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Sample records for aero earth global

  1. PREFACE: 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013), was held at the Swiss Bell Mangga Besar, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 23 December 2013. The AeroEarth conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. AeroEarth 2013 promotes interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that high-level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Earth Science. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 91 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from 8 countries. There are 3 (three) Plenary Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2013. The AeroEarth 2013 Proceedings Editors Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. Amit Desai Further information on the invited plenary speakers and photographs from the conference can be found in the pdf.

  2. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  3. Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Huneeus, N.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Griesfeller, J.; Prospero, J.; Kinne, S.; Bauer, S.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, S.; Ginoux, P.; Grini, A.; Horowitz, L.; Koch, D.; Krol, M. C.; Landing, W.; Liu, X.; Mahowald, N.; Miller, R.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, J.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Zender, C. S.

    2011-08-01

    This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of 15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and dust deposition. Additional comparisons to Angström exponent (AE), coarse mode AOD and dust surface concentrations are included to extend the assessment of model performance and to identify common biases present in models. These data comprise a benchmark dataset that is proposed for model inspection and future dust model development. There are large differences among the global models that simulate the dust cycle and its impact on climate. In general, models simulate the climatology of vertically integrated parameters (AOD and AE) within a factor of two whereas the total deposition and surface concentration are reproduced within a factor of 10. In addition, smaller mean normalized bias and root mean square errors are obtained for the climatology of AOD and AE than for total deposition and surface concentration. Characteristics of the datasets used and their uncertainties may influence these differences. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the deposition fluxes in the southern oceans. Further measurements and model studies are necessary to assess the general model performance to reproduce dust deposition in ocean regions sensible to iron contributions. Models overestimate the wet deposition in regions dominated by dry deposition. They generally simulate more realistic surface concentration at stations downwind of the main sources than at remote ones. Most models simulate the gradient in AOD and AE between the different dusty regions. However the seasonality and magnitude of both variables is better simulated at African stations than Middle East ones. The models simulate the offshore transport of West Africa throughout the year but they

  4. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  5. Global Mobile Satellite Service Interference Analysis for the AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Hall, Ward; Phillips, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based on the IEEE 802.16-2009 mobile wireless standard, is envisioned as the wireless network which will cover all areas of airport surfaces for next generation air transportation. It is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band which is also occupied by mobile satellite service uplinks. Thus the AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. Simulations using Visualyse software were performed utilizing a global database of 6207 airports. Variations in base station and subscriber antenna distribution and gain pattern were examined. Based on these simulations, recommendations for global airport base station and subscriber antenna power transmission limitations are provided.

  6. Global Images of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Global images of Earth from Galileo. In each frame, the continent of Antarctica is visible at the bottom of the globe. South America may be seen in the first frame (top left), the great Pacific Ocean in the second (bottom left), India at the top and Australia to the right in the third (top right), and Africa in the fourth (bottom right). Taken at six-hour intervals on December 11, 1990, at a range of between 2 and 2.7 million kilometers (1.2 to 1.7 million miles). P-37630

    These images were taken during Galileo's first Earth flyby. This gravity assist increased Galileo's speed around the Sun by about 5.2 kilometers per second (or 11,600 miles per hour) and substantially redirected Galileo as required for its flybys of the asteroid Gaspra in October 1991 and Earth in 1992. Galileo's closest approach (960 kilometers, or 597 miles, above the Earth's surface) to the Earth was on December 8, 1990, 3 days before these pictures were taken.

    Each of these images is a color composite, made up using images taken through red, green, and violet filters. The four images are part of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 256-frame time-lapse motion picture that shows a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics. The movie gives scientists a unique overall view of global weather patterns, as opposed to the limited view of weather satellite images.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  7. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  8. An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol Component Modules of Global Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, H.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horrowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-05-29

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment global fields for mass and for mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among aerosol component modules of 21 different global models. There is general agreement among models for the annual global mean of component combined aot. At 0.12 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca 0.14) and space (MODIS-MISR composite ca 0.16). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture have remained. Of particular concern is the large model diversity for contributions by dust and carbon, because it leads to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since not only aot but also aab influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) and space (e.g. correlations between retrieved aerosol and cloud properties).

  9. Results From Simulations of an Ensemble of Global Aerosol Models Using the Same Emission Data Within AeroCom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Textor, C.; Schulz, M.; Guibert, S.; Kinne, S.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in many important environmental issues including stratospheric ozone depletion, smog, acid rain, and climate change. The AeroCom exercise aims to identify weak components in aerosol modeling and to decrease the uncertainty of aerosol radiative forcing. AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of the global aerosol and its impact on climate. A variety of observations and simulation results from 16 global aerosol models have been assembled in the frame of AeroCom. In this study, results from two series of experiments are presented. In a first experiment, each model was run with different emission data. In a second experiment, all models used the same emission data sets. These data include temporal and spatial (including injection height) information, and particle sizes. We examine the parameters and processes that determine the aerosol fields and life cycles, and discuss new radiative forcing estimates from the AeroCom exercise. The diversities among the models for sea salt, dust, black carbon, particulate organic matter, and sulfate are quantified. We can show that harmonizing the emissions has little effect on the diversity among models.

  10. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; et al

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemicalmore » and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a−1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a−1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a−1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a−1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6–2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8–9.6 days

  11. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Müller, J. -F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, N. L.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models.

    The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a−1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a−1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a−1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a−1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0

  12. Aerosol single-scattering albedo over the global oceans: Comparing PARASOL retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom models estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Bian, Huisheng; Curci, Gabriele; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Schulz, Michael; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-27

    The aerosol Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) over the global oceans is evaluated based on polarimetric measurements by the PARASOL satellite. The retrieved values for SSA and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) agree well with the ground-based measurements of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The global coverage provided by the PARASOL observations represents a unique opportunity to evaluate SSA and AOD simulated by atmospheric transport model runs, as performed in the AeroCom framework. The SSA estimate provided by the AeroCom models is generally higher than the SSA retrieved from both PARASOL and AERONET. On the other hand, the mean simulated AOD is about right or slightly underestimated compared with observations. An overestimate of the SSA by the models would suggest that these simulate an overly strong aerosol radiative cooling at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and underestimate it at surface. This implies that aerosols have a potential stronger impact within the atmosphere than currently simulated.

  13. Evaluation of the aerosol vertical distribution in global aerosol models through comparison against CALIOP measurements: AeroCom phase II results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Bréon, François-Marie; Dentener, Frank; Steensen, Birthe Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevâg, Alf; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, Ulrike; Myhre, Gunnar; Rasch, Phil; Seland, Åyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, Philip; Tackett, Jason; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Vuolo, Maria Raffaella; Yoon, Jinho; Zhang, Kai

    2016-06-01

    The ability of 11 models in simulating the aerosol vertical distribution from regional to global scales, as part of the second phase of the AeroCom model intercomparison initiative (AeroCom II), is assessed and compared to results of the first phase. The evaluation is performed using a global monthly gridded data set of aerosol extinction profiles built for this purpose from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Layer Product 3.01. Results over 12 subcontinental regions show that five models improved, whereas three degraded in reproducing the interregional variability in Zα0-6 km, the mean extinction height diagnostic, as computed from the CALIOP aerosol profiles over the 0-6 km altitude range for each studied region and season. While the models' performance remains highly variable, the simulation of the timing of the Zα0-6 km peak season has also improved for all but two models from AeroCom Phase I to Phase II. The biases in Zα0-6 km are smaller in all regions except Central Atlantic, East Asia, and North and South Africa. Most of the models now underestimate Zα0-6 km over land, notably in the dust and biomass burning regions in Asia and Africa. At global scale, the AeroCom II models better reproduce the Zα0-6 km latitudinal variability over ocean than over land. Hypotheses for the performance and evolution of the individual models and for the intermodel diversity are discussed. We also provide an analysis of the CALIOP limitations and uncertainties contributing to the differences between the simulations and observations.

  14. Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

  15. Global habitability and earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1960, when NASA launched the Tiros satellite to study the atmosphere of the earth, great advances have been made in the study of the earth system by means of remote sensing. It is felt that the time has come for assembling the separate pieces into a coherent whole. Work has, therefore, been conducted to develop a concept called 'global habitability'. The objective of the considered program is to investigate long-term physical, chemical, and biological trends and changes in the earth's environment, including its atmosphere, land masses, and oceans. The program is specifically concerned with a study of the effects of natural and human activities on the earth's environment, and with the future effects on biological productivity and habitability of the earth by man and by other species.

  16. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  17. Aerosol single-scattering albedo over the global oceans: Comparing PARASOL retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom models estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Bian, Huisheng; Curci, Gabriele; Myhre, Gunnar; Noije, Twan; Schulz, Michael; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-01

    The aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) over the global ocean is evaluated based on polarimetric measurements by the PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) satellite. For the first time, global ocean SSA and Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) from this instrument are shown and evaluated against other observations (the Aerosol Robotic Network, AERONET, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, OMI). The observational data sets compare reasonably well, with the majority of the colocated points within 0.05 of the AERONET measurements. PARASOL shows that SSA is characterized by high spatial and seasonal variability, also over the open ocean far from the inland emission regions. The near global coverage in the visible spectral range provided by the PARASOL retrievals represents a unique opportunity to evaluate aerosol optical properties simulated by global aerosol models, as performed in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) framework. The SSA (AAOD) estimated by the AeroCom models is generally higher (smaller) than the SSA (AAOD) retrieved from PARASOL. On the other hand, the mean simulated aerosol optical depth is consistent or slightly underestimated compared with observations. An overestimate of the aerosol scattering, compared to absorption, by the models would suggest that these simulate an overly strong aerosol radiative cooling at top of atmosphere, over most of the ocean surfaces. This implies that aerosols have a potentially stronger direct and semidirect impact within the atmosphere than currently simulated.

  18. Drilling the solid earth: global geodynamic cycles and earth evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; Arndt, Nicholas; Goodenough, Kathryn M.

    2015-09-01

    The physical and chemical evolution of the Earth is driven by geodynamic cycles that are global in scale, operating over 4.57 Ga of Earth's history. Some processes are truly cyclic, e.g., the Wilson Cycle, while others are irreversible (e.g., core formation). Heat and mass transfer between the lowermost mantle (e.g., core-mantle boundary) and the surface drives these global geodynamic processes. Subduction of lithospheric plates transfers cool fractionated material into the lower mantle and leads indirectly to the formation of new oceanic lithosphere, while the rise of thermochemical plumes recycles the remnants of these plates back to the surface, driven by heat transfer across the core-mantle boundary. These global geodynamic cycles are responsible for hotspot volcanism, the formation of continental crust, collisional orogenies, continental rifting, subduction zone processes (arcs, accretionary prisms), and ore deposits. Each of these presents opportunities for investigation by continental scientific drilling. In addition, these cycles affect other processes that are targets of continental scientific drilling: the origin and evolution of life and an oxygenated atmosphere, the impact of large volcanic eruptions on climate, and geological hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In this paper, we present the scientific rationale for continental scientific drilling to study global geodynamic processes, review past successes in this realm that were sponsored in part by ICDP, and suggest potential new targets for drilling campaigns that focus on solid earth evolution. This paper builds on discussions at the 2013 ICDP Science Meeting on the future of continental scientific drilling, held in Potsdam in November 2013.

  19. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    We are all becoming more aware of concerns such as the ozone hole and ozone layer depletion, the build-up of greenhouse gasses and the potential for global climate change, the damage to our lakes and forests from acid rain, and the loss of species and genetic diversity. These are not only of scientific interest, but are of growing public media, federal governmental, and international concern, with the potential for major impacts on the international economy, potential for future development, and global standard of living. Yet our current understanding of how our global environment behaves is embryonic, and does not allow us to predict with confidence the consequences or long term significance of these phenomena. NASA has a significant national responsibility in Global Change research, which will require a major agency investment over the next few decades in obtaining the science data associated with understanding the Earth as a total system. Technology research and development is a natural complement to this national scientific program. In her report to the NASA Administrator, Dr. Sally K. Ride states that Mission to Planet Earth "requires advances in technology to enhance observations, to handle and deliver the enormous quantities of data, and to ensure a long operating life." These three themes (1) space-based observation technologies, (2) data/information technologies, and (3) spacecraft/operations technologies form the basis for NASA's efforts to identify the technologies needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth. In the observation area, developments in spacecraft and space-based instrument technologies are required to enable the accurate measurement of key parameters crucial to the understanding of global change. In the data/information area, developments in technologies are required to enable the long-term documentation of these parameters and the timely understanding of the data. And in the spacecraft/operations area, developments in spacecraft

  20. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  1. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  2. European grid services for global earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.

    2012-04-01

    Force is already providing a cloud infrastructure through a few committed NGIs. This is being made available to research communities participating in the Task Force and the long-term aim is to integrate these national clouds into a pan-European infrastructure for scientific communities. • The MPI group provides support for application developers to port and scale up parallel applications to the global European Grid Infrastructure. • A lively portal developer and provider community that is able to setup and operate custom, application and/or community specific portals for members of the Earth Science community to interact with EGI. • A project to assess the possibilities for federated identity management in EGI and the readiness of EGI member states for federated authentication and authorisation mechanisms. • Operating resources and user support services to process data with new types of services and infrastructures, such as desktop grids, map-reduce frameworks, GPU clusters.

  3. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the technology requirements needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth concept, which will consist of several sun synchronous polar platforms; a series of low-earth orbit equatorial missions, such as Space Shuttle payloads, Space-Station-attached payloads, and the Explorer-class Earth Probes; and five geostationary platforms. In particular, the technology requirements in the areas of space-based observation, data/information, and spacecraft operation are examined.

  4. Earth system science: A program for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  5. NASA's Earth Day #GlobalSelfie

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the first time in more than a decade, five NASA Earth-observing missions will be launched into space in a single year. To celebrate this milestone, NASA is inviting people all around the world ...

  6. Measuring earth orientation with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Adam P.

    1991-01-01

    A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers which obtain data from the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may soon become an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in earth orientation. A covariance analysis has been performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS monitoring of earth orientation. Earth orientation parameters were modeled either as constants over observing windows of various lengths, or as stochastic process-noise variables. The sensitivity of earth orientation estimates to systematic errors in selected model parameters was also examined. GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques, and have the potential to generate nearly continuous centimeter-level earth orientation information to aid both spacecraft navigation and the study of high-frequency earth orientation-related processes.

  7. A history of the global understanding of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deparis, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    The author contributes to the development of a history of the global understanding of the Earth. He summarizes the main steps in the knowledge of the Earth's interior from antiquity to the present time and draws some lessons from this history.

  8. Global Issues in an Introductory Earth Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, James P.

    Information is provided explaining the incorporation of global issues units into an introductory earth science course at Skagit Valley Community College (Mount Vernon, Washington). First, a short description is provided of the original format of the earth science course, which was designed as an introductory level survey course covering topics in…

  9. Response of Earth's Ecosystem to Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.

    1996-01-01

    The Earth is in the midst of rapid and unprecedented change, much of it caused by the enormous reproductive and resource acquisition success of the human population. For the first time in Earth's history, the actions of one species-humans-are altering the atmospheric, climatic, biospheric, and edaphic processes on a scale that rivals natural processes. How will ecosystems, involving those manipulated and managed by humans largely for human use, respond to these changes? Clearly ecosystems have been adjusting to change throughout Earth's history and evolving in ways to adapt and to maintain self-organizing behavior. And in this process, the metabolic activity of the biosphere has altered the environmental conditions it experiences. I am going to confine this presentation to a few thoughts on the present state of terrestrial ecosystems and the urgency that changes in it is bringing to all of us.

  10. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    GRAM is a Fortran software package that can run on a variety of platforms including PC's. GRAM provides values of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, pressure, density, winds, constituents, etc. GRAM99 covers all global locations, all months, and heights from the surface to approx. 1000 km). Dispersions (perturbations) of these parameters are also provided and are spatially and temporally correlated. GRAM can be run in a stand-alone mode or called as a subroutine from a trajectory program. GRAM07 is diagnostic, not prognostic (i.e., it describes the atmosphere, but it does not forecast). The source code is distributed free-of-charge to eligible recipients.

  11. Integrated earth system studies. Joint research efforts of global change

    SciTech Connect

    Rosswall, T.; Ojima, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The physical, chemical and biological studies which have documented the changes to the Earth system and investigated the critical processes which couple the biosphere and the geosphere have increased our understanding of the natural variation in the Earth`s dynamics and of how human activities have modified these processes. This effort has been fundamental in furthering our understanding of what controls the Earth`s energy budget, global biogeochemistry including atmospheric composition of radiatively active gases and the hydrological cycle. This research has necessitated unprecedented international collaboration among various scientific disciplines and led to the development of major research programs like the World Climate Research Programme, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, and the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme. Through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change a continuous assessment is carried out and provides the much needed bridge between science and policy making manifested in the development of a Framework Convention of Climate Change. The challenge now facing the global change science community is to maintain the interest in elucidating the functioning of the global system when political interest may move elsewhere. To understand the functioning of the Earth system is a daunting scientific challenge and a necessity for the necessary stewardship of planet Earth.

  12. Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C. L.; Pringle, K. J.; Schulz, M.; Asmi, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Ridley, D. A.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Lee, L. A.; Zhang, Kai; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Stier, P.; Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Bauer, S.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Strunk, A.; Vignati, E.; Bellouin, N.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; Bergman, T.; Kokkola, H.; Von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Petzold, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Clarke, A. D.; Ogren, J. A.; Gras, J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kaminski, U.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D. C.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Ulevicius, V.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Zdimal, V.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Swietlicki, E.; Henzing, J. S.

    2014-05-13

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by twelve global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the results suggest that most global aerosol microphysics models simulate the global variation of the particle size distribution

  13. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  14. Technologies for global change earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

  15. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  16. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  17. Resourceful earth: a response to global 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.L.; Kahn, H.

    1984-01-01

    Dismayed by the negativism of the Carter Administration's report Global 2000 and suspicious of the political uses being made of it, Professor Simon of the University of Maryland and the late Herman Kahn, with support from the Heritage Foundation, put together these studies by experts to correct what they think are fundamental errors. They call their rather optimistic statements about the future of population, food, water, resources, climate and other things unconditional predictions in the absence of an unforeseeable catastrophe - their underlying assumption being that people will do the right things to adjust constructively to change.

  18. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  19. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  20. The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

  1. Global Sea Level Rise and the Earth's Energy Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, J.; Hobbs, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    As the oceans warm due to human-caused climate change, they contribute to both global and regional sea level rise. But the uptake of heat by the ocean also reflects the net radiative imbalance of the planet due to human interference with the climate. Global sea level rise and its components therefore provide a constraint on the Earth's Energy Balance, and vice versa. We will present an assessment of the sea level and energy budgets and their implications for the magnitude of deep ocean warming and net radiative forcing over the past decade. Observations from satellite altimeters and the GRACE gravity mission will be compared with in situ observations of ocean warming. In addition, we will consider observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to assess the Earth's net radiation balance. Finally, a new estimate of bias corrections for the XBT observations will be assessed and presented.

  2. Aero dopes and varnishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, H T S

    1927-01-01

    Before proceeding to discuss the preparation of dope solutions, it will be necessary to consider some of the essential properties which should be possessed of a dope film, deposited in and on the surface of an aero fabric. The first is that it should tighten the material and second it should withstand weathering.

  3. Global Change Master Directory enhances search for Earth science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Lola

    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) offers an on-line search and retrieval system for those interested in identifying Earth science data sets for educational and research needs. At the heart of the directory is a database of 3400 Earth science entries.It includes references to data held at many federal agencies, universities, and foreign countries. Content is updated and software is upgraded continuously by the GCMD staff. Earth science data set descriptions in the GCMD are written in the Directory Interchange Format (DIF). The DIF has gained interagency and international acceptance in documenting directory-level information for the Earth sciences. New fields have recently been added to bring the DIF into compliance with the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata. These additional new fields allow more complete documentation for all data sets, including those held in Geographic Information Systems.

  4. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  5. Representing plant hydraulics in a global Earth system model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, D.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models need improvement to reproduce observed seasonal and diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and respiration. Model water stress parameterizations lag behind the plant physiology literature. A plant hydraulics model is developed and deployed in a global Earth system model (NCAR CESM 1.2.2 with CLM 4.5). Assimilation and transpiration are attenuated according to literature cavitation curves. Water stress is evaluated based on plant functional type hydraulic parameters forced by soil moisture and atmospheric conditions. Resolving the plant water status allows for modelling divergent strategies for water stress. The case of isohydric versus anisohydric species is presented, showing that including plant hydraulic traits alter modelled photosynthesis and transpiration.

  6. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) Applications for the NASA Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, EarthGRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-OO) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of these datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may also provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which include wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99.

  7. Role of the Earth's rotation in global geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenkova, N.

    2009-04-01

    Role of the Earth's rotation in the global geodynamics. Pavlenkova N.I., Institute of Physics of the Earth of Russian Academy of Science, B.Grusinskaja 10, 123995, Moscow, ninapav@ifz.ru Geophysical studies show several regularities in Earth's structures which are not explained by the traditional global tectonics conceptions. (1) The surface of the Earth, as well as a surface of other planets, precisely shares on two hemispheres with a different relief and structure of an earth's crust: on the Pacific (oceanic) hemisphere with the lowered relief and a thin oceanic crust, and a continental hemisphere with prevalence of the raised relief and a thick continental crust. (2) There is a regular system of global lineaments and ring structures which are stretched on thousand kilometers, covering continents and oceans. As one of examples it is possible to result system of rift zones (mid-oceanic ridges), forming a ring around of the Antarctica with rift branches from it through everyone of 90 degrees. (3) Asymmetry with a relief of a day time surface when to each raised structure there corresponds the lowered surface on the opposite side of globe is observed. (4) The continental and oceanic mantles have different compositions and deep roots (>300 km) beneath the continents are prominent as regions with relatively high seismic velocities. There are regular connections between geological structures and deep mantle roots. (5) The classical lithosphere-asthenosphere model is not confirmed by seismic data. The asthenosphere can not be traced as a continuous layer, there are disconnected lenses (asthenolenses) even beneath mid-oceanic ridges. Significant horizontal movements of the lithosphere, as proposed by the global plate tectonics, would destroy all these regularities and crust-mantle interaction. To make an agreement between all observed data, the fluids-rotation hypothesis is proposed. The hypothesis supposes two main energy sources of the global tectonics: the

  8. Aero/structural tailoring of engine blades (AERO/STAEBL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the Aero/Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (AERO/STAEBL) program, which is a computer code used to perform engine fan and compressor blade aero/structural numerical optimizations. These optimizations seek a blade design of minimum operating cost that satisfies realistic blade design constraints. This report documents the overall program (i.e., input, optimization procedures, approximate analyses) and also provides a detailed description of the validation test cases.

  9. Planning for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations was established to promote comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained Earth observations. Its mandate is to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) in accord with the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan and Reference Document. During the months over which the GEOSS Implementation Plan was developed, many issues surfaced and were addressed. This article discusses several of the more interesting or challenging of those issues-e.g. fitting in with existing organizations and securing stable funding - some of which have yet to be resolved fully as of this writing. Despite the relatively short period over which the Implementation Plan had to be developed, there is a good chance that the work undertaken will be influential for decades to come. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  11. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  12. A new global mode of Earth deformation: seasonal cycle detected.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, G; Lavallée, D; Clarke, P; Nurutdinov, K

    2001-12-14

    We have detected a global mode of Earth deformation that is predicted by theory. Precise positioning of Global Positioning System sites distributed worldwide reveals that during February to March, the Northern Hemisphere compresses (and the Southern Hemisphere expands), such that sites near the North Pole move downward by 3.0 millimeters, and sites near the equator are pulled northward by 1.5 millimeters. The opposite pattern of deformation occurs during August to September. We identify this pattern as the degree-one spherical harmonic response of an elastic Earth to increased winter loading of soil moisture, snow cover, and atmosphere. Data inversion shows the load moment's trajectory as a great circle traversing the continents, peaking at 6.9 x 10(22) kilogram meters near the North Pole in winter, indicating interhemispheric mass exchange of 1.0 x 10(16) +/- 0.2 x 10(16) kilograms. PMID:11743198

  13. Earth parameters from global satellite triangulation and trilateration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    Results obtained from 159-station global satellite triangulation and trilateration (including Baker-Nunn, BC-4, PC-1000 camera observations, SECOR, C-Band radar and EDM distance measurements) indicate differences in the semidiameter and orientation of the earth compared to results obtained from dynamic satellite solutions. Geoidal undulations obtained can be made consistent with dynamically determined ones at the expense of slight changes in the currently accepted parameters defining the gravity field of the level ellipsoid.

  14. Global Earth Observation System of Systems - GEOSS and USGEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withee, G. W.

    2008-05-01

    The vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to enable a healthy public, economy, and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sustained Earth observation system of systems. GEOSS is a global effort to meet the need for timely, quality, long-term information as a basis for sound decision making and enhanced delivery of benefits to society. Benefits are foreseen in a broad range of important societal- economic issues, including understanding health and the environment, water management, ecosystems and biodiversity, weather forecasting, disaster preparation and recovery, ocean monitoring and prediction, climate change and sustainable growth, and agriculture sustainability. GEOSS is coordinated by an international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) established in 2005 and involving 72 countries, the European Commission, and 46 participating organizations. As a Ministerial-level organization, GEO represents a two-way dialog with policy makers on the importance of Earth observations to science and societal benefits. This talk will provide an update of recent GEOSS activities and progress.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1993-01-01

    During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

  16. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  17. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  18. Common oscillations in Global Earth Temperature, Sea Level, and Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, Leonid; Bizouard, Christian; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) of Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) and Global Average Earth Temperature (HadCRUT4) data after global warming trends subtraction revealed presence of quasi-periodic components with periods of 60, 20 and 10 years in both time series. 60-year component of sea level is anticorrelated with long-periodic changes in temperature, while 10 and 20-year components are correlated. Simultaneous presence of 60-year component in secular Earth rotation rate changes rises a question of interrelations between Earth rotation and Climate. Quasi-20-year changes in GMSL and HadCRUT4 have maxima and minima well corresponding to the amplitude changes of recently reconstructed Chandler wobble excitation, which could be caused by the 18.6-year cycle of the Moon orbital nodes regression. The cause of 10-year oscillations in climate characteristics is enigmatic. It could be related to El Nino variability, Volcanoes, or Solar activity, but correlation with each of those processes found to be small. Looks like it is correlated with 9.3 yr tidal wave.

  19. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  20. Aero-optics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn D.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command (USASDC) has several ongoing and planned programs that utilize optical sensors aboard missiles traveling at hypersonic velocities in the atmosphere. Central to the missile homing problem are aero-optical effects upon a missile-borne sensor/seeker which looks through both an electromagnetic window and the flow field about the vehicle. Aspects of the problem include modeling and simulation of the flow field on incident radiation from a target, and finally, predicting the resultant image imperfections and error in apparent object position as perceived by the sensor.

  1. Aero-optics overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, K. G.

    1980-04-01

    Various aero-optical phenomena are discussed with reference to their effect on airborne high energy lasers. Major emphasis is placed on: compressibility effects induced in the surrounding flow field; viscous effects which manifests themselves as aircraft boundary layers or shear layers; inviscid flow fields surrounding the aircraft due to airflow around protuberance such as laser turret assemblies; and shocks, established whenever local flow exceeds Mach one. The significant physical parameters affecting the interaction of a laser beam with a turbulent boundary layer are also described.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  3. Global-scale teleconnections in the Earth's middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, T. G.

    2009-05-01

    The global-scale circulation of the Earth's middle atmosphere is driven by angular momentum transfers effected by waves propagating up from the more turbulent, thermally-driven troposphere. The resulting effects on the middle atmosphere are largest in polar regions. This 'mechanical forcing' is an indirect response to the direct thermal forcing of the atmosphere by the Sun, and can act in a thermally-indirect manner, i.e. as a refrigerator. As it involves wave propagation, it can also act anti-diffusively, and non-locally. The basic physics of the process is described and examples given of how it can lead to global-scale teleconnections, both vertically and latitudinally. Parallels with the dynamics of the Sun will be mentioned.

  4. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  5. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  6. Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, James P.

    Lucky indeed are the students taking Richard Turco's course and using his book, Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change. They have an enthusiastic and communicative lecturer who is a true authority in his field and who passionately devotes his efforts to enlightening his students.The passion is evident in the text, but it never interferes with the rigor of the material presented.Earth Under Siege is based on lectures given by Turco in a popular course for undergraduate students of all stripes at the University of California at Los Angeles. Student knowledge that is provided by a high school college preparatory curriculum is assumed.The style is engagingly informal and the book is a delight to read. Sprinkled throughout are pithy comments, many humorous, that are designed to heighten student understanding and interest. They also reveal Turco's personal opinions about issues of air pollution. However, despite the title, it is clear that Turco is not an environmental zealot. He is scientifically accurate and thorough in presenting vital information about air pollution on all scales, local through global. He is also clear-eyed and nondoctrinaire in presenting social, political, and economic aspects of air pollution. His devotion is to the education of individuals who can become informed members of an environmentally aware society.

  7. The global impact distribution of Near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Clemens; Lewis, Hugh G.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-02-01

    Asteroids that could collide with the Earth are listed on the publicly available Near-Earth object (NEO) hazard web sites maintained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The impact probability distribution of 69 potentially threatening NEOs from these lists that produce 261 dynamically distinct impact instances, or Virtual Impactors (VIs), were calculated using the Asteroid Risk Mitigation and Optimization Research (ARMOR) tool in conjunction with OrbFit. ARMOR projected the impact probability of each VI onto the surface of the Earth as a spatial probability distribution. The projection considers orbit solution accuracy and the global impact probability. The method of ARMOR is introduced and the tool is validated against two asteroid-Earth collision cases with objects 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA. In the analysis, the natural distribution of impact corridors is contrasted against the impact probability distribution to evaluate the distributions' conformity with the uniform impact distribution assumption. The distribution of impact corridors is based on the NEO population and orbital mechanics. The analysis shows that the distribution of impact corridors matches the common assumption of uniform impact distribution and the result extends the evidence base for the uniform assumption from qualitative analysis of historic impact events into the future in a quantitative way. This finding is confirmed in a parallel analysis of impact points belonging to a synthetic population of 10,006 VIs. Taking into account the impact probabilities introduced significant variation into the results and the impact probability distribution, consequently, deviates markedly from uniformity. The concept of impact probabilities is a product of the asteroid observation and orbit determination technique and, thus, represents a man-made component that is largely disconnected from natural processes. It is important to consider impact

  8. Global Oceanic Basalt Geochemistry From EarthChem Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sarbas, B.; Jochum, K. P.; Stracke, A.

