm Period (MWP; peaking at about 1100 AD). The period from 1300 to 1800 was characterised by below normal temperatures. with an ensuing strong warming trend over approximately the last 200

  1. High-frequency variations in Earth rotation from Global Positioning System data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacher, M.; Beutler, G.; Weber, R.; Hefty, J.

    2001-01-01

    Using the data of the global, dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network established by the International GPS Service a continuous, uninterrupted series of subdaily Earth rotation parameters (ERPs) with a time resolution of 2 hours has been generated at the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe. The series starts in January 1995 and has a length of more than 3 years. Starting from the 2-hour ERP values of this, to our knowledge, unique time series, the high-frequency variations in Universal Time (UT1) and polar motion (PM) due to ocean tides are studied and a set of sine and cosine coefficients is estimated for all the major tidal terms at nearly diurnal and semidiurnal frequencies. The GPS series is not very homogeneous (various processing changes during the 3 years) and still short compared to the length of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) data sets. However, the results derived from this series are already of the same quality as the results from VLBI and SLR. A comparison of the tidal coefficients stemming from all three space-geodetic techniques shows an agreement on the 1 μs level for UT1 and 10 microarc seconds (μas) for PM, respectively. The RMS difference between the ocean tide amplitudes estimated from GPS data and from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data amounts to 0.7-0.9 μs in UT1 and 9-13 μas in PM. The residual spectrum that remains after the removal of all tidal terms has a noise level of ˜5-10 μas in PM and 0.5-1 μs in UT1 and contains nontidal signals (up to 55 μas in PM and 3 μs in UT1) that might be due to the impact of the satellite orbit modeling (12-hour revolution period of the satellites) or, alternatively, due to atmospheric or oceanic normal modes.

  2. Global Simulation of EMIC waves at Earth: Generation and Application of Linearly Polarized EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. H.; Valeo, E. J.; Johnson, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, D. H.; Phillips, C.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the electromagnetic full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code produces the three-dimensional wave structure, including mode conversion effects, for plasma waves launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. Using this code, we have examined how EMIC waves are generated and propagated along the magnetic field line. While left-handed polarized EMIC waves are known to be excited by the cyclotron instability associated with hot and anisotropic ion distributions in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere, the generation mechanism of linear and right-handed polarized EMIC waves, which are often observed near the magnetic equator, remains as one of the unsolved scientific questions. In this presentation, we show the linear polarization of the EMIC waves can be explained by mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance (an analogue of the field-line resonance when the resonance frequency is on the order of the heavy ion cyclotron frequency) when externally driven compressional waves propagate into an increasing/decreasing heavy ion concentration or inhomogeneous magnetic field. Since these mode-converted waves depend sensitively on the heavy ion concentration, it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio from the wave propagation characteristics. We also evaluated the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and wave frequencies and have found that the resonance only occurs for a limited range of wave frequencies, defined such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from the GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  3. Uncertainty Assessment of the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-GDDP) Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Michaelis, Andrew; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thrasher, Bridget L.; Dixon, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate projections that are derived from 21 General Circulation Model (GCM) runs conducted under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and across two of the four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Each of the climate projections includes daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation for the periods from 1950 through 2100 and the spatial resolution is 0.25 degrees (approximately 25 km x 25 km). The GDDP dataset has received warm welcome from the science community in conducting studies of climate change impacts at local to regional scales, but a comprehensive evaluation of its uncertainties is still missing. In this study, we apply the Perfect Model Experiment framework (Dixon et al. 2016) to quantify the key sources of uncertainties from the observational baseline dataset, the downscaling algorithm, and some intrinsic assumptions (e.g., the stationary assumption) inherent to the statistical downscaling techniques. We developed a set of metrics to evaluate downscaling errors resulted from bias-correction ("quantile-mapping"), spatial disaggregation, as well as the temporal-spatial non-stationarity of climate variability. Our results highlight the spatial disaggregation (or interpolation) errors, which dominate the overall uncertainties of the GDDP dataset, especially over heterogeneous and complex terrains (e.g., mountains and coastal area). In comparison, the temporal errors in the GDDP dataset tend to be more constrained. Our results also indicate that the downscaled daily precipitation also has relatively larger uncertainties than the temperature fields, reflecting the rather stochastic nature of precipitation in space. Therefore, our results provide insights in improving statistical downscaling algorithms and products in the future.

  4. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant

  5. Endangered Species: Their Struggle To Survive. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  6. The Ocean Crisis. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; And Others

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  7. Our Troubled Skies. Our Only Earth. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; McKisson, Micki

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  8. The Future of Our Tropical Rainforests. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social…

  9. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in…

  10. Our Divided World: Poverty, Hunger & Overpopulation. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  11. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    PubMed

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them.

  12. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  13. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  14. A Rapid Prototyping Look at NASA's Next Generation Earth-Observing Satellites; Opportunities for Global Change Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Young, D. F.; Parker, P. A.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program extends the results of Earth Science Division (ESD) research and knowledge beyond the scientific and research communities to contribute to national priority applications with societal benefits. The Applied Sciences Program focuses on, (1) assimilation of NASA Earth-science research results and their associated uncertainties to improve decision support systems and, (2) the transition of NASA research results to evolve improvements in future operational systems. The broad range of Earth- science research results that serve as inputs to the Applied Sciences Program are from NASA's Research and Analysis Program (R&A) within the ESD. The R&A Program has established six research focus areas to study the complex processes associated with Earth-system science; Atmospheric Composition, Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems, Climate Variability and Change, Earth Surface and Interior, Water and Energy Cycle, and Weather. Through observations-based Earth-science research results, NASA and its partners are establishing predictive capabilities for future projections of natural and human perturbations on the planet. The focus of this presentation is on the use of research results and their associated uncertainties from several of NASA's nine next generation missions for societal benefit. The newly launched missions are, (1) CloudSat, and (2) CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), both launched April 28, 2006, and the planned next generation missions include, (3) the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), (4) the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), (5) the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), (6) Glory, for measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and total solar irradiance for long-term climate records, (7) Aquarius, for measuring global sea surface salinity, (8) the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), and (9) the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) for measuring long-term climate trends and global

  15. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  16. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  17. Aero-thermal modeling framework for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2011-09-01

    The Performance Error Budget of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) suggests that nearly one third of the total image degradation is due to aero-thermal disturbances (mirror and dome seeing, dynamic wind loading and thermal deformations of the optics, telescope structure and enclosure). An update of the current status of aero-thermal modeling and Computational Fluid-Solid Dynamics (CFSD) simulations for TMT is presented. A fast three-dimensional transient conduction-convection-radiation bulk-air-volume model has also been developed for the enclosure and selected telescope components in order to track the temperature variations of the surfaces, structure and interstitial air over a period of three years using measured environmental conditions. It is used for Observatory Heat Budget analysis and also provides estimates of thermal boundary conditions required by the CFD/FEA models and guidance to the design. Detailed transient CFSD conjugate heat transfer simulations of the mirror support assemblies determine the direction of heat flow from important heat sources and provide guidance to the design. Finally, improved CFD modeling is used to calculate wind forces and temperature fields. Wind loading simulations are demonstrated through TMT aperture deflector forcing. Temperature fields are transformed into refractive index ones and the resulting Optical Path Differences (OPDs) are fed into an updated thermal seeing model to estimate seeing performance metrics. Keck II simulations are the demonstrator for the latter type of modeling.

  18. Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return and Threat Mitigation Within a Comprehensive Global Defense System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, A. A.; Greenspon, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Near Earth Asteroidal (NEA) sample return and study missions should be directed towards the development of detection and analysis for the prevention of a major Earth impact such as the Tunguska impact, or even a larger one. Getting samples of an NEA back to Earth so that they can be better understood would help in the development of a comprehensive threat mitigation plan. The authors believe that threat mitigation can be divided into three parts. First is detection of Near Earth Objects by telescope; followed by sample recovery; and then a feasible deflection technology. Sample recovery should not be seen as an end in and of itself, but as an early sample of objects of similar nature that might need to be deflected from Earth impact at some near or future point in time. Greater resources should be devoted towards the detection and study of Earth orbit crossing objects than is currently in operation or effect. International cooperation, especially from the developed countries of the world, might spread the cost from just one government to a less costly multi-national spectrum. In addition, as with cometary research, amateurs might make a significant contribution in the early detection stages. The purpose of sample recovery should have as its goal the understanding of asteroid characteristics that would enable successful deflection from Earth impact. A nuclear weapon should be tested against a main belt asteroid to see the effect and be a staged performance for eventual operational deployment. The authors propose that a sphere of both nuclear and non-nuclear devices be deployed in a series of spheres, or ranges, at suitable distances around the Earth with state-of-the-art delivery systems so that they can cover a sector of space. This is because the farther away from the Earth that an impacting object is deflected, the lesser amount of force that will be necessary. Sample return missions would give the information on whether nuclear devices would

  19. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth's energy imbalance.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-10-06

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible.

  20. Technology for monitoring global change. [NASA Technology Initiative for space based observations of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Multiinstrumented earth-science platforms currently being planned for both LEO and GEO positions will furnish data for the compilation of systematic and intercorrelated information that is suitable for the treatment of interdisciplinary questions concerning atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, geological, and biological changes of an either natural or anthropogenic nature. Attention will be given in these observational campaigns to such essential earth variables as atmospheric pressure, rainfall/snowfall, vegetation cover, soil nutrient cycles, sea surface temperatures, ocean circulation, and ocean biological productivity.

  1. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  2. Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle: Focus on Shortwave and Longwave Radiative Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Ma, Y.; Nussbaumer, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    The overall goal of the MEaSUREs activity titled: "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" is to develop consistent, long-term Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) for the major components of the terrestrial water cycle at a climatic time scale. The shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes at the Earth's surface determine the exchange of energy between the land and the atmosphere are the focus of this presentation. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in assessing the Earth Radiation Balance from satellite observations. Yet, satellite based estimates differ from each other and long term satellite observations at global scale are not readily available. There is a need to utilize existing records of satellite observations and to improve currently available estimates. This paper reports on improvements introduced to an existing methodology to estimate shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes within the atmospheric system, on the development of a new inference scheme for deriving LW fluxes, the implementation of the approach with the ISCCP DX observations and improved atmospheric inputs for the period of 1983-2007, evaluation against ground observations, and comparison with independent satellite methods and numerical models. The resulting ESDRs from the entire MEaSUREs Project are intended to provide a consistent basis for estimating the mean state and variability of the land surface water cycle at a spatial scale relevant to major global river basins. MEaSUREs Project "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" Team Members: E. F. Wood (PI)1, T. J Bohn2, J. L Bytheway3, X. Feng4, H. Gao2, P. R.Houser4 (CO-I), C. D Kummerow3 (CO-I), D. P Lettenmaier2 (CO-I), C. Li5, Y. Ma5, R. F MacCracken4, M. Pan1, R. T Pinker5 (CO-I), A. K. Sahoo1, J. Sheffield1 1. Dept of CEE, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 2. Dept of CEE, University of Washington, Seattle

  3. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  4. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: A Program for Teachers and Students to Explore Their World and Study Global Change Through Field-Experience and Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Orchard, A.; Colodner, D.; Schwartz, K.; Crown, D. A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Laurel Clark Earth Camp program provides middle and high school students and teachers opportunities to explore local environmental issues and global change through field-experiences, inquiry exercises, and exploring satellite images.

  5. Accurate modeling of spectral fine-structure in Earth radiance spectra measured with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment.

    PubMed

    van Deelen, Rutger; Hasekamp, Otto P; Landgraf, Jochen

    2007-01-10

    We present what we believe to be a novel approach to simulating the spectral fine structure (<1 nm) in measurements of spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). GOME measures the Earth's radiance spectra and daily solar irradiance spectra from which a reflectivity spectrum is commonly extracted. The high-frequency structures contained in such a spectrum are, apart from atmospheric absorption, caused by Raman scattering and by a shift between the solar irradiance and the Earth's radiance spectrum. Normally, an a priori high-resolution solar spectrum is used to simulate these structures. We present an alternative method in which all the required information on the solar spectrum is retrieved from the GOME measurements. We investigate two approaches for the spectral range of 390-400 nm. First, a solar spectrum is reconstructed on a fine spectral grid from the GOME solar measurement. This approach leads to undersampling errors of up to 0.5% in the modeling of the Earth's radiance spectra. Second, a combination of the solar measurement and one of the Earth's radiance measurement is used to retrieve a solar spectrum. This approach effectively removes the undersampling error and results in residuals close to the GOME measurement noise of 0.1%.

  6. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  7. Fast-earth: A global image caching architecture for fast access to remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, B. G.; Talbot, L. M.

    We introduce Fast-Earth, a novel server architecture that enables rapid access to remote sensing data. Fast-Earth subdivides a WGS-84 model of the earth into small 400 × 400 meter regions with fixed locations, called plats. The resulting 3,187,932,913 indexed plats are accessed with a rapid look-up algorithm. Whereas many traditional databases store large original images as a series by collection time, requiring long searches and slow access times for user queries, the Fast-Earth architecture enables rapid access. We have prototyped a system in conjunction with a Fast-Responder mobile app to demonstrate and evaluate the concepts. We found that new data could be indexed rapidly in about 10 minutes/terabyte, high-resolution images could be chipped in less than a second, and 250 kB image chips could be delivered over a 3G network in about 3 seconds. The prototype server implemented on a very small computer could handle 100 users, but the concept is scalable. Fast-Earth enables dramatic advances in rapid dissemination of remote sensing data for mobile platforms as well as desktop enterprises.

  8. Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.

  9. Exploring Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production Using Earth Observation Satellites and Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, M.; Bounoua, L.

    2004-12-01

    A unique combination of satellite and socio-economic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data to estimate the annual amount of Earth's terrestrial net primary production humans require for food, fiber and fuel using the same modeling architecture as satellite-supported NPP measurements. The amount of Earth's NPP required to support human activities is a powerful measure of the aggregate human impacts on the biosphere and indicator of societal vulnerability to climate change. Equations were developed estimating the amount of landscape-level NPP required to generate all the products consumed by 230 countries including; vegetal foods, meat, milk, eggs, wood, fuel-wood, paper and fiber. The amount of NPP required was calculated on a per capita basis and projected onto a global map of population to create a spatially explicit map of NPP-carbon demand in units of elemental carbon. NPP demand was compared to a map of Earth's average annual net primary production or supply created using 17 years (1982-1998) of AVHRR vegetation index to produce a geographically accurate balance sheet of terrestrial NPP-carbon supply and demand. Globally, humans consume 20 percent of Earth's total net primary production on land. Regionally the NPP-carbon balance percentage varies from 6 to over 70 percent and locally from near 0 to over 30,000 percent in major urban areas. The uneven distribution of NPP-carbon supply and demand, indicate the degree to which various human populations rely on NPP imports, are vulnerable to climate change and suggest policy options for slowing future growth in NPP demand.

  10. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  11. NASA Global Hawk: A Unique Capability for the Pursuit of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2007-01-01

    For more than 2 years, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been preparing for the receipt of two Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Global Hawk air vehicles from the United States Air Force. NASA Dryden intends to establish a Global Hawk Project Office, which will be responsible for developing the infrastructure required to operate this unmanned aerial system and establishing a trained maintenance and operations team. The first flight of a NASA Global Hawk air vehicle is expected to occur in 2008. The NASA Global Hawk system can be used by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. A combination of the vehicle s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume, and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system from all other platforms available to the science community.

  12. The nature of the 660-kilometer discontinuity in Earth's mantle from global seismic observations of PP precursors.

    PubMed

    Deuss, Arwen; Redfern, Simon A T; Chambers, Kit; Woodhouse, John H

    2006-01-13

    The 660-kilometer discontinuity, which separates Earth's upper and lower mantle, has been detected routinely on a global scale in underside reflections of precursors to SS shear waves. Here, we report observations of this discontinuity in many different regions, using precursors to compressional PP waves. The apparent absence of such precursors in previous studies had posed major problems for models of mantle composition. We find a complicated structure, showing single and double reflections ranging in depth from 640 to 720 kilometers, that requires the existence of multiple phase transitions at the base of the transition zone. The results are consistent with a pyrolite mantle composition.

  13. Semantic Data Integration and Ontology Use within the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Global Water Cycle Data Integration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, W.; Fekete, B.; Piasecki, M.; McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Lawford, R.; Vorosmarty, C.; Houser, P.; Imam, B.

    2008-12-01

    The inadequacies of water cycle observations for monitoring long-term changes in the global water system, as well as their feedback into the climate system, poses a major constraint on sustainable development of water resources and improvement of water management practices. Hence, The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has established Task WA-08-01, "Integration of in situ and satellite data for water cycle monitoring," an integrative initiative combining different types of satellite and in situ observations related to key variables of the water cycle with model outputs for improved accuracy and global coverage. This presentation proposes development of the Rapid, Integrated Monitoring System for the Water Cycle (Global-RIMS)--already employed by the GEO Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H)--as either one of the main components or linked with the Asian system to constitute the modeling system of GEOSS for water cycle monitoring. We further propose expanded, augmented capability to run multiple grids to embrace some of the heterogeneous methods and formats of the Earth Science, Hydrology, and Hydraulic Engineering communities. Different methodologies are employed by the Earth Science (land surface modeling), the Hydrological (GIS), and the Hydraulic Engineering Communities; with each community employing models that require different input data. Data will be routed as input variables to the models through web services, allowing satellite and in situ data to be integrated together within the modeling framework. Semantic data integration will provide the automation to enable this system to operate in near-real-time. Multiple data collections for ground water, precipitation, soil moisture satellite data, such as SMAP, and lake data will require multiple low level ontologies, and an upper level ontology will permit user-friendly water management knowledge to be synthesized. These ontologies will have to have overlapping terms mapped and linked together. so

  14. Degradation of the Periglacial Landscape of Utopia Planitia Under Global Warming: Comparison Earth-Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Soare, R. J.; Fedorov, A.; Marmo, C.

    2012-03-01

    Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in UP indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. This permafrost was degraded during a relatively recent (< 10 Ma) high-obliquity periods of Mars inducing a major climate change.

  15. The Global Energy Situation on Earth, Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide are: (1) Introduction to the unit; (2) The "EARTH" program; (3) Exercises; and (4) Sources of information on the energy crisis. This guide supplements a simulation which allows students to analyze different aspects of…

  16. Modeling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth: The purple planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, E.; Sanroma, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutierrez-Navarro, A. M.; Lopez, R.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and bacteria concentration/ distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  17. Is Earth F**ked? Dynamical Futility of Global Environmental Management and Possibilities for Sustainability via Direct Action Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wErnEr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental challenges are dynamically generated within the dominant global culture principally by the mismatch between short-time-scale market and political forces driving resource extraction/use and longer-time-scale accommodations of the Earth system to these changes. Increasing resource demand is leading to the development of two-way, nonlinear interactions between human societies and environmental systems that are becoming global in extent, either through globalized markets and other institutions or through coupling to global environmental systems such as climate. These trends are further intensified by dissipation-reducing technological advances in transactions, communication and transport, which suppress emergence of longer-time-scale economic and political levels of description and facilitate long-distance connections, and by predictive environmental modeling, which strengthens human connections to a short-time-scale virtual Earth, and weakens connections to the longer time scales of the actual Earth. Environmental management seeks to steer fast scale economic and political interests of a coupled human-environmental system towards longer-time-scale consideration of benefits and costs by operating within the confines of the dominant culture using a linear, engineering-type connection to the system. Perhaps as evidenced by widespread inability to meaningfully address such global environmental challenges as climate change and soil degradation, nonlinear connections reduce the ability of managers to operate outside coupled human-environmental systems, decreasing their effectiveness in steering towards sustainable interactions and resulting in managers slaved to short-to-intermediate-term interests. In sum, the dynamics of the global coupled human-environmental system within the dominant culture precludes management for stable, sustainable pathways and promotes instability. Environmental direct action, resistance taken from outside the dominant culture, as in

  18. MEMS and mil/aero: technology push and market pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Thomas H.

    2001-04-01

    MEMS offers attractive solutions to high-density fluidics, inertial, optical, switching and other demanding military/aerospace (mil/aero) challenges. However, full acceptance must confront the realities of production-scale producibility, verifiability, testability, survivability, as well as long-term reliability. Data on these `..ilities' are crucial, and are central in funding and deployment decisions. Similarly, mil/aero users must highlight specific missions, environmental exposures, and procurement issues, as well as the quirks of its designers. These issues are particularly challenging in MEMS, because of the laws of physics and business economics, as well as the risks of deploying leading-edge technology into no-fail applications. This paper highlights mil/aero requirements, and suggests reliability/qualification protocols, to guide development effort and to reassure mil/aero users that MEMS labs are mindful of the necessary realities.