    2004-12-01

    For the past 21 years, global trace element systematics in oceanic basalts have been systematically developed, using mass spectrometry, by the MPI geochemistry department in Mainz, starting with Ba-Rb-Cs, and continuing with K-U-Th, Nb-U-Th, Pb-Ce, Pr-Mo, Nb-Ta, Sn-REE, Sb-REE, and Y-Ho relations. These were complemented by other groups, contributing e.g. Sr-REE relationships and more refined Nb-Ta systematics. Goal of these investigations was to establish relative trace element compatibilities during mantle melting, the corresponding enrichment and depletion patterns in MORB, OIB, subduction-related volcanics and the continental crust, and the relationships to Bulk Silicate Earth abundances through comparisons with element abundances in meteorites and in the continental crust (see e.g. [1]). Most of these studies were initially based on extremely limited data sets, often fewer than 100 analyses, because routine analytical techniques such as XRF and INAA were inadequate, either in sensitivity or accuracy or both, for many of the elements of interest. The advent of ICPMS technology has increased the volume of available, useable data enormously. The most recent development of laser source ICPMS is accelerating the acquisition of comprehensive trace element data even more dramatically. Although the general quality of recent trace element analyses has improved significantly, there remain large differences in reliability between published data because of varying analytical uncertainties and sample alteration. Thus, quality assurance remains an enormous task. In any case, now and in the foreseeable future, it will be impossible to assess global geochemical data without the use of comprehensive databases. Such databases are now available under http://www.earthchem.org/, comprising http://beta.petdb.ciesin.columbia.edu/; http://georoc.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de/, and http://navdat.geo.ku.edu/ . Unfortunately, the use of such databases is not without pitfalls. Often, appropriate

  9. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  10. Aero-Assisted Spacecraft Missions Using Hypersonic Waverider Aeroshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Jeremy

    optimized outcome. In examining an aero-capture of Mars, it was found that with a lifting body, the increased maneuverability can allow completion of multiple mission objectives along with the aero-capture, such as atmospheric profiling or up to 80 degrees of orbital plane change. Completing a combined orbital plane change and aero-capture might save as much as 4.5 km/s of velocity increment while increasing the feasible entry corridor by an order of magnitude. Analyzing a higher energy mission type, a database of maximum aero-gravity assist performance is developed at Mars, Earth and Venus. Finally, a methodology is presented for designing end-to-end interplanetary missions using aero-gravity assists. As a means of demonstrating the method, promising trajectories are propagated which reduce the time of flight of an interstellar probe mission by up to 50%.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

  12. A global estimate of the Earth's magnetic crustal thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's lithosphere is considered to be magnetic only down to the Curie isotherm. Therefore the Curie isotherm can, in principle, be estimated by analysis of magnetic data. Here, we propose such an analysis in the spectral domain by means of a newly introduced regional spatial power spectrum. This spectrum is based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism (Thébault et al., 2006). We briefly discuss its properties and its relationship with the Spherical Harmonic spatial power spectrum. This relationship allows us to adapt any theoretical expression of the lithospheric field power spectrum expressed in Spherical Harmonic degrees to the regional formulation. We compared previously published statistical expressions (Jackson, 1994 ; Voorhies et al., 2002) to the recent lithospheric field models derived from the CHAMP and airborne measurements and we finally developed a new statistical form for the power spectrum of the Earth's magnetic lithosphere that we think provides more consistent results. This expression depends on the mean magnetization, the mean crustal thickness and a power law value that describes the amount of spatial correlation of the sources. In this study, we make a combine use of the R-SCHA surface power spectrum and this statistical form. We conduct a series of regional spectral analyses for the entire Earth. For each region, we estimate the R-SCHA surface power spectrum of the NGDC-720 Spherical Harmonic model (Maus, 2010). We then fit each of these observational spectra to the statistical expression of the power spectrum of the Earth's lithosphere. By doing so, we estimate the large wavelengths of the magnetic crustal thickness on a global scale that are not accessible directly from the magnetic measurements due to the masking core field. We then discuss these results and compare them to the results we obtained by conducting a similar spectral analysis, but this time in the cartesian coordinates, by means of a published

  13. Developing Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the dynamic nature of agricultural cultivation both within and between years and across the globe, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing an agricultural monitoring (GEO-GLAM) system with the goal of enhancing the availability and use of satellite and in situ Earth observations (EO) for the generation of timely and accurate information on national, regional, and global food supply. One of the key components of the GEO-GLAM system is the coordination of satellite observations so as to ensure sufficient and appropriate data volume and quality for agricultural monitoring. Therefore, it is essential that we develop EO requirements which articulate in a spatially explicit way where, when, how frequently, and at what spatial resolution satellite imagery must be acquired to meet the needs of a variety of agricultural monitoring applications. Accordingly, best-available cropland location information ('where?') in conjunction with ten years of MODIS surface reflectance data have been used to characterize the timing and duration of the agricultural growing season ('when?') in the form of agricultural growing season calendars (GSCs) for all major agricultural areas of the Earth. With respect to temporal resolution, we must first identify the frequency with which we require imagery inputs for monitoring applications such as crop condition, crop type, crop yield estimation, and planted and harvested area estimation. Members of the GEO Agriculture Monitoring Community of Practice - a group of international scientists - have combined their knowledge and expertise to articulate these general requirements. Second, we must determine how cloud cover impacts the ability of optical sensing systems to meet these established temporal resolution requirements. To this end, MODIS Terra (morning; 2000-2011) and Aqua (afternoon; 2002-2011) observations have been analyzed to derive probabilities of a cloud free clear view at different times of day throughout the

  14. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  15. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  16. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schultz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, D.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Berntsen, T.; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, G.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.

    2012-05-19

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z{sub a}) is defined to quantitatively assess the models performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z{sub a} climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z{sub a} than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z{sub a} is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z{sub a} is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  17. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Berntsen, Terje; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Gimoux, Paul; Gong, Sunling; Horowitz, Larry W.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevag, Alf; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, Gunnar; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z-alpha) is defined to quantitatively assess the models' performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z-alpha climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z-alpha than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z-alpha is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z-alpha is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  18. ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities and global Earth figure variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métivier, Laurent; Rouby, Hélène; Rebischung, Paul; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the GNSS station vertical velocities provided by the new solution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the ITRF2014. Constructed from a global network of approximately 1500 stations of the different space geodetic techniques, this new solution provides two times more GNSS station velocities than the ITRF2008, and shows a global pattern of vertical velocities very homogeneous regionally. As in the ITRF2008 solution, large vertical velocities can be seen over North America, Northern Europe, or Antarctica, probably induced predominantly by the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) still occurring today since the last deglaciation. But the ITRF2014 solution shows also large vertical velocities over regions such as Greenland and Alaska clearly larger than in the ITRF2008, probably related to last decadal ice melting and its possible acceleration. We investigate different methods to calculate low degree spherical harmonics coefficient from ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities. We particularly focus on the components related to the geocenter motion, the ellipticity of the solid Earth, and the J2 rate, and we present time tendencies with respect to different GIA and recent ice melting models.

  19. Investigation of intelligent measurement system for aero-engine experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weisong

    1990-07-01

    An intelligent aero-engine measurement system has been developed. The system is original and new in its global design. It integrates data acquisition, real-time calibration, displacement control, angle tracking, data processing, and table printing. The system has been used successfully in combustion and turbine testing; its technical and economic effectiveness has been proved remarkable.

  20. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  1. The NASA MSFC Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2007 Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, F.W.; Justus, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability, and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes) as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. A unique feature of GRAM is that, addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations in these atmospheric parameters (e.g. fluctuations due to turbulence and other atmospheric perturbation phenomena). A summary comparing GRAM features to characteristics and features of other reference or standard atmospheric models, can be found Guide to Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models. The original GRAM has undergone a series of improvements over the years with recent additions and changes. The software program is called Earth-GRAM2007 to distinguish it from similar programs for other bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, Neptune, and Titan). However, in order to make this Technical Memorandum (TM) more readable, the software will be referred to simply as GRAM07 or GRAM unless additional clarity is needed. Section 1 provides an overview of the basic features of GRAM07 including the newly added features. Section 2 provides a more detailed description of GRAM07 and how the model output generated. Section 3 presents sample results. Appendices A and B describe the Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) data and the Global Gridded Air Statistics (GGUAS) database. Appendix C provides instructions for compiling and running GRAM07. Appendix D gives a description of the required NAMELIST format input. Appendix E gives sample output. Appendix F provides a list of available

  2. Global X-ray Imaging of the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2012-04-01

    Plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in situ, or by remote sensing. In situ measurements return precise information about plasma composition, instabilities and dynamics, but cannot provide the global view necessary to understand the overall behaviour and evolution of the plasma, which instead can be explored by remote imaging. We propose a new approach by remote global X-ray imaging, now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge-exchange X-ray emission; this has been found, by observatories such as XMM-Newton, to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere and to peak in the sub-solar magnetosheath, where both solar wind and neutral exospheric densities are high. We describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the Earth's dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with temporal and spatial resolutions sufficient to address key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with planetary magnetospheres. This medium-size mission incorporates a wide-field soft X-ray telescope, using micropore optics and CCD detectors, for imaging and spectroscopy, a proton and alpha particle sensor designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an ion composition analyser which aims to characterise the populations of minor ions in the solar wind, and a magnetometer for accurate measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field. Details of the mission profile will be presented, as well as simulations of the expected performance for possible mission configurations. The AXIOM Team: G. Branduardi-Raymont(1), S. F. Sembay(2), J. P. Eastwood(3), D. G. Sibeck(4), A. Abbey(2), P. Brown(3), J. A. Carter(2), C. M. Carr(3), C. Forsyth(1), D. Kataria(1), S. Milan(2), C. J. Owen(1), A. M. Read(2), C. S. Arridge(1), A. J. Coates(1), M. R. Collier(4), S. W. H. Cowley(2), G. Fraser(2), G

  3. AeroDyn Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, P. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    AeroDyn is a set of routines used in conjunction with an aeroelastic simulation code to predict the aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. These subroutines provide several different models whose theoretical bases are described in this manual. AeroDyn contains two models for calculating the effect of wind turbine wakes: the blade element momentum theory and the generalized dynamic-wake theory. Blade element momentum theory is the classical standard used by many wind turbine designers and generalized dynamic wake theory is a more recent model useful for modeling skewed and unsteady wake dynamics. When using the blade element momentum theory, various corrections are available for the user, such as incorporating the aerodynamic effects of tip losses, hub losses, and skewed wakes. With the generalized dynamic wake, all of these effects are automatically included. Both of these methods are used to calculate the axial induced velocities from the wake in the rotor plane. The user also has the option of calculating the rotational induced velocity. In addition, AeroDyn contains an important model for dynamic stall based on the semi-empirical Beddoes-Leishman model. This model is particularly important for yawed wind turbines. Another aerodynamic model in AeroDyn is a tower shadow model based on potential flow around a cylinder and an expanding wake. Finally, AeroDyn has the ability to read several different formats of wind input, including single-point hub-height wind files or multiple-point turbulent winds.

  4. Hypersonic Interplanetary Flight: Aero Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Banks, Dan; Randolph, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The use of aero-gravity assist during hypersonic interplanetary flights is highlighted. Specifically, the use of large versus small planet for gravity asssist maneuvers, aero-gravity assist trajectories, launch opportunities and planetary waverider performance are addressed.

  5. Long-range Memory in Earth's Global Temperature and its Implications for Future Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, K.; Oestvand, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's climate is a driven complex system which responds to a variable radiative forcing on a vast range of time scales. The contribution explores the hypothesis that the temporal global temperature response can be modeled as a long-range memory (LRM) stochastic process characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5global (H=1.0) records and that LRM is highest in records strongly influenced by the ocean. The increasing trend through the last century cannot be explained as an unforced LRM fluctuation, but the observed 60-yr oscillation can. Analysis of a northern-hemisphere reconstruction for the last two millennia confirms LRM scaling up to at least 250 yr. If this record reconstructs the milennium-scale temperatures correctly there is a significant temperature difference between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age which cannot be explained as an inherent LRM fluctuation. We systematically investigate biases and uncertainties of a number of analysis methods, and conclude that for these record lengths it has no meaning to give Hurst exponents with more than one decimal. We also address the serious implications of such memory effects on future global warming due to the stronger disturbance of the Earth's energy balance under sustained forcing.

  6. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM99): Short Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    Earth-GRAM is a FORTRAN software package that can run on a variety of platforms including PC's. For any time and location in the Earth's atmosphere, Earth-GRAM provides values of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, pressure, density, winds, constituents, etc.. Dispersions (perturbations) of these parameters are also provided and have realistic correlations, means, and variances - useful for Monte Carlo analysis. Earth-GRAM is driven by observations including a tropospheric database available from the National Climatic Data Center. Although Earth-GRAM can be run in a "stand-alone" mode, many users incorporate it into their trajectory codes. The source code is distributed free-of-charge to eligible recipients.

  7. Global Change in Earth's Atmosphere: Natural and Anthropogenic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, J.

    2013-12-01

    To what extent is human activity, such as the emission of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse' gases, influencing Earth's atmosphere, compared with natural variations driven by, for example, the Sun or volcanoes? Why has Earth's surface warmed barely, if at all, in the last decade? Why is the atmosphere at just 20 km above the surface cooling instead of warming? When - and will - the ozone layer recover from its two-decade decline due to chlorofluorocarbon depletion? Natural and anthropogenic factors are changing Earth's atmosphere, each with distinct temporal, geographical and altitudinal signatures. Increasing greenhouse gases, for example, warm the surface but cool the stratosphere and upper atmosphere. Aerosols injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption warm the stratosphere but cool the surface. Increases in the Sun's brightness warm Earth's atmosphere, throughout. This talk will quantify and compare a variety of natural and human influences on the Earth's atmosphere, extracted statistically from multiple datasets with the goal of understanding how and why Earth's atmosphere is changing. The extent to which responses to natural influences are presently masking or exacerbating ongoing responses to human activity is examined. Scenarios for future levels of anthropogenic gases and solar activity are then used to speculate how Earth's atmosphere might evolve in future decades, according to both statistical models of the databases and physical general circulation models.

  8. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Scientists have eagerly anticipated the performance capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Hawk for over a decade. In 2009 this capability becomes operational. One of the most desired performance capabilities of the Global Hawk aircraft is very long endurance. The Global Hawk aircraft can remain airborne longer than almost all other jet-powered aircraft currently flying, and longer than all other aircraft available for airborne science use. This paper describes the NASA Global Hawk system, payload accommodations, concept of operations, and the first scientific data-gathering mission: Global Hawk Pacific 2009.

  9. Prediction and control of turbulent aero-optical distortion using large eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Robert E.

    1993-06-01

    The problem of aero-optical distortion caused by turbulence in high speed mixing layers was studied using large eddy simulation (LES) as the model of turbulence. The accuracy of LES is established for global features of the mixing layer, such as mean growth rate and statistics of turbulent velocity fluctuations. LES was then used to assess two concepts for suppressing density fluctuations and aero-optical distortion, lateral convergence and streamline curvature, and one of these was found to be reasonably effective.

  10. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  11. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  12. The artifact of nature: 'Spaceship Earth' and the dawn of global environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Deese, R S

    2009-06-01

    The metaphor of 'Spaceship Earth' employed by a diverse array of scientists, economists and politicians during the 1960s and 1970s points to the Cold War origins of the first global environmentalist movement. With the advent of Spaceship Earth, nature itself became at once technological artifact and a vital object of Cold War gamesmanship. The evolution of this metaphor uncovers the connections between Cold War technologies such as nuclear weapons, space travel and cybernetics, and the birth of the first global environmentalist movement. Revisiting Spaceship Earth may help us to better understand the implicit assumptions that have both empowered and limited that movement. PMID:19477014

  13. Ethics in a Global World: The Earth Charter and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Andrew G.; Regan, Ethna

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider the potential and promise of the 2000 UNESCO "Earth Charter" for the work of the religious educator in situating a "common" ethical core in a global world. It is argued that the Charter represents a courageous attempt to negotiate a global ethic of universal and multi-faceted responsibility based on the foundation of…

  14. The Emergence of Land Use as a Global Force in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human societies have emerged as a global force capable of transforming the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and climate. As a result, the long-term dynamics of the Earth system can no longer be understood or predicted without understanding their coupling with human societal dynamics. Here, a general causal theory is presented to explain why behaviorally modern humans, unlike any prior multicellular species, gained this unprecedented capacity to reshape the Earth system and how this societal capacity has changed from the Pleistocene to the present and future. Sociocultural niche construction theory, building on existing theories of ecosystem engineering, niche construction, the extended evolutionary synthesis, cultural evolution, ultrasociality and social change, can explain both the long-term upscaling of human societies and their unprecedented capacity to transform the Earth system. Regime shifts in human sociocultural niche construction, from the clearing of land using fire, to shifting cultivation, to intensive agriculture, to global food systems dependent on fossil fuel combustion, have enabled human societies to scale up while gaining the capacity to reshape the global patterns and processes of biogeography, ecosystems, landscapes, biomes, the biosphere, and ultimately the functioning of the Earth system. Just as Earth's geophysical climate system shapes the long-term dynamics of energy and material flow across the "spheres" of the Earth system, human societies, interacting at global scale to form "human systems", are increasingly shaping the global dynamics of energy, material, biotic and information flow across the spheres of the Earth system, including a newly emerged anthroposphere comprised of human societies and their material cultures. Human systems and the anthroposphere are strongly coupled with climate and other Earth systems and are dynamic in response to evolutionary changes in human social organization, cooperative ecosystem

  15. The solid earth: An introduction to global geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book addresses major topics to be presented in a modern overview course. These topics include terrestrial seismology, gravity, earth's magnetic field and paleomagnetism, radiometric age dating, and heat flow. All are related throughout to the structure and dynamics of the interior of the earth, plate tectonics (including the geometry of tectonics on a sphere), and the nature of the continental and into such aspects as reflection coefficients and Zoeppritz equations, velocity analysis, migration, and Fresnel zone limitation on resolution. Appendices treat the elastic wave equations, inversion of earthquake time-distance curves, and a glossary of geological and geophysical terms. After noting that the book is intended for both geologists and physicists, as well as those marrying the disciplines into geophysics, the author adds that most geophysicists look for oil.

  16. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  17. Google Earth Engine: a new cloud-computing platform for global-scale earth observation data and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. T.; Hansen, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Google Earth Engine is a new technology platform that enables monitoring and measurement of changes in the earth's environment, at planetary scale, on a large catalog of earth observation data. The platform offers intrinsically-parallel computational access to thousands of computers in Google's data centers. Initial efforts have focused primarily on global forest monitoring and measurement, in support of REDD+ activities in the developing world. The intent is to put this platform into the hands of scientists and developing world nations, in order to advance the broader operational deployment of existing scientific methods, and strengthen the ability for public institutions and civil society to better understand, manage and report on the state of their natural resources. Earth Engine currently hosts online nearly the complete historical Landsat archive of L5 and L7 data collected over more than twenty-five years. Newly-collected Landsat imagery is downloaded from USGS EROS Center into Earth Engine on a daily basis. Earth Engine also includes a set of historical and current MODIS data products. The platform supports generation, on-demand, of spatial and temporal mosaics, "best-pixel" composites (for example to remove clouds and gaps in satellite imagery), as well as a variety of spectral indices. Supervised learning methods are available over the Landsat data catalog. The platform also includes a new application programming framework, or "API", that allows scientists access to these computational and data resources, to scale their current algorithms or develop new ones. Under the covers of the Google Earth Engine API is an intrinsically-parallel image-processing system. Several forest monitoring applications powered by this API are currently in development and expected to be operational in 2011. Combining science with massive data and technology resources in a cloud-computing framework can offer advantages of computational speed, ease-of-use and collaboration, as

  18. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX): Earth science collaborative for global change science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Global change research is conducted in a highly collaborative manner by teams of researchers including climate scientists, hydrologists, biologists, economists, social scientists and resource managers distributed around the world. Their work is characterized by use of community-developed models and analysis codes and by a need to access a broad range of large datasets found in geographically distributed research and data centers. Stovepipes and segmentation currently limit collaboration and often lead to duplication of efforts. As we move forward, we can be more effective and efficient, both scientifically and fiscally. For example, as the length and diversity of the hydrologic observations grow, modeling and analyses of hydrospheric conditions increasingly requires multiple terabytes of data from a diversity of models and sensors. With network bandwidth beginning to flatten, transmission of these data from centralized data archives presents an increasing challenge, and costs associated with local storage and management of data and compute resources are often significant for individual research and application development efforts. Sharing community valued intermediary data sets, results and codes from individual efforts with others that are not in direct funded collaboration can also be a challenge with respect to time, cost and expertise. Over the past two years, we have been working on the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), a data, modeling and knowledge center that houses NASA satellite data, climate data and ancillary data where a focused community may come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform. NEX tries to accomplish this by providing scientists with four key capabilities: 1) A web-based collaborative environment that includes, among others, social networking and publication tools. 2) A data management environment providing streamlined discovery and access to key datasets, both

  19. Geocenter location and variations in earth orientation using global positioning system measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S. C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the use of GPS ground and flight tracking data to measure short-period earth orientation variations and changes in geocenter location. Comparisons between GPS-estimated earth rotation variations and those calculated from ocean tide models suggest that observed subdaily variations in earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Our preliminary GPS estimates for geocenter location agree with an independent satellite laser ranging estimates to 10-15 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low-earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales less than 1 day.

  20. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela, Ed.

    This teacher's guide helps students explore the connection between human population growth and the well-being of the planet. Twelve readings and 34 activities introduce high school students to global society and environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, gender equality, economics, poverty, energy, wildlife endangerment, waste…

  1. Adventures on Earth: Exploring Our Global Links. A Classroom Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Stefanie, Ed.

    This classroom guide uses a series of interactive lessons to provide middle and high school students with the foundation to address complex issues of how people use the environment, the factors (demographic, socioeconomic, political, and cultural) that affect human use of resources, and the local and global environmental impact of people's actions…

  2. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  3. Geostationary orbit Earth science platform concepts for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jeffery T.; Campbell, Thomas G.; Davis, William T.; Garn, Paul A.; King, Charles B.; Jackson, Cheryl C.

    1991-01-01

    Functionality of a geostationary spacecraft to support Earth science regional process research is identified. Most regional process studies require high spatial and temporal resolution. These high temporal resolutions are on the order of 30 minutes and may be achievable with instruments positioned in a geostationary orbit. A complement of typical existing or near term instruments are identified to take advantage of this altitude. This set of instruments is listed, and the requirements these instruments impose on a spacecraft are discussed. A brief description of the geostationary spacecraft concepts which support these instruments is presented.

  4. "Dynamic Kinematics": Towards Linking Earth's Plate Motions to the Evolution of Global Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The theory of plate tectonics has been one of the major breakthroughs in solid-Earth science and is capable of explaining many of the tectonic processes on present-day Earth. Moreover, it allows us to reconstruct Earth's tectonic history back until times of the supercontinent Pangaea and thus improves our understanding how Earth developed to its present state. However, plate tectonics remains a kinematic theory that does not sufficiently incorporate the balance of forces in the Earth's mantle and can thus not explain the motion of Earth's tectonic plates in a dynamically consistent manner. Here, we use fully dynamic models of mantle convection in global spherical geometry to overcome this issue. These models include tectonic plates self-consistently evolving from mantle flow (using a viscoplastic rheology) as well as continental drift. We analyze the evolution of plate velocities over time periods considerably longer than those covered by modern plate reconstructions. We observe significant changes in plate velocity magnitude and direction over timescales relevant for the Earth. While some of these plate reorganizations appear to be rather local affecting only very few plates, others seem to have more global consequences. We characterize the variety of different reorganizations based on features of modeled spreading centers and subduction zones, for instance the flux of slab material into the lower mantle. Initial results suggest that global changes in plate configuration correlate with phases of major slab penetration into the lower mantle, while changes on individual plate-scale do not necessarily do so.

  5. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  6. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the Globally Integrated Spectral Variability of the Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  7. Use of global positioning system measurements to determine geocentric coordinates and variations in Earth orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geocentric tracking station coordinates and short-period Earth-orientation variations can be measured with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Unless calibrated, geocentric coordinate errors and changes in Earth orientation can lead to significant deep-space tracking errors. Ground-based GPS estimates of daily and subdaily changes in Earth orientation presently show centimeter-level precision. Comparison between GPS-estimated Earth-rotation variations, which are the differences between Universal Time 1 and Universal Coordinated Time (UT1-UTC), and those calculated from ocean tide models suggests that observed subdaily variations in Earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Preliminary GPS estimates for the geocenter location (from a 3-week experiment) agree with independent satellite laser-ranging estimates to better than 10 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for Earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low Earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low Earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales of less than 1 day.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis for Coupled Aero-structural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunta, Anthony A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for calculating gradients of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for an aeroelastic aircraft model. This method uses the Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) to account for the aero-structural coupling, and a reduced-order modal analysis approach to condense the coupling bandwidth between the aerodynamic and structural models. Parallel computing is applied to reduce the computational expense of the numerous high fidelity aerodynamic analyses needed for the coupled aero-structural system. Good agreement is obtained between aerodynamic force and moment gradients computed with the GSE/modal analysis approach and the same quantities computed using brute-force, computationally expensive, finite difference approximations. A comparison between the computational expense of the GSE/modal analysis method and a pure finite difference approach is presented. These results show that the GSE/modal analysis approach is the more computationally efficient technique if sensitivity analysis is to be performed for two or more aircraft design parameters.

  9. a Near-Global Bare-Earth dem from Srtm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, J. C.; Read, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The near-global elevation product from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) has been widely used since its release in 2005 at 3 arcsecond resolution and the release of the 1 arcsecond version in late 2014 means that the full potential of the SRTM DEM can now be realised. However the routine use of SRTM for analytical purposes such as catchment hydrology, flood inundation, habitat mapping and soil mapping is still seriously impeded by the presence of artefacts in the data, primarily the offsets due to tree cover and the random noise. This paper describes the algorithms being developed to remove those offsets, based on the methods developed to produce the Australian national elevation model from SRTM data. The offsets due to trees are estimated using the GlobeLand30 (National Geomatics Center of China) and Global Forest Change (University of Maryland) products derived from Landsat, along with the ALOS PALSAR radar image data (JAXA) and the global forest canopy height map (NASA). The offsets are estimated using several processes and combined to produce a single continuous tree offset layer that is subtracted from the SRTM data. The DEM products will be made freely available on completion of the first draft product, and the assessment of that product is expected to drive further improvements to the methods.

  10. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements. PMID:22355662

  11. National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the technology development management objectives thus far planned for the DOD/NASA National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The technology required by NASP will first be developed in ground-based facilities and then integrated during the design and construction of the X-30 experimental aircraft. Five airframe and three powerplant manufacturers are currently engaged in an 18-month effort encompassing design studies and tradeoff analyses. The first flight of the X-30 is scheduled for early 1993.

  12. How to protect the Earth from Global warming by means of Sunlight Shield Equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Earth is getting warmer because excess carbon dioxide of the Earth's atmosphere. Many studies are proceeding in the world in order to prevent global warming. Three methods are studied: (1) How to reduce carbon dioxide of the Earth's atmosphere. For example, more trees will be planted and carbon dioxide is changed to oxygen and carbon. (2) How to reduce carbon dioxide emission that human activity makes. (3) How to protect the Earth from global warming. The first or the second method has been studied, and they do not immediately protect the Earth from global warming. On the other hand the third method has an immediate effect. Sunlight shield effects of a cloud or tiny sulfur in the air have been studied. The author has proposed a sunlight shield equipment which is composed of a flat balloon. Balloon's surface has a mirror function. The sunlight shield equipment is set at the stratosphere and its surface reflects sunlight to the space. It is different temperature between daytime and night time, because the earth is heated by the sun during only daytime. Temperature of the Earth could be controlled by controlling an amount of a sunlight power which the earth receives from the sun. In other word, when many sunlight shield equipments are set and operated at the stratosphere, and an amount of sunlight, which the earth receives from the sun, could be controlled. For example, when an amount of the sunlight power, which the earth receives, decreases one percent, a mean value of the earth temperature deceases about one centigrade. In order to decrease one percent of a sunlight power which the earth receives, it is required that many sunlight shield equipments are distributively set and operated, and the gross area of many sunlight shield equipments is equal to 5,060,000 km squares. When a size of a sunlight shield equipment is equal to 5 km squares, about one million of sunlight shield equipments are necessary, and a large scale of cost is required. Therefore, an

  13. 142Nd evidence for early (>4.53 Ga) global differentiation of the silicate Earth.

    PubMed

    Boyet, M; Carlson, R W

    2005-07-22

    New high-precision samarium-neodymium isotopic data for chondritic meteorites show that their 142Nd/144Nd ratio is 20 parts per million lower than that of most terrestrial rocks. This difference indicates that most (70 to 95%) of Earth's mantle is compositionally similar to the incompatible element-depleted source of mid-ocean ridge basalts, possibly as a result of a global differentiation 4.53 billion years ago (Ga), within 30 million years of Earth's formation. The complementary enriched reservoir has never been sampled and is probably located at the base of the mantle. These data influence models of Earth's compositional structure and require revision of the timing of global differentiation on Earth's Moon and Mars. PMID:15961629

  14. 'Engagement' in Future Earth: Supporting a Step Change in Global Science-Policy Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth is distinguished not only by its overarching interdisciplinary research foci - dynamic planet, global development and social transformation to sustainability - but by its commitment to produce science that is policy-relevant and that aims to get used in policy- and decision-making. More than lip service, this commitment to co-designed, co-produced, and co-implemented problem-driven, solutions-oriented science indicates a significant shift in orientation. But what does it really mean and how will it be implemented? This presentation will highlight key elements of a white paper/guidance document on "engagement", developed by the Future Earth Science and (interim) Engagement Committees. The presentation will describe what Future Earth means by "engagement," how it builds on past theory and practice but also differs in scope and scale, and how Future Earth will support the implementation of this participatory science and decision-making approach at various levels (from the local to the global).

  15. War: The Global Battlefield. Our Only Earth. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; McKisson, Micki

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land, and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  16. Earth System Dynamics: The Determination and Interpretation of the Global Angular Momentum Budget using the Earth Observing System. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation has been to examine the mass and momentum exchange between the atmosphere, oceans, solid Earth, hydrosphere, and cryosphere. The investigation has focused on changes in the Earth's gravity field, its rotation rate, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, global sea level change, ice sheet change, and global ground water circulation observed by contemporary sensors and models. The primary component of the mass exchange is water. The geodetic observables provided by these satellite sensors are used to study the transport of water mass in the hydrological cycle from one component of the Earth to another, and they are also used to evaluate the accuracy of models. As such, the investigation is concerned with the overall global water cycle. This report provides a description of scientific, educational and programmatic activities conducted during the period July 1, 1999 through June 30,2000. Research has continued into measurements of time-varying gravity and its relationship to Earth rotation. Variability of angular momentum and the related excitation of polar motion and Earth rotation have been examined for the atmosphere and oceans at time-scales of weeks to several years. To assess the performance of hydrologic models, we have compared geodetic signals derived from them with those observed by satellites. One key component is the interannual mass variability of the oceans obtained by direct observations from altimetry after removing steric signals. Further studies have been conducted on the steric model to quantify its accuracy at global and basin-scales. The results suggest a significant loss of water mass from the Oceans to the land on time-scales longer than 1-year. These signals are not reproduced in any of the models, which have poorly determined interannual fresh water fluxes. Output from a coupled atmosphere-ocean model testing long-term climate change hypotheses has been compared to simulated errors from the Gravity Recovery and

  17. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  18. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  19. Global Cooperation in the Science of Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Davila, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The international space science community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP and the International Living with a Star (ILWS) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle the scientific issues related to short and long term variability of the Sun and the consequences in the heliosphere. The ISWI program is a continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 program in focusing on science, observatory deployment, and outreach. The IHY/ISWI observatory deployment has not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. The ISWI schools and UN workshops are the primary venues for interaction and information exchange among scientists from developing and developed countries that lead to collaborative efforts in space weather. This paper presents a summary of ISWI activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  20. Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Judith E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

  1. Aero-optimum hovering kinematics.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2015-08-01

    Hovering flight for flapping wing vehicles requires rapid and relatively complex reciprocating movement of a wing relative to a stationary surrounding fluid. This note develops a compact analytical aero-kinematic model that can be used for optimization of flapping wing kinematics against aerodynamic criteria of effectiveness (maximum lift) and efficiency (minimum power for a given amount of lift). It can also be used to make predictions of required flapping frequency for a given geometry and basic aerodynamic parameters. The kinematic treatment is based on a consolidation of an existing formulation that allows explicit derivation of flapping velocity for complex motions whereas the aerodynamic model is based on existing quasi-steady analysis. The combined aero-kinematic model provides novel explicit analytical expressions for both lift and power of a hovering wing in a compact form that enables exploration of a rich kinematic design space. Good agreement is found between model predictions of flapping frequency and observed results for a number of insects and optimal hovering kinematics identified using the model are consistent with results from studies using higher order computational models. For efficient flight, the flapping angle should vary using a triangular profile in time leading to a constant velocity flapping motion, whereas for maximum effectiveness the shape of variation should be sinusoidal. For both cases the wing pitching motion should be rectangular such that pitch change at stroke reversal is as rapid as possible. PMID:26248884

  2. Global communication using a constellation of low earth meridian orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oli, P. V. S.; Nagarajan, N.; Rayan, H. R.

    1993-07-01

    The concept of 'meridian orbits' is briefly reviewed. It is shown that, if a satellite in the meridian orbit makes an odd number of revolutions per day, then the satellite passes over the same set of meridians twice a day. Satellites in such orbits pass over the same portion of the sky twice a day and every day. This enables a user to adopt a programmed mode of tracking, thereby avoiding a computational facility for orbit prediction, look angle generation, and auto tracking. A constellation of 38 or more satellites placed in a 1200 km altitude circular orbit is favorable for global communications due to various factors. It is shown that appropriate phasing in right ascension of the ascending node and mean anomaly results in a constellation, wherein each satellite appears over the user's horizon one satellite after another. Visibility and coverage plots are provided to verify the continuous coverage.

  3. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  4. Earth's magnetosphere - Global problems in magnetospheric plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roederer, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetospheric physics is presently in a transition from the exploratory stage to one in which satellite missions and ground-based observations are planned with the specific object of achieving a global understanding and self-consistent quantitative description of the cause-and-effect relationship among the principal dynamic processes involved. Measurements turn to lower and lower energies and to higher ion mass species, in order to encompass the entire particle population, and to a broader range of the frequency spectrum of magnetic and electric field variations. In the present paper, the current status of our knowledge on magnetospheric plasma physics is reviewed, with particular reference of such fundamental advances as the discovery of layers of streaming plasma in the magnetosphere beneath its boundary surface, the identification of the terrestrial magnetosphere as a celestial source of kilometric radiation and relativistic particles, the identification of parallel electric field regions within the magnetosphere and their role in auroral particle acceleration, and the discovery of large fluxes of energetic heavy ions trapped in the magnetosphere.

  5. Sensing the Earth using Global Navigation Satellite System signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Rizos, Chris; Rius, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    International Workshop on GNSS Remote Sensing for Future Missions and Sciences; Shanghai, China, 7-9 August 2011 The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been widely used in navigation, positioning, and geoscience applications. Recently, the versatility of GNSS as a new remote sensing tool has been demonstrated with the use of refracted, reflected, and scattered GNSS signals to sound the atmosphere and ionosphere, ocean, land surfaces (including soil moisture), and cryosphere. Existing GPS radio occultation (RO) missions—e.g., the U.S.-Argentina SAC-C, German Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), U.S.-Germany Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Taiwan-U.S. Formosa Satellite Mission-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) satellites, German TerraSAR-X satellite, and European MetOp—together with groundbased GNSS observations, have provided precise and high-resolution information on tropospheric water vapor, pressure, temperature, tropopause parameters, ionospheric total electron content, and electron density profiles. GNSS signals reflected from the ocean and land surface can determine the ocean height, ocean surface wind speed and wind direction, soil moisture, and ice and snow thickness. With improvement expected due to the next generation of multifrequency GNSS systems and receivers, and new space-based instruments tracking GNSS reflected and refracted signals, new scientific applications of GNSS are expected in the near future across a number of environmental remote sensing fields.

  6. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  7. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly after the data are recorded at each station. The infrasound network defined in the Protocol of the CTBT comprises 60 infrasound array stations. Each array is built according to the same technical specifications, it is typically composed of 4 to 9 sensors, with 1 to 3 km aperture geometry. At the end of 2000 only one infrasound station was transmitting data to the IDC. Since then, 41 additional stations have been installed and 70% of the infrasound network is currently certified and contributing data to the IDC. This constitutes the first global infrasound network ever built with such a large and uniform distribution of stations. Infrasound data at the IDC are processed at the station level using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) method for the detection and measurement of infrasound signals. The algorithm calculates the signal correlation between sensors at an infrasound array. If the signal is sufficiently correlated and consistent over an extended period of time and frequency range a detection is created. Groups of detections are then categorized according to their propagation and waveform features, and a phase name is assigned for infrasound, seismic or noise detections. The categorization complements the PMCC algorithm to avoid overwhelming the IDC automatic association algorithm with false alarm infrasound events. Currently, 80 to 90% of the detections are identified as noise by the system. Although the noise detections are not used to build events in the context of CTBT monitoring

  8. GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS (GEOSS) REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION GATEWAY DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    How do forest fires in a state or country impact the health of residents, living thousands of miles away? How do we better track the effects of heavy urban rain runoff into nearby lakes to provide unprecedented access to and use of global Earth observation information to track, ...

  9. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) was founded in 1989 as a non-profit corporation dedicated to facilitating access to, use and understanding of global change information worldwide. The Consortium was created to cooperate and coordinate with organizations and researchers throughout the global change community to further access the most advanced technology, the latest scientific research, and the best information available for critical environmental decision making. CIESIN study efforts are guided by Congressional mandates to 'convene key present and potential users to assess the need for investment in integration of earth science information,' to 'outline the desirable pattern of interaction with the scientific and policy community,' and to 'develop recommendations and draft plans to achieve the appropriate level of effort in the use of earth science data for research and public policy purposes.' In addition, CIESIN is tasked by NASA to develop a data center that would extend the benefits of Earth Observing System (EOS) to the users of global change information related to human dimensions issues. For FY 1991, CIESIN focused on two main objectives. The first addressed the identification of information needs of global change research and non-research user groups worldwide. The second focused on an evaluation of the most efficient mechanisms for making this information available in usable forms.

  10. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rare earths elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for the emerging green (low-carbon) energy technologies and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at a compound annual rate of 5% by 2020. Such high growth rate would require a steady supply base of REEs in the long ru...

  11. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  12. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have

  13. Earth's magnetic field anomalies that precede the M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    In this work has been analyzed the Earth's magnetic field variations and the M6+ global seismic activity to verify if M6+ earthquakes are preceded by a change of the Earth's magnetic field. The data of Earth's magnetic field used to conduct the study of correlation are provided by the induction magnetometer of Radio Emissions Project's station (Lat: 41°41'4.27"N, Long: 12°38'33,60"E, Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy), equipped with a ELF receiver prototype (with a vertically aligned coil antenna) capable to detect the variations of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field on Z magnetic component. The M6+ global seismic activity data are provided in real-time by USGS, INGV and CSEM. The sample of data used to conduct the study refers to the period between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. The Earth's magnetic field variations data set has been marked with the times (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale and has been verified the existence of disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the time interval that preceded the M6+ global seismic activity. The correlation study showed that all M6+ earthquakes recorded on 2012 were preceded by an increase of the Earth's magnetic field, detected in the Z magnetic component. The authors measured the time lag elapsed between the maximum increment of the Earth's magnetic field recorded before an earthquake M6+ and the date and time at which this occurred, and has been verified that the minimum time lag recorded between the Earth's magnetic field increase and the earthquake M6+ has been 1 minute (9 October 2012, Balleny Islands, M6,4); while, the maximum time lag recorded has been 3600 minutes (26 June 2012, China, M6,3). The average time lag has been 629.47 minutes. In addition, the average time lag is deflected in relation to the magnitude increase. Key words: Seismic Geomagnetic Precursor (SGP), Interplanetary Seismic Precursor (ISP), Earth's magnetic field variations, earthquakes, prevision.

  14. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  15. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  16. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  17. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  18. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  19. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  20. Reconciling Observations of Global Sea Level Rise with Changes in the Earth's Energy Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, J.; Wong, T.; Hobbs, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean warming and the thermal expansion of seawater account for a sizable portion of global sea-level rise during the past two decades. The rate of ocean warming, however, carries additional climatic significance because the vast majority of any excess heat trapped in the Earth's climate system winds up warming the oceans. Thus in addition to the implications for sea level rise, ocean warming rates also provide a measure of the net radiative balance of the Earth as a whole. Despite its importance, the historical record of global ocean warming still contains large uncertainties. Prior to global deployment of the Argo array in about 2005, the historical record of ocean warming is dominated by data from eXpendable BathyThermographs (XBTs), which are known to contain sizable systematic errors. Global ocean warming during the transition period between XBT and Argo data therefore remains highly uncertain. In this study, we consider observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to assess the Earth's net radiation balance from 2000 to 2010. These observations provide an important constraint on ocean warming rates during the critical period from 2003 to 2005 when ocean temperature observations transitioned from XBT to Argo data. Observations of the net change in ocean mass from GRACE, as well as the net change in total sea level rise from altimetry will also be used to constrain ocean warming rates during this period. Given these constraints, we will assess the validity of different corrections for XBT biases and will assess both the global sea level budget and energy balance during the first decade of the 2000s.

  1. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  2. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Deep, Akash; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2016-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and 'smart' electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes. PMID:27295408

  3. Towards a Seamless Global Long-Term Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Su, W.; Kratz, D. P.; Kato, S.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, and energy released to space in the form of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) nearly balances ASR, ensuring a relatively stable climate. Owing to human activities, there is currently less emitted thermal radiation than absorbed solar radiation, leading to an accumulation of energy into the Earth's system, which is driving global warming. Achieving an understanding of Earth's energy flows requires an accurate description of how radiant energy at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), within the atmosphere, and at the surface is distributed spatially, and how this changes with time. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is the production of a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget from the TOA down to the surface along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence this budget. The CERES team relies on a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers that measure incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, high-resolution spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. While TOA radiation budget is determined from accurate broadband radiometer measurements, the surface radiation budget is derived indirectly through radiative transfer model calculations initialized using imager-based cloud and aerosol retrievals and meteorological assimilation data. In order to accurately capture changes in Earth's radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales, satellite instruments used to produce these data records must be radiometrically stable and the input data stream must be free of artificial discontinuities. Otherwise, distinguishing real climate system changes from

  4. Earth's plate motion evolution and its link to global mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, Tobias; Capitanio, Fabio; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Present-day plate motions provide a global dataset that allows us to infer the present convective structure of the Earth's mantle. Moreover, present geological observations combined with the kinematic principles of plate tectonics enables us to reconstruct Earth's tectonic history back until Pangaean times, which improves our understanding of how Earth has evolved to its present state. However, several aspects are not yet sufficiently well understood, for instance, how surface motions are linked to deep mantle processes or how plate motion changes over time, including those timescales of several 100 Myr that are associated with supercontinent formation and dispersal. Here, we use global spherical models of mantle convection to investigate plate motion evolution in a general and dynamically fully consistent manner. These models include tectonic plates self-consistently evolving from mantle flow as well as Earth-like continental drift. We analyze the evolution of plate velocities over long timescales and observe fluctuations of globally averaged plate motions of a factor of 2-3, in agreement with kinematic reconstructions. The fluctuations are mainly driven by the onset of new subduction, highlighting the strong role of slab-related driving forces in the rates of plate motion. Average plate motions are increased with a stronger viscosity contrast between upper and lower mantle, partly due to an increased subduction flux into the lower mantle, which increases the driving forces of plate motion. The motion of individual plates shows much stronger fluctuation. Continental plate motions are modulated by continental assembly and dispersal. Continents usually move slower when strongly clustered and faster during dispersal and before collision. In a further step, we analyze changes in the direction of motion of these individual plates by calculating their Euler pole and its change with time. This allows us to characterize the variety of modeled plate reorganizations and to

  5. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  6. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  7. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  8. Laboratory test simulation for non-flat response calibration of global Earth albedo monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Sehyun; Kim, Sug-Whan; Ryu, Dongok; Hong, Jinsuk; Lockwood, Mike

    2012-09-01

    In this report, we present laboratory test simulation for directional responsivity of a global Earth albedo monitoring instrument. The sensor is to observe the Sun and the Earth, alternately, and measure their shortwave (<4μm) radiations around the L1 halo orbit to obtain global Earth albedo. The instrument consists of a broadband scanning radiometer (energy channel instrument) and an imager (visible channel instrument) with ±2° field-of-view. In the case of the energy channel instrument, radiations arriving at the viewing ports from the Sun and the Earth are directed toward the pyroelectric detector via two spherical folding mirrors and a 3D compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The instrument responsivity is defined by the ratio of the incident radiation input to the instrument output signal. The radiometer's relative directional responsivity needs to be characterized across the field-of-view to assist output signal calibration. For the laboratory test, the distant small source configuration consists of an off-axis collimator and the instrument with adjustable mounts. Using reconstructed 3D CPC surface, the laboratory test simulation for predicting the instrument directional responsivity was conducted by a radiative transfer computation with ray tracing technique. The technical details of the laboratory test simulation are presented together with future plan.

  9. Paleoproterozoic snowball earth: extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Gaidos, E. J.; Bertani, L. E.; Beukes, N. J.; Gutzmer, J.; Maepa, L. N.; Steinberger, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation ("snowball Earth" conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O(2) are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution.

  10. Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

  11. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  12. Global Cooperation in the Capacity Building Activities on Sun-Earth Connection Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph; Luebken, Franz-Josef; Shepherd, Marianna; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    The importance of global cooperation in Sun-Earth connection studies can be readily seen in the formation of a number of international collaborative programs such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP* and the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI). ISWI is the continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle issues of solar-terrestrial phenomena. An important element of these organizations is capacity building activities, which include deployment of low-cost ground based instruments for Sun-Earth connection studies and training young people (scientists and graduate students) from developing countries to operate these instruments and become members of the international solar-terrestrial scientific community. The training also helps young people to make use of data from the vast array of space and ground based instruments currently available for Sun-Earth connection studies. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and ISWI activities that promote space Sun-Earth connection studies via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach. *Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) is an Interdisciplinary Body of the International Council for Science with representations from COSPAR, IAU, IUGG/IAGA, IUPAP, IAMAS, SCAR, and URSI (http://www.yorku.ca/scostep)

  13. Role of the Earth degassing (the core emission) for the global tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenkova, Ninel

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of any new concept in the global tectonics is to explain the origin of the observed regularities in the Earth structure and the sources of their formation. The first problem is to explain the continents and oceans formation and the differences in the structure of the Pacific and of other oceans. The edges of the continents around the Pacific Ocean form a proper arc along which a ring of the earthquake epicenters, the Benioff zones, are observed. The Pacific Ring intersects at the right angle another global ring of the earthquake epicenters - the Mediterranean-Asian belt. The Atlantic and Indian oceans are characterized by the mid oceanic rifts. The rifts and distraction zones form a regular symmetrical with respect to the South Pole system: the rifts drift apart along the meridians with about the same distance between them, 90°. The fracture zone from the western shelf of the Australian continent to the Sakhalin Island belongs to this system. The asymmetric Antarctica and Arctic ocean also reflect the regular structure of the Earth surface which contradicts the movements of the continents proposed by the plate tectonic for explanation of the paleomagnetic data on the magnetic pole mobility. The fluids-rotation model of the global tectonics, proposed by the author, gave the following explanation to these features of the Earth structure. According to the petrology data, the continental crust was formed from the mantle matter saturated with fluids. The long process of the silica, alkalis, fluids and incompatible elements removal in the crust should lead to the depletion of mantle rocks, their crystallization and formation of the thick continental lithosphere. It is proposed that the formation of the thick continental crust and the continental "roots" in the upper mantle took place in the areas of the stronger fluid advection. In the modern oceans the fluid flows were weak and only some separate spots of the intermediate type crust appeared. The main

  14. Earth Systems, Fish and Fishers: Global Dependence and a Not-so-Quiet Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, F. E.; Barange, M.; Perry, R. I.; Ommer, R.

    2004-12-01

    Paleoceanographic records of fish abundance have demonstrated the existence of cycles of abundance in many fish stocks, such as sockeye salmon, sardines, and anchovies. Some of these cycles have frequencies that coincide with oscillations in the global climate and in the earth rotational velocity, suggesting the interlinked nature of the Earth System and its functioning. However, the development of large industrial fisheries, particularly in the second half of the 20th century, has overwhelmed many of these low frequency cycles of natural marine productivity. Selective overexploitation of the sea has severely damaged some fisheries resources and caused large-scale ecosystem disruptions. The result has been imbalanced marine ecosystems which are more vulnerable to collapse during low phases of their production cycles and a crisis in the survival of small fishing communities. Humans rely on the sea and its products to meet our needs for protein, linking the dynamics of the earth with issues of global food security. How to synchronize and balance the dynamics of the Earth system and the human needs for food, rather than compound their effects, is a major management challenge. This contribution will provide examples of this challenge, such as the post-cod scenario in Newfoundland ecosystems and human communities, and the dynamics of salmon and First Nations cultures in the NE Pacific. We will illustrate some of the approaches being followed, from basin-scale ecosystem modeling through complex adaptive systems theory to integrated cross-disciplinary team studies of social-ecological systems (e.g., Coasts Under Stress http://www.coastsunderstress.ca/), in the search for global sustainability of fish and fishers.

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of the Benefits of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Scholes, R. J.; Obersteiner, M.; Bouma, J.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to contribute to human wellbeing though improving the information available to decision-makers at all levels relating to human health and safety, protection of the global environment, the reduction of losses from natural disasters, and achieving sustainable development. Specifically, GEOSS proposes that better international co-operation in the collection, interpretation and sharing of Earth Observation information is an important and cost-effective mechanism for achieving this aim. While there is a widespread intuition that this proposition is correct, at some point the following question needs to be answered: how much additional investment in Earth Observation (and specifically, in its international integration) is enough? This leads directly to some challenging subsidiary questions, such as how can the benefits of Earth Observation be assessed? What are the incremental costs of GEOSS? Are there societal benefit areas where the return on investment is higher than in others? The Geo-Bene project has developed a `benefit chain' concept as a framework for addressing these questions. The basic idea is that an incremental improvement in the observing system (including its data collection, interpretation and information-sharing aspects) will result in an improvement in the quality of decisions based on that information. This will in turn lead to better societal outcomes, which have a value. This incremental value must be judged against the incremental cost of the improved observation system. Since in many cases there will be large uncertainties in the estimation of both the costs and the benefits, and it may not be possible to express one or both of them in monetary terms, we show how order-of-magnitude approaches and a qualitative understanding of the shape of the cost-benefit curves can help guide rational investment decision in Earth Observation systems.

  16. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Tkemura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  17. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  18. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  19. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; DöLl, Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffé, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (˜10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 109 unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a "grand challenge" to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  20. NASA Global Hawk: A Unique Capability for the Pursuit of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2007-01-01

    For more than 2 years, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been preparing for the receipt of two Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Global Hawk air vehicles from the United States Air Force. NASA Dryden intends to establish a Global Hawk Project Office, which will be responsible for developing the infrastructure required to operate this unmanned aerial system and establishing a trained maintenance and operations team. The first flight of a NASA Global Hawk air vehicle is expected to occur in 2008. The NASA Global Hawk system can be used by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. Initially, the main focus of the research activities is expected to be Earth science related. A combination of the vehicle s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume, and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system from all other platforms available to the science community. This report describes the NASA Global Hawk system and current plans for the NASA air vehicle concept of operations, and provides examples of potential missions with an emphasis on science missions.

  1. Space Age Geodesy: Global Earth Observations of Ever Improving resolution and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    The launch of Sputnik-I by the USSR in 1957, and the resulting competitive US-USSR space exploration and weapons programs, led to the need for global geodetic measurements of unprecedented accuracy, and the means to develop new observing techniques to meet those needs. By the 1970s the geodetic community developed very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), lunar laser ranging (LLR), and satellite laser ranging (SLR), and launched international tests that led to the establishment of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). Today the IERS provides a stable International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), and accurate earth orientation parameters (EOP) values, using a combination of VLBI, LLR, SLR, and the Global Positioning System (GPS). There are hundreds of continuously operating GPS stations around the world, providing centimeter station locations and millimeter per year station velocities, in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The location of any point on earth can be determined relative to the ITRF to within a few centimeters from a few days of GPS observations, and using kinematic GPS, the positions of moving objects can be tracked to a few centimeters at distances of tens of kilometers from the nearest GPS ground stations. This geodetic infrastructure and space age technology has led to the development of new airborne topographic mapping techniques, most significantly, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). With ALSM, it is now possible to map thousands of square kilometers of terrain with sub-decimeter vertical accuracy in hours. For example, the entire length of the San Andreas fault, in California, was mapped in a few hundred hours of flying time. Within the next few decades, global ALSM observations will make it possible for scientists to immediately access (by the internet) data bases containing the locations (cm accuracy) and rates of motion (mm per year accuracy) of points on the surface of earth, with sub-meter spatial resolution

  2. Globalization and Mobilization of Earth Science Education with GeoBrain Geospatial Web Service Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; di, L.

    2005-12-01

    The needs for Earth science education to prepare students as globally-trained geoscience workforce increase tremendously with globalization of the economy. However, current academic programs often have difficulties in providing students world-view training or experiences with global context due to lack of resources and suitable teaching technology. This paper presents a NASA funded project with insights and solutions to this problem. The project aims to establish a geospatial data-rich learning and research environment that enable the students, faculty and researchers from institutes all over the world easily accessing, analyzing and modeling with the huge amount of NASA EOS data just like they possess those vast resources locally at their desktops. With the environment, classroom demonstration and training for students to deal with global climate and environment issues for any part of the world are possible in any classroom with Internet connection. Globalization and mobilization of Earth science education can be truly realized through the environment. This project, named as NASA EOS Higher Education Alliance: Mobilization of NASA EOS Data and Information through Web Services and Knowledge Management Technologies for Higher Education Teaching and Research, is built on profound technology and infrastructure foundations including web service technology, NASA EOS data resources, and open interoperability standards. An open, distributed, standard compliant, interoperable web-based system, called GeoBrain, is being developed by this project to provide a data-rich on-line learning and research environment. The system allows users to dynamically and collaboratively develop interoperable, web-executable geospatial process and analysis modules and models, and run them on-line against any part of the peta-byte archives for getting back the customized information products rather than raw data. The system makes a data-rich globally-capable Earth science learning and research

  3. Global maps of the magnetic thickness and magnetization of the Earth's lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan

    2015-10-01

    We have constructed global maps of the large-scale magnetic thickness and magnetization of Earth's lithosphere. Deriving such large-scale maps based on lithospheric magnetic field measurements faces the challenge of the masking effect of the core field. In this study, the maps were obtained through analyses in the spectral domain by means of a new regional spatial power spectrum based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism. A series of regional spectral analyses were conducted covering the entire Earth. The R-SCHA surface power spectrum for each region was estimated using the NGDC-720 spherical harmonic (SH) model of the lithospheric magnetic field, which is based on satellite, aeromagnetic, and marine measurements. These observational regional spectra were fitted to a recently proposed statistical expression of the power spectrum of Earth's lithospheric magnetic field, whose free parameters include the thickness and magnetization of the magnetic sources. The resulting global magnetic thickness map is compared to other crustal and magnetic thickness maps based upon different geophysical data. We conclude that the large-scale magnetic thickness of the lithosphere is on average confined to a layer that does not exceed the Moho.

  4. Visualizing global change: earth and biodiversity sciences for museum settings using HDTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duba, A.; Gardiner, N.; Kinzler, R.; Trakinski, V.

    2006-12-01

    Science Bulletins, a production group at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA), brings biological and Earth system science data and concepts to over 10 million visitors per year at 27 institutions around the U.S.A. Our target audience is diverse, from novice to expert. News stories and visualizations use the capabilities of satellite imagery to focus public attention on four general themes: human influences on species and ecosystems across all observable spatial extents; biotic feedbacks with the Earth's physical system; characterizing species and ecosystems; and recent events such as natural changes to ecosystems, major findings and publications, or recent syntheses. For Earth science, we use recent natural events to explain the broad scientific concepts of tectonic activity and the processes that underlie climate and weather events. Visualizations show the global, dynamic distribution of atmospheric constituents, ocean temperature and temperature anomaly, and sea ice. Long-term changes are set in contrast to seasonal and longer-term cycles so that viewers appreciate the variety of forces that affect Earth's physical system. We illustrate concepts at a level appropriate for a broad audience to learn more about the dynamic nature of Earth's biota and physical processes. Programming also includes feature stories that explain global change phenomena from the perspectives of eminent scientists and managers charged with implementing public policy based on the best available science. Over the past two and one-half years, biological science stories have highlighted applied research addressing lemur conservation in Madagascar, marine protected areas in the Bahamas, effects of urban sprawl on wood turtles in New England, and taxonomic surveys of marine jellies in Monterey Bay. Earth science stories have addressed the volcanic history of present-day Yellowstone National Park, tsunamis, the disappearance of tropical mountain glaciers, the North Atlantic

  5. Digital Earth, a new approach for geoconservation: case study of Hexigten Global Geopark, Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siwen; Tian, Mingzhong; Shi, Wenqiang

    2010-11-01

    Though Digital Earth (DE) has been adopted in the nature conservation, its application in geoheritage conservation is still rather limited. Geoheritage are usually distributed over extensive areas, posing great problems to actual conservation. The Digital Earth is a useful tool for systematic spatial accounts and data management. The aim of this article is attempting to apply DE in geoconservation. The Hexigten Global Geopark (HGG) in Inner Mongolia of China, which covers an area of 1783.58km2, was chosen as the study area. This paper was composed of five sections. The first section, we briefly reviewed the origin of geoheritage and developments of world geoconservation, and present the justifications of adopting DE for it. In the second and third section, DE is a comprehensive, massively distributed geographic information and knowledge organization system, so we developed a theoretic frame based on it, which can be applied in geoheritage survey, resources appraisal, geoconservation planning, research and public. The fourth section, DE platforms - Google Earth and Skyline Globe Pro were as tools for geoheritage surveying and zoning of HGG. Finally, we draw conclusions that DE can be applied in geoheritage conservation limitedly today; however, excellent characteristics such VR earth, geo-library and digital atlas has huge potential for geoconservation.

  6. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  7. Digital Earth, a new approach for geoconservation: case study of Hexigten Global Geopark, Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siwen; Tian, Mingzhong; Shi, Wenqiang

    2009-09-01

    Though Digital Earth (DE) has been adopted in the nature conservation, its application in geoheritage conservation is still rather limited. Geoheritage are usually distributed over extensive areas, posing great problems to actual conservation. The Digital Earth is a useful tool for systematic spatial accounts and data management. The aim of this article is attempting to apply DE in geoconservation. The Hexigten Global Geopark (HGG) in Inner Mongolia of China, which covers an area of 1783.58km2, was chosen as the study area. This paper was composed of five sections. The first section, we briefly reviewed the origin of geoheritage and developments of world geoconservation, and present the justifications of adopting DE for it. In the second and third section, DE is a comprehensive, massively distributed geographic information and knowledge organization system, so we developed a theoretic frame based on it, which can be applied in geoheritage survey, resources appraisal, geoconservation planning, research and public. The fourth section, DE platforms - Google Earth and Skyline Globe Pro were as tools for geoheritage surveying and zoning of HGG. Finally, we draw conclusions that DE can be applied in geoheritage conservation limitedly today; however, excellent characteristics such VR earth, geo-library and digital atlas has huge potential for geoconservation.

  8. Global Reference Atmospheric Models, Including Thermospheres, for Mars, Venus and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the viewgraph slides of the presentation. Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch has developed Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) for Mars, Venus, Earth, and other solar system destinations. Mars-GRAM has been widely used for engineering applications including systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Preliminary results are presented, comparing Mars-GRAM with measurements from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during its aerobraking in Mars thermosphere. Venus-GRAM is based on the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and is suitable for similar engineering applications in the thermosphere or other altitude regions of the atmosphere of Venus. Until recently, the thermosphere in Earth-GRAM has been represented by the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. Earth-GRAM has recently been revised. In addition to including an updated version of MET, it now includes an option to use the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00) as an alternate thermospheric model. Some characteristics and results from Venus-GRAM and Earth-GRAM thermospheres are also presented.

  9. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive (60)Fe.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Feige, J; Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Fifield, L K; Golser, R; Honda, M; Linnemann, U; Matsuzaki, H; Merchel, S; Rugel, G; Tims, S G; Steier, P; Yamagata, T; Winkler, S R

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth's vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is (60)Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the (60)Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for (60)Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal (60)Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh (60)Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs. PMID:27078565

  10. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching the Spherical Earth Model to Preservice Teachers Using the Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Youngjin; Schwenz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an inquiry-based lesson to deepen preservice teachers' understanding of the spherical Earth model using the Global Positioning System. The lesson was designed with four learning goals: (1) to increase preservice teachers' conceptual knowledge of the spherical Earth model; (2) to develop preservice teachers'…

  11. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-10-09

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASAWorld Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the hot spot areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geovisualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  12. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASA World Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the "hot spot" areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geo-visualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  13. Aries - Global communication through a constellation of low earth orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Robert A.; Lepkowski, Ronald J.

    1992-03-01

    Constellations of low earth orbit satellites can provide global communications with low-cost, low-power transceivers. The Aries system provides a full range of voice, data and position location services to users worldwide. It uses 48 LEO Lightsats to provide continuous connectivity between a user terminal and a gateway earth station, which in turn connects with other switched networks. The system uses the RDSS frequencies at L, S and C-bands to offer voice and data communication in addition to radio location. The in-bound L-band link to the LEO satellite transmits a single channel per carrier signal from the inexpensive low-power user terminal to the satellite, which is then retransmitted to the gateway at C-band. The outbound TDM signal is transmitted to the satellite at C-band, spread to 16 MHz with a CDMA waveform, and broadcast by the satellite at S-band.

  14. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Continuous, Global-Scale Ultraviolet Observations of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.; Andersson, L.; McClintock, W.; Aksnes, A.; Anderson, D.; Burns, A.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R.; Eparvier, F.; Harvey, J.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M.; Lumpe, J.; Prölss, G.; Richmond, A.; Rusch, D.; Solomon, S.; Strickland, D.; Woods, T.

    2006-12-01

    Observations by the Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) experiment will provide both context for in-situ measurements made on the "Radiation Belt Mappers" and information necessary for understanding changes in the radiation belts. GOLD will produce ultraviolet (UV) images of the Earth from a geostationary satellite. It will give near real-time information, on time scales of an hour to a day, about the response of the ionosphere-thermosphere to the influence of the magnetosphere and to variations in solar irradiance. Examples of information GOLD can provide include the boundaries in the magnetosphere from auroral locations and the electric field strengths (throughout the day) in the equatorial region from observations of the equatorial arcs. Such information is needed for understanding variability in the radiation belts.

  15. Global search and optimization for free-return Earth-Mars cyclers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Ryan Paul

    A planetary cycler trajectory is a periodic orbit that shuttles a spaceship indefinitely between two or more planets, ideally using no powered maneuvers. Recently, the cycler concept has been revived as an alternative to the more traditional human-crewed Mars missions. This dissertation investigates a class of idealized Earth-Mars cyclers that are composed of Earth to Earth free-returns trajectories patched together with gravity-assisted flybys. A systematic method is presented to identify all feasible free-return trajectories following an arbitrary gravity-assisted flyby. The multiple-revolution Lambert's Problem is solved in the context of half-rev, full-rev, and generic returns. The solutions are expressed geometrically, and the resulting velocity diagram is a mission-planning tool with applications including but not limited to Earth-Mars cyclers. Two different global search methods are then developed and applied, taking advantage of all three types of free-return solutions. The first method results in twenty-four ballistic cyclers with periods of two to four synodic periods, ninety-two ballistic cyclers with periods of five or six synodic periods, and hundreds of near-ballistic cyclers. Most of the solutions are previously undocumented. The second and more generalized method only searches for the more practical cyclers with repeat times of three-synodic periods or less. This global approach uses combinatorial analysis and minimax optimization to identify 203 promising ballistic or near-ballistic mostly new cyclers. Finally, the feasibility of accurate ephemeris versions of the promising idealized cyclers is demonstrated. An efficient optimization method that utilizes analytic gradients is developed for long duration, ballistic, patched-conic trajectories with multiple flybys. The approach is applied at every step of a continuation method that transitions the simple model solutions to accurate ephemeris solutions. Hundreds of ballistic launch opportunities for

  16. Dynamics of global vegetation biomass simulated by the integrated Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Thornton, P. E.; Piao, S.; Yang, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.

    2014-12-01

    The global vegetation biomass stores huge amounts of carbon and is thus important to the global carbon budget (Pan et al., 2010). For the past few decades, different observation-based estimates and modeling of biomass in the above- and below-ground vegetation compartments have been comprehensively conducted (Saatchi et al., 2011; Baccini et al., 2012). However, uncertainties still exist, in particular for the simulation of biomass magnitude, tendency, and the response of biomass to climatic conditions and natural and human disturbances. The recently successful coupling of the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) (Di Vittorio et al., 2014; Bond-Lamberty et al., 2014), which links the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), Global Land-use Model (GLM), and Community Earth System Model (CESM), offers a great opportunity to understand the biomass-related dynamics in a fully-coupled natural and human modeling system. In this study, we focus on the systematic analysis and evaluation of the iESM simulated historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) biomass changes and the response of the biomass dynamics to various impact factors, in particular the human-induced Land Use/Land Cover Change (LULCC). By analyzing the iESM simulations with and without the interactive LULCC feedbacks, we further study how and where the climate feedbacks affect socioeconomic decisions and LULCC, such as to alter vegetation carbon storage. References Pan Y et. al: A large and persistent carbon sink in the World's forests. Science 2011, 333:988-993. Saatchi SS et al: Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011, 108:9899-9904. Baccini A et al: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps. Nature Clim Change 2012, 2:182-185. Di Vittorio AV et al: From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for

  17. Determinability of inter-annual global and regional climatic changes of the earth radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The degradation characteristics of Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiments are examined with reference to the results of recent investigations into the calibration adjustments of the Wide Field of View channels on board the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB experiments. The mechanisms of degradation are discussed, and changes in the transmissive and reflective properties of radiometers affecting their sensitivities and calibrations are estimated. It is emphasized that in order to observe interannual climate change on a global or a regional scale, calibration adjustments are a necessity.

  18. Precise determination of earth's center of mass using measurements from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1992-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.

  19. Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors - A comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of four prominent Doppler lidar systems, ranging in wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR, which are presently being studied for their potential in an earth-orbiting global tropospheric wind field measurement application. The comparison is restricted to relative photon efficiencies, i.e., the required number of transmitted photons per pulse is calculated for each system for midtropospheric velocity estimate uncertainties ranging from + or - 1 to + or - 4 m/s. The results are converted to laser transmitter pulse energy and power requirements. The analysis indicates that a coherent CO2 Doppler lidar operating at 9.11-micron wavelength is the most efficient.

  20. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  1. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  2. modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those

  3. Analysis of MMIC arrays for use in the ACTS Aero Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M.; Lee, R.; Rho, E.; Zaman, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The Aero Experiment is designed to demonstrate communication from an aircraft to an Earth terminal via the ACTS. This paper describes the link budget and antenna requirements for a 4.8 kbps full-duplex voice link at Ka-Band frequencies. Three arrays, one transmit array developed by TI and two receive arrays developed by GE and Boeing, were analyzed. The predicted performance characteristics of these arrays are presented and discussed in the paper.