  19. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  20. Providing access to satellite imagery through OGC catalog service interfaces in support of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuqi; Di, Liping

    2011-04-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) architecture requires supporting discovery and access to large volumes of Earth Observation data. To support this application requirement in a polar ecosystem scenario, the project constructed a metadata catalog service for pre-collected orthorectified Landsat satellite images with global coverage. This study investigates the characteristics and challenges in building Open Geospatial Consortium Inc. (OGC) catalog service. It further presents a general lightweight XML adapter for relational tables, followed by a general OGC catalog service solution based on this adapter. This adapter relies on two configuration files to make the core software modules independent of the underlying metadata database structure. One configuration file identifies how XML schema is mapped into relational schema, and the other represents the XML output template. At runtime, this adapter internally employs a two-step mechanism: XQuery processing and XML publication. In the XQuery processing step, metadata discovery requests are interpreted, resulting in an SQL query clause. In the XML publication step, this SQL query and other dynamically generated queries are executed to generate the output according to the predefined XML template. Successful application of this OGC catalog service solution in the GEOSS AIP-2 polar ecosystem scenario is presented, followed by an analysis on its advantages and limitations.

  1. Information theory lateral density distribution for Earth inferred from global gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Information Theory Inference, better known as the Maximum Entropy Method, was used to infer the lateral density distribution inside the Earth. The approach assumed that the Earth consists of indistinguishable Maxwell-Boltzmann particles populating infinitesimal volume elements, and followed the standard methods of statistical mechanics (maximizing the entropy function). The GEM 10B spherical harmonic gravity field coefficients, complete to degree and order 36, were used as constraints on the lateral density distribution. The spherically symmetric part of the density distribution was assumed to be known. The lateral density variation was assumed to be small compared to the spherically symmetric part. The resulting information theory density distribution for the cases of no crust removed, 30 km of compensated crust removed, and 30 km of uncompensated crust removed all gave broad density anomalies extending deep into the mantle, but with the density contrasts being the greatest towards the surface (typically + or 0.004 g cm 3 in the first two cases and + or - 0.04 g cm 3 in the third). None of the density distributions resemble classical organized convection cells. The information theory approach may have use in choosing Standard Earth Models, but, the inclusion of seismic data into the approach appears difficult.

  2. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE PAGES

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; ...

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, wemore » have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.« less

  3. EarthScope's Education, Outreach, and Communications: Using Social Media from Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the

  4. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their

  5. Launching and Undergraduate Earth System Science Curriculum with a Focus on Global Sustainability: the Loma Linda University Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R. E.; Dunbar, S. G.; Soret, S.; Wiafe, S.; Gonzalez, D.; Rossi, T.

    2004-12-01

    The vision of the School of Science and Technology (SST) at Loma Linda University (LLU) is to develop an interdisciplinary approach to doing science that bridges the social, biological, earth, and health sciences. It will provide opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students to apply new tools and concepts to the promotion of global service and citizenship while addressing issues of global poverty, health and disease, environmental degradation, poverty, and social inequality. A primary teaching strategy will be to involve students with faculty in applied field social and science policy research on "global sustainability" issues and problems in real places such as Fiji, Jamaica, Honduras, Bahamas, East Africa, and the US southwest (Great Basin, Salton Sea, coastal California, southern Utah). Recently we became a partner in the NASA/USRA ESSE21 Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century). We bring to that consortium strengths and experience in areas such as social policy, sustainable development, medicine, environmental health, disaster mitigation, humanitarian relief, geoinformatics and bioinformatics. This can benefit ESSE21, the NASA Earth Enterprise Mission, and the wider geosciences education community by demonstrating the relevance of such tools, and methods outside the geosciences. Many of the graduate and undergraduate students who will participate in the new program come from around the world while many others represent underserved populations in the United States. The PI and Co-PIs have strong global as well as domestic experience serving underrepresented communities, e.g. Seth Wiafe from Ghana, Sam Soret from Spain, Stephen Dunbar from the South Pacific, and Robert Ford from Latin America and Africa. Our partnership in implementation will include other institutions such as: La Sierra University, the California State University, Pomona, Center for Geographic Information Science Research, ESRI, Inc., the University of

  6. A Web 2.0 and OGC Standards Enabled Sensor Web Architecture for Global Earth Observing System of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Unger, Stephen; Ames, Troy; Frye, Stuart; Chien, Steve; Cappelaere, Pat; Tran, Danny; Derezinski, Linda; Paules, Granville

    2007-01-01

    This paper will describe the progress of a 3 year research award from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) that began October 1, 2006, in response to a NASA Announcement of Research Opportunity on the topic of sensor webs. The key goal of this research is to prototype an interoperable sensor architecture that will enable interoperability between a heterogeneous set of space-based, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)-based and ground based sensors. Among the key capabilities being pursued is the ability to automatically discover and task the sensors via the Internet and to automatically discover and assemble the necessary science processing algorithms into workflows in order to transform the sensor data into valuable science products. Our first set of sensor web demonstrations will prototype science products useful in managing wildfires and will use such assets as the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft, managed out of NASA/GSFC, a UASbased instrument, managed out of Ames and some automated ground weather stations, managed by the Forest Service. Also, we are collaborating with some of the other ESTO awardees to expand this demonstration and create synergy between our research efforts. Finally, we are making use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards and some Web 2.0 capabilities to Beverage emerging technologies and standards. This research will demonstrate and validate a path for rapid, low cost sensor integration, which is not tied to a particular system, and thus be able to absorb new assets in an easily evolvable, coordinated manner. This in turn will help to facilitate the United States contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), as agreed by the U.S. and 60 other countries at the third Earth Observation Summit held in February of 2005.

  7. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  8. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2010 Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, F. W.; Justus, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Atmospheric Model was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes), as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. In addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations.

  9. A user-friendly earth system model of low complexity: the ESCIMO system dynamics model of global warming towards 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randers, Jorgen; Golüke, Ulrich; Wenstøp, Fred; Wenstøp, Søren

    2016-11-01

    We have made a simple system dynamics model, ESCIMO (Earth System Climate Interpretable Model), which runs on a desktop computer in seconds and is able to reproduce the main output from more complex climate models. ESCIMO represents the main causal mechanisms at work in the Earth system and is able to reproduce the broad outline of climate history from 1850 to 2015. We have run many simulations with ESCIMO to 2100 and beyond. In this paper we present the effects of introducing in 2015 six possible global policy interventions that cost around USD 1000 billion per year - around 1 % of world GDP. We tentatively conclude (a) that these policy interventions can at most reduce the global mean surface temperature - GMST - by up to 0.5 °C in 2050 and up to 1.0 °C in 2100 relative to no intervention. The exception is injection of aerosols into the stratosphere, which can reduce the GMST by more than 1.0 °C in a decade but creates other serious problems. We also conclude (b) that relatively cheap human intervention can keep global warming in this century below +2 °C relative to preindustrial times. Finally, we conclude (c) that run-away warming is unlikely to occur in this century but is likely to occur in the longer run. The ensuing warming is slow, however. In ESCIMO, it takes several hundred years to lift the GMST to +3 °C above preindustrial times through gradual self-reinforcing melting of the permafrost. We call for research to test whether more complex climate models support our tentative conclusions from ESCIMO.

  10. A Global Record of Surface Earth Oxygenation from Sedimentary V/Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, C. B.; Schoene, B.; Johnston, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the simplest methods to investigate changes in oxidation potential in geologic environments is to examine a pair of otherwise similar elements with dramatically different redox chemistry. The first-row transition metals Sc and V represent one such pair, with generally similar mass, radius, and ionization energies up to the trivalent redox state. However, as a d3 transition metal, Sc is limited to a maximum oxidation state of 3+, while d5 vanadium may be further oxidized to form tetravalent and pentavalent ions. Due to the greater incompatibility of pentavalent (relative to trivalent) metal cations in silicate melts, V/Sc ratio has been applied to the silicate rock record as a tracer of magma redox - indicating roughly constant mantle oxygen fugacity over Earth history1,2. As a result, the solid earth represents a boundary condition with constant V/Sc observed over geologic time1. However, oxidation state also affects the weathering, solubility, and coordination behaviour of V and Sc, resulting in a potential redox signal in the sedimentary V/Sc record. We apply the weighted bootstrap resampling approach of [2] to a geochemical dataset of ~87,000 sedimentary whole-rock analyses from the EarthChem portal3. The resulting trends reveal a 4 Gyr record of V/Sc redox chemistry, with the great oxidation event represented as an upward step ca. 2.5 Ga, and Phanerozoic variation suggestive of low oxygen in the early Paleozoic, increasing to twin maxima circa 270 Ma and 130 Ma, remarkably similar to that predicted by the COPSE model4, and broadly congruent with the Phanerozoic biochar record5. Li, Z.-X. A. & Lee, C.-T. A. EPSL 228, 483-493 (2004). Keller, C. B. & Schoene, B. Nature 485, 490-493 (2012). EarthChem Bergman, N. M. Am. J. Science 304, 397-437 (2004). Glasspool, I. J. & Scott, A. C. Nat. Geosci. 3, 627-630 (2010).

  11. Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than

  12. The response of the earth's global electrical circuit to a solar proton event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzur, I.; Roble, R. G.; Reid, C. C.; Zhuang, H. C.

    An ion chemistry model of the atmosphere is used to calculate the background electric conductivity distribution and its variation during the August 1972 solar proton event and the accompanying Forbush decrease. Two-dimensional model calculations show that the solar protons significantly affect the high-latitude electrical structure of the middle atmosphere without much influence on the electrical structure of the troposphere. The maximum calculated change in the air-earth current, ground electric field, and ionospheric potential is about 10 percent which occurs during the maximum of the Forbush decrease in cosmic ray flux.

  13. A Summary of the Major Documents Signed at the Earth Summit and the Global Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parson, Edward A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes documents produced at the United Nations Conference and the Global Forum: The Rio Declaration, a statement of broad principles to guide national conduct on environmental protection and development; treaties on climate change and biodiversity; forest principles statement; and Agenda 21, a presentation of work plans for sustainable…

  14. Projected Global Hydrologic Cycles Using New Combine Earth System Moels from Multi-Model Multi-Scenario Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadkam Torbati, S.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.; Beyene, T.

    2011-12-01

    Simulating land surface hydrological states, fluxes and drought requires a comprehensive set of atmospheric forcing data at consistent temporal and spatial scales that can be used to evaluate changes in the global hydrological cycle. The European integrating project COMBINE brings together research groups to advance Earth system models (ESMs) for more accurate climate projections and for reduced uncertainty in the prediction of climate by including key physical and biogeochemical processes. We report the current state of the art of sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle for multi-scenario using available EU-WATCH historical data and future climate projections generated by Combine which will follow the specifications of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) protocol for IPCC AR5. The choice of the scenarios were made on the basis of the CMIP5 protocol, which recommends the Representative Concentration Scenario 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) for the core climate projections to 2100 and the RCP4.5 scenario for core decadal climate predictions to 2035. A detailed description of the bias-correction and spatial downscaling method used and evaluation of the data set will be assessed by deriving a land surface hydrological models globally and at specific river basins as a case study. The project will be able to contribute to the IPCC-AR5 data archives.

  15. GlobVolcano: Earth Observation Services for global monitoring of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, L.; Ratti, R.; Borgström, S.; Seifert, F. M.; Solaro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The GlobVolcano project is part of the Data User Element (DUE) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objective of the project is to demonstrate EO-based (Earth Observation) services able to support the Volcanological Observatories and other mandate users (Civil Protection, scientific communities of volcanoes) in their monitoring activities. The information service is assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of active volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. Users are directly and actively involved in the validation of the Earth Observation products, by comparing them with ground data available at each site. The following EO-based information services have been defined, harmonising the user requirements provided by a worldwide selection of user organizations. - Deformation Mapping - Surface Thermal Anomalies - Volcanic Gas Emission (SO2) - Volcanic Ash Tracking During the first phase of the project (completed in June 2008) a pre-operational information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations (i.e. Piton de la Fournaise in La Reunion Island, Karthala in Comore Islands, Stromboli, Volcano and Etna in Italy, Soufrière Hills in Montserrat Island, Colima in Mexico, Merapi in Indonesia). The second phase of the project (currently on-going) concerns the service provision on pre-operational basis. Fifteen volcanic sites located in four continents are regularly monitored and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. Based on user requirements, the GlobVolcano Information System has been developed following system engineering rules and criteria, besides most recent interoperability standards for geospatial data. The GlobVolcano Information System includes two main elements: 1. The GlobVolcano Data Processing System, which consists of seven of EO data processing subsystems

  16. Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2006-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) is a graphical simulation environment designed for the development of advanced control algorithms and rapid testing of these algorithms on a generic computational model of a turbofan engine and its control system. MAPSS is a nonlinear, non-real-time simulation comprising a Component Level Model (CLM) module and a Controller-and-Actuator Dynamics (CAD) module. The CLM module simulates the dynamics of engine components at a sampling rate of 2,500 Hz. The controller submodule of the CAD module simulates a digital controller, which has a typical update rate of 50 Hz. The sampling rate for the actuators in the CAD module is the same as that of the CLM. MAPSS provides a graphical user interface that affords easy access to engine-operation, engine-health, and control parameters; is used to enter such input model parameters as power lever angle (PLA), Mach number, and altitude; and can be used to change controller and engine parameters. Output variables are selectable by the user. Output data as well as any changes to constants and other parameters can be saved and reloaded into the GUI later.

  17. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis. PMID:27412335

  18. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-14

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  19. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  20. Artificial biospheres as a model for global ecology on planet Earth.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    2000-01-01

    Artificial biospheres of the scale and complexity of Biosphere 2 can only work with coordinated rigorous design at each level of ecology: biospheres, biomes, bioregions, ecosystems, communities, patches, phases, physical-chemical functions, guilds, populations, organisms, and cells (both eucaryotic and procaryotic). This article reviews these theoretical concepts and provides examples of how this structure was applied to the design and development of Biosphere 2. In addition to this ecological engineering design, the addition of humans as inhabitants in the closed system required design of ethnological patterns and of technical and cybernetic systems for meeting specifically human requirements of labor efficiency, climate, nutrition, wastewater recycle, and pure air and water. Ecological levels of biospheric complexity can be directly applied to studies of the Earth's biosphere and, in fact, must be used to understand complex biospheric processes.

  1. Global effects of transmitted shock wave propagation through the Earth's inner magnetosphere: First results from 3-D hybrid kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmaspheric particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that shocks cause strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  2. Global Effects of Transmitted Shock Wave Propagation Through the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere: First Results from 3-D Hybrid Kinetic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmaspheric particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, waveparticle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that shocks cause strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  3. GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models. Part I: physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, John P.; John, Jasmin G.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Shevalikova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Cooke, William; Dunne, Krista A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Krasting, John P.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Phillipps, Peter J.; Sentman, Lori A.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spelman, Michael J.; Winton, Michael; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zadeh, Niki

    2012-01-01

    We describe the physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's previous CM2.1 climate model while incorporating explicit and consistent carbon dynamics. The two models differ exclusively in the physical ocean component; ESM2M uses Modular Ocean Model version 4.1 with vertical pressure layers while ESM2G uses Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics with a bulk mixed layer and interior isopycnal layers. Differences in the ocean mean state include the thermocline depth being relatively deep in ESM2M and relatively shallow in ESM2G compared to observations. The crucial role of ocean dynamics on climate variability is highlighted in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation being overly strong in ESM2M and overly weak ESM2G relative to observations. Thus, while ESM2G might better represent climate changes relating to: total heat content variability given its lack of long term drift, gyre circulation and ventilation in the North Pacific, tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and depth structure in the overturning and abyssal flows, ESM2M might better represent climate changes relating to: surface circulation given its superior surface temperature, salinity and height patterns, tropical Pacific circulation and variability, and Southern Ocean dynamics. Our overall assessment is that neither model is fundamentally superior to the other, and that both models achieve sufficient fidelity to allow meaningful climate and earth system modeling applications. This affords us the ability to assess the role of ocean configuration on earth system interactions in the context of two state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate models.

  4. Generation of kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail: A global hybrid simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Du, Aimin; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x,z)=(−10.5R{sub E},0.3R{sub E}), where R{sub E} is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k{sub ⊥}≫k{sub ∥} are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δE{sub z})/(δB{sub y} )∼ω/k{sub ∥} of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.

  5. ERCA 2008 - From the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change to the Observation of the Earth from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutron, Claude

    2009-02-01

    This book is the eighth volume in the series of books published within the framework of the European Research Course on Atmospheres ("ERCA"). ERCA was initiated in 1993 by the University Joseph Fourier of Grenoble, in order to provide PhD students and scientists from Europe and the rest of the world with a multidisciplinary course, which covers especially: the climate system and climate change; the physics and chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere; the human dimensions of environmental change; the other planets and satellites in the solar system and beyond. Since 1993, sixteen sessions have been attended by more 800 participants from 50 countries. The seventeenth session will take place from 12 January to 13 February 2009. This new volume contains twenty two chapters dealing with a wide range of topics. The following subjects are covered: the human dimensions of global environmental change; climate change and cryospheric evolution in China; the projections of twenty-first century climate over Europe; the understanding of the health impacts of air pollutants; air quality and human welfare; photocatalytic self-cleaning materials; radiative transfer in the cloudy atmosphere; laboratory modelling of atmospheric dynamical processes; stratospheric ozone; the applications of stable isotope analysis to atmospheric trace gas budgets; nitrogen oxides in the troposphere; the observation of the solid Earth, the oceans and land waters; the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet; sea surface salinity reconstruction as seen with foraminifera shells; sources markers in aerosols, oceanic particles and sediments; the nucleation of atmospheric particles; the characterization of atmospheric aerosol episodes in China; the solar magnetic activity; the present and past climates of planet Mars; the outer solar system; Titan as an analog of Earth's past and future; the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets.

  6. The Miniature Radio Frequency instrument's (Mini-RF) global observations of Earth's Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Thomson, B. J.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Neish, Catherine D.; Lopez, Norberto R.; Turner, F. Scott; Aldridge, T.; McAdam, M.; Meyer, H. M.; Raney, R. K.; Carter, L. M.; Spudis, P. D.; Hiesinger, H.; Pasckert, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Radar provides a unique means to analyze the surface and subsurface physical properties of geologic deposits, including their wavelength-scale roughness, the relative depth of the deposits, and some limited compositional information. The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument has enabled these analyses on the Moon at a global scale. Mini-RF has accumulated ∼67% coverage of the lunar surface in S-band (12.6 cm) radar with a resolution of 30 m/pixel. Here we present new Mini-RF global orthorectified uncontrolled S-band maps of the Moon and use them for analysis of lunar surface physical properties. Reported here are readily apparent global- and regional-scale differences in lunar surface physical properties that suggest three distinct terranes, namely: a (1) Nearside Radar Dark Region; (2) Orientale basin and continuous ejecta; and the (3) Highlands Radar Bright Region. Integrating these observations with new data from LRO's Diviner Radiometer rock abundance maps, as well Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived compositional values show multiple distinct lunar surface terranes and sub-terranes based upon both physical and compositional surface properties. Previous geochemical investigations of the Moon suggested its crust is best divided into three to four basic crustal provinces or terranes (Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (-An and -Outer), Procellarum KREEP Terrane, and South Pole Aitken Terrane) that are distinct from one another. However, integration of these geochemical data sets with new geophysical data sets allows us to refine these terranes. The result shows a more complex view of these same crustal provinces and provides valuable scientific and hazard perspectives for future targeted human and robotic exploration.

  7. The Miniature Radio Frequency Instruments (Mini-RF) Global Observations of Earth's Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Thomson, B. J.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Neish, Catherine D.; Lopez, Norberto R.; Turner, F. Scott; Aldridge, T.; McAdam, M.; Meyer, H. M.; Raney, R. K.; Carter, L. M.; Spudis, P. D.; Hiesinger, H.; Pasckert, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Radar provides a unique means to analyze the surface and subsurface physical properties of geologic deposits, including their wavelength-scale roughness, the relative depth of the deposits, and some limited compositional information. The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument has enabled these analyses on the Moon at a global scale. Mini-RF has accumulated 67% coverage of the lunar surface in S-band (12.6 cm) radar with a resolution of 30 m/pixel. Here we present new Mini-RF global orthorectified uncontrolled S-band maps of the Moon and use them for analysis of lunar surface physical properties. Reported here are readily apparent global- and regional-scale differences in lunar surface physical properties that suggest three distinct terranes, namely: a (1) Nearside Radar Dark Region; (2) Orientale basin and continuous ejecta; and the (3) Highlands Radar Bright Region. Integrating these observations with new data from LRO's Diviner Radiometer rock abundance maps, as well Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived compositional values show multiple distinct lunar surface terranes and sub-terranes based upon both physical and compositional surface properties. Previous geochemical investigations of the Moon suggested its crust is best divided into three to four basic crustal provinces or terranes (Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (-An and -Outer), Procellarum KREEP Terrane, and South Pole Aitken Terrane) that are distinct from one another. However, integration of these geochemical data sets with new geophysical data sets allows us to refine these terranes. The result shows a more complex view of these same crustal provinces and provides valuable scientific and hazard perspectives for future targeted human and robotic exploration.