  4. A comprehensive earth model across the scales: a global full waveform update, and methodological developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, M.; Fichtner, A.; Peter, D. B.; Ermert, L. A.; Sager, K.; Žukauskaitė, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present the current state of the 'Comprehensive Earth Model' (CEM), a solver-independent multi-scale model of the global distribution of density and visco-elastic parameters. The overall goal of this project is to produce a model that represents the Earth on all seismically accessible scales; which contains high resolution sub-models where data and computational concerns allow, and which presents a low wavenumber Earth in regions yet to be probed in detail. To accomplish this, we have designed the model to be independent of any particular forward solver. This allows the usage of a wide variety of forward and inverse techniques, each of which may contribute updates within their respective regimes of validity. In order for these updates to be included in future releases of the CEM, they must satisfy a global reference dataset. This dataset is currently being constructed, drawing from waveform, traveltime, and normal mode catalogues, and incorporating both earthquake and ambient noise sources. To support future multiscale inversions, we report on methodological developments surrounding the project, including specific interfaces with forward solvers and a suite of tools for processing gradient-based model updates. Advances in forward modelling codes, such as the porting of the spectral element solver SPECFEM3D to heterogeneous computing clusters, allows for the efficient and fully numerical calculation of sensitivity kernels on the global scale. Taking advantage of these developments, we present a global-scale transversely isotropic mantle-and-crust update to the CEM, with a misfit criterion based on waveform phase differences, and iterative nonlinear model perturbations found via adjoint techniques. Additionally, regional scale updates from both traveltime and waveform tomography are presented and discussed. An open source software package has been developed, which aims to ease the processing of model updates, and which exists independently from any particular

  5. Towards An Oceanographic Component Of A Global Earth Observation System Of Systems: Progress And Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackleson, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean observatories (systems of coordinated sensors and platforms providing real-time in situ observations across multiple temporal and spatial scales) have advanced rapidly during the past several decades with the integration of novel hardware, development of advanced cyber-infrastructures and data management software, and the formation of researcher networks employing fixed, drifting, and mobile assets. These advances have provided persistent, real-time, multi-disciplinary observations representing even the most extreme environmental conditions, enabled unique and informative views of complicated ocean processes, and aided in the development of more accurate and higher fidelity ocean models. Combined with traditional ship-based and remotely sensed observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad spectrum of earth-ocean scales that would likely not exist otherwise. These developments come at a critical time in human history when the demands of global population growth are creating unprecedented societal challenges associated with rapid climatic change and unsustainable consumption of key ocean resources. Successfully meeting and overcoming these challenges and avoiding the ultimate tragedy of the commons will require greater knowledge of environmental processes than currently exists, including interactions between the ocean, the overlying atmosphere, and the adjacent land and synthesizing new knowledge into effective policy and management structures. To achieve this, researchers must have free and ready access to comprehensive data streams (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial), regardless of location and collection system. While the precedent for the concept of free and open access to environmental data is not new (it traces back to the International Geophysical Year, 1957), implementing procedures and standards on a global scale is proving to be difficult, both logistically and politically. Observatories have been implemented in many

  6. A parallel Atmosphere-Ocean Global Circulation Model of intermediate complexity for Earth system climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. A.; Schmittner, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present the evolution of an Earth System model of intermediate complexity featuring an ocean global circulation model to include a fully coupled 3D primitive equations atmospheric model. The original Earth System climate model, UVic ESCM (Weaver et al. 2001), uses an ocean global circulation model coupled to a one layer atmospheric energy-moisture balance model. It also comprises a viscous-plastic rheology sea ice model, a mechanical land ice model, land surface, oceanic and terrestrial carbon models and a simple 3D marine ecosystem model (Schmittner et al. 2005). A spectral atmospheric, model, PUMA (Fraedrich et al. 2005), was coupled to the UVic ESCM to provide an atmosphere with nonlinear dynamics in target resolutions of T21, T31 and T42, as required. The coupling with the atmosphere, which involves data transfer, preprocessing and interpolation, is done through the OASIS3 coupler. During a run there are 2 + 2N parallel processes: the UVic ESCM, the Oasis3 coupler and the PUMA model with its domain split across 2N processes. The choice of N allows to balance more or less complex configurations of UVic model (e.g. higher level marine ecosystem model or number of biogeochemical tracers) with the atmospheric model at different resolutions, in order to maintain computational efficiency. The relatively simple parameterizations make this new atmosphere-ocean global circulation model much faster than a state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean Global Circulation Model, and so optimally geared for decadal to millennial scale integrations. The latter require special care with the conservation of fluxes during coupling. A second order conservative interpolation method was applied (Jones 1999) and this is compared with the use of typical non-conservative methods.

  7. Discrete Global Grid Systems - A Framework for the next Era in Big Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, P. R.; Percivall, G.; Purss, M. B. J.; Samavati, F.; Gibb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) are spatial reference systems that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. DGGS are designed to portray real-world phenomena by providing a digital framework on a common discrete geospatial data structure and they are commonly used to create virtual globes. DGGS differ from conventional geographic coordinate reference systems in that they are designed to be an information grid not a navigation grid. Conventional coordinate reference systems address the globe using tuples of "real" numbered coordinates. DGGS, however, address the entire planet by partitioning it into a hierarchical tessellation of integer-based nested cells thereby providing a truly discrete, rather than continuous, reference frame for repeating the location of measured Earth observations, feature interpretations, and extrapolated predictions. Formal development of DGGS began in the 1980s with the promising value of global analysis coinciding with the increased use of geographic information systems and the availability of global mapping data and positioning systems. However, following the initial excitement about DGGS as a technology the lack of availability of suitable cloud and High Performance Computing (HPC) environments has limited the uptake and application of DGGS - until now! The maturation of accessible cloud and HPC infrastructures has enabled DGGS to emerge from the 'trough of disillusionment' and to provide a path to realizing the vision of the Digital Earth, and the future of CyberGIS. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is developing an international standard for DGGS that will formally define the essential properties of a DGGS and specify protocols that will facilitate interoperability between multiple DGGS and traditional data infrastructures. The OGC DGGS Standards Working Group is finalizing its work based on inputs and review from experts around the world with experinence using multiple DGGSs. By

  8. An Approach for Developing Earth Science Data Records of Global Forest Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townshend, J. R.; Huang, C.; Masek, J. G.; Hansen, M. C.; Goward, S. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Davis, P.; Channan, S.

    2008-12-01

    There is long-standing recognition of the need for global forest change detection at Landsat-class resolutions. Previously this was not feasible, because of the absence of well registered multi-temporal data sets, variations in sensors, the need for intensive human input during post-processing, variations in spectral responses of forests, the efforts needed to create validation data sets and the computational and storage demands in carrying out the analysis. We will demonstrate in this presentation that these problems have now been largely overcome by the availability of the Global Landsat Survey (GLS) data sets, our ability to create atmospherically corrected reflectance products, much improved classifiers, collection of automated dense training sets, the availability of ultra-fine resolution datasets and much lower computational costs. We will present an approach for producing the following Earth Science Data Records (ESDR) at fine and moderate spatial resolutions: - Global fine resolution (< 100 m) surface reflectance ESDR for four epochs centered around 1990, 2000, and 2005; - Fine resolution (< 100 m) forest cover change (FCC) ESDR between the three epochs; - Fragmentation products derived from the fine resolution FCC products; - Global 250-m vegetation continuous field (VCF) based FCC ESDR from 2000 to 2005; - FCC ESDR products aggregated from the fine resolution and the 250 m FCC products to 250 m, 500 m, 1 km, and 0.05 degree grids for use by carbon, biogeochemical and hydrological modelers.

  9. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  10. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: Relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J.; Ailing, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere.

  11. Tracking Earth's Energy: From El Niño to Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

    2012-07-01

    The state of knowledge and outstanding issues with respect to the global mean energy budget of planet Earth are described, along with the ability to track changes over time. Best estimates of the main energy components involved in radiative transfer and energy flows through the climate system do not satisfy physical constraints for conservation of energy without adjustments. The main issues relate to the downwelling longwave (LW) radiation and the hydrological cycle, and thus the surface evaporative cooling. It is argued that the discrepancy is 18% of the surface latent energy flux, but only 4% of the downwelling LW flux and, for various reasons, it is most likely that the latter is astray in some calculations, including many models, although there is also scope for precipitation estimates to be revised. Beginning in 2000, the top-of-atmosphere radiation measurements provide stable estimates of the net global radiative imbalance changes over a decade, but after 2004 there is "missing energy" as the observing system of the changes in ocean heat content, melting of land ice, and so on is unable to account for where it has gone. Based upon a number of climate model experiments for the twenty-first century where there are stases in global surface temperature and upper ocean heat content in spite of an identifiable global energy imbalance, we infer that the main sink of the missing energy is likely the deep ocean below 275 m depth.

  12. Aero Commander in flight - Upswept fuselage study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center's Aero Commander 680F is shown in flight with tufts attached to the side and bottom sections of the aircraft. These were placed on the aircraft for a Upswept Fuselage Study to see if the flow separated on the aft section of a small aircraft for comparison of data acquired from a large cargo-type aircraft with an upswept aft section. The photo of the tufts demonstrates that the flow is attached with no turbulence present. (Note the straight lines of tufts). The Aero Commander was used both for support and as a research aircraft. Among other uses, it was flown to outlying dry lakebeds, used as emergency landing sites, before X-15 flights. It could reach the lakebeds quickly and land on the hard-packed surfaces to ensure they were not soft from rainfall or some other cause. Between 1964 and 1966, the Flight Research Center used the aircraft in the Aviation Safety and Operating Problems Program to evaluate the aerodynamics of various light aircraft and to define possible technological improvements. The Aero Commander left what had become the Dryden Flight Research Center on March 14, 1979, and was transferred to the Customs Air Branch in San Diego. The Aero Commander 680F (N6297), built by the Aero Commander Company of Bethany, Oklahoma, is a pressurized five-place aircraft that is powered by two 380-horsepower reciprocating engines built by Lycoming Company. The fuselage length is 24.2 feet with a wing span of 35.98 feet.

  13. Knowledge-intensive global optimization of Earth observing system architectures: a climate-centric case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, D.

    2014-10-01

    Requirements from the different disciplines of the Earth sciences on satellite missions have become considerably more stringent in the past decade, while budgets in space organizations have not increased to support the implementation of new systems meeting these requirements. At the same time, new technologies such as optical communications, electrical propulsion, nanosatellite technology, and new commercial agents and models such as hosted payloads are now available. The technical and programmatic environment is thus ideal to conduct architectural studies that look with renewed breadth and adequate depth to the myriad of new possible architectures for Earth Observing Systems. Such studies are challenging tasks, since they require formidable amounts of data and expert knowledge in order to be conducted. Indeed, trade-offs between hundreds or thousands of requirements from different disciplines need to be considered, and millions of combinations of instrument technologies and orbits are possible. This paper presents a framework and tool to support the exploration of such large architectural tradespaces. The framework can be seen as a model-based, executable science traceability matrix that can be used to compare the relative value of millions of different possible architectures. It is demonstrated with an operational climate-centric case study. Ultimately, this framework can be used to assess opportunities for international collaboration and look at architectures for a global Earth observing system, including space, air, and ground assets.

  14. To a Question About Orientation of Search Technological Disasters at Global Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    Technological activity of the human being unreasonable consumption to the detriment of the nature have brought mankind to a point of bifurcation from which any evolution is possible even to become extinct as biological species in connection with obvious loss of stability of biosphere and with an opportunity of its transition in a new condition which can appear unsuitable for a life Global Earth Observation supposes passive recording a condition of the Earth s atmosphere ocean and land surface with a view to improving the well-being of mankind Active supervision are demanding the scientific substantiated knowledge of dangerous places on the Earth not only from point of view technological of pollution but also in view of the humanistic relation of people living in these places to the Nature The mathematical model which allows predict evolution of universum with consideration of intellectual world and an spiritual world of mankind is offered in the report It threeunity has something in common with unity of three worlds -- physical mental and Plato s world of ideas which has presented Roger Penrose Developing ideas of Roger Penrose E Popper I Ostrezov we have constructed model of the relation between the parameters describing these worlds - rational R-- the empirical information on the physical world irrational I - the information received by the intellectual world from input medium - transcendental mental spiritual T including creativity

  15. The effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance - Global analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of fractional area coverage by cloud types in the energy balance of the earth is investigated through joint use of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud data and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband energy flux data for the one-year period March 1985 through February 1986. Multiple linear regression is used to relate the radiation budget data to the cloud data. Comparing cloud forcing estimates obtained from the ISCCP-ERBE regression with those derived from the ERBE scene identification shows generally good agreement except over snow, in tropical convective regions, and in regions that are either nearly cloudless or always overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement in longwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identification does not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low clouds make the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the Earth, because they cover such a large area and because their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High, optically thick clouds can also very effectively reduce the energy balance, however, because their very high albedos overcome their low emission temperatures.

  16. GLOBAL MAPPING OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS FROM SCATTERED LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka

    2010-09-10

    Scattered lights from terrestrial exoplanets provide valuable information about their planetary surface. Applying the surface reconstruction method proposed by Fujii et al. to both diurnal and annual variations of scattered light, we develop a reconstruction method of land distribution with both longitudinal and latitudinal resolutions. We find that one can recover a global map of an idealized Earth-like planet on the following assumptions: (1) cloudlessness, (2) a face-on circular orbit, (3) known surface types and their reflectance spectra, (4) lack of atmospheric absorption, (5) known rotation rate, (6) a static map, and (7) the absence of a moon. Using the dependence of light curves on planetary obliquity, we also show that the obliquity can be measured by adopting the {chi}{sup 2} minimization or the extended information criterion. We demonstrate the feasibility of our methodology by applying it to a multi-band photometry of a cloudless model Earth with future space missions such as the occulting ozone observatory (O3). We conclude that future space missions can estimate both the surface distribution and the obliquity at least for cloudless Earth-like planets within 5 pc.

  17. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L. K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S. G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for 60Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  18. Comparisons of global topographic/isostatic models to the Earth's observed gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Rapp, Richard H.; Suenkel, Hans; Tscherning, C. Christian

    1988-01-01

    The Earth's gravitational potential, as described by a spherical harmonic expansion to degree 180, was compared to the potential implied by the topography and its isostatic compensation using five different hypothesis. Initially, series expressions for the Airy/Heiskanen topographic isostatic model were developed to the third order in terms of (h/R), where h is equivalent rock topography and R is a mean Earth radius. Using actual topographic developments for the Earth, it was found that the second and third terms of the expansion contributed 30 and 3 percents, of the first of the expansion. With these new equations it is possible to compute depths (D) of compensation, by degree, using 3 different criteria. The results show that the average depth implied by criterion I is 60 km while it is about 33 km for criteria 2 and 3 with smaller compensation depths at the higher degrees. Another model examined was related to the Vening-Meinesz regional hypothesis implemented in the spectral domain. Finally, oceanic and continental response functions were derived for the global data sets and comparisons made to locally determined values.

  19. Power from space for use on earth: An emerging global option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Earth as a closed ecological system is addressed from the point of view of the availability and use of energy from space and its potential influence on the economies of both developed and developing countries. The results of past studies of the solar power satellite (SPS) are reviewed, and the current international activities exploring various aspects of an SPS are mentioned. The functions of an SPS, including collection of solar energy in orbit, conversion to an intermediate form of energy, transmission of energy from orbit to Earth, and conversion to useful energy in the most appropriate form are discussed. Directions for future developments are addressed including a suggested planning framework. Salient aspects of SPS technologies are presented, and the potential benefits of the uses of lunar materials for the SPS construction are outlined. Scenarios within the context of international participation in a global SPS system are presented. The conclusion is drawn that an SPS system is one of the few promising, globally applicable power generation options that has the potential to meet energy demands in the 21st Century and to achieve the inevitable transition to inexhaustible and renewable energy sources.

  20. Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay

    2015-07-01

    We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.

  1. Towards a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Koike, T.; Cripe, D.; Ochiai, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing a strategy to guide its water-related activities for the next decade. An international writing team is currently developing a draft strategy for use in discussions with the broader water community. It is anticipated that the strategy will be finalized and presented at the next GEO Summit of Ministers in November 2013. This presentation summarizes the direction, content and status of the GEOSS water strategy. During the past decade GEO water activities were guided by a report that served as the foundation for the Water theme in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. Since that report was published a number of developments have taken place, making it necessary to update the strategy underlying GEO water-related efforts. Among other factors, this strategy is considering a renewed commitment to Sustainable Development and the green economy, the maturation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems concept, and the emergence of new satellite missions, new sensors and new mobile information systems. In addition to identifying the impact of these trends on water observation plans and systems, the new strategy will highlight the potential linkages of water with other sectors such as agriculture, health, biodiversity, energy and climate. This presentation will also summarize the objectives and key elements of the new strategy, and possible approaches for implementing the strategy.

  2. Power from space for use on earth - An emerging global option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The concept of the earth as a closed ecological system is addressed from the point of view of the availability and use of energy from space and its potential influence on the economies of both developed and developing countries. The results of past studies of the solar power satellite (SPS) are reviewed, and the current international activities exploring various aspects of an SPS are mentioned. The functions of an SPS, including collection of solar energy in orbit, conversion to an intermediate form of energy, transmission of energy from orbit to earth, and conversion to useful energy in the most appropriate form are discussed. Directions for future developments are addressed including a suggested planning framework. Salient aspects of SPS technologies are presented, and the potential benefits of the uses of lunar materials for the SPS construction are outlined. Scenarios within the context of international participation in a global SPS system are presented. The conclusion is drawn that an SPS system is one of the few promising, globally applicable power generation options that has the potential to meet energy demands in the 21st Century and to achieve the inevitable transition to inexhaustible and renewable energy sources.

  3. 3D Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Solar Wind/Earth's Magnetosphere Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalim, M. S.; Poedts, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present results of real-time 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere using time-varying data from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite during a few big magnetic storm events of the previous and current solar cycles, namely the 06 April 2000, 20 November 2003 and 05 April 2010 storms. We introduce a numerical magnetic storm index and compare the geo-effectiveness of these events in terms of this storm index which is a measure for the resulting global perturbation of the Earth's magnetic field. Steady simulations show that the upstream solar wind plasma parameters enter the low-β switch-on regime for some time intervals during a magnetic storm causing a complex dimpled bow shock structure. We also investigate the traces of such bow shock structures during time-dependent simulations of the events. We utilize a 3D, implicit, parallel, unstructured grid, compressible finite volume ideal MHD solver with an anisotropic grid adaptation technique for the computer simulations.

  4. Global Analysis of Multi-Mission Echoes Over the Earth's Land Surface from 15 Years of Altimeter Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowson, M.; Berry, P. A. M.

    2006-07-01

    A vast quantity of radar altimeter echoes has been collected over the earth's land surfaces by the series of missions flown over the past fifteen years. The totality of these missions has resulted in a unique global database of echoes, containing information not only on the elevation but also on the surface characteristics. This paper presents the results of a global analysis of echoes from all these missions, interpreted using a rule- based expert system, and discusses the information which can be extracted, both from the spatial distribution and from the temporal changes. The results demonstrate the unique contribution of this global dataset to measurement and monitoring of the earth's land surfaces.

  5. Data Mining for Global Change: A Vision for "Big Data" in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhaeuser, K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the Earth sciences have undergone a rapid transformation from a historically data-poor to a relatively data-rich environment. This development is largely due to significant improvements in observation technologies (notably satellites since the 1970s) on one hand, and advances in computational tools (both hardware and software) on the other. As a result the Earth sciences are primed to enter the Fourth Paradigm, a term coined by the late Jim Gray to describe a new realm of scientific discovery driven by data analysis - the other three being theory, experimentation, and computer simulation. In particular, observations from remote sensors on satellites and weather radars, in situ sensors and sensor networks, along with outputs of global climate or Earth system models from large-scale simulations as well as regional modeling studies, produce data approaching the Tera- and Petabyte scales. These massive and information-rich datasets offer a significant opportunity for advancing our understanding of the global climate system and in turn our ability to make better informed projections of future climate change, yet current data analysis techniques are not able to realize their full potential. We will outline a vision for the application of "Big Data" tools and technologies in the Earth sciences, which have the potential to make a transformative impact on the toolbox available to the scientist as well as the way science is conducted. For instance, data mining and machine learning could provide novel computational tools that empower scientists to perform analyses more efficiently and effectively than ever before: tedious routine tasks become automated, existing methods scale to significantly larger datasets, and innovative methods may provide new capabilities altogether. Most notably we are not interested in leveraging computation for simulations of increasing scale or resolution but rather in the analysis of datasets of increasing size and

  6. Precise Real-Time Low-Earth-Orbiter Navigation With the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertiger, W.; Haines, B.; Kuang, D.; Lough, M.; Lichten, S.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Vigue-Rodi, Y.; Wu, S.

    1999-01-01

    Technology currently is available to support real-time onboard knowledge of the position of a low Earth orbiter at the 5- to 15-m level using the civilian broadcast Global Positioning System (GPS) signal with sophisticated models and filtering techniques onboard the spacecraft. Without these techniques, the standard positioning service yields 50 to 100 m with the current level of selective availability (SA). Proposed augmentations and/or enhancements to the GPS system will make rms accuracies of from 10 centimeters to a few decimeters available to the real-time onboard user. Presently, near-real-time processing of GPS tracking data can routinely provide low-Earth-orbit determination accuracy at the level of 5 cm. Such processing systems can, in fact, be fully automated; recent results from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), where ongoing daily processing of low Earth GPS tracking data has been undertaken for several years, are presented in this article, showing orbit determination accuracies at the sub-10-cm level. At the present time, such solutions can be produced with about a 10-h delay after real time, but recent improvements in JPL's processing system soon will enable turnaround at the 1-h level or better for such precise orbit determination. We anticipate that orbit determination at the 1-cm-accuracy level will be demonstrated, with some refinements to the current system, in the not too distant future. Continuing enhancements in the automation of data retrieval and precise orbit processing will result in continuing decreases in latency for ground-based generation of precise orbit products for Earth orbiters. Such ephemerides can be propagated slightly ahead to provide real-time knowledge. However, there are advantages to an onboard, real-time orbit-determination capability. These include unique mission requirements (military, strategic, and scientific), as well as the potential to dramatically lower navigation operations costs through the enabling of a

  7. A comprehensive earth model across the scales: regional updates and global validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, Michael; Korbian, Sager; Zukauskaite, Saule; Ermert, Laura; Peter, Daniel; Fichtner, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    We present the current state of the 'Comprehensive Earth Model' (CEM), a solver-independent multi-scale model of the global distribution of density and visco-elastic parameters. The overall goal of this project is to produce a model that represents the Earth on all seismically accessible scales; which contains high resolution sub-models where data and computational concerns allow, and which presents a low wavenumber Earth in regions yet to be probed in detail. To accomplish this, we have designed the model to be independent of any particular forward solver. This allows the usage of a wide variety of forward and inverse techniques, each of which may contribute updates within their respective regimes of validity. Over the past year, several regional updates have been incorporated within the CEM. These include updates from full waveform tomography of Japan and the Western Mediterranean, along with an update from a new traveltime tomography of Europe. Additionally, we report on a global-scale full waveform update to the model. This update serves to adjust the long-wavelength background of the CEM, and to set an initial global waveform misfit, against which the misfit of future sub-region updates will be judged. With this global update applied, we discuss the initial results from a full waveform tomography aimed at resolving the deep structure beneath the African continent. When investigating structures that may span the entire mantle, an effort must be made to ensure that the datasets and misfits used to image these structures are sensitive to the desired set of parameters. For example, a dataset comprised of only sS phases may be completely insensitive to lower mantle structure. With the goal of improving the imaging of mantle plumes, we discuss a hybrid misfit based on body and surface wave time-frequency measurements, combined with a misfit based on normal mode measurements. While this particular misfit measure is not new, its incorporation into an adjoint spectral

  8. Sequential Imaging of Earth by Astronauts: 50 Years of Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, astronauts have collected sequential imagery of the Earth. In fact, the collection of astronaut photography comprises one of the earliest sets of data (1961 to present) available to scientists to study the regional context of the Earth s surface and how it changes. While today s availability of global high resolution satellite imagery enables anyone with an internet connection to examine specific features on the Earth s surface with a regional context, historical satellite imagery adds another dimension (time) that provides researchers and students insight about the features and processes of a region. For example, one of the geographic areas with the longest length of record contained within the astronaut photography database is the lower Nile River. The database contains images that document the flooding of Lake Nasser (an analog to today s flooding behind China s Three Gorges Dam), the changing levels of Lake Nasser s water with multiyear cycles of flood and drought, the recent flooding and drying of the Toshka Lakes, as well as urban growth, changes in agriculture and coastal subsidence. The imagery database allows investigations using different time scales (hours to decades) and spatial scales (resolutions and fields of view) as variables. To continue the imagery collection, the astronauts on the International Space Station are trained to understand basic the Earth Sciences and look for and photograph major events such as tropical storms, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, and document landscapes undergoing change (e.g., coastal systems, cities, changing forest cover). We present examples of selected sequences of astronaut imagery that illustrate the interdependence of geological processes, climate cycles, human geography and development, and prompt additional questions about the underlying elements of change.

  9. Global electric field determination in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using energetic charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.; Sheldon, R.; Hamilton, D.

    1995-01-01

    Although many properties of the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured and quantified in the past 30 years since it was discovered, one fundamental measurement (for zeroth order MHD equilibrium) has been made infrequently and with poor spatial coverage - the global electric field. This oversight is due in part to the neglect of theorists. However, there is renewed interest in the convection electric field because it is now realized to be central to many magnetospheric processes, including the global MHD equilibrium, reconnection rates, Region 2 Birkeland currents, magnetosphere ionosphere coupling, ring current and radiation belt transport, substorm injections, and several acceleration mechanisms. Unfortunately the standard experimental methods have not been able to synthesize a global field (excepting the pioneering work of McIlwain's geostationary models) and we are left with an overly simplistic theoretical field, the Volland-Stern electric field model. Single point measurements of the plasmapause were used to infer the appropriate amplitudes of this model, parameterized by K(sub p). Although this result was never intended to be the definitive electric field model, it has gone nearly unchanged for 20 years. The analysis of current data sets requires a great deal more accuracy than can be provided by the Volland-Stern model. The variability of electric field shielding has not been properly addressed although effects of penetrating magnetospheric electric fields has been seen in mid-and low-latitude ionospheric data sets. The growing interest in substorm dynamics also requires a much better assessment of the electric fields responsible for particle injections. Thus we proposed and developed algorithms for extracting electric fields from particle data taken in the Earth's magnetosphere. As a test of the effectiveness of these new techniques, we analyzed data taken by the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft in equatorial orbit from 1984 to 1989.

  10. Simulation of the global warming by the one-dimensional simplified earth system model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Ichii, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Global warming, resulting from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, is one of the most significant Earth_fs environmental problems. Since global warming is caused by the coupled feedback cycles of energy and carbon, it is essential to assess the impacts of various feedback processes on CO2 uptake by the land and oceans to project future carbon cycle and climate variations. In order to project future changes in carbon cycle and climate, a simple one-dimensional earth system model the carbon and energy coupled cycle model in the simplified manner have been developed. The model consists of a north-south one-dimensional zonally averaged atmosphere-ocean energy balance model, and a box-type one-dimensional carbon cycle model of atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere (vegetation and soil) and ocean, and their interactive feedback processes. The following feedback processes were included in the model, (1) water vapor feedback, (2) biospheric CO2 fertilization, and temperature dependencies on (3) photosynthesis, (4) soil decomposition, (5) ocean surface chemistry. First we simulated the historical variations in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The model was calibrated to reproduce the past atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature variations. The past carbon cycle and climatic variations are in good agreement with observational data, but ocean carbon uptake was smaller than the observational result because the south middle latitudinal carbon uptake was small. The future change of carbon cycle and climate was simulated up to the year 2100 based on the IPCC IS92a emission scenario. The atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 610 ppmv in 2100 and global average temperature increases 1.5 K for 2000-2100. The regional difference of warming between the high and low latitudinal zones is 1.5 K for 2000-2100. The sensitivity analysis showed that uncertainties originated from CO2 emissions by land use, ice albedo feedback and ocean current velocity change were the

  11. AERO: A Decision Support Tool for Wind Erosion Assessment in Rangelands and Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloza, M.; Webb, N.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind erosion is a key driver of global land degradation, with on- and off-site impacts on agricultural production, air quality, ecosystem services and climate. Measuring rates of wind erosion and dust emission across land use and land cover types is important for quantifying the impacts and identifying and testing practical management options. This process can be assisted by the application of predictive models, which can be a powerful tool for land management agencies. The Aeolian EROsion (AERO) model, a wind erosion and dust emission model interface provides access by non-expert land managers to a sophisticated wind erosion decision-support tool. AERO incorporates land surface processes and sediment transport equations from existing wind erosion models and was designed for application with available national long-term monitoring datasets (e.g. USDI BLM Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring, USDA NRCS Natural Resources Inventory) and monitoring protocols. Ongoing AERO model calibration and validation are supported by geographically diverse data on wind erosion rates and land surface conditions collected by the new National Wind Erosion Research Network. Here we present the new AERO interface, describe parameterization of the underpinning wind erosion model, and provide a summary of the model applications across agricultural lands and rangelands in the United States.

  12. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Variations in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle can have far-reaching effects on living conditions on our planet. While climate change discussions often revolve around possible consequences of future temperature changes, the adaptation to changes in the hydrological cycle may pose a bigger challenge to societies and ecosystems. Floods and droughts are already today amongst the most damaging natural hazards, with floods being globally the most significant disaster type in terms of loss of human life (Jonkman 2005). From an economic perspective, changes in the hydrological cycle can impose great pressures and damages on a variety of industrial sectors, such as water management, urban planning, agricultural production and tourism. Despite their obvious environmental and societal importance, our understanding of the causes and magnitude of the variations of the hydrological cycle is still unsatisfactory (e.g., Ramanathan et al 2001, Ohmura and Wild 2002, Allen and Ingram 2002, Allan 2007, Wild et al 2008, Liepert and Previdi 2009). The link between radiation balance and hydrological cycle Globally, precipitation can be approximated by surface evaporation, since the variability of the atmospheric moisture storage is negligible. This is the case because the fluxes are an order of magnitude larger than the atmospheric storage (423 x 1012 m3 year-1 versus 13 x 1012 m3 according to Baumgartner and Reichel (1975)), the latter being determined by temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron). Hence the residence time of evaporated water in the atmosphere is not more than a few days, before it condenses and falls back to Earth in the form of precipitation. Any change in the globally averaged surface evaporation therefore implies an equivalent change in precipitation, and thus in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle. The process of evaporation requires energy, which it obtains from the surface radiation balance (also known as surface net radiation), composed of the

  13. Advancing the Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. W.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a network of Earth observation and information systems, contributed on a voluntary basis by Members and Participating Organisations of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. Such a global research effort requires an integrated multi-disciplinary effort that is underpinned by a cyber-infrastructure which is able to discover and access vast quantities of data across heterogeneous information systems and many disciplines. As GEO develops and the implementation of the GEOSS gathers pace, it is becoming common practice for groups to be organised at national, regional and international level to address critical issues. In many cases these groups evolve to become "communities", organising themselves to carry out tasks of interest to that community. In most cases, communities develop their own "community portal" to provide a focal point on the web for their activities. The data and information held by the members of a specific community can normally be discovered via their particular "community portal". There is now a clear recognition that the many thematic community initiatives, each with their own information system and portal, need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomes possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to

  14. Concepts for AutomatedPrecise Low Earth Orbiter Navigation With the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichten, S. M.; Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Yunck, T. P.

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used for satellite positioning and navigation and for numerous geolocation activities. Real-time, onboard positioning accuracies for low Earth orbiters (LEOs) currently vary from 50 to 100 m for stand-alone conventional GPS tracking to somewhat better than 10 m with sophisticated onboard data filtering. Wide-area differential techniques, such as those supported by the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) under development by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, offer real-time, kinematic positioning accuracies ranging from a few meters to better than a meter over well-defined local regions. This article describes a concept for extending the wide-area differential GPS techniques to achieve global, real-time positioning of LEOs at submeter accuracies. GPS design and operation policy issues that currently limit real-time, onboard precision positioning are discussed. The article then examines a number of proposed system design enhancements under consideration by the U.S. Department of Defense for the next-generation GPS, termed GPS III. These potential enhancements, if implemented, would enable global real-time, stand-alone position accuracies of a few decimeters for kinematic users and better than 10 cm for LEOs. Such capabilities could dramatically impact NASA missions by greatly lowering ground operations costs, as well as navigation and orbit determination costs in general.