  8. Long-Term Audience Impacts of Live Fulldome Planetarium Lectures for Earth Science and Global Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Champlin, D. M.; Goldsworth, D. A.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2011-09-01

    Digital Earth visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. At the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), we have used such visualization technologies, including real-time virtual reality software running in the immersive digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium, to impact the community through topical policy presentations. DMNS public lectures have covered regional issues like water resources, as well as global topics such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion. The Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience-similar to virtual reality "CAVE" environments found in academia-that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. Surveys and interviews show that these talks are effective in heightening visitor interest in the subjects weeks or months after the presentation. Many visitors take additional steps to learn more, while one was so inspired that she actively worked to bring the same programming to her children's school. These preliminary findings suggest that fulldome real-time visualizations can have a substantial long-term impact on an audience's engagement and interest in science topics.

  9. Climate model simulations of the mid-Pliocene: Earth's last great interval of global warmth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, A.M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Workshop; Reston, Virginia, 2–4 August 2011 The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), supported by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project and Powell Center, is an integral part of a third iteration of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). PlioMIP's aim is to systematically compare structurally different climate models. This is done in the context of the mid-Pliocene (~3.3–3.0 million years ago), a geological interval when the global annual mean temperature was similar to predictions for the next century.

  10. Climate model simulations of the mid-Pliocene: Earth's last great interval of global warmth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Aisling M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2012-01-01

    Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Workshop; Reston, Virginia, 2-4 August 2011 The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), supported by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project and Powell Center, is an integral part of a third iteration of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). PlioMIP's aim is to systematically compare structurally different climate models. This is done in the context of the mid-Pliocene (˜3.3-3.0 million years ago), a geological interval when the global annual mean temperature was similar to predictions for the next century.

  11. Remote sensing of the earth's biosphere - A tool for studies of the global atmospheric environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, David S.; Harriss, Robert C.; Bartlett, Karen B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology and its use for global studies of the biospheric processes are described. Special consideration is given to research related to two issues: (1) quantifying the impacts of natural vegetation and its changing patterns of occurrence on the atmospheric CO2 budget and (2) assessing wetlands (such as the swamps and marshes of Florida's Everglades) as sources of atmospheric CH4. The results include the data from NOAA-AVHRR sensors and from experiments in remote detection of plant growth rate.

  12. How can we understand the global distribution of the solar cycle signal on the Earth's surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Kunihiko; Thiéblemont, Rémi; Yukimoto, Seiji; Matthes, Katja

    2016-10-01

    To understand solar cycle signals on the Earth's surface and identify the physical mechanisms responsible, surface temperature variations from observations as well as climate model data are analysed to characterize their spatial structure. The solar signal in the annual mean surface temperature is characterized by (i) mid-latitude warming and (ii) no overall tropical warming. The mid-latitude warming during solar maxima in both hemispheres is associated with a downward penetration of zonal mean zonal wind anomalies from the upper stratosphere during late winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter this is manifested by a modulation of the polar-night jet, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere, the upper stratospheric subtropical jet plays the major role. Warming signals are particularly apparent over the Eurasian continent and ocean frontal zones, including a previously reported lagged response over the North Atlantic. In the tropics, local warming occurs over the Indian and central Pacific oceans during high solar activity. However, this warming is counterbalanced by cooling over the cold tongue sectors in the southeastern Pacific and the South Atlantic, and results in a very weak zonally averaged tropical mean signal. The cooling in the ocean basins is associated with stronger cross-equatorial winds resulting from a northward shift of the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation during solar maxima. To understand the complex processes involved in the solar signal transfer, results of an idealized middle atmosphere-ocean coupled model experiment on the impact of stratospheric zonal wind changes are compared with solar signals in observations. Model integration of 100 years of strong or weak stratospheric westerly jet condition in winter may exaggerate long-term ocean feedback. However, the role of ocean in the solar influence on the Earth's surface can be better seen. Although the momentum forcing differs from that of solar radiative forcing, the model results

  13. New clues on the contribution of Earth's volcanism to the global mercury cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Parello, F.; Allard, P.; Shinohara, H.; Liuzzo, M.; Giudice, G.

    2011-07-01

    Active volcanoes are thought to be important contributors to the atmospheric mercury (Hg) budget, and this chemical element is one of the most harmful atmospheric pollutants, owing to its high toxicity and long residence time in ecosystems. There is, however, considerable uncertainty over the magnitude of the global volcanic Hg flux, since the existing data on volcanogenic Hg emissions are sparse and often ambiguous. In an attempt to extend the currently limited dataset on volcanogenic Hg emissions, we summarize the results of Hg flux measurements at seven active open-conduit volcanoes; Stromboli, Asama, Miyakejima, Montserrat, Ambrym, Yasur, and Nyiragongo.. Data from the dome-building Soufriere Hills volcano are also reported. Using our determined mercury to SO2 mass ratios in tandem with the simultaneously-determined SO2 emission rates, we estimate that the 7 volcanoes have Hg emission rates ranging from 0.2 to 18 t yr-1 (corresponding to a total Hg flux of ~41 t·yr-1). Based on our dataset and previous work, we propose that a Hg/SO2 plume ratio ~10-5 is best-representative of gas emissions from quiescent degassing volcanoes. Using this ratio, we infer a global volcanic Hg flux from persistent degassing of ~95 t·yr-1.

  14. Global redox cycle of biospheric carbon: Interaction of photosynthesis and earth crust processes.

    PubMed

    Ivlev, Alexander A

    2015-11-01

    A model of the natural global redox cycle of biospheric carbon is introduced. According to this model, carbon transfer between biosphere and geospheres is accompanied by a conversion of the oxidative forms, presented by CO2, bicarbonate and carbonate ions, into the reduced forms, produced in photosynthesis. The mechanism of carbon transfer is associated with two phases of movement of lithospheric plates. In the short-term orogenic phase, CO2 from the subduction (plates' collisions) zones fills the "atmosphere-hydrosphere" system, resulting in climate warming. In the long-term quiet (geosynclynal) phase, weathering and photosynthesis become dominant depleting the oxidative forms of carbon. The above asymmetric periodicity exerts an impact on climate, biodiversity, distribution of organic matter in sedimentary deposits, etc. Along with photosynthesis expansion, the redox carbon cycle undergoes its development until it reaches the ecological compensation point, at which CO2 is depleted to the level critical to support the growth and reproduction of plants. This occurred in the Permo-Carboniferous time and in the Neogene. Shorter-term perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the form of glacial-interglacial oscillations appear near the ecological compensation point.

  15. Measurements of the earth radiation budget from satellites during the first GARP global experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Campbell, G. G.; Smith, E. A.; Arking, A.; Coulson, K.; Hickey, J.; House, F.; Ingersoll, A.; Jacobowitz, H.; Smith, L.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation budget data (which will aid in climate model development) and solar constant measurements (both to be used for the study of long term climate change and interannual seasonal weather variability) are presented, obtained during Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 satellite flights, using wide-field-of-view, scanner, and black cavity detectors. Data on the solar constant, described as a function of the date of measurement, are given. The unweighed mean amounts to 1377 + or - 20 per sq Wm, with a standard deviation of 8 per sq Wm. The new solar data are combined with earlier measurements, and it is suggested that the total absolute energy output of the sun is a minimum at 'solar maximum' and vice versa. Attention is given to the measurements of the net radiation budget, the planetary albedo, and the infrared radiant exitance. The annual and semiannual cycles of normal variability explain most of the variance of energy exchange between the earth and space. Examination of separate ocean and atmospheric energy budgets implies a net continent-ocean region energy exchange.

  16. The Earth Sciences, Human Well-Being, and the Reduction of Global Poverty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].

  17. Earth's ion upflow associated with polar cap patches: Global and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Lockwood, Michael; Heelis, Roderick A.; Hairston, Marc; Liang, Jun; McCrea, Ian; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Moen, Jøran; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; Lester, Mark; Thomas, Evan G.; Liu, Rui-Yuan; Dunlop, Malcolm W.; Liu, Yong C.-M.; Ma, Yu-Zhang

    2016-03-01

    We report simultaneous global monitoring of a patch of ionization and in situ observation of ion upflow at the center of the polar cap region during a geomagnetic storm. Our observations indicate strong fluxes of upwelling O+ ions originating from frictional heating produced by rapid antisunward flow of the plasma patch. The statistical results from the crossings of the central polar cap region by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F16-F18 from 2010 to 2013 confirm that the field-aligned flow can turn upward when rapid antisunward flows appear, with consequent significant frictional heating of the ions, which overcomes the gravity effect. We suggest that such rapidly moving patches can provide an important source of upwelling ions in a region where downward flows are usually expected. These observations give new insight into the processes of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

  18. 'Hot' Earth in the mass media: the reliability of news reports on global warming.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Celso Dal Ré; Toniolo, João Cláudio

    2012-06-01

    Research into the reliability of news reports on 'global warming' published by the UOL media group, Folha.com and Folha de S. Paulo reveals a tendency for positions to be polarized between complete agreement with the assertion that the causes are entirely anthropogenic (the dominant position) and complete denial. The sample comprised 676 news items from more than 3,000 published on the topic between October 2007 and October 2008. The study tested the hypothesis that the news output of the three media outlets is dominated by the positions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In absolute terms, the panel is the most frequently cited source, since just seven news items comprised exceptions to the 'consensus.' These contrary opinions made up 1.03% of the sample.

  19. Using message brokering and data mediation on earth science data to enhance global maritime situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Greidanus, H.

    2016-04-01

    Maritime Situational Awareness is the understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has developed an in-house data collection, data analysis and data visualiztion facility, known as the Blue Hub. The Blue Hub operates as a research and development platform for integrated maritime surveillance and maritime situational awareness. It has global coverage and has been applied, for example, to support counter-piracy around Africa, to investigate fishing activity and to monitor the growing ship traffic in the Arctic. In order to improve maritime awareness and support risk assessment, the JRC has started to integrate data from the marine and atmosheric science community. In particular the JRC is interested in using forecasts from operational ocean models and weather models. For the Blue Hub a new type of data server, called ERDDAP, that performs message brokering and data mediation has become an essential tool for the accessing of ocean forecast data as quickly as possible in easy to use formats. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the USA) is making global oceanography and weather data available through the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP) data broker. ERDDAP provides RESTful machine to machine communication, data brokering and data mediation by converting data to a number of standard and developer friendly formats, including some Open Geospatial Consortium formats. In this paper, we demonstrate how data brokering and mediation is making complex scientific data accessible. We show how such data is being integrated into the Blue Hub system to enhance maritime situational awareness.

  20. Anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the Earth's mantle: A global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustowski, B.; EkströM, G.; DziewońSki, A. M.

    2008-06-01

    We combine a new, large data set of surface wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body wave travel times to construct a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modeling approach is improved and more comprehensive compared to our earlier studies and involves the development and implementation of a new spherically symmetric reference model, simultaneous inversion for velocity and anisotropy, as well as discontinuity topographies, and implementation of nonlinear crustal corrections for waveforms. A comparison of our new three-dimensional model, S362ANI, with two other models derived from comparable data sets but using different techniques reveals persistent features: (1) strong, ˜200-km-thick, high-velocity anomalies beneath cratons, likely representing the continental lithosphere, underlain by weaker, fast anomalies extending below 250 km, which may represent continental roots, (2) weak velocity heterogeneity between 250 and 400 km depths, (3) fast anomalies extending horizontally up to 2000-3000 km in the mantle transition zone beneath subduction zones, (4) lack of strong long-wavelength heterogeneity below 650 km suggesting inhibiting character of the upper mantle-lower mantle boundary, and (5) slow-velocity superplumes beneath the Pacific and Africa. The shear wave radial anisotropy is strongest at 120 km depth, in particular beneath the central Pacific. Lateral anisotropic variations appreciably improve the fit to data that are predominantly sensitive to the uppermost and lowermost mantle but not to the waveforms that control the transition zone and midmantle depths. Tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy are negligible in the uppermost mantle but noticeable at the bottom of the mantle.

  1. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Ahrens, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bell, G.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Hankin, S.; Harper, D.; Hook, N.; Jones, P.; Middleton, D. E.; Miller, R.; Nienhouse, E.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shipman, G.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wang, F.; Wilcox, H.; Wilhelmi, N.

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  2. Earth Rotation and Geoid Constraints Upon The Modern Rate of Global Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.

    The explanation for the tide gauge inferred rate of secular sea level rise that has been ongoing over the last century remains enigmatic. Various explanations have been pro- posed for the fact that there is a large shortfall between the sum of the estimates of the steric and small ice sheets and glaciers contributions, respectively 0.6 mm yr-1 and ~0.3 mm yr-1 and the tide gauge inferred rate of ~1.8 mm yr-1( see Douglas and Peltier, Physics Today, March 2002 for a recent discussion). Possible explanations in- clude climate induced melting of the great polar ice sheets on Greenland and Antarc- tica, substantial upwards bias in the tide gauge inferred rates ( Cabanes et al., Science, 2002), or substantial underestimation of the steric rate most recently analysed in de- tail be Levitus and others(Science 2001,2002). Strong arguments exist as to why the second explanation is not likely to be correct. If we accept that the steric and small ice sheets estimates are reliable then we are forced to accept a significant contribution due to the modern day melting of polar ice. Yet the extent to which this contribution could be significant is strongly constrained by Earth rotation observations. I will ad- dress the issue as to how firm these constraints actually are. Grace observations of the time dependent geoid height, a signal which is also contaminated by the GIA process, as are Topex/Poseidon observations, once filtered to remove this effect, are expected to be immensely valuable in resolving the remaining uncertainties.

  3. The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States-A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.; Cordier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are fifteen elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium ('lanthanides'), plus yttrium (39), which is chemically similar to the lanthanide elements and thus typically included with the rare earth elements. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-technology applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and light-weight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems and other advanced materials. Section 843 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, Public Law 111-84, directs the Comptroller General to complete a report on REE materials in the defense supply chain. The Office of Industrial Policy, in collaboration with other U.S. Government agencies, has initiated (in addition to this report) a detailed study of REE. This latter study will assess the Department of Defense's use of REE, as well as the status and security of domestic and global supply chains. That study will also address vulnerabilities in the supply chain and recommend ways to mitigate any potential risks of supply disruption. To help conduct this study, the Office of Industrial Policy asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to report on domestic REE reserves and resources in a global context. To this end, the enclosed report is the initial USGS contribution to assessing and summarizing the domestic REE resources in a global perspective. In 2009, the Mineral Resources Program of the USGS organized a new project under the title Minerals at Risk and For Emerging Technologies in order to evaluate mineral resource and supply issues of rare metals that are of increasing importance to the national economy. Leaders and members of

  4. Aero-Structural Interaction, Analysis, and Shape Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., III

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis technique that has been shown to be independent of step-size selection is examined further. The accuracy of this step-size independent technique, which uses complex variables for determining sensitivity derivatives, has been previously established. The primary focus of this work is to validate the aero-structural analysis procedure currently being used. This validation consists of comparing computed and experimental data obtained for an Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2). Since the aero-structural analysis procedure has the complex variable modifications already included into the software, sensitivity derivatives can automatically be computed. Other than for design purposes, sensitivity derivatives can be used for predicting the solution at nearby conditions. The use of sensitivity derivatives for predicting the aero-structural characteristics of this configuration is demonstrated.

  5. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  6. Global-scale modelling of melting and isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle: melting modules for TERRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heck, Hein J.; Davies, J. Huw; Elliott, Tim; Porcelli, Don

    2016-04-01

    Many outstanding problems in solid-Earth science relate to the geodynamical explanation of geochemical observations. Currently, extensive geochemical databases of surface observations exist, but satisfying explanations of underlying mantle processes are lacking. One way to address these problems is through numerical modelling of mantle convection while tracking chemical information throughout the convective mantle. We have implemented a new way to track both bulk compositions and concentrations of trace elements in a finite-element mantle convection code. Our approach is to track bulk compositions and trace element abundances via particles. One value on each particle represents bulk composition and can be interpreted as the basalt component. In our model, chemical fractionation of bulk composition and trace elements happens at self-consistent, evolving melting zones. Melting is defined via a composition-dependent solidus, such that the amount of melt generated depends on pressure, temperature and bulk composition of each particle. A novel aspect is that we do not move particles that undergo melting; instead we transfer the chemical information carried by the particle to other particles. Molten material is instantaneously transported to the surface layer, thereby increasing the basalt component carried by the particles close to the surface and decreasing the basalt component in the residue. The model is set to explore a number of radiogenic isotopic systems, but as an example here the trace elements we choose to follow are the Pb isotopes and their radioactive parents. For these calculations we will show (1) the evolution of the distribution of bulk compositions over time, showing the buildup of oceanic crust (via melting-induced chemical separation in bulk composition), i.e. a basalt-rich layer at the surface, and the transportation of these chemical heterogeneities through the deep mantle; (2) the amount of melt generated over time; (3) the evolution of the

  7. Abiogenic formation of alkanes in the Earth's crust as a minor source for global hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sherwood Lollar, B; Westgate, T D; Ward, J A; Slater, G F; Lacrampe-Couloume, G

    2002-04-04

    Natural hydrocarbons are largely formed by the thermal decomposition of organic matter (thermogenesis) or by microbial processes (bacteriogenesis). But the discovery of methane at an East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent and in other crustal fluids supports the occurrence of an abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. These abiogenic hydrocarbons are generally formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide, a process which is thought to occur during magma cooling and-more commonly-in hydrothermal systems during water-rock interactions, for example involving Fischer-Tropsch reactions and the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Suggestions that abiogenic hydrocarbons make a significant contribution to economic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been difficult to resolve, in part owing to uncertainty in the carbon isotopic signatures for abiogenic versus thermogenic hydrocarbons. Here, using carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses of abiogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks of the Canadian shield, we show a clear distinction between abiogenic and thermogenic hydrocarbons. The progressive isotopic trends for the series of C1-C4 alkanes indicate that hydrocarbon formation occurs by way of polymerization of methane precursors. Given that these trends are not observed in the isotopic signatures of economic gas reservoirs, we can now rule out the presence of a globally significant abiogenic source of hydrocarbons.

  8. Diagnostics of a cause-effect relation between solar activity and the Earth's global surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, I. I.; Smirnov, D. A.

    2008-06-01

    The influence of solar activity on the Earth’s global surface temperature (GST) was quantified. The method for estimation of the Granger causality was used, with analysis of the improvement of the prediction of one process by using data from another process as compared to autoprediction. Two versions of reconstructions of the solar flux variations associated with solar activity were used, according to Hoyt et al. [1997] for 1680 1992 (data H) and according to Lean et al. [2005] for 1610 2005 (data L). In general, the estimation results for the two reconstructions are reasonably well consistent. A significant influence of solar activity on GST with a positive sign was found for two periods, from the late 19th century to the late 1930s and from the latter half of the 1940s to the early 1990s, with no inertia or time delay. In these periods, up to 8 and 25% of the variance of the GST change, respectively, can be attributed to solar activity variations. The solar influence increased in the 1980s to the early 1990s according to data H and began to decrease in the latter half of the 1980s according to data L.

  9. Global Scale Observations of Ionospheric Instabilities from GPS in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard; Goodman, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The GPS receiver used for navigation on the Space Shuttle exhibits range rate noise which appears to result from scintillation of the satellite signals by irregularities in ionospheric plasma. The noise events cluster in geographic regions previously identified as susceptible to instability and disturbed ionospheric conditions. These mechanisms are reviewed in the context of the GPS observations. Range rate data continuously monitored during the free orbiting phase of several space shuttle missions reveals global scale distribution of ionospheric irregularities. Equatorial events cluster +/- 20 degrees about the magnetic equator and polar events exhibit hemispheric asymmetry suggesting influence of off axis geomagnetic polar oval system. The diurnal, seasonal and geographic distribution is compared to previous work concerning equatorial spread F, Appleton anomaly and polar oval. The observations provide a succinct demonstration of the utility of space based ionospheric monitoring using GPS. The susceptability of GPS receivers to scintillation represents 'an unanticipated technical risk not factored into the selection of receivers for the United States space program.

  10. Earth as humans’ habitat: global climate change and the health of populations

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced climate change, with such rapid and continuing global-scale warming, is historically unprecedented and signifies that human pressures on Earth’s life-supporting natural systems now exceed the planet’s bio-geo-capacity. The risks from climate change to health and survival in populations are diverse, as are the social and political ramifications. Although attributing observed health changes in a population to the recent climatic change is difficult, a coherent pattern of climate- and weather-associated changes is now evident in many regions of the world. The risks impinge unevenly, especially on poorer and vulnerable regions, and are amplified by pre-existing high rates of climate-sensitive diseases and conditions. If, as now appears likely, the world warms by 3-5oC by 2100, the health consequences, directly and via massive social and economic disruption, will be severe. The health sector has an important message to convey, comparing the health risks and benefits of enlightened action to avert climate change and to achieve sustainable ways of living versus the self-interested or complacent inaction. PMID:24596901

  11. Abiogenic formation of alkanes in the Earth's crust as a minor source for global hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Westgate, T. D.; Ward, J. A.; Slater, G. F.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2002-04-01

    Natural hydrocarbons are largely formed by the thermal decomposition of organic matter (thermogenesis) or by microbial processes (bacteriogenesis). But the discovery of methane at an East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent and in other crustal fluids supports the occurrence of an abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. These abiogenic hydrocarbons are generally formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide, a process which is thought to occur during magma cooling and-more commonly-in hydrothermal systems during water-rock interactions, for example involving Fischer-Tropsch reactions and the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Suggestions that abiogenic hydrocarbons make a significant contribution to economic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been difficult to resolve, in part owing to uncertainty in the carbon isotopic signatures for abiogenic versus thermogenic hydrocarbons. Here, using carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses of abiogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks of the Canadian shield, we show a clear distinction between abiogenic and thermogenic hydrocarbons. The progressive isotopic trends for the series of C1-C4 alkanes indicate that hydrocarbon formation occurs by way of polymerization of methane precursors. Given that these trends are not observed in the isotopic signatures of economic gas reservoirs, we can now rule out the presence of a globally significant abiogenic source of hydrocarbons.

  12. MODELING THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTEGRATED EARTH SYSTEM AND THE VALUE OF GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES USING THE GUMBO MODEL. (R827169)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A global unified metamodel of the biosphere (GUMBO) was developed to simulate the integrated earth system and assess the dynamics and values of ecosystem services. It is a `metamodel' in that it represents a synthesis and a simplification of several existing dynamic gl...

  13. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; van Noije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J.-H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 Wm-2, with a mean of -0.27 Wm-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 Wm-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  14. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J.-H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 15 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 15 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 W m-2, with a mean of -0.30 W m-2 for the 15 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.39 W m-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  15. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; van Noije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J. -H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 Wm-2, with a mean of -0.27 Wm-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 Wm-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  16. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  17. Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, ecosystems, and acidification in Eastern Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The world's major Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) such as the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare current generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution

  18. Biologically induced initiation of snowball-Earth events, and the circulations of ice and ocean in a globally glaciated scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.; Finn, C.; McEntee, C.; Krause, F.; Harden, J. W.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Pendall, E.; Alves Jesus Rydin, C.; Krasa, D.; Shrestha, G.; Cavallaro, N.; Kuperberg, J.; Løvholt, F.; Horspool, N.; Cavanaugh, M. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Davis, J. L.; Evans, J. E.; Gurwick, N. P.; Richardson, R. M.; Landau, E. A.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Albert, M. R.; Rack, F. R.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Giardino, M.; Wiggins, H. V.; Habib, M. A.; Horan, P.; Stover, D. B.; Kuperberg, J.; Koch, D. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Isern, A. R.; Borg, S. G.; Ryabinin, V.; Hik, D.; Winther, J.; McConnell, W. J.; Baerwald, T. J.; Liu, J.; Winter, J. M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jacobs, C. A.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Cummins, P. R.; Harjadi, P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Netting, R.; Grunsfeld, J. M.; Freilich, M. H.; Green, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Stammer, D.; Wefer, G.; Lefebvre, A.; Lucarini, V.; Kanzow, T.; Goddard, L.; McCreary, J. P.; Sprintall, J.; Patterson, M.; Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Nave, L. E.; Harden, J. W.; Horan, P.; Koch, D. M.; Laviolette, R.; Frost, G. J.; Middleton, P.; Uhle, M. E.; Gurney, R. J.; Impey, A.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Escobar, V. M.; Murphy, F.; Callaghan, S.; Graber, J. R.; Lawford, R. G.; Koike, T.; Cripe, D.; Gundersen, L. C.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Bohan, M.; Kaye, J. A.; Freilich, M. H.; Volz, S. M.; Friedl, L.; Komar, G.; Jacobberger-Jellison, P. A.; Luce, P.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Agarwal, D.; Biraud, S. C.; Billesbach, D. P.; Humphrey, M.; Law, B. E.; Papale, D.; Wofsy, S. C.; Quadrelli, R.; Wilson, S.; Liverman, D. M.; Liss, P. S.; Killeen, T.; Watson, R.; Zebiak, S. E.; Tang, Q.; Hong, Y.; Chen, D.; Yang, D.; Rumburg, J.; Newmark, J. S.; Giles, B. L.; DeLuca, E.; Hagan, M. E.; Studinger, M.; Jezek, K. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Lea, P.; Passalacqua, P.; Oskin, M. E.; Crosby, C.; Glennie, C. L.; Lechner, H. N.; Bowman, L. J.; Barton, T.; Uhle, M. E.; Anderson, G. J.; Fountain, D. M.; Hess, J. W.; Harper, H. E.; Gingerich, P. D.; Groffman, P. M.; Weathers, K. C.; Bernhardt, E. S.; SanClements, M.; Loescher, H. W.; Pitelka, L.; Sandgathe, S. A.; Eleuterio, D. P.; Cortinas, J. V.; McElroy, B. J.; Hsu, L.; Kim, W.; Martin, R. L.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hill, M. C.; Freymueller, J. T.; Marks, D. G.; Sztein, E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Gordeev, E.; Myers, M.; Scholl, D. W.; Ackley, S. F.; Schofield, O.; Costa, D. P.; Marin, J. A.; Pilpipenko, V. A.; Vega, P.; Zesta, E.; Stepanova, M. V.; Uozumi, T.; Nolin, A. W.; Sturm, M.; Tziperman, E.; Abbot, D. S.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Gildor, H.; Halevy, I.; Johnston, D. T.; Knoll, A.; Losch, M. J.; Pollard, D.; Schoof, C.; Schrag, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Three different aspects of Neoproterozoic snowball events will be presented. First, the glaciations of the Neoproterozoic Era (1,000 to 542 Myr BP) were preceded by dramatically light 13C isotopic excursions preserved in pre-glacial deposits. Standard explanations of these excursions involve remineralization of isotopically light organic matter and imply strong enhancement of atmospheric CO2 greenhouse gas concentration, apparently inconsistent with the glaciations that followed. We propose a scenario in which the isotopic signal, as well as the global glaciation, result from changes to the ocean biology, possibly due to the evolution of microorganisms, specifically eukaryotes. These changes may have lead to enhanced export of organic matter from the upper ocean into anoxic sub-surface waters and sediments. The organic matter undergoes anoxic remineralization at depth via either sulfate- or iron-reducing bacteria. In both cases this can lead to changes in carbonate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic pool that efficiently lower the atmospheric CO2 concentration, possibly plunging Earth into an ice age. (With Itay Halevy, Andrew Knoll, David Johnston, Dan Schrag). Second, the problem of ice flow in two horizontal dimensions over a snowball ocean will be briefly discussed. The formulation of ice flow problem in two dimensions, following the well-known ice-shelf equations in glaciology, will be derived in spherical coordinates, and numerical solutions and scaling arguments developed. It will be shown how the existence of semi-enclosed seas or narrow passages between continents may lead to strong sea-ice thickness gradients, consistent with previous studies that demonstrated this in simpler geometry. (With Dorian Abbot, Yossi Ashkenazy, Hezi Gildor, David Pollard, Christian Schoof, Dan Schrag). Finally, the ocean circulation under a thick snowball cover based on GCM simulations and dynamical analysis will be described and its dynamics analyzed. (With Yossi Ashkenazy

  19. Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemati, Maziar Sam

    Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model

  20. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  1. Global Assessment of Dryland Degradation Using Long-Term Earth Observation Data Sets of Precipitation and Vegetation Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Tagesson, T.; Rasmussen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous time series of high quality Earth Observation (EO) based estimates of vegetation are key information for the assessment of long-term degradation in ecosystem function and productivity. In arid and semi-arid areas it has been reported that land degradation (LD) affects the well-being of 250 million people worldwide, which places it among today's most pressing environmental issues. However scientifically robust methods for assessing land degradation at global scale are still lacking. Indeed LD processes are complex and driven by multiple factors, either natural (e.g. changes in climate variability) or anthropic (eg. over-/mis- use of land resources), those factors often being region dependent. Traditionally LD assessment methods are based on the postulate that water availability is the major climate determinant for plant growth and production in drylands. Relationships between precipitation and above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) have been extensively studied to better understand the impact of climate variability on dryland vegetation productivity. Besides it has been claimed that the ratio ANPP to precipitation, known as the Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE), is a conservative property of the vegetation cover in drylands if the vegetation cover is not subject to non-precipitation related LD; and therefore change in RUE could inform on human-induced degradation. However several authors have put forward the many limitations of RUE and gave recommendations for a proper use of this concept (e.g. Fensholt et al. 2013, Prince et al. 2007). Fensholt et al. (2013) notably recommend to restrict its use to areas where a linear relationship between rainfall and the selected EO based proxy for ANPP is found and where the regression offset of this relationship is close to zero. In this study the concept of RUE as indicator of human-induced LD in drylands will be evaluated at global scale. Both long-term trends and abrupt changes in RUE time series will be analyzed

  2. Global Unique Identification of Geoscience Samples: The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.; Lenhardt, W. C.

    2005-12-01

    Data on samples represent a primary foundation of Geoscience research across disciplines, ranging from the study of climate change, to biogeochemical cycles, to mantle and continental dynamics and are key to our knowledge of the Earth's dynamical systems and evolution. Different data types are generated for individual samples by different research groups, published in different papers, and stored in different databases on a global scale. The utility of these data is critically dependent on their integration. Such integration can be achieved within a Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure, but requires unambiguous identification of samples. Currently, naming of samples is arbitrary and inconsistent and therefore severely limits our ability to share, link, and integrate sample-based data. Major problems include name duplication, and changing of names as a sample is passed along over many years to different investigators. SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration (http://www.geosamples.org), addresses this problem by building a registry that generates and administers globally unique identifiers for Geoscience samples: the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN). Implementation of the IGSN in data publication and digital data management will dramatically advance interoperability among information systems for sample-based data, opening an extensive range of new opportunities for discovery and for interdisciplinary approaches in research. The IGSN will also facilitate the ability of investigators to build on previously collected data on samples as new measurements are made or new techniques are developed. With potentially broad application to all types of Geoscience samples, SESAR is global in scope. It is a web-based system that can be easily accessed by individual users through an interactive web interface and by distributed client systems via standard web services. Samples can be registered individually or in batches and at various levels of granularity from entire cores

  3. A guidance-motivated sensitivity analysis of an aero-assisted boost vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W.; Gracey, C.; Armstrong, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    A simple model of an aero-assisted booster is used to examine the contributions of propulsion system type, aerodynamic lift and flight trajectory to the efficiency with which payloads can be placed into low earth orbit. The higher propulsive efficiency of ramjet and scramjet propulsion has the potential of increasing the payload mass ratio significantly. The contributions of turbojet propulsion and aerodynamic lift are less significant. The additional complexity involved in using aerodynamic propulsion and lift requires dealing with a more comprehensive set of design variables than for rocket boosters. The approach taken is to derive a set of sensitivity functions which relate booster performance to the design variables. The problems of optimum mixing of aerodynamic lift with thrust and determining the optimal boost trajectory is treated. The potential payload capacity of a horizontal take-off air-breathing boost vehicle is examined. The optimization problem which considers propulsive efficiency, aerodynamic configuration, and control and guidance issues is discussed.

  4. Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET)

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I.; Fox, P.; Fraser, D.; Halliday, K.; Hankin, S.; Jones, P.; Kesselman, C.; Middleton, J. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.; Williams, Dean N.

    2007-07-13

    The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the U.S. role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET. At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading U.S. climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG. In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 250 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 280 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single signon of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

  5. Fire and smoke in the earth system: Evaluating the impact of fire aerosols on regional and global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, Michael G.

    Landscape and wildland fires across the globe emit black and organic carbon smoke particles that have atmospheric lifetimes of days to weeks. Some regions, like Africa, experience strong seasonal burning, and other regions, like equatorial Asia, experience substantial interannual variability associated with changes in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. In equatorial Asia, anthropogenic fires in tropical forests and peatlands produce regionally expansive smoke clouds that have important effects on atmospheric radiation and air quality. I estimated the height of smoke on Borneo and Sumatra and characterized its sensitivity to El Nino and regional drought. My measurements and analyses suggested that direct injection of smoke into the free troposphere within fire plumes was not an important mechanism for vertical mixing of aerosols in equatorial Asia. I also characterized the sensitivity of smoke clouds to regional drought, and investigated how climate responded to the smoke forcing using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 3. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies drought stress during El Nino. I expanded the scope of this project beyond equatorial Asia and characterized the global climate response to smoke aerosols using the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), embedded within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). A combination of smoke-induced tropospheric heating and reduced surface temperatures increased equatorial subsidence and weakened and expanded the Hadley cells. As a consequence, precipitation decreased over tropical forests in South America, Africa and equatorial Asia. These results are consistent with the observed correlation between global temperatures and the strength of the Hadley circulation and studies linking black carbon tropospheric heating and tropical expansion.

  6. Development of a global LAI/ FAPAR estimation algorithm for JAXA's new earth observation satellite,GCOM-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Nasahara, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Honda, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is planning to launch a new earth observation satellite, GCOM-C1 (Global Change Observation Mission 1st-Climate) in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2016. SGLI (Second generation GLobal Imager) is a radiometer, which has 17 channels from near ultraviolet to thermal infrared. Furthermore, it has the features, such as 250m spatial resolution, polarization, and multi-angle observation. In the GCOM-C1 land science team, vegetation index, above ground biomass, LAI (Leaf Area Index), FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation), etc. are scheduled to be generated from SGLI data as standard products. These are important in order to estimate terrestrial carbon cycle. In this study, we propose a new LAI and FAPAR estimation algorithm from SGLI data and the proposed algorithm was applied to Terra/ MODIS data. The relation between LAI and BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) in red and near infrared bands or FAPAR are dependent on crown cover ratio. Therefore, LUT (Look Up Table) of crown cover ratio, LAI and BRF in red and near infrared or FAPAR are created by FLiES which is 3-dimensional radiative transfer model (Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185). First, crown cover ratio is estimated from multiple land surface reflecntace in red and near infrared bands based on LUT of BRF in red and near infrared bands. Next, LAI and FAPAR are estimated from land surface reflectance in red and near infrared band based on estimated crown cover ratio and LUT of BRF in red and near infrared and FAPAR. As a result of applying Terra/ MODIS land surface reflectance product (MOD09), estimated LAI and FAPAR agreed with LAI and FAPAR observed at the AmeriFlux sites.

  7. Distribution of N2O in the atmosphere under global warming - a simulation study with the MPI Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Manzini, Elisa; Reick, Christian H.; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by an increasing release of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (N2O). Besides fossil fuel burning, also land use change and land management are anthropogenic sources of GHGs. Especially inputs of reactive nitrogen via fertilizer and deposition lead to enhanced emissions of N2O. One effect of a drastic future increase in surface temperature is a modification of atmospheric circulation, e.g. an accelerated Brewer Dobson circulation affecting the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decayed only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in atmospheric circulation, especially changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere, will affect the atmospheric transport, decay, and distribution of N2O. In our study we assess the impact of global warming on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O. As terrestrial N2O emissions are highly determined by inputs of reactive nitrogen - the location of which being determined by human choice - we examine in particular the importance of latitudinal source regions of N2O for its global distribution. For this purpose we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation.

  8. The Representation of Tropical Cyclones Within the Global William Putman Non-Hydrostatic Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) at Cloud-Permitting Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-S), an earth system model developed in the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), has integrated the non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid. The extension to a non-hydrostatic dynamical framework and the quasi-uniform cubed-sphere geometry permits the efficient exploration of global weather and climate modeling at cloud permitting resolutions of 10- to 4-km on today's high performance computing platforms. We have explored a series of incremental increases in global resolution with GEOS-S from irs standard 72-level 27-km resolution (approx.5.5 million cells covering the globe from the surface to 0.1 hPa) down to 3.5-km (approx. 3.6 billion cells).

  9. 76 FR 77108 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Engines Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1... engines. This AD was prompted by three reports of high- pressure turbine (HPT) case burn-through...

  10. Overview of NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both the space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development.

  11. NASA Earth Remote Sensing Programs: An Overview with Special Emphasis on the NASA/JAXA Led Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of NASA's operations monitoring the earth from space. It includes information on NASA's administrative divisions and key operating earth science missions with specific information on the Landsat satellites, Seastar spacecraft, and the TRMM satellite.

  12. Global climate impacts of fixing the Southern Ocean shortwave radiation bias in the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. E.; Medeiros, B.; Yettella, V. K. R.; Hannay, C.; Caldwell, P.; Wall, C.; Bitz, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    A large, long-standing, and pervasive climate model bias is excessive absorbed shortwave radiation (ASR) over the mid-latitude oceans, especially the Southern Ocean. We investigate both the underlying mechanisms for and climate impacts of this bias within the Community Earth System Model with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CESM-CAM5). Excessive Southern Ocean ASR in CESM-CAM5 results in part because low-level clouds contain insufficient amounts of supercooled liquid. In a present-day atmosphere-only run, an observationally motivated modification to the shallow convection detrainment increases supercooled cloud liquid, brightens low-level clouds, and substantially reduces the Southern Ocean ASR bias. Tuning to maintain global energy balance enables reduction of a compensating tropical ASR bias. In the resulting pre-industrial fully coupled run with a brighter Southern Ocean and dimmer Tropics, the Southern Ocean cools and the Tropics warm. As a result of the enhanced meridional temperature gradient, poleward heat transport increases in both hemispheres (especially the Southern Hemisphere) and the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric jet strengthens. Cross-equatorial heat transport increases in the ocean, but not in the atmosphere. As a result, a proposed atmospheric teleconnection that links Southern Ocean ASR bias reduction and cooling with northward shifts in the Intertropical Convergence Zone is not found. All results discussed above are for the transient response. Ongoing work to assess the equilibrium response and the impact of the fix climate change experiments results will also be presented.

  13. Chemically Inhomogeneous RE-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with High Figure of Merit: Solution to Global Rare Earth Criticality.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiaying; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi

    2016-08-24

    The global rare earth (RE) criticality, especially for those closely-relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-typed permanent magnets (PMs), has triggered tremendous attempts to develop new alternatives. Prospective candidates La/Ce with high abundance, however, cannot provide an equivalent performance due to inferior magnetic properties of (La/Ce)2Fe14B to Nd2Fe14B. Here we report high figure-of-merit La/Ce-rich RE-Fe-B PMs, where La/Ce are inhomogeneously distributed among the 2:14:1 phase. The resultant exchange coupling within an individual grain and magnetostatic interactions across grains ensure much superior performance to the La/Ce homogeneously distributed magnet. Maximum energy product (BH)max of 42.2 MGOe is achieved even with 36 wt. % La-Ce incorporation. The cost performance, (BH)max/cost, has been raised by 27.1% compared to a 48.9 MGOe La/Ce-free commercial magnet. The construction of chemical heterogeneity offers recipes to develop commercial-grade PMs using the less risky La/Ce, and also provides a promising solution to the REs availability constraints.