  15. Global land surface albedo maps from MODIS using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitraka, Zina; Benas, Nikolaos; Gorelick, Noel; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios

    2016-04-01

    The land surface albedo (LSA) is a critical physical variable, which influences the Earth's climate by affecting the energy budget and distribution in the Earth-atmosphere system. Its role is highly significant in both global and local scales; hence, LSA measurements provide a quantitative means for better constraining global and regional scale climate modelling efforts. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms, provides the parameters needed for the computation of LSA on an 8-day temporal scale and a variety of spatial scales (ranging between 0.5 - 5 km). This dataset was used here for the LSA estimation and its changes over the study area at 0.5 km spatial resolution. More specifically, the MODIS albedo product was used, which includes both the directional-hemispherical surface reflectance (black-sky albedo) and the bi-hemispherical surface reflectance (white-sky albedo). The LSA was estimated for the whole globe on an 8-day basis for the whole time period covered by MODIS acquisitions (i.e. 2000 until today). To estimate LSA from black-sky and white-sky albedos, the fraction of the diffused radiation is needed, a function of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). Required AOT information was acquired from the MODIS AOT product at 1̊ × 1̊ spatial resolution. Since LSA also depends on solar zenith angle (SZA), 8-day mean LSA values were computed as averages of corresponding LSA values for representative SZAs covering the 24-hour day. The estimated LSA was analysed in terms of both spatial and seasonal characteristics, while LSA changes during the period examined were assessed. All computation were performed using the Google Earth Engine (GEE). The GEE provided access to all the MODIS products needed for the analysis without the need of searching or downloading. Moreover, the combination of MODIS products in both temporal and spatial terms was fast and effecting using the GEE API (Application

  16. Results of the AEROS satellite program: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerzahl, P.; Rawer, K.; Roemer, N.

    1980-01-01

    Published literature reporting aeronomic data collected on two AEROS missions is summarized. The extreme ultraviolet solar radiation and other significant parameters of the thermosphere/ionosphere were investigated. Kinetic pressure, the quantity of atomic nitrogen, and partial densities of helium, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and atomic nitrogen were determined. The thermal electron population, superthermal energy distribution, plasma density, ion temperature, and composition according to ion types were measured. The chief energy supply in the thermosphere was calculated. Aeronomic calculations showing that variations in the parameters of the ionosphere cannot be correlated with fluctuations of extreme ultraviolet solar radiation were performed. The AEROS data were compared with data from S3-1, ISIS, and AE-C satellites. Models of the thermosphere and ionosphere were developed.

  17. Transient aero-thermal simulations for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    Aero-thermal simulations are an integral part of the design process for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). These simulations utilize Computational Solid-Fluid Dynamics (CSFD) to estimate wind jitter and blur, dome and mirror seeing, telescope pointing error due to thermal drift, and to predict thermal effects on performance of components such as the primary mirror segments. Design guidance obtained from these simulations is provided to the Telescope, Enclosure, Facilities and Adaptive Optics groups. Computational advances allow for model enhancements and inclusion of phenomena not previously resolved, such as transient effects on wind loading and thermal seeing due to vent operation while observing or long exposure effects, with potentially different flow patterns corresponding to the beginning and end of observation. Accurate knowledge of the Observatory aero-thermal environment will result in developing reliable look-up tables for effective open loop correction of key active optics system elements, and cost efficient operation of the Observatory.

  18. An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (≫300 yr) model spinup times.

  19. Towards global observations of shear wave splitting in the Earth's lowermost mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J.; Nowacki, A. J.; Walker, A. M.; Masters, G.

    2011-12-01

    It is well documented that the Earth's lowermost mantle (a.k.a. D") is seismically anisotropic. This anisotropy is indicative of a long range order which may be caused by the alignment of crystals in a strained fabric due to lower mantle flow, or alternatively by the presence of shaped heterogeneities such as fine layers, or pockets of melt. The resolution of this anisotropy, and its proper interpretation, will place important constraints on the thermodynamic and mineralogical properties of this elusive region. Local studies of D" anisotropy have revealed that in some places the simplest style of anisotropy that fits the data is transversely isotropic with a tilted axis of symmetry. To date, global studies of lowermost mantle anisotropy have made the assumption that the anisotropy is transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry. This limits the capacity of such measurements to infer geodynamic or mineralogical causes. It remains an outstanding challenge to make global observations of anisotropy in D" without recourse to simplifying assumptions as to the style and symmetry axis of anisotropy. We use seismograms from the IRIS DMC (over the period 1998 to 2005) to perform S-ScS differential splitting and thus make observations of shear wave splitting in the lowermost mantle at a number of localities around the globe. Our method makes no assumptions as to the style of anisotropy. The determination from the S phase of splitting in the upper mantle beneath stations and events enables us to ensure that splitting in the upper mantle does not contaminate our observations of splitting in the lowermost mantle on the ScS phase. This work validates our method, and provides a firm platform from which to further our observations of shear wave splitting in D". Our dataset has excellent spatial coverage over the Northern Hemisphere with especially good azimuthal coverage over a large swath beneath Asia. The global nature of the dataset will enable us to measure splitting

  20. Mirror modes in the Earth's magnetosheath: Results from a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoilijoki, Sanni; Palmroth, Minna; Walsh, Brian M.; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Ganse, Urs; Hannuksela, Otto; Vainio, Rami

    2016-05-01

    We investigate mirror mode structures in the Earth's magnetosheath using our global kinetic Vlasiator simulation, which models ion behavior through their distribution function and treats electrons as a charge-neutralizing fluid. We follow the evolution of waves as they advect along velocity streamlines through the magnetosheath. We find that mirror mode waves are observed preferentially in the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath along velocity streamlines that enter the sheath in the vicinity of the foreshock ULF wave boundary where there are enough initial perturbations in the plasma for the mirror modes to grow, and the plasma properties fulfill the mirror instability condition better than elsewhere in the magnetosheath. We test selection criteria defined by previous studies and show that the spatial extent over which mirror modes occur ranges from much of the magnetosheath on the quasi-perpendicular side of the subsolar point to very small isolated regions depending on the criteria.

  1. Evaluation of recent Earth's global gravity field models with terrestrial gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, Alexander P.; Kanushin, Vadim F.; Ganagina, Irina G.; Goldobin, Denis N.; Kosarev, Nikolay S.; Kosareva, Alexandra M.

    2016-03-01

    In the context of the rapid development of environmental research technologies and techniques to solve scientific and practical problems in different fields of knowledge including geosciences, the study of Earth's gravity field models is still important today. The results of gravity anomaly modelling calculated by the current geopotential models data were compared with the independent terrestrial gravity data for the two territories located in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. Statistical characteristics of comparison results for the models under study were obtained. The results of investigations show that about 70% of the differences between the gravity anomaly values calculated by recent global geopotential models and those observed at the points in flat areas are within ±10 mGal, in mountainous areas are within ±20 mGal.

  2. Global geologic applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Evans, Cynthia; Wilkinson, M. J.; Pitts, David; Amsbury, David

    1993-01-01

    The advantages of the astronaut photography during Space Shuttle missions are briefly examined, and the scope and applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database are discussed. The global and multidisciplinary nature of the data base is illustrated by several examples of geologic applications. These include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippine Islands), heat flow and ice cover on Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia), and windblown dust in South America. It is noted that hand-held photography from the U.S. Space Shuttle provides unique remotely-sensed data for geologic applications because of the combination of varying perspectives, look angles, and illumination, and changing resolution resulting from different lenses and altitudes.

  3. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  4. Sunsynchronous low Earth orbit spacecraft concepts and technology requirements for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Taback, Israel; Garn, Paul A.; Burrowbridge, Donald R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative listing of instruments for operation in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits contain 21 entries, of which 20 are carried aboard multi-instrument spacecraft. This list identifies the temporal requirements for repetition of measurements and also includes groups of instruments that make complementing measurements. Definitions for individual spacecraft follows the temporal and grouping requirements to establish constellations which will provide the measurement data. The definitions of constellations for multi-instrument spacecraft show two alternatives: a constellation of 10 spacecraft, each compatible with launch by a Delta booster; a constellation of 4 spacecraft, each requiring a Titan booster. Operating subsystems for the individual spacecraft can use modular concepts that are adaptations based upon current plans for improving the performance of the NASA-Goddard Multimission Modular units. The descriptions of the spacecraft and constellations begins with a compilation of instrument related requirements that define the principal system performance parameters and operating capabilities.

  5. Sub-daily resolution of earth rotation variations with Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Marcus, Steven L.; Dickey, Jean O.

    1992-01-01

    Data from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking experiment have been used to determine variations in earth rotation (UT1-UTC) over a time period of three weeks. Kalman filtering and smoothing enabled changes in UT1-UTC over intervals of 2 to 24 hrs to be detected with the GPS data. Internal consistency checks and comparisons with other solutions from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) indicate that the GPS UT1-UTC estimates are accurate to about 2 cm. Comparison of GPS-estimated variations in UT1-UTC with 2-hr time resolution over 4 days with predicted variations computed from diurnal and semidiurnal oceanic tidal contributions strongly suggests that the observed periodic sub-daily variations of about 0.1 msec are largely of tidal origin.

  6. Ion Acceleration at Earth, Saturn and Jupiter and its Global Impact on Magnetospheric Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2016-07-01

    The ion plasma pressures at Earth, Saturn and Jupiter are significant players in the electrodynamic force-balance that governs the structure and dynamics of these magnetospheres. There are many similarities between the physical mechanisms that are thought to heat the ion plasma to temperatures that even exceed those of the solar corona. In this presentation we compare the ion acceleration mechanisms at the three planetary magnetospheres and discuss their global impacts on magnetopsheric structure. At Earth, bursty-bulk flows, or "bubbles", have been shown to accelerate protons and O+ to high energies by the earthward moving magnetic dipolarization fronts. O+ ions display a more non-adiabatic energization in response to these fronts than protons do as they are energized and transported in to the ring-current region where they reach energies of several 100's keV. We present both in-situ measurements from the NASA Van Allen Probes Mission and global Energetic Neutral (ENA) images from the High-Energy Neutral Atom (HENA) Camera on board the IMAGE Mission, that illustrate these processes. The global impact on the magnetospheric structure is explored by comparing the empirical magnetic field model TS07d for given driving conditions with global plasma pressure distributions derived from the HENA images. At Saturn, quasi-periodic energization events, or large-scale injections, occur beyond about 9 RS around the post-midnight sector, clearly shown by the Ion and Neutral Atom Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini mission. In contrast to Earth, the corotational drift dominates even the energetic ion distributions. The large-scale injections display similar dipolarization front features can be found and there are indications that like at Earth the O+ responds more non-adiabatically than protons do. However, at Saturn there are also differences in that there appears to be energization events deep in the inner magnetosphere (6-9 RS) preferentially occurring in the pre

  7. Aero-Engine Condition Monitoring Based on Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunxiao; Wang, Nan

    The maintenance and management of civil aero-engine require advanced monitor approaches to estimate aero-engine performance and health in order to increase life of aero-engine and reduce maintenance costs. In this paper, we adopted support vector machine (SVM) regression approach to monitor an aero-engine health and condition by building monitoring models of main aero-engine performance parameters(EGT, N1, N2 and FF). The accuracy of nonlinear baseline models of performance parameters is tested and the maximum relative error does not exceed ±0.3%, which meets the engineering requirements. The results show that SVM nonlinear regression is an effective method in aero-engine monitoring.

  8. The Earth's spectrum constrained directly from global seismic data: an evolutionary-algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Mora, S.; Boschi, L.; Becker, T. W.; Giardini, D.

    2010-12-01

    The wavelength spectrum of three-dimensional (3D) heterogeneity naturally reflects the nature of Earth dynamics, and is in its own right an important constraint for geodynamical modeling. The Earth's spectrum has been usually evaluated indirectly, on the basis of previously derived tomographic models. If the geographic distribution of seismic heterogeneities is neglected, however, one can invert global seismic data directly to find the spectrum of the Earth. Inverting for the spectrum is in principle (fewer unknowns) cheaper and robust than inverting for the 3D structure of a planet: this should allow us to constrain planetary structure at smaller scales than by current 3D models. Based on the work of Gudmundsson and coworkers in the early 1990s, we have developed a linear algorithm for surface waves. The spectra we obtain are in qualitative agreement with results from 3D tomography, but the resolving power is generally lower, due to the simplifications required to linearise the ``spectral'' inversion. To overcome this problem, we performed full nonlinear inversions of synthetically generated and real datasets, and compare the obtained spectra with the input and tomographic models respectively. The inversions are calculated on a distributed memory parallel nodes cluster, employing the MPI package. An evolutionary strategy approach is used to explore the parameter space, using the PIKAIA software. The first preliminary results show a resolving power higher than that of linearised inversion. This confirms that the approximations required in the linear formulation affect the solution quality, and suggests that the nonlinear approach might effectively help to constrain the heterogeneity spectrum more robustly than currently possible.

  9. A global high-resolution microwave emission model for the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, G.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Solimini, D.; de Maagt, P.; Baptista, J. P. V. Poiares

    1998-05-01

    This paper reports on a numerical model developed to simulate vertically and horizontally polarized microwave emission from the Earth in the frequency range between 5 and 50 GHz and at various angles of observation, with a 1°×1° (latitude by longitude) spatial resolution, taking into account seasonal variations. The principal motivation of the model is the evaluation of the noise antenna temperature of telecommunications satellites, which is required to calculate the uplink G/T for satellite-borne receivers. The results of the study, however, prove useful in a number of remote sensing applications. To implement the model, significant types of surface, such as bare soil, nonarboreous vegetation, forests, snow, glacier and sea ice, and ocean, have been identified, and their emissivity properties have been determined by the available theoretical and/or empirical models.The millimeter-wave propagation model of Liebe [1993] has been used to compute the atmospheric contribution. Profiles from actual radio soundings collected during a 10-year period over the globe have been used to take into account major climatic variations. The various contributions from the surface and the atmosphere have been finally combined to obtain the theoretical global brightness temperature of each 1°×1° pixel. The numerical model has been validated by comparing on a pixel-by-pixel basis the theoretical brightness temperature with those measured by the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) radiometer in the year 1992 at 19.35, 22.235, and 37.0 GHz at the available polarizations. The discrepancies between model and experimental brightness temperatures have been noted, and actions have been taken to reduce the differences. In its present configuration, the global emission model yields brightness temperature estimates which differ all over the Earth by less than 12 K rms from those measured by the SSM/I.

  10. Earth at 200 Ma: Global palaeogeography refined from CAMP palaeomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos; Torsvik, Trond H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Gaina, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province was formed approximately 200 Ma ago as a prelude to the breakup of Pangea, and may have been a cause of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Based on a combination of (i) a new palaeomagnetic pole from the CAMP related Argana lavas (Moroccan Meseta Block), (ii) a global compilation of 190-210 Ma poles, and (iii) a re-evaluation of relative fits between NW Africa, the Moroccan Meseta Block and Iberia, we calculate a new global 200 Ma pole (latitude = 70.1° S, longitude = 56.7° E and A95 = 2.7°; N = 40 poles; NW Africa co-ordinates). We consider the palaeomagnetic database to be robust at 200 ± 10 Ma, which allows us to craft precise reconstructions near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: at this very important time in Earth history, Pangea was near-equatorially centered, the western sector was dominated by plate convergence and subduction, while in the eastern sector, the Palaeotethys oceanic domain was almost consumed because of a widening Neothethys. We show that there has been negligible net displacement of the Moroccan Meseta relative to Africa since 200 Ma. We calculate a new fit between Iberia and NW Africa, showing that models inferring minor Cretaceous rotation and major Cretaceous sinistral translation of Iberia relative to Europe are inconsistent with palaeomagnetic Iberia-Africa fits at 200 Ma. During Pangea breakup (~ 195 Ma, opening of the Central Atlantic), and shortly after the CAMP outburst, Laurasia rotated clockwise relative to Gondwana around an Euler pole located in SE Iberia. The CAMP and its likely contribution to climate change, mass extinction and Pangea breakup profoundly changed planet Earth and we show that CAMP was sourced by a deep mantle plume that started its disturbing journey from the core-mantle boundary.

  11. The ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (ASTER GED): Mapping Earth's emissivity at 100 meter spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Abbott, Elsa; Malakar, Nabin; Islam, Tanvir; Abrams, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data, acquired by instruments on several NASA satellite platforms, are primarily used to estimate the surface temperature/emissivity of the Earth's land surface. One such instrument launched on NASA's Terra satellite in 1999 is the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has a spatial resolution of 90 m. Using ASTER data, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory recently released the most detailed emissivity map of the Earth termed the ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (ASTER GED) that was acquired by processing millions of cloud free ASTER scenes from 2000 to 2008. The ASTER GEDv3 provides an average emissivity at ~100 m and ~1 km, while GEDv4 provides a monthly emissivity from 2000 to 2015 at ~5 km spatial resolution in the wavelength range between 8 and 12 µm. Validation with lab spectra from four desert sites resulted in an average absolute band error of ~1%, compared to current heritage MODIS products that had average absolute errors of 2.4% (Collection 4) and 4.6% (Collection 5).

  12. NASA's Earth Science Gateway within the GEOSS Architecture Framework and in Support of Distributed Global Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameh, N.; Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Thomas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Progress continues within the arena of interoperability towards greater discovery, access, and use of scientific data regarding improved societal benefit and decision solutions. The Group on Earth Observation System of Systems has developed multiple pilot projects in which many of these maturing and emerging technologies are being interconnected, tested, and implemented as operational systems. Within this network of components are data stores, registries, catalogs, portals, models, work-process flows, satellites, UAVs, and many more components. The pilots tackle the intricate process of ensuring these components properly work together within the framework of open-standards based interoperability, and enabling the vision of a distributed, comprehensible, global system of scientific tools and data for the lay-person as well as the researcher. This paper will concentrate on the NASA Earth Science Gateway (http://esg.gsfc.nasa.gov) view of interconnections to the registries, catalogs, models, and so on, that support this System of Systems. This paper covers what standards were used, how components can be connected and tested, where difficulties emerged, where we have seen return on investment, and how this level of interoperability is progressing.

  13. Earth observation sensor calibration using a global instrumented and automated network of test sites (GIANTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teillet, Phil M.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Fox, Nigel P.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2001-12-01

    Calibration is critical for useful long-term data records, as well as independent data quality control. However, in the context of Earth observation sensors, post-launch calibration and the associated quality assurance perspective are far from operational. This paper explores the possibility of establishing a global instrumented and automated network of test sites (GIANTS) for post-launch radiometric calibration of Earth observation sensors. It is proposed that a small number of well-instrumented benchmark test sites and data sets for calibration be supported. A core set of sensors, measurements, and protocols would be standardized across all participating test sites and the measurement data sets would undergo identical processing at a central secretariat. The network would provide calibration information to supplement or substitute for on-board calibration, would reduce the effort required by individual agencies, and would provide consistency for cross-platform studies. Central to the GIANTS concept is the use of automation, communication, coordination, visibility, and education, all of which can be facilitated by greater use of advanced in-situ sensor and telecommunication technologies. The goal is to help ensure that the resources devoted to remote sensing calibration benefit the intended user community and facilitate the development of new calibration methodologies (research and development) and future specialists (education and training).

  14. High-Precision Global Geodetic Systems: Revolution And Revelation In Fluid And 'Solid' Earth Tracking (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J. H.; Altamimi, Z.; Blewitt, G.; Carter, W. E.; Cazenave, A. A.; Davis, J. L.; Dragert, H.; Feary, D. A.; Herring, T.; Larson, K. M.; Ries, J. C.; Sandwell, D. T.; Wahr, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past half-century, space geodetic technologies have changed profoundly the way we look at the planet, not only in the matter of details and accuracy, but also in the matter of how the entire planet changes with time, even on “human” time scales. The advent of space geodesy has provided exquisite images of the ever-changing land and ocean topography and global gravity field of the planet. We now enjoy an International Terrestrial Reference System with a time-dependent geocenter position accurate to a few millimeters. We can image small and large tectonic deformations of the surface before, during, and after earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. We measure both the past subtle changes as well as the recent dramatic changes in the ice sheets, and track global and regional sea-level change to a precision of a millimeter per year or better. The remarkable achievements of Earth observing missions over the past two decades, and the success of future international missions described in the Decadal Survey depend both implicitly and explicitly on the continued availability and enhancement of a reliable and resilient global infrastructure for precise geodesy, and on ongoing advances in geodetic science that are linked to it. This allows us to deal with global scientific, technological and social issues such as climate change and natural hazards, but the impact of the global precise geodetic infrastructure also permeates our everyday lives. Nowadays drivers, aviators, and sailors can determine their positions inexpensively to meter precision in real time, anywhere on the planet. In the foreseeable future, not only will we be able to know a vehicle’s position to centimeter accuracy in real time, but also to control that position, and thus introduce autonomous navigation systems for many tasks which are beyond the reach of “manual” navigation capabilities. This vision will only be realized with sustained international support of the precise global geodetic

  15. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  16. The new global lithological map database GLiM: A representation of rock properties at the Earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; Moosdorf, Nils

    2012-12-01

    Lithology describes the geochemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of rocks. It plays a key role in many processes at the Earth surface, especially the fluxes of matter to soils, ecosystems, rivers, and oceans. Understanding these processes at the global scale requires a high resolution description of lithology. A new high resolution global lithological map (GLiM) was assembled from existing regional geological maps translated into lithological information with the help of regional literature. The GLiM represents the rock types of the Earth surface with 1,235,400 polygons. The lithological classification consists of three levels. The first level contains 16 lithological classes comparable to previously applied definitions in global lithological maps. The additional two levels contain 12 and 14 subclasses, respectively, which describe more specific rock attributes. According to the GLiM, the Earth is covered by 64% sediments (a third of which are carbonates), 13% metamorphics, 7% plutonics, and 6% volcanics, and 10% are covered by water or ice. The high resolution of the GLiM allows observation of regional lithological distributions which often vary from the global average. The GLiM enables regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scales. A gridded version of the GLiM is available at the PANGEA Database (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.788537).

  17. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  18. The key role of global solid-Earth processes in the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Bernhard; Spakman, Wim; Japsen, Peter; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    Northern hemisphere glaciation started ~3 My ago with Greenland leading the other northern areas. It is unknown why these extreme global climatic transitions were initiated there and why at this time. Here we show that build-up of the Greenland ice-sheet was underpinned by three major solid-Earth processes. These processes were active since at least ~60 Ma and collectively led to conditions of sufficiently high topography and northern latitude of Greenland for glaciations to initiate at ~3 Ma. First, a strong mantle-plume pulse, causing the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province at ~60 Ma, regionally thinned the lithosphere, while subsequent pulses led to uplift that accelerated at around 5 Ma. Our numerical mantle flow models also suggest recent uplift caused by Iceland plume material flowing northward. Second, a ~700 km northward movement of Greenland relative to the mantle since ~60 Ma is featured in recent plate tectonic reconstructions. Third, a concurrent northward rotation of the entire mantle and crust toward the pole, dubbed True Polar Wander (TPW), contributed a 12° (~1300 km) change in latitude. Our study emphasizes the role of mantle plumes, plate tectonic motions, and in particular TPW for driving long-term global climatic transitions.

  19. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity. PMID:24891832

  20. Medium Resolution Global Earth Observations with Landsat: Looking 35 Years Back and 50 Years Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Goward, S. N.

    2007-12-01

    The modern era of global medium resolution satellite remote sensing was inaugurated 35 years ago, in July 1972, with the launch of the first Landsat satellite carrying the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Ten years after that first launch, Landsat 4 carried a much-improved sensor aloft, the Thematic Mapper. The TM provided better spatial resolution (30 m versus 79 m) than the MSS, as well as additional spectral bands in the mid- infrared (IR) and thermal IR regions. Roughly another decade later, in April 1999, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument was placed in orbit on Landsat 7. The ETM+ provided a new 15 m panchromatic band and a much-improved thermal band resolution (60 m versus 120 m). Through a combination of planning and good luck, the various Landsat missions have delivered a continuous set of calibrated, multispectral images of the Earth's surface spanning this entire 35-year time period. This imagery database has been used in agricultural evaluations, forest management inventories, geological surveys, water resource estimates, coastal zone appraisals, and a host of other applications to meet the needs of a very broad user community, including business, government, science, education, national security, and now -- even the casual observer -- as Landsat imagery provides the skeletal backbone of Google Earth. Landsat established the U.S. as the world leader in terrestrial remote sensing, contributed significantly to the understanding of the Earth's environment, spawned revolutionary uses of space-based data by the commercial value-added industry, and encouraged a new generation of commercial satellites that provide regional, high-resolution spatial images. In spite of the overall success of the Landsat series of satellites, the first 35 years of the Landsat legacy have been extremely challenging as the push to embrace new technologies was often questioned by those who simply wanted to maintain whatever the current capability was at that

  1. CRUST1.0: An Updated Global Model of Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, G.; Masters, G.; Ma, Z.; Pasyanos, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    We present an updated global model of Earth's crustal structure. The new model, CRUST1.0, serves as starting model in a more comprehensive effort to compile a global model of Earth's crust and lithosphere, LITHO1.0. CRUST1.0 is defined on a 1-degree grid and is based on a new database of crustal thickness data from active source seismic studies as well as from receiver function studies. In areas where such constraints are still missing, for example in Antarctica, crustal thicknesses are estimated using gravity constraints. The compilation of the new crustal model initially follows the philosophy of the widely used crustal model CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html). Crustal types representing properties in the crystalline crust are assigned according to basement age or tectonic setting. The classification of the latter loosely follows that of an updated map by Artemieva and Mooney (2001) (http://www.lithosphere.info). Statistical averages of crustal properties in each of these crustal types are extrapolated to areas with no local seismic or gravity constraint. In each 1-degree cell, boundary depth, compressional and shear velocity as well as density is given for 8 layers: water, ice, 3-layer sediment cover and upper, middle and lower crystalline crust. Topography, bathymetry and ice cover are taken from ETOPO1. The sediment cover is essentially that of our sediment model (Laske and Masters, 1997; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~sediment.html), with several near-coastal updates. In the sediment cover and the crystalline crust, updated scaling relationships are used to assign compressional and shear velocity as well as density. In an initial step toward LITHO1.0, the model is then validated against our new global group velocity maps for Rayleigh and Love waves, particularly at frequencies between 30 and 40 mHz. CRUST1.0 is then adjusted in areas of extreme misfit where we suspect deficiencies in the crustal model. These currently include

  2. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kawamiya, M.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs), which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite) which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO) including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model); a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE); and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario. By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model) of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4.0 K

  3. Global electric field determination in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T.; Sheldon, R.; Hamilton, D.; Mcilwain, C.

    1992-01-01

    Although many properties of the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured and quantified in the past 30 years since it was discovered, one fundamental (for a zeroeth order magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium) measurement was made infrequently and with poor spatial coverage: the global electric field. This oversight is in part due to the difficulty of measuring a plasma electric field, and in part due to the difficulty of measuring a plasma electric field, and in part due to the neglect of theorists. However, there is renewed interest in the convection electric field, since it has been realized that it is vital for understanding many aspects of the magnetosphere: the global MHD equilibrium, reconnection rates, Region 2 Birkeland currents, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ring current and radiation belt transport, substorm injections, acceleration mechanisms, etc. Unfortunately the standard experimental methods have not been able to synthesize a global field (excepting the pioneering work of McIlwain's geostationary models), and we are left with an overly simplistic theoretical field, the Volland-Stern electric field mode. Again, single point measurements of the plasma pause were used to infer the appropriate amplitudes of the model, parameterized by Kp (Maynard & Chen, JGR 1975). Although this result was never intended to be the definitive electric field model, it has gone nearly unchanged for 15 years. However, the data sets being taken today require a great deal more accuracy than can be provided by the Volland-Stern model. Nor has the variability of the electric field shielding been properly addressed, although effects of penetrating magnetospheric electric fields has been seen in mid- and low-latitude ionospheric data sets. The growing interests in substorm dynamics also requires a much better assessment of the electric fields responsible for particle injections. Thus, we proposed and developed algorithms for extracting electric fields from particle data

  4. Can Earth System Models Explain the observed 20th Century Global Carbon Sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouffer, R. J.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Krasting, J. P.; Pacala, S.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Various authors have estimated the net global land carbon flux as a residual from the global budget of atmospheric, oceanic and fossil fuel carbon fluxes. Recently, Tans (2009) used this method to estimate the globally averaged net land carbon inventory changes method from 1850 to near present day. Using ocean model estimates of the oceanic carbon fluxes, he showed the land being a net source of carbon until around 1940, but after that becoming a net sink, with an uncertainty dominated by the net oceanic carbon flux trajectory (~15%; Sabine et al 2004). Recently Ballantyne et al (2012) produced updated estimates of the net carbon fluxes changes from 1960 until present day. They show that the net carbon flux uptake, land plus ocean, increases from around 2 PgC/yr in 1960 to about 5 PgC/yr in 2010. We compare these observationally based estimates with results from the GFDL Earth System Models (ESMs). We show that both GFDL ESMs store too much carbon in the atmosphere, about a 10 to 20 ppm error by 2005. The models have slightly higher mean values than the Tans (2009) oceanic carbon storage changes but fall within the Sabine et al. (2004) uncertainty estimate. While the general shape of the net land carbon changes in Tans (2009) is well simulated by the ESMs, the ESM sign change in land flux occurs about 15-25years later. By 2010, the models simulate the oceanic carbon uptake as ~2.7 PgC/yr, and the land uptake as ~1 PgC/yr for a total of ~4PgC/yr. The land uptake value varies with ensemble member giving evidence for the role of variability in understanding the past carbon changes. This analysis gives us confidence in the models estimates of the climate-carbon feedbacks. The model results will then be analyzed to determine the various causes of those changes.