  14. Chemically Inhomogeneous RE-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with High Figure of Merit: Solution to Global Rare Earth Criticality

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiaying; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi

    2016-01-01

    The global rare earth (RE) criticality, especially for those closely-relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-typed permanent magnets (PMs), has triggered tremendous attempts to develop new alternatives. Prospective candidates La/Ce with high abundance, however, cannot provide an equivalent performance due to inferior magnetic properties of (La/Ce)2Fe14B to Nd2Fe14B. Here we report high figure-of-merit La/Ce-rich RE-Fe-B PMs, where La/Ce are inhomogeneously distributed among the 2:14:1 phase. The resultant exchange coupling within an individual grain and magnetostatic interactions across grains ensure much superior performance to the La/Ce homogeneously distributed magnet. Maximum energy product (BH)max of 42.2 MGOe is achieved even with 36 wt. % La-Ce incorporation. The cost performance, (BH)max/cost, has been raised by 27.1% compared to a 48.9 MGOe La/Ce-free commercial magnet. The construction of chemical heterogeneity offers recipes to develop commercial-grade PMs using the less risky La/Ce, and also provides a promising solution to the REs availability constraints. PMID:27553789

  15. Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

    2005-01-01

    An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

  16. Review of the Applications of Formosat-2 on Rapidly Responding to Global Disasters and Monitoring Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2009-12-01

    Formosat-2 is the first satellite with high-spatial-resolution sensor deployed in a daily-revisit orbit in the world. Together with its agility of pointing ±45 degree both across and along track, we are able to observe each accessible scene from the same angle under the similar illumination conditions. These characteristics make Formosat-2 an ideal satellite for site surveillance. We developed a Formosat-2 automatic image processing system (F-2 AIPS) that can accurately and rapidly process a large amount of Formosat-2 images to produce the higher levels of products, including rigorous band-to-band coregistration, automatic orthorectification, multi-temporal image coregistration and radiance normalization, and pan-sharpening. This system has been successfully employed to rapidly respond to many international disaster events in the past five years, including flood caused by Typhoon Mindulle (2004), landslide caused by Typhoon Aere (2004), South Asia earthquake and tsunami (2004), Hurricane Katrina (2005), California wildfire (2007), Sichuan Earthquake (2008), Typhoon Kalmaegi (2008), Typhoon Sinlaku (2008), Mountain Ali wildfire (2009), Victoria bushfire in Australia (2009), Honduras earthquake (2009), Typhoon Morakot (2009). This paper reviews the applications of Formosat-2 on rapidly responding to global disasters and monitoring earth environment.

  17. Chemically Inhomogeneous RE-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with High Figure of Merit: Solution to Global Rare Earth Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiaying; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi

    2016-08-01

    The global rare earth (RE) criticality, especially for those closely-relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-typed permanent magnets (PMs), has triggered tremendous attempts to develop new alternatives. Prospective candidates La/Ce with high abundance, however, cannot provide an equivalent performance due to inferior magnetic properties of (La/Ce)2Fe14B to Nd2Fe14B. Here we report high figure-of-merit La/Ce-rich RE-Fe-B PMs, where La/Ce are inhomogeneously distributed among the 2:14:1 phase. The resultant exchange coupling within an individual grain and magnetostatic interactions across grains ensure much superior performance to the La/Ce homogeneously distributed magnet. Maximum energy product (BH)max of 42.2 MGOe is achieved even with 36 wt. % La-Ce incorporation. The cost performance, (BH)max/cost, has been raised by 27.1% compared to a 48.9 MGOe La/Ce-free commercial magnet. The construction of chemical heterogeneity offers recipes to develop commercial-grade PMs using the less risky La/Ce, and also provides a promising solution to the REs availability constraints.

  18. Breaking Waves and Global-Scale Chemical Transport in theEarth's Atmosphere, with Spinoffs for the Sun's Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, M. E.

    The atmosphere used to be thought of using classical ideas about turbulence that looked back to analogies with gas kinetic theory, involving among other things an assumption that departures from spatial homogeneity are weak. This led to problematic notions like `negative eddy viscosity'. However, more recent advances in understanding the global-scale atmospheric circulation have shown the importance of recognizing --- as essential, leading-order features --- the strong spatial inhomogeneity of atmospheric turbulence together with the crucial role of wave propagation. For this purpose one can usefully draw a rough analogy with an ocean beach, where (a) turbulence in the surf zone owes its existence to waves arriving from elsewhere, and where (b) the spatial inhomogeneity of that turbulence is an essential feature of what is called wave dissipation by breaking. There is a phase-coherent interaction between the waves and the highly inhomogeneous turbulence. One well known consequence is the generation of mean currents along beaches by the convergence of the radiation stress or wave-induced momentum transport. For the global atmospheric circulation, the two most important kinds of waves are internal gravity waves and Rossby or vorticity waves. The chirality of Rossby waves, tied to the sense of the Earth's rotation, results in an angular momentum transport that is intrinsically one-signed and therefore ratchet-like, producing via Coriolis effects an inexorable `gyroscopic pumping' of air systematically poleward that dominates, for instance, the global-scale transport of chlorofluorocarbons and other long-lived greenhouse gases in the stratosphere. The Rossby-wave counterpart to ocean-beach wave breaking involves not 3-dimensional but `layerwise 2-dimensional' turbulence, producing inhomogeneous mixing, quasi-horizontally along stratification surfaces, of a spin-like material invariant called the Rossby-Ertel potential vorticity. Some of the same considerations apply to

  19. Building Nationally-Focussed, Globally Federated, High Performance Earth Science Platforms to Solve Next Generation Social and Economic Issues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben; Foster, Clinton; Pugh, Timothy; Uhlherr, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Digital geoscience data and information are integral to informing decisions on the social, economic and environmental management of natural resources. Traditionally, such decisions were focused on regional or national viewpoints only, but it is increasingly being recognised that global perspectives are required to meet new challenges such as predicting impacts of climate change; sustainably exploiting scarce water, mineral and energy resources; and protecting our communities through better prediction of the behaviour of natural hazards. In recent years, technical advances in scientific instruments have resulted in a surge in data volumes, with data now being collected at unprecedented rates and at ever increasing resolutions. The size of many earth science data sets now exceed the computational capacity of many government and academic organisations to locally store and dynamically access the data sets; to internally process and analyse them to high resolutions; and then to deliver them online to clients, partners and stakeholders. Fortunately, at the same time, computational capacities have commensurately increased (both cloud and HPC): these can now provide the capability to effectively access the ever-growing data assets within realistic time frames. However, to achieve this, data and computing need to be co-located: bandwidth limits the capacity to move the large data sets; the data transfers are too slow; and latencies to access them are too high. These scenarios are driving the move towards more centralised High Performance (HP) Infrastructures. The rapidly increasing scale of data, the growing complexity of software and hardware environments, combined with the energy costs of running such infrastructures is creating a compelling economic argument for just having one or two major national (or continental) HP facilities that can be federated internationally to enable earth and environmental issues to be tackled at global scales. But at the same time, if

  20. Common aero vehicle autonomous reentry trajectory optimization satisfying waypoint and no-fly zone constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorris, Timothy R.

    2007-12-01

    To support the Air Force's Global Reach concept, a Common Aero Vehicle is being designed to support the Global Strike mission. "Waypoints" are specified for reconnaissance or multiple payload deployments and "no-fly zones" are specified for geopolitical restrictions or threat avoidance. Due to time critical targets and multiple scenario analysis, an autonomous solution is preferred over a time-intensive, manually iterative one. Thus, a real-time or near real-time autonomous trajectory optimization technique is presented to minimize the flight time, satisfy terminal and intermediate constraints, and remain within the specified vehicle heating and control limitations. This research uses the Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV) as a simplified two-dimensional platform to compare multiple solution techniques. The solution techniques include a unique geometric approach developed herein, a derived analytical dynamic optimization technique, and a rapidly emerging collocation numerical approach. This up-and-coming numerical technique is a direct solution method involving discretization then dualization, with pseudospectral methods and nonlinear programming used to converge to the optimal solution. This numerical approach is applied to the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) as the test platform for the full three-dimensional reentry trajectory optimization problem. The culmination of this research is the verification of the optimality of this proposed numerical technique, as shown for both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional models. Additionally, user implementation strategies are presented to improve accuracy and enhance solution convergence. Thus, the contributions of this research are the geometric approach, the user implementation strategies, and the determination and verification of a numerical solution technique for the optimal reentry trajectory problem that minimizes time to target while satisfying vehicle dynamics and control limitation, and heating, waypoint, and no

  1. Fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engines: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Leonid M.; Petrunin, Ivan V.; Thompson, Chris

    2004-03-01

    A new genetic approach to fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engine blades is presented. The approach consists of simultaneously using two diagnostic features: the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform of vibroacoustical signals. This approach is more fundamental than traditional approaches based on the power spectral density, phase spectrum and Hartley transform; each of these approaches is a special case of the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given based on the processing of signals generated using a nonlinear model of tested blades. The generated signals are the forced vibroacoustical oscillations of cracked and un-cracked blades. The numerical examples show that crack detection ismore effective when using the new approach than when u sing the power spectral density approach. The presented experimental results using un-cracked and cracked turbuine blades from an aero-engine are matched with numerical results. The proposed approach offers an effectiveness improvement over the traditional approach based on power spectral density.

  2. Current Challenges for HTCMC Aero-Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2007-01-01

    In comparison to the best metallic materials, HTCMC aero-propulsion engine components offer the opportunity of reduced weight and higher temperature operation, with corresponding improvements in engine cooling requirements, emissions, thrust, and specific fuel consumption. Although much progress has been made in the development of advanced HTCMC constituent materials and processes, major challenges still remain for their implementation into these components. The objectives of this presentation are to briefly review (1) potential HTCMC aero-propulsion components and their generic material performance requirements, (2) recent progress at NASA and elsewhere concerning advanced constituents and processes for meeting these requirements, (3) key HTCMC component implementation challenges that are currently being encountered, and (4) on-going activities within the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that are addressing these challenges.

  3. 2005 PathfinderPlus Aero-Elastic Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the 2005 Pathfinder along with an investigation of its aeroelastic responses. The contents include: 1) HALE Class of Vehicles; 2) Aero-elastic Research Flights Overall Objective; 3) General Arrangement; 4) Sensor Locations; 5) NASA Ramp Operations; 6) Lakebed Operations; 7) 1st Flight Data Set; 8) Tool development / data usage; 9) HALE Tool Development & Validation; 10) Building a HALE Foundation; 11) Compelling Needs Drive HALE Efforts; and 12) Team Photo

  4. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thiemann, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can be computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  5. Improvement of the AeroClipper system for cyclones monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Philippe, Duvel Jean

    2016-07-01

    The AeroClipper developed by the French space agency (Centre National d'Études Spatiales, CNES) is a quasi-lagrangian device drifting with surface wind at about 20-30m above the ocean surface. It is a new and original device for real-time and continuous observation of air-sea surface parameters in open ocean remote regions. This device enables the sampling of the variability of surface parameters in particular under convective systems toward which it is attracted. The AeroClipper is therefore an ideal instrument to monitor Tropical Cyclones (TCs) in which they are likely to converge and provide original observations to evaluate and improve our current understanding and diagnostics of TCs as well as their representation in numerical models. In 2008, the AeroClipper demonstrates its capability to be captured by an Ocean Indian cyclone, as two models have converged, without damages, in the eye of Dora cyclone during the 2008 VASCO campaign. This paper will present the improvements of this balloon system for the international project 'the Year of Maritime Continent'.

  6. Jerks as Guiding Influences on the Global Environment: Effects on the Solid Earth, Its Angular Momentum and Lithospheric Plate Motions, the Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. M.; Leybourne, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Jerks are thought to be the result of torques applied at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) caused by either of two possible processes, working together or separately: 1) Electromagnetic Induction and 2) Mechanical Slippage. In the first case, it is thought that electromagnetic energy slowly builds-up at the CMB, reaches some critical level, and is then suddenly released, causing a geomagneticly induced torque at the CMB due to the differential electrical conductivity between the lower mantle and the surface of the outer core. The second case is driven by stress and strain increases that buildup mechanical potential energy, which is released when a critical level is reached, thereby generating a torque at the CMB. Generally, a trigger is required to start the Jerk process in motion. In the electromagnetic case, it is suggested that energy from the Sun may supply the requisite energy buildup that is subsequently released by a magnetic storm trigger, for instance. In the case of mechanical slippage, bari-center motion among the Earth, Moon, and Sun, as well as tidal forces and mass redistributions through Earth's wobbles combine to provide the accumulated stress/strain buildup and subsequent trigger. The resulting fluid flow changes at the CMB result in geomagnetic field changes and Joule heating throughout the solid Earth, its oceans, and atmosphere. It is shown that the Global Temperature Anomaly (GTA), which is measured at Earth's surface, correlates with changes in the geomagnetic non-dipole moment, and thus with core fluid motions. This links Global Warming and weather with core processes, important examples being the 1930's Dust Bowl Era and the 1947 Impulse. The CMB torque also affects Earth's angular momentum. But it appears that magnetic storms can as well. As a consequence, the Jet Stream, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the Global Oscillation System (i.e., El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decade Oscillation, etc.) are

  7. An Overview on the Project to Develop Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Pan, M.; Gao, H.; Wood, E. F.; Houser, P. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Pinker, R.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    We aim to develop consistent, long-term Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) for the major components (storages and fluxes) of the terrestrial water cycle at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees (latitude-longitude) and for the period 1950 to near-present. The resulting ESDRs are intended to provide a consistent basis for estimating the mean state and variability of the land surface water cycle at the spatial scale of the major global river basins. The ESDRs to produce include a) surface meteorology (precipitation, air temperature, humidity and wind), b) surface downward radiation (solar and longwave) and c) derived and/or assimilated fluxes and storages such as surface soil moisture storage, total basin water storage, snow water equivalent, storage in large lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff. We construct data records for all variables back to 1950, recognizing that the post-satellite data will be of higher quality than pre-satellite (a reasonable compromise given the need for long-term records to define interannual and interdecadal variability of key water cycle variables). A distinguishing feature will be inclusion of two variables that reflect the massive effects of anthropogenic manipulation of the terrestrial water cycle, specifically reservoir storage, and irrigation water use. The overall goal of the project is to develop long term, consistent ESDRs for terrestrial water cycle states and variables by updating and extending previously funded Pathfinder data set activities to the investigators, and by making available the data set to the scientific community and data users via a state-of-the-art internet web-portal. The ESDRs will utilize algorithms and methods that are well documented in the peer reviewed literature. The ESDRs will merge satellite-derived products with predictions of the same variables by LSMs driven by merged satellite and in situ forcing data sets (most notably precipitation), with the constraint that the

  8. Host Model Uncertainties in Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates: Results from the AeroCom Prescribed Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, Phillip; Schutgens, Nick A.; Bellouin, N.; Bian, Huisheng; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Ghan, Steven J.; Huneeus, N.; Kinne, Stefan; Lin, G.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Myhre, G.; Penner, J. E.; Randles, Cynthia; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Takemura, T.; Yu, Fangqun; Yu, Hongbin; Zhou, Cheng

    2013-03-20

    Simulated multi-model "diversity" in aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates is often perceived as mea- sure of aerosol uncertainty. However, current models used for aerosol radiative forcing calculations vary considerably in model components relevant for forcing calculations and the associated "host-model uncertainties" are generally convoluted with the actual aerosol uncertainty. In this AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of identical aerosol radiative properties in nine participating models. Even with prescribed aerosol radiative properties,simulated clear-sky and all-sky aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity. For a purely scattering case with globally constant optical depth of 0.2, the global-mean all-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is -4.51 Wm-2 and the inter-model standard deviation is 0.70 Wm-2, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 15%. For a case with partially absorbing aerosol with an aerosol optical depth of 0.2 and single scattering albedo of 0.8, the forcing changes to 1.26 Wm-2, and the standard deviation increases to 1.21 W-2, corresponding to a significant relative standard deviation of 96%. However, the top-of-atmosphere forcing variability owing to absorption is low, with relative standard deviations of 9% clear-sky and 12% all-sky. Scaling the forcing standard deviation for a purely scattering case to match the sulfate radiative in the AeroCom Direct Effect experiment, demonstrates that host model uncertain- ties could explain about half of the overall sulfate forcing diversity of 0.13 Wm-2 in the AeroCom Direct Radiative Effect experiment. Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model components, such as stratocumulus cloud decks or areas with poorly constrained.

  9. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  10. Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect from AeroCom Phase II Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; vanNoije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J. -H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 W m(sup-2), with a mean of -0.27 W m(sup-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 W m(sup-2). Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study.We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results

  11. Insights Into the Dynamics of Planetary Interiors Obtained Through the Study of Global Distribution of Volcanoes: Lessons From Earth and Venus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon-Tapia, E.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of volcanic features is ultimately controlled by processes taking place beneath the surface of a planet. For this reason, characterization of volcano distribution at a global scale can be used to obtain insights concerning dynamic aspects of planetary interiors. In this work, description of the distribution of volcanic features observed on Earth and Venus is completed using density contours obtained with the Fisher kernel. Attention is focused on similar features observed in both planets. In particular two features are examined with more detail: First, a pattern of groups of clusters defining the boundaries of elliptical regions that tentatively can be associated to large mantle plumes. Second, the existence of a uniform distribution of background volcanism. The former pattern is considered to constitute the first order convective pattern of the mantle in Venus, and although it is present on Earth, it is not as prominent. In contrast, the persistent occurrence of volcanic clusters at a lower significance level, suggests the occurrence of a different scale of mantle convection that controls a more uniformly distributed volcanism. Both, the first order related to large mantle-plumes and the background volcanism are superimposed on Earth to the volcanism controlled by plate tectonics. Consequently, the global distribution of volcanism in both planets reveals that at least three types of mantle convection can take place in the terrestrial planets, and that such types of mantle convection can coexist simultaneously in one given planet, although in each case, a dominant mode is different.

  12. Towards the Development and Validation of a Global Field Size and Irrigation Map using Crowdsourcing, Mobile Apps and Google Earth Engine in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Nordling, J.; See, L. M.; McCallum, I.; Perger, C.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Mucher, S.; Bydekerke, L.; Havlik, P.; Kraxner, F.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has developed a global cropland extent map, which supports the monitoring and assessment activities of GEOGLAM (Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative). Through the European-funded SIGMA (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture and its Impact on the Environment in support of GEOGLAM) project, IIASA is continuing to support GEOGLAM by providing cropland projections in the future and modelling environmental impacts on agriculture under various scenarios. In addition, IIASA is focusing on two specific elements within SIGMA: the development of a global field size and irrigation map; and mobile app development for in-situ data collection and validation of remotely-sensed products. Cropland field size is a very useful indicator for agricultural monitoring yet the information we have at a global scale is currently very limited. IIASA has already created a global map of field size at a 1 km resolution using crowdsourced data from Geo-Wiki as a first approximation. Using automatic classification of Landsat imagery and algorithms contained within Google Earth Engine, initial experimentation has shown that circular fields and landscape structures can easily be extracted. Not only will this contribute to improving the global map of field size, it can also be used to create a global map that contains a large proportion of the world's irrigated areas, which will be another useful contribution to GEOGLAM. The field size map will also be used to stratify and develop a global crop map in SIGMA. Mobile app development in support of in-situ data collection is another area where IIASA is currently working. An Android app has been built using the Open Data Toolkit (ODK) and extended further with spatial mapping capabilities called GeoODK. The app allows users to collect data on different crop types and delineate fields on the ground, which can be used to validate the

  13. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  14. Global warming as a detectable thermodynamic marker of Earth-like extrasolar civilizations: the case for a telescope like Colossus.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jeff R; Berdyugina, Svetlana V

    2015-07-01

    Earth-like civilizations generate heat from the energy that they utilize. The thermal radiation from this heat can be a thermodynamic marker for civilizations. Here we model such planetary radiation on Earth-like planets and propose a strategy for detecting such an alien unintentional thermodynamic electromagnetic biomarker. We show that astronomical infrared (IR) civilization biomarkers may be detected within an interestingly large cosmic volume using a 70 m-class or larger telescope. In particular, the Colossus telescope with achievable coronagraphic and adaptive optics performance may reveal Earth-like civilizations from visible and IR photometry timeseries' taken during an exoplanetary orbit period. The detection of an alien heat signature will have far-ranging implications, but even a null result, given 70 m aperture sensitivity, could also have broad social implications.

  15. Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

  16. 78 FR 32363 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... propose to rescind an airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday...

  17. 77 FR 35888 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes. This...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  19. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  1. Global Performance Characterization of the Three Burn Trans-Earth Injection Maneuver Sequence over the Lunar Nodal Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jacob; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Lee, David E.; Condon, Gerald L.; Dawn, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will be required to perform a three-burn trans-Earth injection (TEI) maneuver sequence to return to Earth from low lunar orbit. The origin of this approach lies in the Constellation Program requirements for access to any lunar landing site location combined with anytime lunar departure. This paper documents the development of optimized databases used to rapidly model the performance requirements of the TEI three-burn sequence for an extremely large number of mission cases. It also discusses performance results for lunar departures covering a complete 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle as well as general characteristics of the optimized three-burn TEI sequence.

  2. EarthEnv-DEM90: A nearly-global, void-free, multi-scale smoothed, 90m digital elevation model from fused ASTER and SRTM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Natalie; Regetz, James; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of DEM products are available to the public at no cost, though all are characterized by trade-offs in spatial coverage, data resolution, and quality. The absence of a high-resolution, high-quality, well-described and vetted, free, global consensus product was the impetus for the creation of a new DEM product described here, 'EarthEnv-DEM90'. This new DEM is a compilation dataset constructed via rigorous techniques by which ASTER GDEM2 and CGIAR-CSI v4.1 products were fused into a quality-enhanced, consistent grid of elevation estimates that spans ∼91% of the globe. EarthEnv-DEM90 was assembled using methods for seamlessly merging input datasets, thoroughly filling voids, and smoothing data irregularities (e.g. those caused by DEM noise) from the approximated surface. The result is a DEM product in which elevational artifacts are strongly mitigated from the input data fusion zone, substantial voids are filled in the northern-most regions of the globe, and the entire DEM exhibits reduced terrain noise. As important as the final product is a well defined methodology, along with new processing techniques and careful attention to final outputs, that extends the value and usability of the work beyond just this single product. Finally, we outline EarthEnv-DEM90 acquisition instructions and metadata availability, so that researchers can obtain this high-resolution, high-quality, nearly-global new DEM product for the study of wide-ranging global phenomena.

  3. Recent Progresses in Incorporating Human Land-Water Management into Global Land Surface Models Toward Their Integration into Earth System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-01-01

    The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management. As the changes in the water cycle on land can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to represent human land-water management in Earth system models (ESMs). During the recent past, noteworthy progress has been made in large-scale modeling of human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made in integrating the newly developed schemes into ESMs. This study reviews the progresses made in incorporating human factors in large-scale hydrological models and their integration into ESMs. The study focuses primarily on the recent advancements and existing challenges in incorporating human impacts in global land surface models (LSMs) as a way forward to the development of ESMs with humans as integral components, but a brief review of global hydrological models (GHMs) is also provided. The study begins with the general overview of human impacts on the water cycle. Then, the algorithms currently employed to represent irrigation, reservoir operation, and groundwater pumping are discussed. Next, methodological deficiencies in current modeling approaches and existing challenges are identified. Furthermore, light is shed on the sources of uncertainties associated with model parameterizations, grid resolution, and datasets used for forcing and validation. Finally, representing human land-water management in LSMs is highlighted as an important research direction toward developing integrated models using ESM frameworks for the holistic study of human-water interactions within the Earths system.

  4. Global Density of the Earth Plasmasphere Deduced from the Images of its Phantom by Using a Fbp and Art Computer Tomographic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ronglan; Huang, Ya; Zhao, Hua; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Xin; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Hua

    The similarity of the projection in X ray Computer Tomography (CT) with the column density of the EUV Imager, provide the possibility to deduct the global density of Plasmasphere from the image of plasmaspheric, by using CT technique. Similar with the Medical CT, a phantom consists of plasmasphere and ionosphere had been used. The boundary of the plasmasphere is supposed as a dipole field line, with L= 4 Earth radii (Re), and the density within is equal to 1 and uniform. The ionosphere can be expected as a shell, with an inner and outer radius equal to 1.1 and 1. 2Re. And the density is supposed as 10.A Filtered Back-projection (FBP) Algorithm, and Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) CT had been used. The FBP is the simplest and basic algorithm in CT Techniques by using parallel projections. It can be used in the lunar based Earth's Plasmaspheric EUV Imager, since the field of view of the EUV Imager is small. In the EUV Imager of IMAGE satellite, since the imager is near to the Earth, so that the reconstruction algorithm will be a cone-beam. By using a cone beam to parallel beam rebinning, where the noise-ratio of cone beam versus parallel back-projection is acceptable, we can also use parallel back projection in the EUV Imager of IMAGE satellite. An improve accuracy of reconstruction algorithm is achieved by using a more complicate ART. The reconstruction quality is more efficient than FBP, when the image included the Earth's shelter and limit view angle imaging. To illustrate our result, we divide our reconstruction into some typical slices, parallel with the noon meridian plane of the Erath. For FBP, when the distance of the slice from the noon meridian plane is smaller than an Earth radius, we find some discrepancies between the reconstruction and the initial phantom, where ART is much better than FBT

  5. Exhaust System Experiments at NASA's AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the planned testing in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab (AAPL) in the coming 15 months. It was stressed in the presentation that these are plans that are subject to change due to changes in funding and/or programmatic direction. The first chart shows a simplified schedule of test entries with funding sponsor and dates for each. In subsequent charts are pages devoted to the Objectives and Issues with each test entry, along with a graphic intended to represent the test activity. The chart for each test entry also indicates sponsorship of the activity, and a contact person.!

  6. Future NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development. Finally, the presentation examines what type of non-traditional learning areas should be emphasized in student curriculum so that the engineering needs of the third decade of the 21st Century are met.

  7. Unsteady fluid and optical simulation of transonic aero-windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    The time-varying fluid and optical fields of several cavity configurations have been computed on overset mesh systems using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and geometric optics. Comparisons between numerical results and Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) flight data are made in two-dimensions for a quieted cavity geometry with two lip-blowing rates. In three-dimensions, two proposed aero-window locations for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) are discussed. The simulations indicate that convection of large shear layer structures across the aperture cause the blur circle diameter to be three times the diffraction-limited diameter in the near-infrared band.

  8. Fatigue Life Analysis of Turbine Disks Based on Load Spectra of Aero-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Feng; Lv, Zhiqiang; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Load spectra of aero-engines reflect the process of operating aircrafts as well as the changes of parameters of aircrafts. According to flight hours and speed cycle numbers of the aero-engines, the relationship between load spectra and the fatigue life of main components of the aero-engines is obtained. Based on distribution function and a generalized stress-strength interference model, the cumulative fatigue damage of aero-engines is then calculated. After applying the analysis of load spectra and the cumulative fatigue damage theory, the fatigue life of the first-stage turbine disks of the aero-engines is evaluated by using the S-N curve and Miner's rule in this paper.

  9. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  10. Application of a global solar wind/planetary obstacle interaction computational model: Earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations undertaken in this report relate to studies of various solar wind interaction phenomena with Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. A computational model is developed for the determination of the detailed plasma and magnetic field properties associated with various planetary obstacles throughout the solar system.

  11. Quasi-Cartesian Finite-Difference Computation of Seismic Wave Propagation for a Three-Dimensional Sub-global Earth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Komatsu, M.; Toyokuni, G.; Nakamura, T.; Okamoto, T.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient finite-difference scheme is developed to compute seismic wave propagation for a partial spherical shell model of a three-dimensionally (3-D) heterogeneous global earth structure. This new scheme solves the elastodynamic equations in the "quasi-Cartesian" coordinate system similar to a local Cartesian one, instead of the spherical coordinate system, with a staggered-grid finite-difference method in time domain (FDTD) which is one of the most popular numerical methods in seismic motion simulations for local to regional scale models. The proposed scheme may be useful for modeling seismic wave propagation in a very large region of sub-global scale beyond regional and less than global ones, where the effects of roundness of earth cannot be ignored. In "quasi-Cartesian" coordinates, x, y, and z are set to be locally in directions of latitude, longitude and depth, respectively. The stencil for each of the x-derivatives then depends on the depth coordinate at the evaluation point, while the stencil for each of the y-derivatives varies with both coordinates of the depth and latitude. In order to reduce lateral variations of the horizontal finite-difference stencils over the computational domain, we move the target area to a location around the equator of the computational spherical coordinate system using a way similar to the conversion from equatorial coordinates to ecliptic coordinates. The developed scheme can be easily implemented in 3-D Cartesian FDTD codes for local to regional scale modeling by changing a very small part of the codes. Our scheme may be able to open a window for multi-scale modeling of seismic wave propagation in scales from sub-global to local one.

  12. AeroVironment technician checks a Helios solar cell panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A technician at AeroVironment's Design Development Center in Simi Valley, California, checks a panel of silicon solar cells for conductivity and voltage. The bi-facial cells, fabricated by SunPower, Inc., of Sunnyvale, California, are among 64,000 solar cells which have been installed on the Helios Prototype solar-powered aircraft to provide power to its 14 electric motors and operating systems. Developed by AeroVironment under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude aircraft which can perform atmospheric science missions and serve as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere. Target goals set by NASA for the giant 246-foot span flying wing include reaching and sustaining subsonic horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude in 2001, and sustained continuous flight for at least four days and nights above 50,000 feet altitude with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now under development in 2003.

  13. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  14. Spectral Behavior of Weakly Compressible Aero-Optical Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In classical theories of optical distortions by atmospheric turbulence, an appropriate and key assumption is that index-of-refraction variations are dominated by fluctuations in temperature and the effects of turbulent pressure fluctuations are negligible. This assumption is, however, not generally valid for aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent flow over an optical aperture, where both temperature and pressures fluctuations may contribute significantly to the index-of-refraction fluctuations. A general expression for weak fluctuations in refractive index is derived using the ideal gas law and Gladstone-Dale relation and applied to describe the spectral behavior of aero-optical distortions. Large-eddy simulations of weakly compressible, temporally evolving shear layers are then used to verify the theoretical results. Computational results support theoretical findings and confirm that if the log slope of the 1-D density spectrum in the inertial range is -mρ , the optical phase distortion spectral slope is given by - (mρ + 1) . The value of mρ is then shown to be dependent on the ratio of shear-layer free-stream densities and bounded by the spectral slopes of temperature and pressure fluctuations. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001 and Blue Waters Graduate Fellowship Program.

  15. Two-way coupling of the global EMAC and the regional COSMO model using the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, Astrid; Hofmann, Christiane; Glaeser, Gregor; Joeckel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Based on the well established one-way on-line coupling of the regional chemistry climate model COSMO/MESSy to the global EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) model, a two-way coupling of these two models is developed within the MiKlip (decadal predictions) subproject FLAGSHIP (Feedback of a Limited-Area model to the Global Scale implemented for HIndcasts and Projections). By means of the two-way coupling, smaller scale processes resolved in the COSMO model are fed back to the global scale. Expectably, this improves the representation of processes on the global scale. The technical implementation of the two-way coupling includes a number of challenges, especially the ECHAM and the COSMO model are models of different types: The global ECHAM model has a spectral core and solves the hydrostatic equations of motion, while the regional COSMO model is a non-hydrostatic grid point model. While the coupling of passive tracers and the humidity fields functions well in our test cases, the dynamical coupling proves to be an extra challenge, especially due to the pressure based vertical grid and the spectral core of the model. Here, we report the current status of the two-way coupling and show first results for idealised test cases.

  16. Assessing environmental drivers of vegetation greenness by integrating multiple earth observation data in the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Schaphoff, Sibyll; von Bloh, Werner; Thurner, Martin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Recently produced satellite datasets of vegetation greenness demonstrate a widespread greening of the earth in the last three decades. These positive trends in vegetation greenness are related to changes in leaf area, vegetation cover and photosynthetic activity. Climatic changes, CO2 fertilization, disturbances and other land cover changes are potential drivers of these greening trends. Nevertheless, different satellite datasets show different magnitudes and trends in vegetation greenness. This fact raises the question about the reliability of these datasets. On the other hand, global vegetation models can be potentially used to assess the effects of environmental drivers on vegetation greenness and thus to explore the environmental reliability of these datasets. Unfortunately, current vegetation models have several weaknesses in reproducing observed temporal dynamics in vegetation greenness. Our aim is to integrate multiple earth observation data sets in a dynamic global vegetation model in order to 1) improve the model's capability to reproduce observed dynamics and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness and 2) to assess the spatial and temporal importance of environmental drivers for the seasonal to decadal variability of vegetation greenness. For this purpose, we developed a data integration system for the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model (LPJmL-DIS). We implemented a new phenology scheme in LPJmL to better represent observed temporal dynamics of FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation). Model parameters were globally optimized using a genetic optimization algorithm. The model optimization was performed globally against 30 year FAPAR time series (GIMMS3g dataset), against 10 year albedo time series (MODIS) and global patterns of gross primary production as up-scaled from FLUXNET eddy covariance measurements. Additionally, we directly prescribed satellite observations of land and tree cover in LPJmL to better represent global

  17. Global positioning system & Google Earth in the investigation of an outbreak of cholera in a village of Bengaluru Urban district, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Masthi, N.R. Ramesh; Madhusudan, M.; Puthussery, Yannick P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The global positioning system (GPS) technology along with Google Earth is used to measure (spatial map) the accurate distribution of morbidity, mortality and planning of interventions in the community. We used this technology to find out its role in the investigation of a cholera outbreak, and also to identify the cause of the outbreak. Methods: This study was conducted in a village near Bengaluru, Karnataka in June 2013 during a cholera outbreak. House-to-house survey was done to identify acute watery diarrhoea cases. A hand held GPS receiver was used to record north and east coordinates of the households of cases and these values were subsequently plotted on Google Earth map. Water samples were collected from suspected sources for microbiological analysis. Results: A total of 27 cases of acute watery diarrhoea were reported. Fifty per cent of cases were in the age group of 14-44 yr and one death was reported. GPS technology and Google Earth described the accurate location of household of cases and spot map generated showed clustering of cases around the suspected water sources. The attack rate was 6.92 per cent and case fatality rate was 3.7 per cent. Water samples collected from suspected sources showed the presence of Vibrio cholera O1 Ogawa. Interpretation & conclusions: GPS technology and Google Earth were easy to use, helpful to accurately pinpoint the location of household of cases, construction of spot map and follow up of cases. Outbreak was found to be due to contamination of drinking water sources. PMID:26658586

  18. A coupled-adjoint method for high-fidelity aero-structural optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Joaquim Rafael Rost A.

    A new integrated aero-structural design method for aerospace vehicles is presented. The approach combines an aero-structural analysis solver, a coupled aero-structural adjoint solver, a geometry engine, and an efficient gradient-based optimization algorithm. The aero-structural solver ensures accurate solutions by using high-fidelity models for the aerodynamics, structures, and coupling procedure. The coupled aero-structural adjoint solver is used to calculate the sensitivities of aerodynamic and structural cost functions with respect to both aerodynamic shape and structural variables. The aero-structural adjoint sensitivities are compared with those given by the complex-step derivative approximation and finite differences. The proposed method is shown to be both accurate and efficient, exhibiting a significant cost advantage when the gradient of a small number of functions with respect to a large number of design variables is needed. The optimization of a supersonic business jet configuration demonstrates the usefulness and importance of computing aero-structural sensitivities using the coupled-adjoint method.

  19. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge

  20. Development of a global LAI estimation algorithm for JAXA's new earth observation satellite sensor, GCOM-C/SGLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Nasahara, K. N.; Kajiwara, K.; Honda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is defined as the one-side green leaf area per unit ground surface area. Global LAI products, such as MOD15 (Terra&Aqua/MODIS) and CYCLOPES (SPOT/VEGETATION) are used for many global terrestrial carbon models. Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is planning to launch GCOM-C (Global Change Observation Mission-Climate) which carries SGLI (Second-generation GLobal Imager) in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2017. SGLI has the features, such as 17-channel from near ultraviolet to thermal infrared, 250-m spatial resolution, polarization, and multi-angle (nadir and ±45-deg. along-track slant) observation. In the GCOM-C/SGLI land science team, LAI is scheduled to be generated from GCOM-C/SGLI observation data as a standard product (daily 250-m). In extisting algorithms, LAI is estimated by the reverse analysis of vegetation radiative transfer models (RTMs) using multi-spectral and mono-angle observation data. Here, understory layer in vegetation RTMs is assumed by plane parallel (green leaves + soil) which set up arbitrary understroy LAI. However, actual understory consists of various elements, such as green leaves, dead leaves, branches, soil, and snow. Therefore, if understory in vegetation RTMs differs from reality, it will cause an error of LAI to estimate. This report describes an algorithm which estimates LAI in consideration of the influence of understory using GCOM-C/SGLI multi-spectral and multi-angle observation data.

  1. Copenhagen 2009: Could a Cap-and-Trade Market Combat Global Warming and Conserve Earth's Tropical Forests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedle, Harold; Calhoun, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    As the world increasingly comes to terms with the reality of global warming, international negotiators are struggling to work out the terms of a new climate change framework to be finalized this December in Copenhagen, Denmark. One aspect being discussed is a plan to compensate developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by…

  2. Miga Aero Actuator and 2D Machined Mechanical Binary Latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gummin, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators provide the highest force-to-weight ratio of any known actuator. They can be designed for a wide variety of form factors from flat, thin packages, to form-matching packages for existing actuators. SMA actuators can be operated many thousands of times, so that ground testing is possible. Actuation speed can be accurately controlled from milliseconds to position and hold, and even electronic velocity-profile control is possible. SMA actuators provide a high degree of operational flexibility, and are truly smart actuators capable of being accurately controlled by onboard microprocessors across a wide range of voltages. The Miga Aero actuator is a SMA actuator designed specifically for spaceflight applications. Providing 13 mm of stroke with either 20- or 40-N output force in two different models, the Aero actuator is made from low-outgassing PEEK (polyether ether ketone) plastic, stainless steel, and nickel-titanium SMA wires. The modular actuator weighs less than 28 grams. The dorsal output attachment allows the Aero to be used in either PUSH or PULL modes by inverting the mounting orientation. The SPA1 actuator utilizes commercially available SMA actuator wire to provide 3/8-in. (approx. =.1 cm) of stroke at a force of over 28 lb (approx. = .125 N). The force is provided by a unique packaging of the single SMA wire that provides the output force of four SMA wires mechanically in parallel. The output load is shared by allowing the SMA wire to slip around the output attachment end to adjust or balance the load, preventing any individual wire segment from experiencing high loads during actuation. A built-in end limit switch prevents overheating of the SMA element following actuation when used in conjunction with the Miga Analog Driver [a simple MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) switching circuit]. A simple 2D machined mechanical binary latch has been developed to complement the capabilities of SMA wire

  3. Analysis of the impacts of EC-Earth Global Circulation Model in the RCP45 climate change scenario on maximum daily streamflow quantiles at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Campo, Lorenzo; Rudari, Roberto; Herold, Christian; De Angeli, Silvia; Gabellani, Simone; D'Andrea, Mirko; Rodila, Denisa

    2016-04-01

    Climate changes can have an impact on various components of hydrological cycle. From a risk assessment point of view it is certainly interesting understanding how extreme streamflow values can change as a consequence of climate variability. In order to do this the outputs of a climate model (EC-EARTH) that accounts for a standard climate scenario were used to feed a hydrological model and to generate 140 years (1960-2100) of continuous streamflow simulations in a large number of stations that cover all the world. These time series were then post-processed in order to evaluate how annual daily maximum streamflow quantiles change because of climate scenarios. The analysis highlights that in many cases there is an increment or a decrease of the quantiles for fixed return periods, but only in a reduced number of situations these variation lay out of the confidence intervals of the quantiles estimated in current climate. The analysis was carried out on over 5000 stations distributed in all continents and spanned the period 1960-2100 according to the climate scenario RCP45.

  4. The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation is a flexible turbofan engine simulation environment that provides the user a platform to develop advanced control algorithms. It is capable of testing the performance of control designs on a validated and verified generic engine model. In addition, it is able to generate state-space linear models of the engine model to aid in controller design. The engine model used in MAPSS is a generic high-pressure ratio, dual-spool, lowbypass, military-type, variable cycle turbofan engine with a digital controller. MAPSS is controlled by a graphical user interface (GUI) and this guide explains how to use it to take advantage of the capabilities of MAPSS.

  5. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  6. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  7. Who launched what, when and why; trends in global land-cover observation capacity from civilian earth observation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belward, Alan S.; Skøien, Jon O.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a compendium of satellites under civilian and/or commercial control with the potential to gather global land-cover observations. From this we show that a growing number of sovereign states are acquiring capacity for space based land-cover observations and show how geopolitical patterns of ownership are changing. We discuss how the number of satellites flying at any time has progressed as a function of increased launch rates and mission longevity, and how the spatial resolutions of the data they collect has evolved. The first such satellite was launched by the USA in 1972. Since then government and/or private entities in 33 other sovereign states and geopolitical groups have chosen to finance such missions and 197 individual satellites with a global land-cover observing capacity have been successfully launched. Of these 98 were still operating at the end of 2013. Since the 1970s the number of such missions failing within 3 years of launch has dropped from around 60% to less than 20%, the average operational life of a mission has almost tripled, increasing from 3.3 years in the 1970s to 8.6 years (and still lengthening), the average number of satellites launched per-year/per-decade has increased from 2 to 12 and spatial resolution increased from around 80 m to less than 1 m multispectral and less than half a meter for panchromatic; synthetic aperture radar resolution has also fallen, from 25 m in the 1970s to 1 m post 2007. More people in more countries have access to data from global land-cover observing spaceborne missions at a greater range of spatial resolutions than ever before. We provide a compendium of such missions, analyze the changes and shows how innovation, the need for secure data-supply, national pride, falling costs and technological advances may underpin the trends we document.