  5. Bioremediation at a global scale: from the test tube to planet Earth.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, Víctor; Marlière, Philippe; Solé, Ricard

    2016-09-01

    Planet Earth's biosphere has evolved over billions of years as a balanced bio-geological system ultimately sustained by sunpower and the large-scale cycling of elements largely run by the global environmental microbiome. Humans have been part of this picture for much of their existence. But the industrial revolution started in the XIX century and the subsequent advances in medicine, chemistry, agriculture and communications have impacted such balances to an unprecedented degree - and the problem has nothing but exacerbated in the last 20 years. Human overpopulation, industrial growth along with unsustainable use of natural resources have driven many sites and perhaps the planetary ecosystem as a whole, beyond recovery by spontaneous natural means, even if the immediate causes could be stopped. The most conspicuous indications of such a state of affairs include the massive change in land use, the accelerated increase in the levels of greenhouse gases, the frequent natural disasters associated to climate change and the growing non-recyclable waste (e.g. plastics and recalcitrant chemicals) that we release to the Environment. While the whole planet is afflicted at a global scale by chemical pollution and anthropogenic emissions, the ongoing development of systems and synthetic biology, metagenomics, modern chemistry and some key concepts from ecological theory allow us to tackle this phenomenal challenge and propose large-scale interventions aimed at reversing and even improving the situation. This involves (i) identification of key reactions or processes that need to be re-established (or altogether created) for ecosystem reinstallation, (ii) implementation of such reactions in natural or designer hosts able to self-replicate and deliver the corresponding activities when/where needed in a fashion guided by sound ecological modelling, (iii) dispersal of niche-creating agents at a global scale and (iv) containment, monitoring and risk assessment of the whole process

  6. Global variations in azimuthal anisotropy of the Earth's upper mantle and crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation within the Earth's crust and mantle often results in crystallographic preferred orientations that produce measurable seismic anisotropy. Shear wave splitting measurements have the benefit of excellent lateral resolution and are an unambiguous indicator of the presence of seismic anisotropy; however, they suffer from poor depth resolution (integrated measurement from CMB to surface), in addition to being geographically limited (measurements only made at seismometer locations). The analysis of surface wave propagation also provides insight into the azimuthal variations in wave-speed, but with significantly better depth resolution. Thanks to the rapid increase in the number of seismic stations around the world, increasingly accurate, high-resolution 3D models of azimuthal anisotropy can be calculated using surface-wave tomography. We present our new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the upper mantle and the crust. Compared to its recent predecessor, SL2013sv (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013), it is constrained by an even larger waveform fit dataset (>900,000 versus 712,000 vertical-component seismograms, respectively) and was computed using a more precise regularization of anisotropy, tuned to honour the amplitude and orientation of the anisotropic terms uniformly, including near the poles. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with complementary high-resolution regional arrays (including USArray) and global network sub-sets within it, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. The model also reveals smaller scale patterns of 3D anisotropy variations related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, in particular in densely sampled regions. In oceanic regions, we examine the strength of azimuthal anisotropy, as a function of

  7. Integrating NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Data Into Global Agricultural Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Chiu, L.; Doraiswamy, P.; Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Tetrault, R.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of U.S. agricultural products and for global food security. Two major operational users of satellite remote sensing for global crop monitoring are the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP). The primary goal of FAS is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The WFP uses food to meet emergency needs and to support economic and social development. Both use global agricultural decision support systems that can integrate and synthesize a variety of data sources to provide accurate and timely information on global crop conditions. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has begun a project to provide operational solutions to FAS and WFP, by fully leveraging results from previous work, as well as from existing capabilities of the users. The GES DAAC has effectively used its recently developed prototype TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) to provide ESE data and information to the WFP for its agricultural drought monitoring efforts. This prototype system will be evolved into an Agricultural Information System (AIS), which will operationally provide ESE and other data products (e.g., rainfall, land productivity) and services, to be integrated into and thus enhance the existing GIS-based, decision support systems of FAS and WFP. Agriculture-oriented, ESE data products (e.g., MODIS-based, crop condition assessment product; TRMM derived, drought index product) will be input to a crop growth model in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, to generate crop condition and yield prediction maps. The AIS will have the capability for remotely accessing distributed data, by being compliant with community-based interoperability standards, enabling easy access to

  8. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  9. AeroCOM Biomass Burning Emissions Experiment-Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M. M.; Chin, M.; Kahn, R. A.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is one of the major sources of optically and chemically potent carbonaceous aerosols, gaseous aerosol precursors, and volatile organic compounds. It is, therefore, important to represent these emissions as accurately as possible in the global and regional models. To correctly simulate BB emissions from a fire, the model needs two key inputs: emission source strength for the fire and the emission injection height. Based on pilot studies of injection height by M. Val Martin et al. (2010, 2012), and of source strength by M. Petrenko et al. (2012), we proposed an AeroCom-coordinated multi-model BB experiment. The core objectives of the experiment are: To inter-compare and quantify the accuracy and diversity of the AeroCom model simulated BB AOD using a common emissions inventory. To propose a region-by-region emission correction scheme based on the comparisons of model output with satellite snapshots of smoke-plume optical depth from the MODIS and MISR instruments. This will allow us to bring the widely used GFED v3 emissions inventory to the levels needed to improve model-observation comparisons. To test smoke injection height-emission intensity relationships used in global models against MISR multi-angle smoke-plume-height retrievals. With the first stage of the BB experiment focused on the source strength, this talk will provide an update on development and testing the method of using satellite-measured aerosol optical depth snapshots to constrain BB aerosol emissions in the global models. The global datasets of fire-and-smoke events, observed by MISR and MODIS during 2006, 2007 and 2008, to be used for model-satellite comparisons, will also be described. These events were selected according to a number of criteria to be suitable for model-observation comparison at the scales of global model resolution. In addition, we will showcase preliminary results of model inter-comparisons within the BB experiment, outline plans for future output analysis

  10. Update on CRUST1.0 - A 1-degree Global Model of Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Gabi; Masters, Guy; Ma, Zhitu; Pasyanos, Mike

    2013-04-01

    Our new 1-by-1 degree global crustal model, CRUST1.0, was introduced last year and serves as starting model in a comprehensive effort to compile a global model of Earth's crust and lithosphere, LITHO1.0 (Pasyanos et al., 2012). The Moho depth in CRUST1.0 is based on 1-degree averages of a recently updated database of crustal thickness data from active source seismic studies as well as from receiver function studies. In areas where such constraints are still missing, for example in Antarctica, crustal thicknesses are estimated using gravity constraints. The compilation of the new crustal model initially followed the philosophy of the widely used crustal model CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html) to assign elastic properties in the crystalline crust according to basement age or tectonic setting (loosely following an updated map by Artemieva and Mooney (2001; http://www.lithosphere.info). For cells with no local seismic or gravity constraints, statistical averages of crustal properties, including crustal thickness, were extrapolated. However, in places with constraints the depth to basement and mantle are given explicitly and no longer assigned by crustal type. This allows for much smaller errors in both. In each 1-degree cell, boundary depth, compressional and shear velocity as well as density is given for 8 layers: water, ice, 3 sediment layers and upper, middle and lower crystalline crust. Topography, bathymetry and ice cover are taken from ETOPO1. The sediment cover is based on our sediment model (Laske and Masters, 1997; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~sediment.html), with some near-coastal updates. In an initial step toward LITHO1.0, the model is then validated against new global surface wave disperison maps and adjusted in areas of extreme misfit. This poster presents the next validation step: compare the new Moho depths with in-situ active source and receiver function results. We also present comparisons with CRUST2.0. CRUST1.0 is

  11. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  12. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  13. One year in the Earth's magnetosphere: A global MHD simulation and spacecraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facskó, G.; Honkonen, I.; Živković, T.; Palin, L.; Kallio, E.; Ã gren, K.; Opgenoorth, H.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Milan, S.

    2016-05-01

    The response of the Earth's magnetosphere to changing solar wind conditions is studied with a 3-D Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. One full year (155 Cluster orbits) of the Earth's magnetosphere is simulated using Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS-4) magnetohydrodynamic code. Real solar wind measurements are given to the code as input to create the longest lasting global magnetohydrodynamics simulation to date. The applicability of the results of the simulation depends critically on the input parameters used in the model. Therefore, the validity and the variance of the OMNIWeb data are first investigated thoroughly using Cluster measurement close to the bow shock. The OMNIWeb and the Cluster data were found to correlate very well before the bow shock. The solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters are not changed significantly from the L1 Lagrange point to the foreshock; therefore, the OMNIWeb data are appropriate input to the GUMICS-4. The Cluster SC3 footprints are determined by magnetic field mapping from the simulation results and the Tsyganenko (T96) model in order to compare two methods. The determined footprints are in rather good agreement with the T96. However, it was found that the footprints agree better in the Northern Hemisphere than the Southern one during quiet conditions. If the By is not zero, the agreement of the GUMICS-4 and T96 footprint is worse in longitude in the Southern Hemisphere. Overall, the study implies that a 3-D MHD model can increase our insight of the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind conditions.

  14. The UNH Earth Systems Observatory: A Regional Application in Support of GEOSS Global-Scale Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Braswell, B.; Fekete, B.; Glidden, S.; Hartmann, H.; Magill, A.; Prusevich, A.; Wollheim, W.; Blaha, D.; Justice, D.; Hurtt, G.; Jacobs, J.; Ollinger, S.; McDowell, W.; Rock, B.; Rubin, F.; Schloss, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Northeast corridor of the US is emblematic of the many changes taking place across the nation's and indeed the world's watersheds. Because ecosystem and watershed change occurs over many scales and is so multifaceted, transferring scientific knowledge to applications as diverse as remediation of local ground water pollution, setting State-wide best practices for non-point source pollution control, enforcing regional carbon sequestration treaties, or creating public/private partnerships for protecting ecosystem services requires a new generation of integrative environmental surveillance systems, information technology, and information transfer to the user community. Geographically complex ecosystem interactions justify moving toward more integrative, regionally-based management strategies to deal with issues affecting land, inland waterways, and coastal waterways. A unified perspective that considers the full continuum of processes which link atmospheric forcings, terrestrial responses, watershed exports along drainage networks, and the final delivery to the coastal zone, nearshore, and off shore waters is required to adequately support the management challenge. A recent inventory of NOAA-supported environmental surveillance systems, IT resources, new sensor technologies, and management-relevant decision support systems shows the community poised to formulate an integrated and operational picture of the environment of New England. This paper presents the conceptual framework and early products of the newly-created UNH Earth Systems Observatory. The goal of the UNH Observatory is to serve as a regionally-focused yet nationally-prominent platform for observation-based, integrative science and management of the New England/Gulf of Maine's land, air, and ocean environmental systems. Development of the UNH Observatory is being guided by the principles set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and is cast as an end-to-end prototype for GEOSS

  15. Assessment of the global energy budget of Mars and comparison to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeleine, J.; Head, J. W.; Forget, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The energy balance of a planet depends on its radiative environment and internal energy production. In the case of present-day Mars, the whole climate system is by far controlled by solar radiation rather than internal heat. Over the last hundreds of millions of years, changes in the orbital parameters and insolation pattern have induced various climatic excursions, during which the energy transfers within the atmosphere were different from today. On the longer term, i.e. over the last billions of years, the energy budget was even more different, as a result of the larger geothermal flux and heat provided by volcanic eruptions and impacts. Seeing the climate of Mars from an energy budget perspective provides a framework for understanding the key processes, as well as constraining climate models. The goal of this research is thus to characterize and analyze the energy budget of Mars. The first step, which is described in this communication, consists of quantifying the different components of the Mars radiation budget using the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) GCM (Global Climate Model). The LMD/GCM has been developed for more than 20 years and has now reached a level of detail that allows us to quantify the different contributions of CO2 gas, dust and clouds to the radiation budget. The general picture of the radiation budget as simulated by the GCM can be summarized as follows. First of all, the global-mean shortwave (SW) flux incident on the top of the Martian atmosphere is 148.5 W m-2. Whereas most of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by atmospheric gases on Earth, on Mars most of the sunlight is absorbed by dust particles. Our simulations show that around 15% of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by dust particles whereas 2.5% is reflected by them. Water-ice clouds also reflect around 1.5% of the solar radiation, which is much smaller than the amount of radiation reflected by clouds on Earth (around 20%). The Martian atmosphere is even

  16. Examining vegetation feedbacks on global warming in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bing; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2012-10-01

    Leaves close their stomates in response to increases of CO2. Such a rapid physiological response is included in the land component of comprehensive climate models. However, observational studies have shown that they can further close their stomates as a consequence of "down-regulation," further reducing canopy conductance. However, they may also increase the area of their leaves, hence increasing their canopy conductance. Changes of canopy conductance change surface ET, a reduction leading to surface warming. A simulation considering these mechanisms of modifying canopy conductance is carried out for the assumption of a doubled atmospheric CO2concentration, using the Community Earth System model. It finds that down-regulation as formulated in previous studies could have as large a warming impact on land temperatures as the standard leaf physiological response. Increases in LAI, if they were to occur, appear to have but a small cooling effect. The reduction of latent cooling in the model is amplified by a reduction of low-level cloud cover, hence enhanced net absorption of solar radiation. Reduction of low level cloudiness appears to be necessary to maintain global radiation balance as reported in a previous study. Over mid to high latitudes, decreases in surface albedo associated with reduced snow cover also contribute to amplifying the warming. The physiological feedbacks of leaf stomates in the simulation increase warming by 0.6 ± 0.2°C over land and 0.3 ± 0.1°C globally, not inconsistent with previous studies. Enhanced interhemispheric temperature differences weaken the southward shift of the ITCZ associated with CO2radiative warming. Regions with relatively high LAI tend to have greater vegetation feedback; but increases in large-scale precipitation may weaken this local warming effect.

  17. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space: Documenting the Demise of Earth's Glaciers Using ASTER.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Kargel, J. S.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2001-05-01

    GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is a global consortium whose purpose is to determine the extent of the world's glaciers and the rate at which they are changing. GLIMS has requested more than 2000 ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) images over the Earth's glaciers and ice sheets where the instrument gain is set to compliment the requested latitude and time of year. We've recently received hundreds of cloud-free, stereo images with 15-meter spatial resolution in visible-near infrared (VNIR) that can resolve ogives, crevasses, and small bodies of water on the surface of glaciers. The first ASTER GLIMS images specially acquired to enhance details of snow and ice of glaciers have also been received and given preliminary analysis. The variable gain has provided a wider dynamic range over snow and ice compared to Landsat data. The relatively high spatial resolution of ASTER VNIR produces a glacier classification that effectively separates water and snow from glacier ice and medial moraines. We are currently assessing the effects of including the 30-meter short wave infrared (SWIR) and 90-meter thermal infrared (TIR) in our analysis. We will highlight our study that uses ASTER images to detect and monitor supraglacial lakes on glaciers in the Mount Everest region (Tibet and Nepal). We have found that ASTER offers powerful capabilities to monitor supraglacial lakes in terms of (1) surface area, growth, and disappearance (spatial resolution = 15 m), (2) net translation on the glacier with respect to immobile points, (3) inorganic turbidity (15-m resolution), and (4) temperature (90-m resolution). Still lacking is a suite of field observations tied in time and space to ASTER observations to help validate/verify and fine-tune the algorithms used for terrain classification and other analysis. Thus, we consider our new results as a demonstration of capability rather than as definitive new results.

  18. Cratons formation by global plume-lid tectonics in the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras; Fischer, Ria; Sizova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Modern geodynamics and continental growth are critically driven by subduction and plate tectonics, however how this tectonic regime started and what geodynamic regime was before remains controversial. Based on 2D and 3D magmatic-thermo-mechanical numerical experiments we suggest that a distinct Venus-like plume-lid tectonics regime operated on Earth before plate tectonics, which was associated with widespread tectono-magmatic heat and mass exchange between the crust and the mantle. This regime was characterized by the presence of weak internally deformable highly heterogeneous lithosphere with low topography, massive juvenile crust production from mantle derived melts, mantle-flows-driven crustal deformation, magma-assisted crustal convection and widespread development of lithospheric delamination and eclogitic drips. Both proto-continental and proto-oceanic domains were formed in this regime by a combination of eclogitic drips and ultra-slow spreading. Plume-lid tectonics also resulted in growth of hot internally convecting moderately-depleted chemically buoyant eclogite-rich proto-continental mantle layer. Later, this layer could be rapidly cooled by internal convection and consolidated to form eclogite-rich sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) domains. Numerical models also show feasibility of short-lived deep subduction of ultra-depleted eclogite-poor proto-oceanic lithosphere formed by ultra-slow spreading. Subsequent rising and accretion of this highly buoyant lithosphere to the bottom of unrelated heterogeneous crustal terrains may offer another way of Archean cratonization associated with eclogite-poor SCLM formation. Numerical models also suggest that plume-induced subduction may likely played a crucial role for making transition from global plume-lid tectonics to global plate tectonics.

  19. Aero-optics overview. [laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Various aero-optical phenomena are discussed with reference to their effect on airborne high energy lasers. Major emphasis is placed on: compressibility effects induced in the surrounding flow field; viscous effects which manifests themselves as aircraft boundary layers or shear layers; inviscid flow fields surrounding the aircraft due to airflow around protuberance such as laser turret assemblies; and shocks, established whenever local flow exceeds Mach one. The significant physical parameters affecting the interaction of a laser beam with a turbulent boundary layer are also described.

  20. Global measurements of wind fields using the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

    1988-01-01

    The technology for measuring global wind fields in space by the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) to be flown on the Earth Observing System (EOS) is discussed. Studies initiated by NASA to determine the feasibility of using Doppler lidar from a platform in space to measure the wind globally have shown the general feasibility of the technique and have identified the technological problems that need to be resolved. Among the lidar systems being evaluated, CO2 coherent detection lidar is given special consideration. A comprehensive research program, the Global Backscatter Experiment, has been established to study global distribution of naturally occurring atmospheric aerosols that provide signal return at the wavelengths used by the techniques under consideration. Wind profiles from space will provide essential information for advancing the skill of numerical weather prediction, furthering the present knowledge of the large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics, and of global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles.

  1. Elements of a new Global Water Strategy for the Group on Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, Richard; Koike, Toshio; Ochiai, Osamu; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    In order to address the need to review the scope and direction of GEO activities related to water and to provide guidance for the post-2015 GEO planning, the Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations (IGWCO) Community of Practice and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) are working together to develop a strategy for GEO water activities over the next decade. This presentation will review the elements of the strategy which include topics as comprehensive as user needs and engagement, water cycle observational systems, assessment of water quality, data issues, interoperability and integration of water information systems and capacity building. Impediments in the flow of information and technological capabilities from the providers of new technologies, innovations and data products to the end users will be explored in terms of the nature of these impediments and how they can be overcome. To be successful in GEO's framework of volunteerism, the water strategy should build on activities that are on-going in related programmes at the international and national levels. In addition, implementation of the strategy will need to be supported through new initiatives and policies that promote greater integration. Suggestions for achieving these goals will be outlined at the end of the talk.

  2. CLARA-SAL: a global 28-yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihelä, A.; Manninen, T.; Laine, V.; Andersson, K.; Kaspar, F.

    2012-09-01

    We present a novel 28-yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  3. CLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihelä, A.; Manninen, T.; Laine, V.; Andersson, K.; Kaspar, F.

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel 28 yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  4. Leaf respiration (GlobResp) - global trait database supports Earth System Models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Warren, Jeffrey; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-03-20

    Here we detail how Atkin and his colleagues compiled a global database (GlobResp) that details rates of leaf dark respiration and associated traits from sites that span Arctic tundra to tropical forests. This compilation builds upon earlier research (Reich et al., 1998; Wright et al., 2006) and was supplemented by recent field campaigns and unpublished data.In keeping with other trait databases, GlobResp provides insights on how physiological traits, especially rates of dark respiration, vary as a function of environment and how that variation can be used to inform terrestrial biosphere models and land surface components of Earth System Models. Althoughmore » an important component of plant and ecosystem carbon (C) budgets (Wythers et al., 2013), respiration has only limited representation in models. Seen through the eyes of a plant scientist, Atkin et al. (2015) give readers a unique perspective on the climatic controls on respiration, thermal acclimation and evolutionary adaptation of dark respiration, and insights into the covariation of respiration with other leaf traits. We find there is ample evidence that once large databases are compiled, like GlobResp, they can reveal new knowledge of plant function and provide a valuable resource for hypothesis testing and model development.« less

  5. Leaf respiration (GlobResp) - global trait database supports Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Warren, Jeffrey; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-03-20

    Here we detail how Atkin and his colleagues compiled a global database (GlobResp) that details rates of leaf dark respiration and associated traits from sites that span Arctic tundra to tropical forests. This compilation builds upon earlier research (Reich et al., 1998; Wright et al., 2006) and was supplemented by recent field campaigns and unpublished data.In keeping with other trait databases, GlobResp provides insights on how physiological traits, especially rates of dark respiration, vary as a function of environment and how that variation can be used to inform terrestrial biosphere models and land surface components of Earth System Models. Although an important component of plant and ecosystem carbon (C) budgets (Wythers et al., 2013), respiration has only limited representation in models. Seen through the eyes of a plant scientist, Atkin et al. (2015) give readers a unique perspective on the climatic controls on respiration, thermal acclimation and evolutionary adaptation of dark respiration, and insights into the covariation of respiration with other leaf traits. We find there is ample evidence that once large databases are compiled, like GlobResp, they can reveal new knowledge of plant function and provide a valuable resource for hypothesis testing and model development.

  6. Assimilation of oceanic observations in a global coupled Earth system model with the SEIK filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sebastian; Nerger, Lars; Baehr, Johanna

    2015-12-01

    We present results from the assimilation of observed oceanic 3-D temperature and salinity fields into the global coupled Max Planck Institute Earth system model with the SEIK filter from January 1996 to December 2010. Our study is part of an effort to perform and evaluate assimilation and prediction within the same coupled climate model without the use of re-analysis data. We use two assimilation setups, one where oceanic observations over the entire water column are assimilated, and one where only oceanic observations below 50 m depth are assimilated. We compare the results from both assimilations with an unconstrained control experiment. While we do not find significant improvements due to assimilation in terms of the root-mean-square error of simulated temperature, 0-700 m heat content, sea surface height (SSH), and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) against observations, we find the variability in terms of correlation with observations significantly improved due to assimilation, most prominently in the tropical oceans. Improvements over the control experiment are stronger in the sub-50 m assimilation experiment and in integrated quantities (SSH, AMOC).

  7. Large divergence of satellite and Earth system model estimates of global terrestrial CO2 fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolby Smith, W.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Wieder, William R.; Liu, Yi Y.; Running, Steven W.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric mass balance analyses suggest that terrestrial carbon (C) storage is increasing, partially abating the atmospheric [CO2] growth rate, although the continued strength of this important ecosystem service remains uncertain. Some evidence suggests that these increases will persist owing to positive responses of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP) to rising atmospheric [CO2] (that is, `CO2 fertilization’). Here, we present a new satellite-derived global terrestrial NPP data set, which shows a significant increase in NPP from 1982 to 2011. However, comparison against Earth system model (ESM) NPP estimates reveals a significant divergence, with satellite-derived increases (2.8 +/- 1.50%) less than half of ESM-derived increases (7.6 +/- 1.67%) over the 30-year period. By isolating the CO2 fertilization effect in each NPP time series and comparing it against a synthesis of available free-air CO2 enrichment data, we provide evidence that much of the discrepancy may be due to an over-sensitivity of ESMs to atmospheric [CO2], potentially reflecting an under-representation of climatic feedbacks and/or a lack of representation of nutrient constraints. Our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects on NPP needs rapid improvement to enable more accurate projections of future C cycle-climate feedbacks; we contend that better integration of modelling, satellite and experimental approaches offers a promising way forward.

  8. Soil polarization data collected for the global undisturbed/disturbed Earth (GUIDE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Thomas E.; Lord, Elizabeth; Morgan, Cliff

    2016-05-01

    A key product of the global undisturbed/disturbed earth (GUIDE) program is the development of a soils database of broadband, hyperspectral, and polarized data. As a part of the GUIDE program, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conducted a testing series involving a large variety of instrumentation at several sites at the Yuma Test Center (YTC) in fiscal year 2015 under the auspices of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (now the Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency), generating approximately 17 terabytes of data. Most of this data, available through the ERDC, comprises hyperspectral polarimetric scientific data in the visible, near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and longwave infrared bands. As part of this testing series the performance of six handheld devices was characterized. We discuss the process of this data collection at YTC focusing on the polarimetric data, including the two handheld devices that relied on polarization for detection. Although some other polarization states discriminate soils better in some other wavelengths, for certain visible and near-infrared bands the Stokes S2 parameter provided the best discrimination.

  9. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  10. Large divergence of satellite and Earth system model estimates of global terrestrial CO2 fertilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P; Anderegg, William R. L.; Wieder, William R.; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mass balance analyses suggest that terrestrial carbon (C) storage is increasing, partially abating the atmospheric [CO2] growth rate, although the continued strength of this important ecosystem service remains uncertain. Some evidence suggests that these increases will persist owing to positive responses of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP) to rising atmospheric [CO2] (that is, ‘CO2 fertilization’). Here, we present a new satellite-derived global terrestrial NPP data set, which shows a significant increase in NPP from 1982 to 2011. However, comparison against Earth system model (ESM) NPP estimates reveals a significant divergence, with satellite-derived increases (2.8 ± 1.50%) less than half of ESM-derived increases (7.6  ±  1.67%) over the 30-year period. By isolating the CO2 fertilization effect in each NPP time series and comparing it against a synthesis of available free-air CO2 enrichment data, we provide evidence that much of the discrepancy may be due to an over-sensitivity of ESMs to atmospheric [CO2], potentially reflecting an under-representation of climatic feedbacks and/or a lack of representation of nutrient constraints. Our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects on NPP needs rapid improvement to enable more accurate projections of future C cycle–climate feedbacks; we contend that better integration of modelling, satellite and experimental approaches offers a promising way forward.

  11. Hoop column soil moisture spacecraft in low Earth orbit for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A subset of the total Global Change Technology Initiative instruments are required to be in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits. There is one instrument, however, that requires its own specialized spacecraft; the Soil Moisture Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). The characteristic structure of the instrument is the 118 m hoop column support structure. The hoop is supported by an axially placed column. Tension cables support and shape an electromagnetically reflective mesh surface. The instrument is capable of detecting frequencies in the 1.4 GHz range (Soil Moisture and Sea Salinity). Three apertures are used to reduce the degree of paraboloid offset and improve the beam quality. The spacecraft configuration is determined by the instrument support requirements and the requirement that it can fit into the Titan IV cargo bay. The configuration is derived by cross referencing the instrument performance requirements with the performance of the spacecraft. The spacecraft design is similar with the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft in terms of size and packaging. A description of the spacecraft's features will yield a summary of the technologies needed for the SMMR spacecraft.

  12. Formation and evolution of periglacial landforms in context of global warming: Comparison Earth-Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Marmo, C.

    2012-04-01

    potential ice-wedges and subsequent subsidence of the ground producing pits. The scalloped depressions are similar in shape and size to thermokarst lakes. They are thought to be due to degradation of ground-ice by melting or sublimation of ground-ice and subsidence of the ground. Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in Utopia Planitia indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. We suggest that this permafrost were formed during cold climatic periods and then were degraded during a relatively recent global warming. Our results show that the permafrost was degraded during a high obliquity periods of Mars. But the question is how major climate-changes could occur on Mars. Mars is thought to have undergone important variations in the orbital parameters during the last 10 Myr dramatically changing the climate. Therefore, Utopia Planitia is probably a marker of one of the last major climate change that occurred on Mars.

  13. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  14. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  15. Global Reach: A View of International Cooperation in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Improving life on Earth and understanding and protecting our home planet are foremost in the Vision and Mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA's Earth Science Enterprise end eavors to use the unique vantage point of space to study the Earth sy stem and improve the prediction of Earth system change. NASA and its international partners study Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, a nd biota and seek to provide objective scientific knowledge to decisi onmakers and scientists worldwide. This book describes NASA's extensi ve cooperation with its international partners.

  16. Variations of the earth's magnetic field and rapid climatic cooling: A possible link through changes in global ice volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A possible relationship between large scale changes in global ice volume, variations in the earth's magnetic field, and short term climatic cooling is investigated through a study of the geomagnetic and climatic records of the past 300,000 years. The calculations suggest that redistribution of the Earth's water mass can cause rotational instabilities which lead to geomagnetic excursions; these magnetic variations in turn may lead to short-term coolings through upper atmosphere effects. Such double coincidences of magnetic excursions and sudden coolings at times of ice volume changes have occurred at 13,500, 30,000, 110,000, and 135,000 YBP.

  17. Generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the near-Earth magnetotail during dipolarization: Two-dimensional global hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhifang; Wu, Mingyu; Du, Aimin

    2016-04-01

    We employ two-dimensional global hybrid simulations to study the generation, propagation, and polarization of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the near-Earth magnetotail (around x = - 10 R E ) during dipolarization. In our simulation, EMIC waves with left-hand polarized signals originate in the low-latitude magnetotail as a result of the ion temperature anisotropy which is due to ion heating by Alfvén waves. Subsequently, EMIC waves can propagate along the ambient magnetic field toward high-latitudes. Our work provides one possible mechanism for the generation of EMIC waves observed in the near-Earth magnetotail.

  18. The Place of Bend-Fault Carbonation in Earth's Longterm Global Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jason P.

    2014-05-01

    CO2 in seawater and the efficiency of global carbonate recycling — and that perhaps bend-fault carbonation played a key role in the regulation of carbon dioxide in Earth's early atmosphere.

  19. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Variations in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle can have far-reaching effects on living conditions on our planet. While climate change discussions often revolve around possible consequences of future temperature changes, the adaptation to changes in the hydrological cycle may pose a bigger challenge to societies and ecosystems. Floods and droughts are already today amongst the most damaging natural hazards, with floods being globally the most significant disaster type in terms of loss of human life (Jonkman 2005). From an economic perspective, changes in the hydrological cycle can impose great pressures and damages on a variety of industrial sectors, such as water management, urban planning, agricultural production and tourism. Despite their obvious environmental and societal importance, our understanding of the causes and magnitude of the variations of the hydrological cycle is still unsatisfactory (e.g., Ramanathan et al 2001, Ohmura and Wild 2002, Allen and Ingram 2002, Allan 2007, Wild et al 2008, Liepert and Previdi 2009). The link between radiation balance and hydrological cycle Globally, precipitation can be approximated by surface evaporation, since the variability of the atmospheric moisture storage is negligible. This is the case because the fluxes are an order of magnitude larger than the atmospheric storage (423 x 1012 m3 year-1 versus 13 x 1012 m3 according to Baumgartner and Reichel (1975)), the latter being determined by temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron). Hence the residence time of evaporated water in the atmosphere is not more than a few days, before it condenses and falls back to Earth in the form of precipitation. Any change in the globally averaged surface evaporation therefore implies an equivalent change in precipitation, and thus in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle. The process of evaporation requires energy, which it obtains from the surface radiation balance (also known as surface net radiation), composed of the

  20. Dagik Earth: An affordable three-dimensional presentation of global geoscience data in classrooms and science museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tsugawa, T.; Nishi, N.; Odagi, Y.; Yoshida, D.

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional display of the Earth is a most effective way to impress audiences how the Earth looks and make them understand the Earth is one system. There are several projects to display global data on 3D globes, such as Science on a Sphere by NOAA and Geo Cosmos by Miraikan, Japan. They have made great successes to provide audiences opportunities to learn the geoscience outputs through feeling that they are standing in front of the "real" Earth. However, those systems are too large, complicated, and expensive to be used in classrooms and local science museums. We developed an easy method to display global geoscience data in three dimensions without any complex and expensive systems. The method uses a normal PC projector, a PC and a hemispheric screen. To display the geoscience data, virtual globe software, such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind, are used. The virtual globe software makes geometry conversion. That is, the fringe areas are shrunken as it is looked from the space. Thus, when the image made by the virtual globe is projected on the hemispheric screen, it is reversely converted to its original shape on the Earth. This method does not require any specific software, projectors and polarizing glasses to make 3D presentation of the Earth. Only a hemispheric screen that can be purchased with $50 for 60cm diameter is necessary. Dagik Earth is the project that develops and demonstrates the educational programs of geoscience in classrooms and science museums using this 3D Earth presentation method. We have developed a few programs on aurora and weather system, and demonstrated them in under-graduate level classes and science museums, such as National Museum of Nature and Science,Tokyo, Shizuoka Science Center and Kyoto University Museum, since 2007. Package of hardware, geoscience data plot, and textbook have been developed to be used as short-term rental to schools and science museums. Portability, low cost and easiness of development new contents are

  1. The climate in China over the past 2000 years in a global Earth System Model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Eduardo; Wagner, Sebastian; Luterbacher, Jürg; Zhang, Huan

    2016-04-01

    The climate in China over the past 2000 years is analysed based on a global simulation with the Earth System Model MPI-ESM-P. This model has been used for the past millennium simulations of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project version 5. The model includes an atmospheric sub-model (ECHAM6), the ocean and sea-ice submodel MPI-OM. The carbon cycle and vegetation submodels of MPI-ESM-P were switched-off in the version of the Earth System Model. The climate model was forced by reconstructions of past volcanic activity, solar irradiance, greenhouse gases and land-use changes. Over the second millennium, these forcings are the same those used in the past-millennium CMIP5 simulations with the model MPI-ESM-P. For the first millennium, reconstructions of these forcings have been implemented, as described below. The reconstruction of the volcanic forcing is based on the sulphate data set of Sigl et al. (2013) and applying the algorithm of Crowley and Unterman (2012). The sulphate records are scaled to the Crowley and Unterman (2012) reconstruction used within CMIP5 in the second millennium. The solar forcing is based on the reconstruction of Vieira et al. (2011). Long-term changes represent a 0.1% difference between the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715 AD) and present-day values (1950-2000 AD). Land-use changes have been prescribed according to the CMIP5 protocol from 800 onwards and kept constant before this period. This global simulation is currently analysed, thus the presentation will show preliminary results on the past climate variations over China for the Common Era. The spatially averaged annual mean temperature clearly displays the known phases of a relatively warm Roman period, followed by colder conditions during the 'Dark Ages', warmer temperatures again during the Mediaeval Warm Period (MWP; peaking at about 1100 AD). The period from 1300 to 1800 was characterised by below normal temperatures. with an ensuing strong warming trend over approximately the last 200

  2. New global solution of Earth orientation parameters from optical astrometry in 1900-1990.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrak, J.; Ron, C.; Pesek, I.; Cepek, A.

    1995-05-01

    Astrometrically observed variations of latitude and Universal time with thirty instruments of different types, located at 19 observatories all over the world, are used to derive polar motion, UT1-TAI (since 1956) and celestial pole offset at 5-day intervals. The values based on the observations of individual stars are used, the model of least-squares global estimation contains a set of additional station parameters (such as corrections to the adopted station coordinates and their drifts, seasonal systematic deviations, or tidal parameter {LAMBDA}= 1+k-l). Plate tectonic motions of the observatories after NUVEL-1 model are subtracted from the observations, and (in the absence of Hipparcos catalog that we plan to use in the future), the Hipparcos Input Catalog (INCA) is used to bring local star catalogs into a common celestial reference system by means of removing the systematic differences of proper motions from the observed data. Oceanic tide-loading effects are also removed from the observations, as well as the short-periodic tidal variations in the Earth's rotation. Observations made by the method of equal altitudes (astrolabes) are additionally corrected for the local deformations of the apparent almucantar. More than three million observations lead to the solution which can be characterized by the formal standard errors of 'normal point' pole position decreasing from 0.02" at the beginning of the century to less than 0.01" in the last two decades; universal time UT1 is determined with formal standard errors mostly less than 0.001s.

  3. Global Simulation of EMIC waves at Earth: Generation and Application of Linearly Polarized EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. H.; Valeo, E. J.; Johnson, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, D. H.; Phillips, C.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the electromagnetic full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code produces the three-dimensional wave structure, including mode conversion effects, for plasma waves launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. Using this code, we have examined how EMIC waves are generated and propagated along the magnetic field line. While left-handed polarized EMIC waves are known to be excited by the cyclotron instability associated with hot and anisotropic ion distributions in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere, the generation mechanism of linear and right-handed polarized EMIC waves, which are often observed near the magnetic equator, remains as one of the unsolved scientific questions. In this presentation, we show the linear polarization of the EMIC waves can be explained by mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance (an analogue of the field-line resonance when the resonance frequency is on the order of the heavy ion cyclotron frequency) when externally driven compressional waves propagate into an increasing/decreasing heavy ion concentration or inhomogeneous magnetic field. Since these mode-converted waves depend sensitively on the heavy ion concentration, it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio from the wave propagation characteristics. We also evaluated the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and wave frequencies and have found that the resonance only occurs for a limited range of wave frequencies, defined such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from the GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  4. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Initial Actions to Enhance Data Sharing to Meet Societal Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adang, T.