  8. Downscaling land use and land cover from the Global Change Assessment Model for coupling with Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Yannick; West, Tris O.; Link, Robert; Patel, Pralit

    2016-09-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used to project future societal and environmental scenarios, based on economic modeling and on a detailed representation of food and energy production systems. The terrestrial module in GCAM represents agricultural activities and ecosystems dynamics at the subregional scale, and must be downscaled to be used for impact assessments in gridded models (e.g., climate models). In this study, we present the downscaling algorithm of the GCAM model, which generates gridded time series of global land use and land cover (LULC) from any GCAM scenario. The downscaling is based on a number of user-defined rules and drivers, including transition priorities (e.g., crop expansion preferentially into grasslands rather than forests) and spatial constraints (e.g., nutrient availability). The default parameterization is evaluated using historical LULC change data, and a sensitivity experiment provides insights on the most critical parameters and how their influence changes regionally and in time. Finally, a reference scenario and a climate mitigation scenario are downscaled to illustrate the gridded land use outcomes of different policies on agricultural expansion and forest management. Several features of the downscaling can be modified by providing new input data or changing the parameterization, without any edits to the code. Those features include spatial resolution as well as the number and type of land classes being downscaled, thereby providing flexibility to adapt GCAM LULC scenarios to the requirements of a wide range of models and applications. The downscaling system is version controlled and freely available.

  9. The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) Satellite Mission: An Earth System Pathfinder for Global Mapping of Soil Moisture and Land Freeze/Thaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E. G.; Spencer, M.; Kim, Y.; Smith, J.; McDonald, K. C.; vanZyl, J.; Houser, P.; Dorion, T.; Koster, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Girard, R.; Belair, S.; Crow, W.; Jackson, T. J.; Kerr, Y. H.; Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Pultz, T.; Shi, J.; Wood, E.

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrosphere State Mission (Hydros) is a pathfinder mission in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder Program (ESSP). The objective of the mission is to provide exploratory global measurements of the earth's soil moisture at 10-km resolution with two- to three-days revisit and land-surface freeze/thaw conditions at 3-km resolution with one- to two-days revisit. The mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements and associated algorithms for estimating the amount and phase (frozen or thawed) of surface soil moisture. The mission data will enable advances in weather and climate prediction and in mapping processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The Hydros instrument is a combined radar and radiometer system operating at 1.26 GHz (with VV, HH, and HV polarizations) and 1.41 GHz (with H, V, and U polarizations), respectively. The radar and the radiometer share the aperture of a 6-m antenna with a look-angle of 39 with respect to nadir. The lightweight deployable mesh antenna is rotated at 14.6 rpm to provide a constant look-angle scan across a swath width of 1000 km. The wide swath provides global coverage that meet the revisit requirements. The radiometer measurements allow retrieval of soil moisture in diverse (nonforested) landscapes with a resolution of 40 km. The radar measurements allow the retrieval of soil moisture at relatively high resolution (3 km). The mission includes combined radar/radiometer data products that will use the synergy of the two sensors to deliver enhanced-quality 10-km resolution soil moisture estimates. In this paper, the science requirements and their traceability to the instrument design are outlined. A review of the underlying measurement physics and key instrument performance parameters are also presented.

  10. [Flight nurses' comprehension about their role in the multiprofesional team of aero-medical transport].

    PubMed

    Scuissiato, Dayane Reinhardt; Boffi, Letícia Valois; da Rocha, Roseline da Rocha; Montezeli, Juliana Helena; Bordin, Michelle Taverna; Peres, Aida Maris

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive qualitative research which aimed at identifying the flight nurses' comprehension by about their role in the aero-medical multiprofesional team. A semi-structured interview was carried out with eight flight nurses from Curitiba-PR, from June to August 2009. The speeches were analyzed by the content analysis, from which three categories emerged. The first describes the responsibilities of the flight nurses as managers of the aero-medical mission, planning for before, during and after the transport, what includes the aircraft check-list and knowledge of the patient's case. The second category deals with aspects of these professionals as care providers to the aero-transferred patient. The third describes communication and team-work as fundamental requirements for flight nurses. It was concluded that the nurse in aero-medical team mixes management and caring in his/her professional practice by the use of specific competences.

  11. Nonzonal structure of the response of the global field of the Earth's atmospheric temperature to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, A. A.; Dement'eva, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The work describes the results of calculations obtained with the Atmospheric Research Model (ARM) general circulation model. The temperature response of the troposphere and middle atmosphere to variations in UV solar radiation were found to have a large-scale wave structure when planetary waves at the lower model boundary were taken into account. In the present paper, the results from the processing of global temperature fields with three databases (ERA-20C, NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis, v2, and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I) are provided. Analysis of the differences of the mean monthly temperature global fields (January and July) between the maxima and minima of three solar activity cycles (21, 22, and 23 cycles) also demonstrated their nonzonal structure. It was shown that the amplitude of this difference in January in the stratosphere (10 hPa) can be 7-29 K in the Northern Hemisphere. In July, this effect is prominent in Southern Hemisphere. In the troposphere (500 hPa), a nonzonal temperature effect is present in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres; the amplitude of the effects amounts to approximately 5-12 K. In conclusion, we discuss that the mechanism of solar energy impact on atmospheric temperature discovered by numerical modeling is supported after reanalysis data processing.

  12. Our Changing Planet: The FY 1993 US Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, a supplement to the US President's fiscal year 1993 budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Reasearch Program (USGCRP) was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY-1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction).

  13. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Allen, Arrington E.

    2013-01-01

    A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was completed in 2012 following the major modifications to the facility that included replacement of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger. The calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT.

  14. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  15. The impact of climate change on the global coastal low-level wind jets: EC-EARTH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Bernardino, Mariana; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal low-level jets (CLLJ) are low tropospheric coast-parallel wind features, confined to the marine atmospheric boundary layer, which lay on the east flank of the semi-permanent sub-tropical high-pressure systems, in the mid-latitudes, along equator-ward eastern boundary currents. Coastal jets are of utmost relevance to the regional climate, through their impact on the along coast sea surface temperature, driving the upwelling of cold deep nutrient-rich waters, and by having a decisive impact on the aridity of the mid-latitude western coastal areas. Here the impact of a warmer climate in the CLLJ climate is investigated, through a 2-member ensemble of EC-Earth CMIP5 simulations of future climate, following the RCP8.5 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Besides the projected changes of the CLLJ, towards the end of the 21st century, the future characteristics of the coastal jets are also presented. No common feature of projected changes in the seven identified CLLJ areas was identified. The Iberian Peninsula and the Oman coastal jets are the ones that presented the highest differences, compared to present climate: highest projected increases in frequency of occurrence, as well as highest projected increases in jet strength (wind speed at the jet height) and jet height. This study presents a step forward towards a larger ensemble of CLLJ projections, required to better assess robustness and uncertainty of potential future climate change.

  16. Performance of a Bounce-Averaged Global Model of Super-Thermal Electron Transport in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Tim

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of our recent research on the application of a multiprocessor Cray T916 supercomputer in modeling super-thermal electron transport in the earth's magnetic field. In general, this mathematical model requires numerical solution of a system of partial differential equations. The code we use for this model is moderately vectorized. By using Amdahl's Law for vector processors, it can be verified that the code is about 60% vectorized on a Cray computer. Speedup factors on the order of 2.5 were obtained compared to the unvectorized code. In the following sections, we discuss the methodology of improving the code. In addition to our goal of optimizing the code for solution on the Cray computer, we had the goal of scalability in mind. Scalability combines the concepts of portabilty with near-linear speedup. Specifically, a scalable program is one whose performance is portable across many different architectures with differing numbers of processors for many different problem sizes. Though we have access to a Cray at this time, the goal was to also have code which would run well on a variety of architectures.

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2014-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following:Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer productsLevel-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner productsLevel-3 daily and monthly productsIntegrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time

  18. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data

  19. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM "Core Observatory" satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding

  20. Dynamic finite element model validation of an assembled aero-engine casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zi; Zang, Chaoping; Jiang, Yuying; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-09-01

    Structural dynamic model updating and validation of an aero-engine casing is critical to the design and development of an aircraft engine. It helps to identify the dynamic characteristics and reduce the response of the aero-engine. The modelling and parameter identification of joint are extremely difficult and important in structural dynamic analysis of the assembled aero-engine casing. In this paper, dynamic model validation technique was applied to update and validate the finite element model of an assembled aero-engine casing. First, modal test of individual casings and the assembled casing was performed by using the traditional acceleration sensors and a hammer. The modal frequencies and mode shapes were obtained by modal analysis tools. Second, the Inverse Eigen-sensitivity Method was used to correct frequency errors and MAC values of correlated mode pairs in the individual components to obtain validated models. Last, the bolt joints of two aero-engine casings were modelled by thin layer of shell elements. The material parameters or element properties of the thin-layer contact elements were updated to obtain reliable connection parameters. The results show that the errors of natural frequencies between the validated FE model of an assembled aero-engine casing and test data are within 7%, and the MAC values of main modes are above 70%, which can verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach.

  1. Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

  2. Consistent global responses of marine ecosystems to future climate change across the IPCC AR5 earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabré, Anna; Marinov, Irina; Leung, Shirley

    2015-09-01

    We analyze for the first time all 16 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models with explicit marine ecological modules to identify the common mechanisms involved in projected phytoplankton biomass, productivity, and organic carbon export changes over the twenty-first century in the RCP8.5 scenario (years 2080-2099) compared to the historical scenario (years 1980-1999). All models predict decreases in primary and export production globally of up to 30 % of the historical value. We divide the ocean into biomes using upwelling velocities, sea-ice coverage, and maximum mixed layer depths. Models generally show expansion of subtropical, oligotrophic biomes and contraction of marginal sea-ice biomes. The equatorial and subtropical biomes account for 77 % of the total modern oceanic primary production (PP), but contribute 117 % to the global drop in PP, slightly compensated by an increase in PP in high latitudes. The phytoplankton productivity response to climate is surprisingly similar across models in low latitude biomes, indicating a common set of modeled processes controlling productivity changes. Ecological responses are less consistent across models in the subpolar and sea-ice biomes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetries in physical drivers result in stronger climate-driven relative decreases in biomass, productivity, and export of organic matter in the northern compared to the southern hemisphere low latitudes. The export ratio, a measure of the efficiency of carbon export to the deep ocean, decreases across low and mid-latitude biomes and models with more than one phytoplankton type, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Inter-model variability is much higher for biogeochemical than physical variables in the historical period, but is very similar among predicted 100-year biogeochemical and physical changes. We include detailed biome-by-biome analyses, discuss the decoupling between biomass, productivity and export across biomes and models, and present

  3. Turbulence in a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Earth's Magnetosphere during Northward and Southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Alaoui, M.; Richard, R. L.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere for idealized steady solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The simulations feature purely northward and southward magnetic fields and were designed to study turbulence in the magnetotail plasma sheet. We found that the power spectral densities (PSDs) for both northward and southward IMF had the characteristics of turbulent flow. In both cases, the PSDs showed the three scale ranges expected from theory: the energy-containing scale, the inertial range, and the dissipative range. The results were generally consistent with in-situ observations and theoretical predictions. While the two cases studied, northward and southward IMF, had some similar characteristics, there were significant differences as well. For southward IMF, localized reconnection was the main energy source for the turbulence. For northward IMF, remnant reconnection contributed to driving the turbulence. Boundary waves may also have contributed. In both cases, the PSD slopes had spatial distributions in the dissipative range that reflected the pattern of resistive dissipation. For southward IMF there was a trend toward steeper slopes in the dissipative range with distance down the tail. For northward IMF there was a marked dusk-dawn asymmetry with steeper slopes on the dusk side of the tail. The inertial scale PSDs had a dusk-dawn symmetry during the northward IMF interval with steeper slopes on the dawn side. This asymmetry was not found in the distribution of inertial range slopes for southward IMF. The inertial range PSD slopes were clustered around values close to the theoretical expectation for both northward and southward IMF. In the dissipative range, however, the slopes were broadly distributed and the median values were significantly different, consistent with a different distribution of resistivity.

  4. CO2, the greenhouse effect and global warming: from the pioneering work of Arrhenius and Callendar to today's Earth System Models.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas R; Hawkins, Ed; Jones, Philip D

    2016-09-01

    Climate warming during the course of the twenty-first century is projected to be between 1.0 and 3.7°C depending on future greenhouse gas emissions, based on the ensemble-mean results of state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESMs). Just how reliable are these projections, given the complexity of the climate system? The early history of climate research provides insight into the understanding and science needed to answer this question. We examine the mathematical quantifications of planetary energy budget developed by Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) and Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964) and construct an empirical approximation of the latter, which we show to be successful at retrospectively predicting global warming over the course of the twentieth century. This approximation is then used to calculate warming in response to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases during the twenty-first century, projecting a temperature increase at the lower bound of results generated by an ensemble of ESMs (as presented in the latest assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). This result can be interpreted as follows. The climate system is conceptually complex but has at its heart the physical laws of radiative transfer. This basic, or "core" physics is relatively straightforward to compute mathematically, as exemplified by Callendar's calculations, leading to quantitatively robust projections of baseline warming. The ESMs include not only the physical core but also climate feedbacks that introduce uncertainty into the projections in terms of magnitude, but not sign: positive (amplification of warming). As such, the projections of end-of-century global warming by ESMs are fundamentally trustworthy: quantitatively robust baseline warming based on the well-understood physics of radiative transfer, with extra warming due to climate feedbacks. These projections thus provide a compelling case that global climate will continue to undergo significant warming in response

  5. A 7-km Non-Hydrostatic Global Mesoscale Simulation with the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) for Observing System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, W.; Suarez, M.; Gelaro, R.; daSilva, A.; Molod, A.; Ott, L. E.; Darmenov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has used the Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) to produce a 2-year non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation for the period of June 2005-2007. This 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run (7km-G5NR) product will provide synthetic observations for observing system simulation experiments (OSSE)s at NASA and NOAA through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation. While GEOS-5 is regularly applied in seasonal-to-decadal climate simulations, and medium range weather prediction and data assimilation, GEOS-5 is also readily adaptable for application as a global mesoscale model in pursuit of global cloud resolving applications. Recent computing advances have permitted experimentation with global atmospheric models at these scales, although production applications like the 7km-G5NR have remained limited. By incorporating a non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core with scale aware physics parameterizations, the 7km-G5NR produces organized convective systems and robust weather systems ideal for producing observations for existing and new remote sensing instruments. In addition to standard meteorological parameters, the 7km-G5NR includes 15 aerosol tracers (including dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. The 7km-G5NR is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. We will discuss the technical challenges of producing the 7km-G5NR including the nearly 5 petabytes of full resolution output at 30-minute intervals as required by the OSSE developers, and modifications to the standard GEOS-5 physics to permit convective organization at the 'grey-zone' resolution of 7km. Highlights of the 7km-G5NR validation will focus on the representation of clouds and organized convection including tropical cyclones

  6. Climate and land use change impacts on global terrestrial ecosystems and river flows in the HadGEM2-ES Earth system model using the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, R. A.; Golding, N.; Gonzalez, P.; Gornall, J.; Kahana, R.; Kay, G.; Mitchell, L.; Wiltshire, A.

    2015-03-01

    A new generation of an Earth system model now includes a number of land-surface processes directly relevant to analyzing potential impacts of climate change. This model, HadGEM2-ES, allows us to assess the impacts of climate change, multiple interactions, and feedbacks as the model is run. This paper discusses the results of century-scale HadGEM2-ES simulations from an impacts perspective - specifically, terrestrial ecosystems and water resources - for four different scenarios following the representative concentration pathways (RCPs), used in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013, 2014). Over the 21st century, simulated changes in global and continental-scale terrestrial ecosystems due to climate change appear to be very similar in all 4 RCPs, even though the level of global warming by the end of the 21st century ranges from 2 °C in the lowest scenario to 5.5° in the highest. A warming climate generally favours broadleaf trees over needleleaf, needleleaf trees over shrubs, and shrubs over herbaceous vegetation, resulting in a poleward shift of temperate and boreal forests and woody tundra in all scenarios. Although climate related changes are slightly larger in scenarios of greater warming, the largest differences between scenarios arise at regional scales as a consequence of different patterns of anthropogenic land cover change. In the model, the scenario with the lowest global warming results in the most extensive decline in tropical forest cover due to a large expansion of agriculture. Under all four RCPs, fire potential could increase across extensive land areas, particularly tropical and sub-tropical latitudes. River outflows are simulated to increase with higher levels of CO2 and global warming in all projections, with outflow increasing with mean temperature at the end of the 21st century at the global scale and in North America, Asia, and Africa. In South America, Europe, and Australia, the relationship

  7. Evaluation of two decomposition schemes in Earth System Models against LIDET, C14 observations and global soil carbon maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciuto, D. M.; Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soils contain the largest pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil carbon dynamics and associated nutrient dynamics play significant roles in regulating global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our capability to predict future climate change depends to a large extent on a well-constrained representation of soil carbon dynamics in ESMs. Here we evaluate two decomposition schemes - converging trophic cascade (CTC) and Century - in CLM4.5/ACME V0 using data from the long-term intersite decomposition experiment team (LIDET), radiocarbon (14C) observations, and Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). For the evaluation against LIDET, We exercise the full CLM4.5/ ACME V0 land model, including seasonal variability in nitrogen limitation and environmental scalars (temperature, moisture, O2), in order to represent LIDET experiment in a realistic way. We show that the proper design of model experiments is crucial to model evaluation using data from field experiments such as LIDET. We also use 14C profile data at 10 sites to evaluate the performance of CTC and CENTURY decomposition scheme. We find that the 14C profiles at these sites are most sensitive to the depth dependent decomposition parameters, consistent with previous studies.

  8. Inferring global wind energetics from a simple Earth system model based on the principle of maximum entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkar, S.; Paillard, D.

    2015-03-01

    The question of total available wind power in the atmosphere is highly debated, as well as the effect large scale wind farms would have on the climate. Bottom-up approaches, such as those proposed by wind turbine engineers often lead to non-physical results (non-conservation of energy, mostly), while top-down approaches have proven to give physically consistent results. This paper proposes an original method for the calculation of mean annual wind energetics in the atmosphere, without resorting to heavy numerical integration of the entire dynamics. The proposed method is derived from a model based on the Maximum of Entropy Production (MEP) principle, which has proven to efficiently describe the annual mean temperature and energy fluxes, despite its simplicity. Because the atmosphere is represented with only one vertical layer and there is no vertical wind component, the model fails to represent the general circulation patterns such as cells or trade winds. However, interestingly, global energetic diagnostics are well captured by the mere combination of a simple MEP model and a flux inversion method.

  9. Our changing planet: the FY 1993 U. S. Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences. A supplement to the U. S. President's Fiscal Year 1993 Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The USGCRP was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY 1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction).

  10. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  11. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  12. Monitoring multi-decadal satellite earth observation of soil moisture using era-land global land water resources dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albergel, Clement; Dorigo, Wouter; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; de Rosnay, Patricia; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquin; Isaksen, Lars; Brocca, Luca; de Jeu, Richard; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    It has been widely recognized that soil moisture is one of the main drivers of the water, energy and carbon cycles. It is a crucial variable for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate projections because it plays a key role in hydro-meteorological processes. A good representation of soil moisture conditions can help improving the forecasting of precipitation, temperature, droughts and floods. For many applications global or continental scale soil moisture maps are needed. As a consequence, a signi?cant amount of studies have been conducted to obtain such information. For that purpose, land surface modeling, remote sensing techniques or a combination of both through Land Data Assimilation Systems are used. Assessing the quality of these products is required and for instance, the release of a new -long term- harmonized soil moisture product (SM-MW hereafter) from remote sensing within the framework of the European Space Agency's Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI) projects in 2012 (more information at http://www.esa-soilmoisture-cci.org/) triggered several evaluation activities. The typical validation approach for model and satellite based data products is to compare them to in situ observations. However the evaluation of soil moisture products using ground measurements is not trivial. Even if in the recent years huge efforts were made to make such observations available in contrasting biomes and climate conditions, long term and large scale ground measurements networks are still sparse. Additionally, different networks will present different characteristics (e.g. measurement methods, installation depths and modes, calibration techniques, measurement interval, and temporal and spatial coverage). Finally using in situ measurements, the quality of retrieved soil moisture can be accurately assessed for the locations of the stations. That is why it is of interest to conceive new validation methods

  13. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  14. An Overview of the Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Data Products and Availability for Environmental Applications and Global Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceeds or, at a minimum, matches the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations. The EOS Aqua mission was launched successfully May 4,2002 with another MODIS on it. The Aqua spacecraft operates in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. Subsequently the Aqua MODIS observations will substantially add to the capabilities of the Terra MODIS for environmental applications and global change studies.

  15. An Overview of the Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Data Products Status and Availability for Environmental Applications and Global Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceed or, at a minimum, match the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations. The MODIS instrument on the EOS Aqua mission should also be expected to be in orbit and functioning in the Spring of 2002. The Aqua spacecraft will operate in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. Subsequently the Aqua MODIS observations will substantially add to the capabilities of the Terra MODIS for environmental applications and global change studies.

  16. An extended global Earth system data record on daily landscape freeze-thaw status determined from satellite passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngwook; Kimball, John S.; Glassy, Joseph; Du, Jinyang

    2017-02-01

    The landscape freeze-thaw (FT) signal determined from satellite microwave brightness temperature (Tb) observations has been widely used to define frozen temperature controls on land surface water mobility and ecological processes. Calibrated 37 GHz Tb retrievals from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and SSM/I Sounder (SSMIS) were used to produce a consistent and continuous global daily data record of landscape FT status at 25 km grid cell resolution. The resulting FT Earth system data record (FT-ESDR) is derived from a refined classification algorithm and extends over a larger domain and longer period (1979-2014) than prior FT-ESDR releases. The global domain encompasses all land areas affected by seasonal frozen temperatures, including urban, snow- and ice-dominant and barren land, which were not represented by prior FT-ESDR versions. The FT retrieval is obtained using a modified seasonal threshold algorithm (MSTA) that classifies daily Tb variations in relation to grid-cell-wise FT thresholds calibrated using surface air temperature data from model reanalysis. The resulting FT record shows respective mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 90.3 and 84.3 % for evening (PM) and morning (AM) overpass retrievals relative to global weather station measurements. Detailed data quality metrics are derived characterizing the effects of sub-grid-scale open water and terrain heterogeneity, as well as algorithm uncertainties on FT classification accuracy. The FT-ESDR results are also verified against other independent cryospheric data, including in situ lake and river ice phenology, and satellite observations of Greenland surface melt. The expanded FT-ESDR enables new investigations encompassing snow- and ice-dominant land areas, while the longer record and favorable accuracy allow for refined global change assessments that can better distinguish transient weather extremes, landscape phenological shifts

  17. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  18. Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Lavelle, Thomas; Litt, Jonathan; Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) software package is a nonlinear dynamic simulation of a 40,000-pound (approximately equals 178-kN) thrust class commercial turbofan engine, written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model has been tuned to capture the behavior of flight test data, and is capable of running at any point in the flight envelope [up to 40,000 ft (approximately equals 12,200 m) and Mach 0.8]. In addition to the open-loop engine, the simulation includes a controller whose architecture is representative of that found in industry. C-MAPSS40k fills the need for an easy-to-use, realistic, transient simulation of a medium-size commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller. It is a detailed component level model (CLM) written in the industry-standard graphical MATLAB/Simulink environment to allow for easy modification and portability. At the time of this reporting, no other such model exists in the public domain.

  19. Dynamic performance of an aero-assist spacecraft - AFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ho-Pen; French, Raymond A.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic performance of the Aero-assist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft was investigated using a high-fidelity 6-DOF simulation model. Baseline guidance logic, control logic, and a strapdown navigation system to be used on the AFE spacecraft are also modeled in the 6-DOF simulation. During the AFE mission, uncertainties in the environment and the spacecraft are described by an error space which includes both correlated and uncorrelated error sources. The principal error sources modeled in this study include navigation errors, initial state vector errors, atmospheric variations, aerodynamic uncertainties, center-of-gravity off-sets, and weight uncertainties. The impact of the perturbations on the spacecraft performance is investigated using Monte Carlo repetitive statistical techniques. During the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) deorbit phase, a target flight path angle of -4.76 deg at entry interface (EI) offers very high probability of avoiding SRM casing skip-out from the atmosphere. Generally speaking, the baseline designs of the guidance, navigation, and control systems satisfy most of the science and mission requirements.

  20. On the precision of aero-thermal simulations for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Thompson, Hugh

    2016-08-01

    Environmental effects on the Image Quality (IQ) of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are estimated by aero-thermal numerical simulations. These simulations utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to estimate, among others, thermal (dome and mirror) seeing as well as wind jitter and blur. As the design matures, guidance obtained from these numerical experiments can influence significant cost-performance trade-offs and even component survivability. The stochastic nature of environmental conditions results in the generation of a large computational solution matrix in order to statistically predict Observatory Performance. Moreover, the relative contribution of selected key subcomponents to IQ increases the parameter space and thus computational cost, while dictating a reduced prediction error bar. The current study presents the strategy followed to minimize prediction time and computational resources, the subsequent physical and numerical limitations and finally the approach to mitigate the issues experienced. In particular, the paper describes a mesh-independence study, the effect of interpolation of CFD results on the TMT IQ metric, and an analysis of the sensitivity of IQ to certain important heat sources and geometric features.

  1. Managing Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

  2. The Role of Interdisciplinary Earth Science in the Assessment of Regional Land Subsidence Hazards: Toward Sustainable Management of Global Land and Subsurface-Fluid Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Land-level lowering or land subsidence is a consequence of many local- and regional-scale physical, chemical or biologic processes affecting soils and geologic materials. The principal processes can be natural or anthropogenic, and include consolidation or compaction, karst or pseudokarst, hydrocompaction of collapsible soils, mining, oxidation of organic soils, erosive piping, tectonism, and volcanism. In terms of affected area, there are two principal regional-scale anthropogenic processes—compaction of compressible subsurface materials owing to the extraction of subsurface fluids (principally groundwater, oil and gas) and oxidation and compaction accompanying drainage of organic soils—which cause significant hazards related to flooding and infrastructure damage that are amenable to resource management measures. The importance of even small magnitude (< 10 mm/yr) subsidence rates in coastal areas is amplified by its contribution to relative sea-level rise compared to estimated rates of rising eustatic sea levels (2-3 mm/yr) attributed to global climate change. Multi- or interdisciplinary [scientific] studies, including those focused on geodetic, geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, geomechanical, geochemical, and biologic factors, improve understanding of these subsidence processes. Examples include geodetic measurement and analysis techniques, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which have advanced our capabilities to detect, measure and monitor land-surface motion at multiple scales. Improved means for simulating aquifer-system and hydrocarbon-reservoir deformation, and the oxidation and compaction of organic soils are leading to refined predictive capabilities. The role of interdisciplinary earth science in improving the characterization of land subsidence attributed to subsurface fluid withdrawals and the oxidation and compaction of organic soils is

  3. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  4. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  5. Earth physics, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite applications in earth and ocean dynamic studies are considered for: earthquake hazard assessment and alleviation; prediction of general ocean circulation, surface currents, and heat transport; monitoring of transient phenomena of the ocean surface, such as sea state and wave conditions, wind-surface interactions and storm searches; and refinement of the global geoid, the gravity and magnetic fields of the earth.

  6. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  7. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinglong; Wang, Yu; He, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments. PMID:26512668

  8. Spatial-temporal-covariance-based modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Curtis R; Tyler, Glenn A; Wittich, Donald J

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a framework for modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations that is based on spatial-temporal covariance matrices extracted from wavefront sensor measurements. Within this framework, we present a quasi-homogeneous structure function to analyze nonhomogeneous, mildly anisotropic spatial random processes, and we use this structure function to show that phase aberrations arising in aero-optics are, for an important range of operating parameters, locally Kolmogorov. This strongly suggests that the d5/3 power law for adaptive optics (AO) deformable mirror fitting error, where d denotes actuator separation, holds for certain important aero-optics scenarios. This framework also allows us to compute bounds on AO servo lag error and predictive control error. In addition, it provides us with the means to accurately simulate AO systems for the mitigation of aero-effects, and it may provide insight into underlying physical processes associated with turbulent flow. The techniques introduced here are demonstrated using data obtained from the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory.

  9. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Test)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine M.; Arrington, E. Allen; VanZante, Judith Foss

    2012-01-01

    A major modification of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) occurred in autumn of 2011. It is standard practice at NASA Glenn to perform a full aero-thermal calibration of the test section of a wind tunnel facility upon completion of major modifications. This paper will discuss the tools and techniques used to complete an aero-thermal calibration of the IRT and the results that were acquired. The goal of this test entry was to complete a flow quality survey and aero-thermal calibration measurements in the test section of the IRT. Test hardware that was used includes the 2D Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) array, 9-ft pressure survey rake, hot wire survey rake, and the quick check survey rake. This test hardware provides a map of the velocity, Mach number, total and static pressure, total temperature, flow angle and turbulence intensity. The data acquired were then reduced to examine pressure, temperature, velocity, flow angle, and turbulence intensity. Reduced data has been evaluated to assess how the facility meets flow quality goals. No icing conditions were tested as part of the aero-thermal calibration. However, the effects of the spray bar air injections on the flow quality and aero-thermal calibration measurements were examined as part of this calibration.

  10. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglong; Wang, Yu; He, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-10-23

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  11. Volumetrically-Derived Global Navigation Satellite System Performance Assessment from the Earths Surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume and the Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is participating in the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) (ICG)'s efforts towards demonstrating the benefits to the space user from the Earth's surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV) to the edge of the Space Service Volume (SSV), when a multi-GNSS solution space approach is utilized. The ICG Working Group: Enhancement of GNSS Performance, New Services and Capabilities has started a three phase analysis initiative as an outcome of recommendations at the ICG-10 meeting, in preparation for the ICG-11 meeting. The first phase of that increasing complexity and fidelity analysis initiative was recently expanded to compare nadir-facing and zenith-facing user hemispherical antenna coverage with omnidirectional antenna coverage at different distances of 8,000 km altitude and 36,000 km altitude. This report summarizes the performance using these antenna coverage techniques at distances ranging from 100 km altitude to 36,000 km to be all encompassing, as well as the volumetrically-derived system availability metrics.

  12. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  13. Acquiring data in real time in Italy from the Antarctic Seismographic Argentinean Italian Network (ASAIN): testing the global capabilities of the EarthWorm and Antelope software suites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton; Russi, Marino; Pesaresi, Damiano; Cravos, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    The Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, OGS) is running the Antarctic Seismographic Argentinean Italian Network (ASAIN), made of 7 seismic stations located in the Scotia Sea region in Antarctica and in Tierra del Fuego - Argentina: data from these stations are transferred in real time to the OGS headquarters in Trieste (Italy) via satellite links provided by the Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA). Data is collected and archived primarily in Güralp Compress Format (GCF) through the Scream! software at OGS and IAA, and transmitted also in real time to the Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology (ORFEUS). The main real time seismic data acquisition and processing system of the ASAIN network is based on the EarthWorm 7.3 (Open Source) software suite installed on a Linux server at the OGS headquarters in Trieste. It runs several software modules for data collection, data archiving, data publication on dedicated web servers: wave_serverV, Winston Wave Server, and data analysis and realtime monitoring through Swarm program. OGS is also running, in close cooperation with the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Civil Defense, the North East (NI) Italy seismic network, making use of the Antelope commercial software suite from BRTT as the main acquisition system. As a test to check the global capabilities of the Antelope software suite, we also set up an instance of Antelope acquiring data in real time from both the regional ASAIN seismic network in Antarctica and a subset of the Global Seismic Network (GSN) funded by the Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology (IRIS). The facilities of the IRIS Data Management System, and specifically the IRIS Data Management Center, were used for real time access to waveform required in this study. The first tests indicated that more than 80% of the earthquakes with magnitude M>5.0 listed in the Preliminary Determination

  14. Impact of an extremely large magnitude volcanic eruption on the global climate and carbon cycle estimated from ensemble Earth System Model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segschneider, J.; Beitsch, A.; Timmreck, C.; Brovkin, V.; Ilyina, T.; Jungclaus, J.; Lorenz, S. J.; Six, K. D.; Zanchettin, D.

    2012-07-01

    The response of the global climate-carbon cycle system to an extremely large Northern Hemisphere mid latitude volcanic eruption is investigated using ensemble integrations with the comprehensive Earth System Model MPI-ESM. The model includes dynamical compartments of the atmosphere and ocean and interactive modules of the terrestrial biosphere as well as ocean biogeochemistry. The MPI-ESM was forced with anomalies of aerosol optical depth and effective radius of aerosol particles corresponding to a super eruption of the Yellowstone volcanic system. The model experiment consists of an ensemble of fifteen model integrations that are started at different pre-ENSO states of a contol experiment and run for 200 yr after the volcanic eruption. The climate response to the volcanic eruption is a maximum global monthly mean surface air temperature cooling of 3.8 K for the ensemble mean and from 3.3 K to 4.3 K for individual ensemble members. Atmospheric pCO2 decreases by a maximum of 5 ppm for the ensemble mean and by 3 ppm to 7 ppm for individual ensemble members approximately 6 yr after the eruption. The atmospheric carbon content only very slowly returns to near pre-eruption level at year 200 after the eruption. The ocean takes up carbon shortly after the eruption in response to the cooling, changed wind fields, and ice cover. This physics driven uptake is weakly counteracted by a reduction of the biological export production mainly in the tropical Pacific. The land vegetation pool shows a distinct loss of carbon in the initial years after the eruption which has not been present in simulations of smaller scale eruptions. The gain of the soil carbon pool determines the amplitude of the CO2 perturbation and the long term behaviour of the overall system: an initial gain caused by reduced soil respiration is followed by a rather slow return towards pre-eruption levels. During this phase, the ocean compensates partly for the reduced atmospheric carbon content in response to

  15. Impact of an extremely large magnitude volcanic eruption on the global climate and carbon cycle estimated from ensemble Earth System Model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segschneider, J.; Beitsch, A.; Timmreck, C.; Brovkin, V.; Ilyina, T.; Jungclaus, J.; Lorenz, S. J.; Six, K. D.; Zanchettin, D.

    2013-02-01

    The response of the global climate-carbon cycle system to an extremely large Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude volcanic eruption is investigated using ensemble integrations with the comprehensive Earth System Model MPI-ESM. The model includes dynamical compartments of the atmosphere and ocean and interactive modules of the terrestrial biosphere as well as ocean biogeochemistry. The MPI-ESM was forced with anomalies of aerosol optical depth and effective radius of aerosol particles corresponding to a super eruption of the Yellowstone volcanic system. The model experiment consists of an ensemble of fifteen model integrations that are started at different pre-ENSO states of a control experiment and run for 200 years after the volcanic eruption. The climate response to the volcanic eruption is a maximum global monthly mean surface air temperature cooling of 3.8 K for the ensemble mean and from 3.3 K to 4.3 K for individual ensemble members. Atmospheric pCO2 decreases by a maximum of 5 ppm for the ensemble mean and by 3 ppm to 7 ppm for individual ensemble members approximately 6 years after the eruption. The atmospheric carbon content only very slowly returns to near pre-eruption level at year 200 after the eruption. The ocean takes up carbon shortly after the eruption in response to the cooling, changed wind fields and ice cover. This physics-driven uptake is weakly counteracted by a reduction of the biological export production mainly in the tropical Pacific. The land vegetation pool shows a decrease by 4 GtC due to reduced short-wave radiation that has not been present in a smaller scale eruption. The gain of the soil carbon pool determines the amplitude of the CO2 perturbation and the long-term behaviour of the overall system: an initial gain caused by reduced soil respiration is followed by a rather slow return towards pre-eruption levels. During this phase, the ocean compensates partly for the reduced atmospheric carbon content in response to the land's gain. In

  16. Re-Th-U nuclear geochronometry: Th/U ≈ 4.3 within the Earth's core is consistent with global MORB Th/U ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    187Re -187Os nuclear geochronometry is a new age dating method combining principles of geochronology with nuclear astrophysics. It has been successfully applied to PGE hosting magmatic ore deposits like the Late Archean Stillwater Complex (SC), Montana, USA [1]. The pronounced isotopic dichotomy of the SC has been interpreted as being due to the interaction of two magmatic components with extremely different 187Os/188Osi but Re/Os ≈ 1. A Mercury-like planetary contraction with Fermi-pressure controlled core collapse at about 3.48 Ga producing heavy nuclides has been suggested [2] to explain the ultra-subchondritic 187Os/188Osi of the SC, consistent with the observed increase in PGE abundances within komatiites [3] and in magnetic field strength between 3.6 Ga and 3 Ga [4]. It contradicts a partial melting event of primitive mantle or a chondritic late veneer PGE addition [3] to the Earth. Besides, rocks and plagioclase from the SC show uniform Th/U ≈ 4 [5], consistent with Th/U = 4.1 ± 0.3 as derived from 12 Barberton komatiites [6]. For the Earth's core, a high Th/U > 4.3 has recently been proposed [7]. This seems to contradict global and average MORB Th/U [8]. However, assuming that the r-process nuclides were produced in the same nucleosynthetic event(s), mixing of the two reservoirs could explain the decreasing Th/U ratios observed in oceanic basalts since 3.5 Ga [7, 8]. To test this hypothesis, two nucleogeochronometric 232Th/238U evolution lines are plotted versus time, starting with an r-process production ratio 232Th/238U ≈ 0.96 [9] at 13.781 Ga and 3.48 Ga, respectively. It turns out that the model explains successfully global MORB 232Th/238U between 1.45 and 4.3 [8] by mixing of the two 232Th/238U components. Hence, it can be shown for the first time that a high Th/U ≈ 4.3 in the core is consistent with global and average MORB Th/U ratios. [1] Roller (2015) Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-17. [2] Roller (2015), T13A-2982, AGU Fall Meeting. [3

  17. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch

  18. Aero-thermal analysis of lifting body configurations in hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-09-01

    The aero-thermal analysis of a hypersonic vehicle is of fundamental interest for designing its thermal protection system. The aero-thermal environment predictions over several critical regions of the hypothesized lifting body vehicle, including the stagnation region of the nose-cap, cylindrically swept leading edges, fuselage-upper, and fuselage-lower surfaces, are discussed. The drag (Λ=70°) and temperature (Λ=80°) minimized sweepback angles are considered in the configuration design of the two hypothesized lifting body shape hypersonic vehicles. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the aero-thermal characteristics of these two lifting body configurations at same heat capacity. Accordingly, a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation has been carried out at Mach number (M∞=7), H=35 km altitude with zero Angle of Attack. Finally, the material selection for thermal protection system based on these predictions and current methodology is described.

  19. SFC Optimization for Aero Engine Based on Hybrid GA-SQP Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on on-line specific fuel consumption (SFC) optimization of aero engines. For solving this optimization problem, a nonlinear pneumatic and thermodynamics model of the aero engine is built and a hybrid optimization technique which is formed by combining the genetic algorithm (GA) and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is presented. The ability of standard GA and standard SQP in solving this type of problem is investigated. It has been found that, although the SQP is fast, very little SFC reductions can be obtained. The GA is able to solve the problem well but a lot of computational time is needed. The presented hybrid GA-SQP gives a good SFC optimization effect and saves 76.6% computational time when compared to the standard GA. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-SQP is a more effective and higher real-time method for SFC on-line optimization of the aero engine.

  20. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  1. Reduction of Influences of the Earth's Surface Fluid Loads on GPS Site Coordinate Time Series and Global Satellite Laser Ranging Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, H.; Otsubo, T.; Fukuda, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Temporal change of surface loadings due to the mass redistribution of the fluid envelope of the Earth, deform the Earth and cause the coordinate changes of the observation sites. We estimated the crustal displacements due to the atmospheric load (AL), the non-tidal ocean load (NTOL), the continental water load (CWL) and the snow load (SL) influences using the several meteorological data and model. And then, we tried to eliminate the load influences from the GPS site coordinate time series and global Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) analysis. As the time series of GPS site coordinates, we employed a solution of IGS which was calculated by using GIPSY-OASIS II (Heflin et al., 2002) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the routine solution of GEONET called F2 solution which was calculated by Bernese version 4.2 software (Hatanaka et al., 2003) by the Geographical Survey Institute. To eliminate periodic signals of the loading effects, we calculated Corrected GPS = GPS - (Load1 + Load2 + . . . . . + Loadn). The results show that a combination of atmospheric, non-tidal ocean, continental water, and snow loads can eliminate about 20% of the annual signal in the coordinate time series for vertical components. We applied the loading correction to the data of the 1997 Bungo channel slow slip event and showed that the correction can benefit the analysis of such a non-periodic event. Next, we applied the time series of NTOL and CWL to precise SLR analysis that used the "concerto" program version 4 developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The LAGEOS orbit analysis reveals that the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model makes the root mean square (RMS) of the range residual 0.2% smaller, and that the CWL makes it 0.8% smaller, compared with the case where loading displacement is neglected. On the other hand, with the NTOL derived from Topex/Poseidon altimetry data, the SLR orbit fit is not improved.

  2. On Proper Selection of Multihop Relays for Future Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2015-01-01

    As the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed communications network over major US airports, it is now time to contemplate whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS is sufficient to meet the demands set forth by all fixed and mobile applications over the airport surface given the AeroMACS constraints regarding bandwidth and transmit power. The underlying idea in this article is to present IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX as a technology that can address future capacity enhancements and therefore is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements and virtually no rise in interference levels to co-allocated applications. The IEEE 802.16j-based multihop relay systems are briefly described. The focus is on key features of this technology, frame structure, an