    2006-05-01

    Over 60 nations and 50 participating organizations are working to make the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) a reality. The U.S. contribution to GEOSS is the Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), with a vision of enabling a healthy public, economy and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sustained Earth observation system. The international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations have developed strategic plans for both GEOSS and IEOS, respectively, and are now working the first phases of implementation. Many of these initial actions are data architecture related and are being addressed by architecture and data working groups from both organizations - the GEO Architecture and Data Committee and the USGEO Architecture and Data Management Working Group. NOAA has actively participated in both architecture groups and has taken internal action to better support GEOSS and IEOS implementation by establishing the Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO IDE). GEO IDE provides a "system of systems" framework for effective and efficient integration of NOAA's many quasi-independent systems, which individually address diverse mandates in such areas resource management, weather forecasting, safe navigation, disaster response, and coastal mapping among others. GEO IDE will have a services oriented architecture, allowing NOAA Line Offices to retain a high level of independence in many of their data management decisions, and encouraging innovation in pursuit of their missions. Through GEO IDE, NOAA partners (both internal and external) will participate in a well-ordered, standards-based data and information infrastructure that will allow users to easily locate, acquire, integrate and utilize NOAA data and information. This paper describes the initial progress being made by GEO and USGEO architecture and data working groups, a status report on GEO IDE development within NOAA, and an assessment of

  5. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and metrological support for measuring radiometric properties of objects of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutikov, V. N.; Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Morozova, S. P.; Ogarev, S. A.; Panfilov, A. S.; Sakharov, M. K.; Samoylov, M. L.; Bingham, G.; Humpherys, T.; Thurgood, A.; Privalsky, V. E.

    2006-04-01

    The international Global Earth Observation System of Systems is at its initial stage. We present some general information about the program and formulate the task of ensuring the uniformity of radiometric measurements to be conducted by all the participating national systems. Methods of solving the task are suggested on the basis of the wide application of standard sources that use phase transition of eutectic alloys and pure metals as well as with the help of improved ground calibration facilities.

  6. Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.

  7. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  8. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant

  9. The Ocean Crisis. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; And Others

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  10. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in a section…

  11. Endangered Species: Their Struggle To Survive. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  12. Our Divided World: Poverty, Hunger & Overpopulation. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  13. Our Troubled Skies. Our Only Earth. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; McKisson, Micki

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  14. The Future of Our Tropical Rainforests. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  15. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    PubMed

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  16. Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Drought Monitor Portal: Adding Capabilities for Forecasting Hydrological Extremes and Early Warning Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, W.; de Roo, A.; Vogt, J.; Lawford, R. G.; Pappenberger, F.; Heim, R. R.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) has suggested the hydrometeorological extremes of both drought and flooding may increase under climate change. Drought zones can grow over large tracts of continental area and are a global-scale phenomenon (Sheffield and Wood 2011). The Group on Earth Observations Global Drought Monitor Portal (GDMP) was established as a demonstration for the 5th Earth Observation Ministerial Summit in Beijing in 2010. The European Drought Observatory, the North American Drought Monitor, the Princeton University experimental African Drought Monitor, and the University College London experimental global drought monitor were made "interoperable" through installation of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Services (WMS) on their respective servers, allowing maps of current drought conditions to be exchanged and assembled into maps of global drought coverage on the NIDIS portal. Partners from the Republic of Argentina, the Commonwealth of Australia, China, Jordan, Brazil, and Uruguay have also joined. The GEO Global Drought Monitoring, Forecasting, and Early Warning effort involves multiple parties and institutions, including the World Meteorological Organization, the World Climate Research Program Drought Interest Group, NASA, and others. The GEO Secretariat held a launch workshop in Geneva on 4-6 May 2010 to initiate drafting the final GEO Work Plan, and, during this meeting, additional capabilities were added to the existing GDMP: 1) drought forecasting was added to drought "current conditions" monitoring, in a partnership with Joint Research Centre (and other partners) aiming at a combined platform for Hydrological Extremes (drought and flooding); 2) extending drought forecasts from the medium-range 15-day window to a 30-day window; this will be tested through pilot projects over Europe and Africa, as part of the Global Water Scarcity Information Service (GLOWASIS)and the Improved Drought Early Warning Forecasting

  17. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  18. A New Framework for Effective and Efficient Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin

    2015-04-01

    Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) models are essential components of research, development, and decision-making in science and engineering disciplines. With continuous advances in understanding and computing power, such models are becoming more complex with increasingly more factors to be specified (model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.). To facilitate better understanding of the role and importance of different factors in producing the model responses, the procedure known as 'Sensitivity Analysis' (SA) can be very helpful. Despite the availability of a large body of literature on the development and application of various SA approaches, two issues continue to pose major challenges: (1) Ambiguous Definition of Sensitivity - Different SA methods are based in different philosophies and theoretical definitions of sensitivity, and can result in different, even conflicting, assessments of the underlying sensitivities for a given problem, (2) Computational Cost - The cost of carrying out SA can be large, even excessive, for high-dimensional problems and/or computationally intensive models. In this presentation, we propose a new approach to sensitivity analysis that addresses the dual aspects of 'effectiveness' and 'efficiency'. By effective, we mean achieving an assessment that is both meaningful and clearly reflective of the objective of the analysis (the first challenge above), while by efficiency we mean achieving statistically robust results with minimal computational cost (the second challenge above). Based on this approach, we develop a 'global' sensitivity analysis framework that efficiently generates a newly-defined set of sensitivity indices that characterize a range of important properties of metric 'response surfaces' encountered when performing SA on EES models. Further, we show how this framework embraces, and is consistent with, a spectrum of different concepts regarding 'sensitivity', and that commonly-used SA approaches (e.g., Sobol

  19. MEMS and mil/aero: technology push and market pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Thomas H.

    2001-04-01

    MEMS offers attractive solutions to high-density fluidics, inertial, optical, switching and other demanding military/aerospace (mil/aero) challenges. However, full acceptance must confront the realities of production-scale producibility, verifiability, testability, survivability, as well as long-term reliability. Data on these `..ilities' are crucial, and are central in funding and deployment decisions. Similarly, mil/aero users must highlight specific missions, environmental exposures, and procurement issues, as well as the quirks of its designers. These issues are particularly challenging in MEMS, because of the laws of physics and business economics, as well as the risks of deploying leading-edge technology into no-fail applications. This paper highlights mil/aero requirements, and suggests reliability/qualification protocols, to guide development effort and to reassure mil/aero users that MEMS labs are mindful of the necessary realities.

  20. An estimate of the global minimum DV needed for earth-moon transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.

    1991-01-01

    An estimate is found for a lower bound on the Delta V needed for any trajectory which starts at 167 km altitude circular earth orbit and ends in a 100 km altitude circular polar lunar orbit. The analysis used involves calculations of Jacobi's integral in a circular restricted three-body problem which approximates the earth-moon transfer problem. The result is an estimate that any such trajectory will require Delta Vs of at least 3099 km/s to leave the neighborhood of earth and at least 0.622 km/s to achieve the desired orbit around the moon, for a total of 3721 km/s.

  1. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  2. The ICSU World Data Center System: Meeting the Long-Term Data Management Requirements of the Global Earth Observation Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; Minster, J.

    2007-12-01

    The International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data Center (WDC) system, established 50 years ago in the United States, Europe, Russia, and Japan with 27 original centers, has since expanded to other countries and to new scientific disciplines and now encompasses 51 Centers in 12 countries. Its holdings include a wide range of solar, geophysical, environmental, and human dimensions data. These data cover timescales ranging from seconds to millennia, and spatial scales ranging from atomic to galactic dimensions. The WDCs have been very successful over the last five decades in meeting the needs of ICSU programs. They provide baseline information for research in many ICSU disciplines. However, in the next half-century, the WDC system will need to evolve in order to accommodate the changing needs of managing data from the many Earth observation programs of the global scientific community. Advances in information technology, the implementation of new global scientific programs and the rapid increase in global, high-speed network connectivity will require the WDC system to adapt their current infrastructure, reorient their activities and implement new modes of operation. New requirements of existing ICSU programs like the IGBP, the Global Observing Systems (G*OS), the activities of the new international science years (International Polar Year (IPY), IHY, eGY, IYPE) and the implementation of the far reaching, long-term, Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), will make new demands on the WDCs. The near-term response to this challenge will be that the WDCs specifically begin to address the data management needs of the International Polar Year, which is a major international research program that has recognized the need for long-term data stewardship. The other near-term priority for the WDC system is to begin working with GEOSS, which is looking to the WDCs for data management expertise in developing the next generation of international, interoperable Earth

  3. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth's energy imbalance.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-01-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible. PMID:26437599

  4. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  5. Technology for monitoring global change. [NASA Technology Initiative for space based observations of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Multiinstrumented earth-science platforms currently being planned for both LEO and GEO positions will furnish data for the compilation of systematic and intercorrelated information that is suitable for the treatment of interdisciplinary questions concerning atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, geological, and biological changes of an either natural or anthropogenic nature. Attention will be given in these observational campaigns to such essential earth variables as atmospheric pressure, rainfall/snowfall, vegetation cover, soil nutrient cycles, sea surface temperatures, ocean circulation, and ocean biological productivity.

  6. Aero-optical jitter estimation using higher-order wavefronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Matthew R.; Goorskey, David J.; Drye, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Wavefront measurements from wind tunnel or flight testing of an optical system are affected by jitter sources due to the measurement platform, system vibrations, or aero-mechanical buffeting. Depending on the nature of the testing, the wavefront jitter will be a composite of several effects, one of which is the aero-optical jitter; i.e., the wavefront tilt due to random air density fluctuations. To isolate the aero-optical jitter component from recent testing, we have developed an estimation technique that uses only higher-order wavefront measurements to determine the jitter. By analogy with work done previously with free-stream turbulence, we have developed a minimum mean-square error estimator using higher-order wavefront modes to compute the current-frame tilt components through a linear operation. The estimator is determined from computational fluid dynamics evaluation of aero-optical disturbances, but does not depend on the strength of such disturbances. Applying this technique to turret flight test data, we found aero-optical jitter to be 7.7±0.8 μrad and to scale with (ρ/ρSL)M2 (˜1 μrad in the actual test cases examined). The half-power point of the aero-optical jitter variance was found to be ˜2u∞/Dt and to roll off in temporal frequency with a power law between f and f.

  7. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  8. Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle: Focus on Shortwave and Longwave Radiative Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Ma, Y.; Nussbaumer, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    The overall goal of the MEaSUREs activity titled: "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" is to develop consistent, long-term Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) for the major components of the terrestrial water cycle at a climatic time scale. The shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes at the Earth's surface determine the exchange of energy between the land and the atmosphere are the focus of this presentation. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in assessing the Earth Radiation Balance from satellite observations. Yet, satellite based estimates differ from each other and long term satellite observations at global scale are not readily available. There is a need to utilize existing records of satellite observations and to improve currently available estimates. This paper reports on improvements introduced to an existing methodology to estimate shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes within the atmospheric system, on the development of a new inference scheme for deriving LW fluxes, the implementation of the approach with the ISCCP DX observations and improved atmospheric inputs for the period of 1983-2007, evaluation against ground observations, and comparison with independent satellite methods and numerical models. The resulting ESDRs from the entire MEaSUREs Project are intended to provide a consistent basis for estimating the mean state and variability of the land surface water cycle at a spatial scale relevant to major global river basins. MEaSUREs Project "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" Team Members: E. F. Wood (PI)1, T. J Bohn2, J. L Bytheway3, X. Feng4, H. Gao2, P. R.Houser4 (CO-I), C. D Kummerow3 (CO-I), D. P Lettenmaier2 (CO-I), C. Li5, Y. Ma5, R. F MacCracken4, M. Pan1, R. T Pinker5 (CO-I), A. K. Sahoo1, J. Sheffield1 1. Dept of CEE, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 2. Dept of CEE, University of Washington, Seattle

  9. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  10. Accurate modeling of spectral fine-structure in Earth radiance spectra measured with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment.

    PubMed

    van Deelen, Rutger; Hasekamp, Otto P; Landgraf, Jochen

    2007-01-10

    We present what we believe to be a novel approach to simulating the spectral fine structure (<1 nm) in measurements of spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). GOME measures the Earth's radiance spectra and daily solar irradiance spectra from which a reflectivity spectrum is commonly extracted. The high-frequency structures contained in such a spectrum are, apart from atmospheric absorption, caused by Raman scattering and by a shift between the solar irradiance and the Earth's radiance spectrum. Normally, an a priori high-resolution solar spectrum is used to simulate these structures. We present an alternative method in which all the required information on the solar spectrum is retrieved from the GOME measurements. We investigate two approaches for the spectral range of 390-400 nm. First, a solar spectrum is reconstructed on a fine spectral grid from the GOME solar measurement. This approach leads to undersampling errors of up to 0.5% in the modeling of the Earth's radiance spectra. Second, a combination of the solar measurement and one of the Earth's radiance measurement is used to retrieve a solar spectrum. This approach effectively removes the undersampling error and results in residuals close to the GOME measurement noise of 0.1%. PMID:17268571

  11. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  12. Fast-earth: A global image caching architecture for fast access to remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, B. G.; Talbot, L. M.

    We introduce Fast-Earth, a novel server architecture that enables rapid access to remote sensing data. Fast-Earth subdivides a WGS-84 model of the earth into small 400 × 400 meter regions with fixed locations, called plats. The resulting 3,187,932,913 indexed plats are accessed with a rapid look-up algorithm. Whereas many traditional databases store large original images as a series by collection time, requiring long searches and slow access times for user queries, the Fast-Earth architecture enables rapid access. We have prototyped a system in conjunction with a Fast-Responder mobile app to demonstrate and evaluate the concepts. We found that new data could be indexed rapidly in about 10 minutes/terabyte, high-resolution images could be chipped in less than a second, and 250 kB image chips could be delivered over a 3G network in about 3 seconds. The prototype server implemented on a very small computer could handle 100 users, but the concept is scalable. Fast-Earth enables dramatic advances in rapid dissemination of remote sensing data for mobile platforms as well as desktop enterprises.

  13. Exploring Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production Using Earth Observation Satellites and Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, M.; Bounoua, L.

    2004-12-01

    A unique combination of satellite and socio-economic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data to estimate the annual amount of Earth's terrestrial net primary production humans require for food, fiber and fuel using the same modeling architecture as satellite-supported NPP measurements. The amount of Earth's NPP required to support human activities is a powerful measure of the aggregate human impacts on the biosphere and indicator of societal vulnerability to climate change. Equations were developed estimating the amount of landscape-level NPP required to generate all the products consumed by 230 countries including; vegetal foods, meat, milk, eggs, wood, fuel-wood, paper and fiber. The amount of NPP required was calculated on a per capita basis and projected onto a global map of population to create a spatially explicit map of NPP-carbon demand in units of elemental carbon. NPP demand was compared to a map of Earth's average annual net primary production or supply created using 17 years (1982-1998) of AVHRR vegetation index to produce a geographically accurate balance sheet of terrestrial NPP-carbon supply and demand. Globally, humans consume 20 percent of Earth's total net primary production on land. Regionally the NPP-carbon balance percentage varies from 6 to over 70 percent and locally from near 0 to over 30,000 percent in major urban areas. The uneven distribution of NPP-carbon supply and demand, indicate the degree to which various human populations rely on NPP imports, are vulnerable to climate change and suggest policy options for slowing future growth in NPP demand.

  14. NASA Global Hawk: A Unique Capability for the Pursuit of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2007-01-01

    For more than 2 years, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been preparing for the receipt of two Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Global Hawk air vehicles from the United States Air Force. NASA Dryden intends to establish a Global Hawk Project Office, which will be responsible for developing the infrastructure required to operate this unmanned aerial system and establishing a trained maintenance and operations team. The first flight of a NASA Global Hawk air vehicle is expected to occur in 2008. The NASA Global Hawk system can be used by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. A combination of the vehicle s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume, and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system from all other platforms available to the science community.

  15. Global, long-term Earth Science Data Records of forest cover, change, and fragmentation from Landsat: the Global Forest Cover Change Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, J.; Huang, C.; Channan, S.; Feng, M.; Song, X.; Kim, D.; Song, D.; Vermote, E.; Masek, J.; Townshend, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring, analysis, and management of forests require measurements of forest cover that are both spatio-temporally consistent and resolved globally at sub-hectare resolution. The Global Forest Cover Change project, a cooperation between the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, is providing the first long-term, sub-hectare, globally consistent data records of forest cover, change, and fragmentation in circa-1975, -1990, -2000, and -2005 epochs. These data are derived from the Global Land Survey collection of Landsat images in the respective epochs, atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance in 1990, 2000, and 2005 using the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) implementation of the 6S radiative transfer algorithm, with ancillary information from MODIS Land products, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), and climatological data layers. Forest cover and change were estimated by a novel continuous-field approach, which produced for the 2000 and 2005 epochs the world's first global, 30-m resolution database of tree cover. Surface reflectance estimates were validated against coincident MODIS measurements, the results of which have been corroborated by subsequent, independent validations against measurements from AERONET sites. Uncertainties in tree- and forest-cover values were estimated in each pixel as a compounding of within-sample uncertainty and accuracy relative to a sample of independent measurements from small-footprint lidar. Accuracy of forest cover and change estimates was further validated relative to expert-interpreted high-resolution imagery, from which unbiased estimates of forest cover and change have been produced at national and eco-regional scales. These first-of-kind Earth Science Data Records--surface reflectance in 1990, 2000, and 2005 and forest cover, change, and fragmentation in and between 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005--are hosted at native, Landsat

  16. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis. PMID:27412335

  17. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  18. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis. PMID:27412335

  19. Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2006-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) is a graphical simulation environment designed for the development of advanced control algorithms and rapid testing of these algorithms on a generic computational model of a turbofan engine and its control system. MAPSS is a nonlinear, non-real-time simulation comprising a Component Level Model (CLM) module and a Controller-and-Actuator Dynamics (CAD) module. The CLM module simulates the dynamics of engine components at a sampling rate of 2,500 Hz. The controller submodule of the CAD module simulates a digital controller, which has a typical update rate of 50 Hz. The sampling rate for the actuators in the CAD module is the same as that of the CLM. MAPSS provides a graphical user interface that affords easy access to engine-operation, engine-health, and control parameters; is used to enter such input model parameters as power lever angle (PLA), Mach number, and altitude; and can be used to change controller and engine parameters. Output variables are selectable by the user. Output data as well as any changes to constants and other parameters can be saved and reloaded into the GUI later.

  20. Degradation of the Periglacial Landscape of Utopia Planitia Under Global Warming: Comparison Earth-Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Soare, R. J.; Fedorov, A.; Marmo, C.

    2012-03-01

    Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in UP indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. This permafrost was degraded during a relatively recent (< 10 Ma) high-obliquity periods of Mars inducing a major climate change.

  1. The Global Energy Situation on Earth, Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide are: (1) Introduction to the unit; (2) The "EARTH" program; (3) Exercises; and (4) Sources of information on the energy crisis. This guide supplements a simulation which allows students to analyze different aspects of energy…

  2. Modeling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth: The purple planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, E.; Sanroma, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutierrez-Navarro, A. M.; Lopez, R.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and bacteria concentration/ distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  3. Global Full-Waveform Tomography Using the Spectral Element Method: New Constraints on the Structure of Earth's Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Scott Winfield

    The radially anisotropic shear-velocity structure of the earth's mantle provides a critical window on the interior dynamics of the planet, with isotropic variations interpretable in terms of thermal and compositional heterogeneity and anisotropy in terms of flow. Indeed, more than 30 years after the advent of global seismic tomography, many open questions remain regarding the dual roles of temperature and composition in shaping mantle convection, as well as interactions between different dominant scales of convective phenomena. To this end, we use full-waveform inversion of the long-period teleseismic wavefield to image radially anisotropic shear-wave velocity at the scale of the entire globe. In particular, we use a technique which we have termed the "hybrid" waveform-inversion approach, which combines the accuracy and generality of the spectral finite element method (SEM) for forward modeling of the global wavefield, with non-linear asymptotic coupling theory for efficient inverse modeling. This hybrid technique helps considerably in making SEM-based global waveform inversion tractable, as it allows for the use of a rapidly converging Gauss-Newton scheme for optimization of the underlying seismic model. We take additional steps to reduce the cost of these inversions using novel techniques for treatment of the earth's crust. Namely, naive modeling of thinly layered crustal structure can lead to an overly restrictive time-stability condition in the SEM, which in turn drives up the cost these simulations. Instead, taking advantage of the physics of long-period wave propagation, we introduce alternative parameterizations of crustal structure which appear identical to the wavefield, but relax these constraints on stability. We approach this imaging problem in an iterative fashion, hoping to learn something about the earth's interior at each step. First, we present our work focused on the upper mantle and transition zone (≤ 800km depth) in the form of the global

  4. Is Earth F**ked? Dynamical Futility of Global Environmental Management and Possibilities for Sustainability via Direct Action Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wErnEr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental challenges are dynamically generated within the dominant global culture principally by the mismatch between short-time-scale market and political forces driving resource extraction/use and longer-time-scale accommodations of the Earth system to these changes. Increasing resource demand is leading to the development of two-way, nonlinear interactions between human societies and environmental systems that are becoming global in extent, either through globalized markets and other institutions or through coupling to global environmental systems such as climate. These trends are further intensified by dissipation-reducing technological advances in transactions, communication and transport, which suppress emergence of longer-time-scale economic and political levels of description and facilitate long-distance connections, and by predictive environmental modeling, which strengthens human connections to a short-time-scale virtual Earth, and weakens connections to the longer time scales of the actual Earth. Environmental management seeks to steer fast scale economic and political interests of a coupled human-environmental system towards longer-time-scale consideration of benefits and costs by operating within the confines of the dominant culture using a linear, engineering-type connection to the system. Perhaps as evidenced by widespread inability to meaningfully address such global environmental challenges as climate change and soil degradation, nonlinear connections reduce the ability of managers to operate outside coupled human-environmental systems, decreasing their effectiveness in steering towards sustainable interactions and resulting in managers slaved to short-to-intermediate-term interests. In sum, the dynamics of the global coupled human-environmental system within the dominant culture precludes management for stable, sustainable pathways and promotes instability. Environmental direct action, resistance taken from outside the dominant culture, as in

  5. Optimization of Return Trajectories for Orbital Transfer Vehicle between Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funase, Ryu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, optimum trajectories in Earth Transfer Orbit (ETO) for a lunar transportation system are proposed. This paper aims at improving the payload ratio of the reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), which transports the payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar Low Orbit (LLO) and returns to LEO. In ETO, we discuss ballistic flight using chemical propulsion, multi-impulse flight using electrical propulsion, and aero-assisted flight using aero-brake. The feasibility of the OTV is considered.

  6. Vibration modelling and verifications for whole aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a new rotor-ball-bearing-casing coupling dynamic model for a practical aero-engine is established. In the coupling system, the rotor and casing systems are modelled using the finite element method, support systems are modelled as lumped parameter models, nonlinear factors of ball bearings and faults are included, and four types of supports and connection models are defined to model the complex rotor-support-casing coupling system of the aero-engine. A new numerical integral method that combines the Newmark-β method and the improved Newmark-β method (Zhai method) is used to obtain the system responses. Finally, the new model is verified in three ways: (1) modal experiment based on rotor-ball bearing rig, (2) modal experiment based on rotor-ball-bearing-casing rig, and (3) fault simulations for a certain type of missile turbofan aero-engine vibration. The results show that the proposed model can not only simulate the natural vibration characteristics of the whole aero-engine but also effectively perform nonlinear dynamic simulations of a whole aero-engine with faults.

  7. Global in-use stocks of the rare Earth elements: a first estimate.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-05-01

    Even though rare earth metals are indispensible in modern technology, very little quantitative information other than combined rare earth oxide extraction is available on their life cycles. We have drawn upon published and unpublished information from China, Japan, the United States, and elsewhere to estimate flows into use and in-use stocks for 15 of the metals: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y. Here, we show that the combined flows into use comprised about 90 Gg in 2007; the highest for individual metals were ∼28 Gg Ce and ∼22 Gg La, the lowest were ∼0.16 Gg Tm and ∼0.15 Gg Lu. In-use stocks ranged from 144 Gg Ce to 0.2 Gg Tm; these stocks, if efficiently recycled, could provide a valuable supplement to geological stocks. PMID:21438595

  8. Compilation of Global Surface Ozone Observations for Earth System Model Trend Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is detrimental to human health and ecosystems, is a greenhouse gas, and plays a role in removing pollutants from the atmosphere. Since the first observations of its concentration in the late 19th century, it has been measured by a range of different approaches (surface instrumental, sondes, satellites). In the last 40 years, global (WMO GAW) and regional networks (EMEP, CASTNET, ...) have been initiated to measure its surface concentration. For data analysis and model comparisons a synthesis of all of this data needs to be undertaken. In this work we collate these observations into a single dataset with some initial quality control and handling of meta-data. We can then generate a range of products (means, medians, percentiles, standard deviations, AOT40, SUMO35, etc.) over a range of timescales (hourly, daily, monthly, annual) on user specified grids suitable for data analysis and model evaluation. We apply objective statistical techniques developed by the paleoclimate reconstruction community to interpolate the data spatially to reconstruct a global map and time series of surface ozone. Novelly, we use global chemical transport model output to infer each measurement's spatial representativeness to account for lifetime and meteorology. We present results of the global interpolation and global and regional averages in surface ozone over the past 40 years and compare them to models. We find that the observational coverage peaked around the year 2002 with good coverage over the northern midlatitudes and Antarctica but poor coverage over the tropics and Southern Hemisphere subtropics due to both the lack of observations and the short lifetime of tropical ozone. Significantly more ozone observations are made globally than are reported to the international datasets reducing the usefulness of these individual observations and making understanding ozone on both regional and global scale more difficult. New observations of surface ozone through the

  9. Stochastic atmospheric perturbations in the EC-Earth3 global coupled model: impact of SPPT on seasonal forecast quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batté, Lauriane; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric model uncertainties at a seasonal time scale can be addressed by introducing stochastic perturbations in the model formulation. In this paper the stochastically perturbed parameterization tendencies (SPPT) technique is activated in the atmospheric component of the EC-Earth global coupled model and the impact on seasonal forecast quality is assessed, both at a global scale and focusing on the Tropical Pacific region. Re-forecasts for winter and summer seasons using two different settings for the perturbation patterns are evaluated and compared to a reference experiment without stochastic perturbations. We find that SPPT tends to increase the systematic error of the model sea-surface temperature over most regions of the globe, whereas the impact on precipitation and sea-level pressure is less clear. In terms of ensemble spread, larger-scale perturbation patterns lead to a greater increase in spread and in the model spread-skill ratio in a system that is overconfident. Over the Tropical Pacific, improvements in the representation of key processes associated with ENSO are highlighted. The evaluation of probabilistic re-forecasts shows that SPPT improves their reliability. Finally, we discuss the limitations to this study and future prospects with EC-Earth.

  10. Fast and accurate global multiphase arrival tracking: the irregular shortest-path method in a 3-D spherical earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2013-09-01

    The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first arrivals or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax time path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax time path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum absolute traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average absolute traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU time consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase arrival tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.

  11. Providing access to satellite imagery through OGC catalog service interfaces in support of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuqi; Di, Liping

    2011-04-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) architecture requires supporting discovery and access to large volumes of Earth Observation data. To support this application requirement in a polar ecosystem scenario, the project constructed a metadata catalog service for pre-collected orthorectified Landsat satellite images with global coverage. This study investigates the characteristics and challenges in building Open Geospatial Consortium Inc. (OGC) catalog service. It further presents a general lightweight XML adapter for relational tables, followed by a general OGC catalog service solution based on this adapter. This adapter relies on two configuration files to make the core software modules independent of the underlying metadata database structure. One configuration file identifies how XML schema is mapped into relational schema, and the other represents the XML output template. At runtime, this adapter internally employs a two-step mechanism: XQuery processing and XML publication. In the XQuery processing step, metadata discovery requests are interpreted, resulting in an SQL query clause. In the XML publication step, this SQL query and other dynamically generated queries are executed to generate the output according to the predefined XML template. Successful application of this OGC catalog service solution in the GEOSS AIP-2 polar ecosystem scenario is presented, followed by an analysis on its advantages and limitations.

  12. Information theory lateral density distribution for Earth inferred from global gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Information Theory Inference, better known as the Maximum Entropy Method, was used to infer the lateral density distribution inside the Earth. The approach assumed that the Earth consists of indistinguishable Maxwell-Boltzmann particles populating infinitesimal volume elements, and followed the standard methods of statistical mechanics (maximizing the entropy function). The GEM 10B spherical harmonic gravity field coefficients, complete to degree and order 36, were used as constraints on the lateral density distribution. The spherically symmetric part of the density distribution was assumed to be known. The lateral density variation was assumed to be small compared to the spherically symmetric part. The resulting information theory density distribution for the cases of no crust removed, 30 km of compensated crust removed, and 30 km of uncompensated crust removed all gave broad density anomalies extending deep into the mantle, but with the density contrasts being the greatest towards the surface (typically + or 0.004 g cm 3 in the first two cases and + or - 0.04 g cm 3 in the third). None of the density distributions resemble classical organized convection cells. The information theory approach may have use in choosing Standard Earth Models, but, the inclusion of seismic data into the approach appears difficult.

  13. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, wemore » have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.« less

  14. EarthScope's Education, Outreach, and Communications: Using Social Media from Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the

  15. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their

  16. Launching and Undergraduate Earth System Science Curriculum with a Focus on Global Sustainability: the Loma Linda University Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R. E.; Dunbar, S. G.; Soret, S.; Wiafe, S.; Gonzalez, D.; Rossi, T.

    2004-12-01

    The vision of the School of Science and Technology (SST) at Loma Linda University (LLU) is to develop an interdisciplinary approach to doing science that bridges the social, biological, earth, and health sciences. It will provide opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students to apply new tools and concepts to the promotion of global service and citizenship while addressing issues of global poverty, health and disease, environmental degradation, poverty, and social inequality. A primary teaching strategy will be to involve students with faculty in applied field social and science policy research on "global sustainability" issues and problems in real places such as Fiji, Jamaica, Honduras, Bahamas, East Africa, and the US southwest (Great Basin, Salton Sea, coastal California, southern Utah). Recently we became a partner in the NASA/USRA ESSE21 Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century). We bring to that consortium strengths and experience in areas such as social policy, sustainable development, medicine, environmental health, disaster mitigation, humanitarian relief, geoinformatics and bioinformatics. This can benefit ESSE21, the NASA Earth Enterprise Mission, and the wider geosciences education community by demonstrating the relevance of such tools, and methods outside the geosciences. Many of the graduate and undergraduate students who will participate in the new program come from around the world while many others represent underserved populations in the United States. The PI and Co-PIs have strong global as well as domestic experience serving underrepresented communities, e.g. Seth Wiafe from Ghana, Sam Soret from Spain, Stephen Dunbar from the South Pacific, and Robert Ford from Latin America and Africa. Our partnership in implementation will include other institutions such as: La Sierra University, the California State University, Pomona, Center for Geographic Information Science Research, ESRI, Inc., the University of

  17. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2010 Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, F. W.; Justus, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Atmospheric Model was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes), as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. In addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations.

  18. A Web 2.0 and OGC Standards Enabled Sensor Web Architecture for Global Earth Observing System of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Unger, Stephen; Ames, Troy; Frye, Stuart; Chien, Steve; Cappelaere, Pat; Tran, Danny; Derezinski, Linda; Paules, Granville

    2007-01-01

    This paper will describe the progress of a 3 year research award from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) that began October 1, 2006, in response to a NASA Announcement of Research Opportunity on the topic of sensor webs. The key goal of this research is to prototype an interoperable sensor architecture that will enable interoperability between a heterogeneous set of space-based, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)-based and ground based sensors. Among the key capabilities being pursued is the ability to automatically discover and task the sensors via the Internet and to automatically discover and assemble the necessary science processing algorithms into workflows in order to transform the sensor data into valuable science products. Our first set of sensor web demonstrations will prototype science products useful in managing wildfires and will use such assets as the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft, managed out of NASA/GSFC, a UASbased instrument, managed out of Ames and some automated ground weather stations, managed by the Forest Service. Also, we are collaborating with some of the other ESTO awardees to expand this demonstration and create synergy between our research efforts. Finally, we are making use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards and some Web 2.0 capabilities to Beverage emerging technologies and standards. This research will demonstrate and validate a path for rapid, low cost sensor integration, which is not tied to a particular system, and thus be able to absorb new assets in an easily evolvable, coordinated manner. This in turn will help to facilitate the United States contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), as agreed by the U.S. and 60 other countries at the third Earth Observation Summit held in February of 2005.

  19. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  20. Aero-Structural Interaction, Analysis, and Shape Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., III

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis technique that has been shown to be independent of step-size selection is examined further. The accuracy of this step-size independent technique, which uses complex variables for determining sensitivity derivatives, has been previously established. The primary focus of this work is to validate the aero-structural analysis procedure currently being used. This validation consists of comparing computed and experimental data obtained for an Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2). Since the aero-structural analysis procedure has the complex variable modifications already included into the software, sensitivity derivatives can automatically be computed. Other than for design purposes, sensitivity derivatives can be used for predicting the solution at nearby conditions. The use of sensitivity derivatives for predicting the aero-structural characteristics of this configuration is demonstrated.

  1. 78 FR 32363 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... FR 14824, March 29, 1999), and adding the following new AD: PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A: Docket No... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... propose to rescind an airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model...

  2. A Summary of the Major Documents Signed at the Earth Summit and the Global Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parson, Edward A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes documents produced at the United Nations Conference and the Global Forum: The Rio Declaration, a statement of broad principles to guide national conduct on environmental protection and development; treaties on climate change and biodiversity; forest principles statement; and Agenda 21, a presentation of work plans for sustainable…

  3. Simulation for the design of next-generation global Earth observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seablom, Michael S.; Talabac, Stephen J.; Higgins, Glenn J.; Womack, Brice T.

    2007-09-01

    Under a recently-funded NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) award we are now designing, and will eventually implement, a sensor web architecture that couples future Earth observing systems with atmospheric, chemical, and oceanographic models and data assimilation systems. The end product will be a "sensor web simulator" (SWS), based upon the proposed architecture, that would objectively quantify the scientific return of a fully functional modeldriven meteorological sensor web. Our proposed work is based upon two previously-funded ESTO studies that have yielded a sensor web-based 2025 weather observing system architecture, and a preliminary SWS software architecture that had been funded by NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept (RASC) and other technology awards. Sensor Web observing systems have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable meteorological features and events. A revolutionary architectural characteristic that could substantially reduce meteorological forecast uncertainty is the use of targeted observations guided by advanced analytical techniques (e.g., prediction of ensemble variance). Simulation is essential: investing in the design and implementation of such a complex observing system would be very costly and almost certainly involve significant risk. A SWS would provide information systems engineers and Earth scientists with the ability to define and model candidate designs, and to quantitatively measure predictive forecast skill improvements. The SWS will serve as a necessary trade studies tool to: evaluate the impact of selecting different types and quantities of remote sensing and in situ sensors; characterize alternative platform vantage points and measurement modes; and to explore potential rules of interaction between sensors and weather forecast/data assimilation components to reduce model error growth and forecast

  4. A Global Record of Surface Earth Oxygenation from Sedimentary V/Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, C. B.; Schoene, B.; Johnston, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the simplest methods to investigate changes in oxidation potential in geologic environments is to examine a pair of otherwise similar elements with dramatically different redox chemistry. The first-row transition metals Sc and V represent one such pair, with generally similar mass, radius, and ionization energies up to the trivalent redox state. However, as a d3 transition metal, Sc is limited to a maximum oxidation state of 3+, while d5 vanadium may be further oxidized to form tetravalent and pentavalent ions. Due to the greater incompatibility of pentavalent (relative to trivalent) metal cations in silicate melts, V/Sc ratio has been applied to the silicate rock record as a tracer of magma redox - indicating roughly constant mantle oxygen fugacity over Earth history1,2. As a result, the solid earth represents a boundary condition with constant V/Sc observed over geologic time1. However, oxidation state also affects the weathering, solubility, and coordination behaviour of V and Sc, resulting in a potential redox signal in the sedimentary V/Sc record. We apply the weighted bootstrap resampling approach of [2] to a geochemical dataset of ~87,000 sedimentary whole-rock analyses from the EarthChem portal3. The resulting trends reveal a 4 Gyr record of V/Sc redox chemistry, with the great oxidation event represented as an upward step ca. 2.5 Ga, and Phanerozoic variation suggestive of low oxygen in the early Paleozoic, increasing to twin maxima circa 270 Ma and 130 Ma, remarkably similar to that predicted by the COPSE model4, and broadly congruent with the Phanerozoic biochar record5. Li, Z.-X. A. & Lee, C.-T. A. EPSL 228, 483-493 (2004). Keller, C. B. & Schoene, B. Nature 485, 490-493 (2012). EarthChem Bergman, N. M. Am. J. Science 304, 397-437 (2004). Glasspool, I. J. & Scott, A. C. Nat. Geosci. 3, 627-630 (2010).

  5. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  6. A global model of the earth's ionosphere for use in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O. H.; Yip, K. B. W.; Escobal, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general expression is derived for the F layer electron density profile as a function of latitude and longitude for that part of the earth which is in direct sunlight including dawn and dusk. Furthermore, the derived model is extended to encompass the night-time ionosphere. The expressions allow determination by standard means of the range correction for arbitrary ray path directions. It is also shown that the naive application of the Chapman ionospheric model entails range correction errors which for low elevation angles (less than 20 deg) and large solar zenith angles (40 deg) cannot be tolerated. Numerical calculations are displayed showing the dependence of the range correction on the pertinent parameters.

  7. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; van Noije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J. -H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 Wm-2, with a mean of -0.27 Wm-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 Wm-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  8. Global effects of transmitted shock wave propagation through the Earth's inner magnetosphere: First results from 3-D hybrid kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmaspheric particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that shocks cause strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  9. The Miniature Radio Frequency Instruments (Mini-RF) Global Observations of Earth's Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Thomson, B. J.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Neish, Catherine D.; Lopez, Norberto R.; Turner, F. Scott; Aldridge, T.; McAdam, M.; Meyer, H. M.; Raney, R. K.; Carter, L. M.; Spudis, P. D.; Hiesinger, H.; Pasckert, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Radar provides a unique means to analyze the surface and subsurface physical properties of geologic deposits, including their wavelength-scale roughness, the relative depth of the deposits, and some limited compositional information. The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument has enabled these analyses on the Moon at a global scale. Mini-RF has accumulated 67% coverage of the lunar surface in S-band (12.6 cm) radar with a resolution of 30 m/pixel. Here we present new Mini-RF global orthorectified uncontrolled S-band maps of the Moon and use them for analysis of lunar surface physical properties. Reported here are readily apparent global- and regional-scale differences in lunar surface physical properties that suggest three distinct terranes, namely: a (1) Nearside Radar Dark Region; (2) Orientale basin and continuous ejecta; and the (3) Highlands Radar Bright Region. Integrating these observations with new data from LRO's Diviner Radiometer rock abundance maps, as well Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived compositional values show multiple distinct lunar surface terranes and sub-terranes based upon both physical and compositional surface properties. Previous geochemical investigations of the Moon suggested its crust is best divided into three to four basic crustal provinces or terranes (Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (-An and -Outer), Procellarum KREEP Terrane, and South Pole Aitken Terrane) that are distinct from one another. However, integration of these geochemical data sets with new geophysical data sets allows us to refine these terranes. The result shows a more complex view of these same crustal provinces and provides valuable scientific and hazard perspectives for future targeted human and robotic exploration.

  10. Remote sensing of the earth's biosphere - A tool for studies of the global atmospheric environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, David S.; Harriss, Robert C.; Bartlett, Karen B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology and its use for global studies of the biospheric processes are described. Special consideration is given to research related to two issues: (1) quantifying the impacts of natural vegetation and its changing patterns of occurrence on the atmospheric CO2 budget and (2) assessing wetlands (such as the swamps and marshes of Florida's Everglades) as sources of atmospheric CH4. The results include the data from NOAA-AVHRR sensors and from experiments in remote detection of plant growth rate.

  11. Nano- and microscale particles and global electromagnetic resonances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Besedina, Yu. N.; Popel, S. I.

    2007-02-15

    The influence of nano-and microscale particles (dust grains) on the global electromagnetic (Schumann) cavity has been studied in the context of two possible mechanisms. First, the presence of charged microscale particles in the ionospheric plasma modifies the dispersion properties of the upper boundary of the Schumann cavity and, thus, affects its eigenfrequencies and quality factor. Second, there is a relation between the dust concentration in the atmosphere and lightning discharges, which excite Schumann resonances. Therefore, dust grains can enhance the energy pumping of the cavity, thereby increasing the amplitude of electromagnetic oscillations in it.

  12. Climate model simulations of the mid-Pliocene: Earth's last great interval of global warmth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, A.M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Workshop; Reston, Virginia, 2–4 August 2011 The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), supported by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project and Powell Center, is an integral part of a third iteration of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). PlioMIP's aim is to systematically compare structurally different climate models. This is done in the context of the mid-Pliocene (~3.3–3.0 million years ago), a geological interval when the global annual mean temperature was similar to predictions for the next century.

  13. Generation of kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail: A global hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Lin, Yu; Du, Aimin; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E ×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x ,z ) =(-10.5 RE,0.3 RE) , where RE is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k⊥≫k∥ are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δEz)/(δBy )˜ω/k∥ of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.

  14. ERCA 2008 - From the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change to the Observation of the Earth from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutron, Claude

    2009-02-01

    This book is the eighth volume in the series of books published within the framework of the European Research Course on Atmospheres ("ERCA"). ERCA was initiated in 1993 by the University Joseph Fourier of Grenoble, in order to provide PhD students and scientists from Europe and the rest of the world with a multidisciplinary course, which covers especially: the climate system and climate change; the physics and chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere; the human dimensions of environmental change; the other planets and satellites in the solar system and beyond. Since 1993, sixteen sessions have been attended by more 800 participants from 50 countries. The seventeenth session will take place from 12 January to 13 February 2009. This new volume contains twenty two chapters dealing with a wide range of topics. The following subjects are covered: the human dimensions of global environmental change; climate change and cryospheric evolution in China; the projections of twenty-first century climate over Europe; the understanding of the health impacts of air pollutants; air quality and human welfare; photocatalytic self-cleaning materials; radiative transfer in the cloudy atmosphere; laboratory modelling of atmospheric dynamical processes; stratospheric ozone; the applications of stable isotope analysis to atmospheric trace gas budgets; nitrogen oxides in the troposphere; the observation of the solid Earth, the oceans and land waters; the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet; sea surface salinity reconstruction as seen with foraminifera shells; sources markers in aerosols, oceanic particles and sediments; the nucleation of atmospheric particles; the characterization of atmospheric aerosol episodes in China; the solar magnetic activity; the present and past climates of planet Mars; the outer solar system; Titan as an analog of Earth's past and future; the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets.

  15. Satellite Lidar Data Assimilation For Improved Global Aerosol Forecasting: Lessons Learned From CALIOP, With an Eye Toward EarthCARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Reid, J. S.; Tackett, J. L.; Westphal, D. L.; Winker, D. M.; Zhang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Active satellite-based aerosol profiling with lidar instruments represents a critical component of advanced global transport modeling and visibility forecasting applications. Parameterized aerosol source functions alone are limited in representing injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from passive satellite radiance observations significantly improves the forecast system. However, this procedure does not compensate for any vertical redistribution of mass necessary. The expense of an inaccurate vertical profile of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive model time steps typically diverge with height. Recent improvements to the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) include a newly-designed 3D-VAR assimilation system based on NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol backscatter profiles. NAAPS forecast skill improves with the benefit of 3D-VAR. However, it has proven considerably more challenging to implement this step than its 2D-VAR AOD counterpart. In this paper, we describe the process of assimilating satellite lidar measurements for aerosol applications, the development of model-friendly datasets, including a new NASA-disseminated product designed specifically for aerosol modeling applications, the importance of optimizing cross-track correlation in order to broaden the limited nadir-retrieved profile relative to the model grid and the potential for the near real-time/operational processing of ESA/JAXA Earth Clouds, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) high spectral resolution lidar datasets planned for late 2013. Lessons learned optimizing CALIOP datasets for modeling applications will not only improve performance in the short term, but ensure that developers are duly prepared for the coming EarthCARE data stream.

  16. Earth Science Keyword Stewardship: Access and Management through NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, T.; Olsen, L. M.; Ritz, S.; Morahan, M.; Aleman, A.; Cepero, L.; Gokey, C.; Holland, M.; Cordova, R.; Areu, S.; Cherry, T.; Tran-Ho, H.

    2012-12-01

    Discovering Earth science data can be complex if the catalog holding the data lacks structure. Controlled keyword vocabularies within metadata catalogues can improve data discovery. NASA's Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS) is a recently released a RESTful web service for managing and providing access to controlled keywords (science keywords, service keywords, platforms, instruments, providers, locations, projects, data resolution, etc.). The KMS introduces a completely new paradigm for the use and management of the keywords and allows access to these keywords as SKOS Concepts (RDF), OWL, standard XML, and CSV. A universally unique identifier (UUID) is automatically assigned to each keyword, which uniquely identifies each concept and its associated information. A component of the KMS is the keyword manager, an internal tool that allows GCMD science coordinators to manage concepts. This includes adding, modifying, and deleting broader, narrower, or related concepts and associated definitions. The controlled keyword vocabulary represents over 20 years of effort and collaboration with the Earth science community. The maintenance, stability, and ongoing vigilance in maintaining mutually exclusive and parallel keyword lists is important for a "normalized" search and discovery, and provides a unique advantage for the science community. Modifications and additions are made based on community suggestions and internal review. To help maintain keyword integrity, science keyword rules and procedures for modification of keywords were developed. This poster will highlight the use of the KMS as a beneficial service for the stewardship and access of the GCMD keywords. Users will learn how to access the KMS and utilize the keywords. Best practices for managing an extensive keyword hierarchy will also be discussed. Participants will learn the process for making keyword suggestions, which subsequently help in building a controlled keyword

  17. GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models. Part I: physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, John P.; John, Jasmin G.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Shevalikova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Cooke, William; Dunne, Krista A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Krasting, John P.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Phillipps, Peter J.; Sentman, Lori A.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spelman, Michael J.; Winton, Michael; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zadeh, Niki

    2012-01-01

    We describe the physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's previous CM2.1 climate model while incorporating explicit and consistent carbon dynamics. The two models differ exclusively in the physical ocean component; ESM2M uses Modular Ocean Model version 4.1 with vertical pressure layers while ESM2G uses Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics with a bulk mixed layer and interior isopycnal layers. Differences in the ocean mean state include the thermocline depth being relatively deep in ESM2M and relatively shallow in ESM2G compared to observations. The crucial role of ocean dynamics on climate variability is highlighted in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation being overly strong in ESM2M and overly weak ESM2G relative to observations. Thus, while ESM2G might better represent climate changes relating to: total heat content variability given its lack of long term drift, gyre circulation and ventilation in the North Pacific, tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and depth structure in the overturning and abyssal flows, ESM2M might better represent climate changes relating to: surface circulation given its superior surface temperature, salinity and height patterns, tropical Pacific circulation and variability, and Southern Ocean dynamics. Our overall assessment is that neither model is fundamentally superior to the other, and that both models achieve sufficient fidelity to allow meaningful climate and earth system modeling applications. This affords us the ability to assess the role of ocean configuration on earth system interactions in the context of two state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate models.

  18. Generation of kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail: A global hybrid simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Du, Aimin; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x,z)=(−10.5R{sub E},0.3R{sub E}), where R{sub E} is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k{sub ⊥}≫k{sub ∥} are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δE{sub z})/(δB{sub y} )∼ω/k{sub ∥} of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.

  19. NOAA’s Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) in Action: Integration of Gridded Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, L.; McDonald, K. R.; Hankin, S. C.; Habermann, T.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is making substantial progress in enhancing the ability of users to discover, access, and use the vast amount of environmental information that it collects, maintains, and stores. It has defined a Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) initiative to promote and enable the interoperability of its data management services and to ensure that they are compatible and aligned with interagency and international efforts that are underway (e.g. the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and the Integrated Ocean Observing System). As an example of GEO-IDE in action, NOAA is developing a prototype gridded dataset integration capability. The initial focus will be to develop a Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) catalog of NOAA’s gridded datasets (e.g. model outputs, satellite products, HF radar observations, etc.) that are currently available in netCDF-CF format and enable all services that are readily available including: Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium’s Web Map Service and Web Coverage Service. A parallel activity will be to harvest, repair, and extend metadata for the datasets to improve the ability for users to discover and then make use of the datasets. Once the above steps have been completed the focus will be to work with other data providers to expand the holdings that are accessible via this mechanism. This effort attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of focusing on a single structural data type (e.g. gridded data) as an approach to integration. This poster will provide an overview of this effort, the technologies and standards being utilized, and will highlight the potential benefits to both NOAA and its scientific user community.

  20. Long-Term Audience Impacts of Live Fulldome Planetarium Lectures for Earth Science and Global Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Champlin, D. M.; Goldsworth, D. A.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2011-09-01

    Digital Earth visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. At the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), we have used such visualization technologies, including real-time virtual reality software running in the immersive digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium, to impact the community through topical policy presentations. DMNS public lectures have covered regional issues like water resources, as well as global topics such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion. The Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience-similar to virtual reality "CAVE" environments found in academia-that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. Surveys and interviews show that these talks are effective in heightening visitor interest in the subjects weeks or months after the presentation. Many visitors take additional steps to learn more, while one was so inspired that she actively worked to bring the same programming to her children's school. These preliminary findings suggest that fulldome real-time visualizations can have a substantial long-term impact on an audience's engagement and interest in science topics.

  1. Global redox cycle of biospheric carbon: Interaction of photosynthesis and earth crust processes.

    PubMed

    Ivlev, Alexander A

    2015-11-01

    A model of the natural global redox cycle of biospheric carbon is introduced. According to this model, carbon transfer between biosphere and geospheres is accompanied by a conversion of the oxidative forms, presented by CO2, bicarbonate and carbonate ions, into the reduced forms, produced in photosynthesis. The mechanism of carbon transfer is associated with two phases of movement of lithospheric plates. In the short-term orogenic phase, CO2 from the subduction (plates' collisions) zones fills the "atmosphere-hydrosphere" system, resulting in climate warming. In the long-term quiet (geosynclynal) phase, weathering and photosynthesis become dominant depleting the oxidative forms of carbon. The above asymmetric periodicity exerts an impact on climate, biodiversity, distribution of organic matter in sedimentary deposits, etc. Along with photosynthesis expansion, the redox carbon cycle undergoes its development until it reaches the ecological compensation point, at which CO2 is depleted to the level critical to support the growth and reproduction of plants. This occurred in the Permo-Carboniferous time and in the Neogene. Shorter-term perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the form of glacial-interglacial oscillations appear near the ecological compensation point. PMID:26477601

  2. Global Analysis of River Planform Change using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, A.; Dietrich, W. E.; Gorelick, N.; Sargent, R.; Braudrick, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geomorphologists have historically tracked river dynamics using a combination of maps, aerial photographs, and the stratigraphic record. Although stratigraphic records can extend into deep time, maps and aerial photographs often confine our record of change to sparse measurements over the last ~80 years and in some cases much less time. For the first time Google's Earth Engine (GEE) cloud based platform allows researchers the means to analyze quantitatively the pattern and pace of river channel change over the last 30 years with high temporal resolution across the entire planet. The GEE provides an application programing interface (API) that enables quantitative analysis of various data sets including the entire Landsat L1T archive. This allows change detection for channels wider than about 150 m over 30 years of successive, georeferenced imagery. Qualitatively, it becomes immediately evident that the pace of channel morphodynamics for similar planforms varies by orders of magnitude across the planet and downstream along individual rivers. To quantify these rates of change and to explore their controls we have developed methods for differentiating channels from floodplain along large alluvial rivers. We introduce a new metric of morphodynamics: the ratio of eroded area to channel area per unit time, referred to as "M". We also keep track of depositional areas resulting from channel shifting. To date our quantitative analysis has focused on rivers in the Andean foreland. Our analysis shows channel bank erosion rates, M, varies by orders of magnitude for these rivers, from 0 to ~0.25 yr-1, yet these rivers have essentially identical curvature and sinuosity and are visually indistinguishable. By tracking both bank paths in time, we find that, for some meandering rivers, a significant fraction of new floodplain is produced through outer-bank accretion rather than point bar deposition. This process is perhaps more important in generating floodplain stratigraphy than

  3. Complex inner core of the Earth: The last frontier of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2015-03-01

    The days when the Earth's inner core (IC) was viewed as a homogeneous solid sphere surrounded by the liquid outer core (OC) are now behind us. Due to a limited number of data sampling the IC and a lack of experimentally controlled conditions in the deep Earth studies, it has been difficult to scrutinize competitive hypotheses in this active area of research. However, a number of new concepts linking IC structure and dynamics has been proposed lately to explain different types of seismological observations. A common denominator of recent observational work on the IC is increased complexity seen in IC physical properties such as its isotropic and anisotropic structure, attenuation, inner core boundary (ICB) topography, and its rotational dynamics. For example, small-scale features have been observed to exist as a widespread phenomenon in the uppermost inner core, probably superimposed on much longer-scale features. The characterization of small-scale features sheds light on the nature of the solidification process and helps in understanding seismologically observed hemispherical dichotomy of the IC. The existence of variations in the rate and level of solidification is a plausible physical outcome in an environment where vigorous compositional convection in the OC and variations in heat exchange across the ICB may control the process of crystal growth. However, further progress is hindered by the fact that the current traveltime data of PKIKP waves traversing the IC do not allow discriminating between variations in isotropic P wave velocity and velocity anisotropy. Future studies of attenuation in the IC might provide crucial information about IC structure, although another trade-off exists—that of the relative contribution of scattering versus viscoelastic attenuation and the connection with the material properties. Future installations of dense arrays, cross paths of waves that sample the IC, and corresponding array studies will be a powerful tool to image and

  4. Overview of NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both the space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development.

  5. The Earth Sciences, Human Well-Being, and the Reduction of Global Poverty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].

  6. Measurements of the earth radiation budget from satellites during the first GARP global experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Campbell, G. G.; Smith, E. A.; Arking, A.; Coulson, K.; Hickey, J.; House, F.; Ingersoll, A.; Jacobowitz, H.; Smith, L.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation budget data (which will aid in climate model development) and solar constant measurements (both to be used for the study of long term climate change and interannual seasonal weather variability) are presented, obtained during Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 satellite flights, using wide-field-of-view, scanner, and black cavity detectors. Data on the solar constant, described as a function of the date of measurement, are given. The unweighed mean amounts to 1377 + or - 20 per sq Wm, with a standard deviation of 8 per sq Wm. The new solar data are combined with earlier measurements, and it is suggested that the total absolute energy output of the sun is a minimum at 'solar maximum' and vice versa. Attention is given to the measurements of the net radiation budget, the planetary albedo, and the infrared radiant exitance. The annual and semiannual cycles of normal variability explain most of the variance of energy exchange between the earth and space. Examination of separate ocean and atmospheric energy budgets implies a net continent-ocean region energy exchange.

  7. Daily estimates of the earth's pole position with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Freedman, Adam P.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Daily estimates of the earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of GPS receivers, obtained during the three week GIG '91 experiment in January-February 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to about 0.4 mas rms, after the removal of mean biases of order 1-3 mas. The small error in day-to-day variability is not sensitive to the fiducial strategy used, nor are fiducial sites even necessary for monitoring high frequency pole position variability. The small biases indicate that the applied reference frames of the three geodetic techniques are nearly aligned, that the GPS fiducial errors are small, and that systematic errors in GPS are also small (of order 5 ppb). A well determined reference frame is necessary for monitoring the long-term stability of polar motion and for separating it from other long-term signals such as tectonic motion and internal systematic errors.

  8. Earth's ion upflow associated with polar cap patches: Global and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Lockwood, Michael; Heelis, Roderick A.; Hairston, Marc; Liang, Jun; McCrea, Ian; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Moen, Jøran; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; Lester, Mark; Thomas, Evan G.; Liu, Rui-Yuan; Dunlop, Malcolm W.; Liu, Yong C.-M.; Ma, Yu-Zhang

    2016-03-01

    We report simultaneous global monitoring of a patch of ionization and in situ observation of ion upflow at the center of the polar cap region during a geomagnetic storm. Our observations indicate strong fluxes of upwelling O+ ions originating from frictional heating produced by rapid antisunward flow of the plasma patch. The statistical results from the crossings of the central polar cap region by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F16-F18 from 2010 to 2013 confirm that the field-aligned flow can turn upward when rapid antisunward flows appear, with consequent significant frictional heating of the ions, which overcomes the gravity effect. We suggest that such rapidly moving patches can provide an important source of upwelling ions in a region where downward flows are usually expected. These observations give new insight into the processes of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

  9. A new global model for P wave speed variations in Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang; van der Hilst, Robert D.; Engdahl, E. Robert; Burdick, Scott

    2008-05-01

    We document our tomographic method and present a new global model of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in mantle P wave velocity. The model is parameterized by means of rectangular cells in latitude, longitude, and radius, the size of which adapts to sampling density by short-period (1 Hz) data. The largest single data source is ISC/NEIC data reprocessed by Engdahl and coworkers, from which we use routinely picked, short-period P, Pg, Pn, pP, and pwP data (for earthquakes during the period 1964˜2007). To improve the resolution in the lowermost and uppermost mantle, we use differential times of core phases (PKPAB - PKPDF, PKPAB - PKPBC, Pdiff - PKPDF) and surface-reflected waves (PP-P). The low-frequency differential times (Pdiff, PP) are measured by waveform cross correlation. Approximate 3-D finite frequency kernels are used to integrate the long-period data (Pdiff, PP) and short-period (P, pP, PKP) data. This global data set is augmented with data from regional catalogs and temporary seismic arrays. A crust correction is implemented to mitigate crustal smearing into the upper mantle. We invert the data for 3-D variations in P wave speed and effects of hypocenter mislocation subject to norm and gradient regularization. Spatial resolution is ˜100 km in the best sampled upper mantle regions. Our model, which is available online and which will be updated periodically, reveals in unprecedented detail the rich variation in style of subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle. The images confirm the structural complexity of downwellings in the transition zone discussed in previous papers and show with more clarity the structure of slab fragments stagnant in the transition zone beneath east Asia. They also reveal low wave speed beneath major hot spots, such as Iceland, Afar, and Hawaii, but details of these structures are not well resolved by the data used.

  10. How does the Redi parameter for mesoscale mixing impact global climate in an Earth System Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradal, Marie-Aude; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2014-09-01

    A coupled climate model is used to examine the impact of an increase in the mixing due to mesoscale eddies on the global climate system. A sixfold increase in the Redi mixing coefficient ARedi, which is within the admissible range of variation, has the overall effect of warming the global-mean surface air and sea surface temperatures by more than 1°C. Locally, sea surface temperatures increase by up to 7°C in the North Pacific and by up to 4°C in the Southern Ocean, with corresponding impacts on the ice concentration and ice extent in polar regions. However, it is not clear that the changes in heat transport from tropics to poles associated with changing this coefficient are primarily responsible for these changes. We found that the changes in the transport of heat are often much smaller than changes in long-wave trapping and short-wave absorption. Additionally, changes in the advective and diffusive transport of heat toward the poles often oppose each other. However, we note that the poleward transport of salt increases near the surface as ARedi increases. We suggest a causal chain in which enhanced eddy stirring leads to increased high-latitude surface salinity reducing salt stratification and water column stability and enhancing convection, triggering two feedback loops. In one, deeper convection prevents sea ice formation, which decreases albedo, which increases SW absorption, further increasing SST and decreasing sea ice formation. In the other, increased SST and reduced sea ice allow for more water vapor in the atmosphere, trapping long-wave radiation. Destratifying the polar regions is thus a potential way in which changes in ocean circulation might warm the planet.

  11. Using message brokering and data mediation on earth science data to enhance global maritime situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Greidanus, H.

    2016-04-01

    Maritime Situational Awareness is the understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has developed an in-house data collection, data analysis and data visualiztion facility, known as the Blue Hub. The Blue Hub operates as a research and development platform for integrated maritime surveillance and maritime situational awareness. It has global coverage and has been applied, for example, to support counter-piracy around Africa, to investigate fishing activity and to monitor the growing ship traffic in the Arctic. In order to improve maritime awareness and support risk assessment, the JRC has started to integrate data from the marine and atmosheric science community. In particular the JRC is interested in using forecasts from operational ocean models and weather models. For the Blue Hub a new type of data server, called ERDDAP, that performs message brokering and data mediation has become an essential tool for the accessing of ocean forecast data as quickly as possible in easy to use formats. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the USA) is making global oceanography and weather data available through the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP) data broker. ERDDAP provides RESTful machine to machine communication, data brokering and data mediation by converting data to a number of standard and developer friendly formats, including some Open Geospatial Consortium formats. In this paper, we demonstrate how data brokering and mediation is making complex scientific data accessible. We show how such data is being integrated into the Blue Hub system to enhance maritime situational awareness.

  12. Global pollution aerosol monitoring (GPAM) in the atmospheric boundary layer using future earth observing satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jianhe; Kafatos, Menas; Yang, Ruixin; Chiu, Long S.; Riebau, Allen R.

    2003-04-01

    Global pollution aerosol monitoring is a very important climatic and environmental problem. It affects not only human health but also ecological systems. Because most pollution aerosols are concentrated in the atmospheric boundary layer where human, animal and vegetation live, global pollution aerosol stuides have been an important topic since about a decade ago. Recently, many new chemistry remote sensing satellite systems, such as NASA's Aura (EOS-CHEM), have been established. However, pollution aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer cannot be detected using current remote sensing technologies. George Mason University (GMU) proposes to design scientific algorithms and technologies to monitor the atmospheric boundary layer pollution aerosols, using both satellite remote sensing measurements and ground measurements, collaborating with NASA and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Forest Services (FS). Boundary layer pollution aerosols result from industrial pollution, desert dust storms, smoke from wildfires and biomass burning, volcanic eruptions, and from other trace gases. The current and next generation satellite instruments, such as The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) can be used for this study. Some surface measurements from USDA/FS and other agencies may also be used in this study. We will discuss critical issues for GPAM in the boundary layer using Earth observing satellite remote sensing in detail in this paper.

  13. Signatures of troposphere-stratosphere momentum coupling Implications for global atmospheric angular momentum and earth rotation budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A.; Mayr, H. G.; Hartle, R. E.; Kramer, L.; Stirling, R.

    1984-01-01

    During January-August 1978, the global atmospheric angular momentum (M) exhibits distinct patterns of short term momentum interchange across latitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere winter-spring season, 30-50 day modulations of M are present in which momentum enhancements at mid-latitudes (20-30 deg) are closely matched by momentum depressions at high latitudes (50-60 deg). During the same interval there are no corresponding variations in M evident in the Southern Hemisphere. Conversely, during Southern Hemisphere fall-winter, similar anti-correlations in monthly scale momentum excursions are evident between mid and high latitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter-spring momentum signatures are detected throughout the atmosphere, from the lower troposphere to the stratosphere. During the Southern Hemisphere fall-winter, the modulation patterns are not evident at the higher altitudes. Structural details of the momentum signatures indicate that the coupling is sometimes effective on very short time scales, e.g., 1-2 days, or less. The evidence of distinct anti-correlation between large regions has interesting implications for studies of global atmospheric circulation, and also for studies of the excitation of variations in earth rotation in response to short term modulations of M.

  14. Theoretical Accuracy of Global Snow-Cover Mapping Using Satellite Data in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K.; Foster, J. L.; Salomonson, V. V.; Klein, A. G.; Chien, J. Y. L.

    1998-01-01

    Following the launch of the Earth Observing System first morning (EOS-AM1) satellite, daily, global snow-cover mapping will be performed automatically at a spatial resolution of 500 m, cloud-cover permitting, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. A technique to calculate theoretical accuracy of the MODIS-derived snow maps is presented. Field studies demonstrate that under cloud-free conditions when snow cover is complete, snow-mapping errors are small (less than 1%) in all land covers studied except forests where errors are greater and more variable. The theoretical accuracy of MODIS snow-cover maps is largely determined by percent forest cover north of the snowline. Using the 17-class International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) land-cover maps of North America and Eurasia, the Northern Hemisphere is classified into seven land-cover classes and water. Snow-mapping errors estimated for each of the seven land-cover classes are extrapolated to the entire Northern Hemisphere for areas north of the average continental snowline for each month. Average monthly errors for the Northern Hemisphere are expected to range from 5 - 10%, and the theoretical accuracy of the future global snow-cover maps is 92% or higher. Error estimates will be refined after the first full year that MODIS data are available.

  15. Anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the Earth's mantle: A global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustowski, B.; EkströM, G.; DziewońSki, A. M.

    2008-06-01

    We combine a new, large data set of surface wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body wave travel times to construct a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modeling approach is improved and more comprehensive compared to our earlier studies and involves the development and implementation of a new spherically symmetric reference model, simultaneous inversion for velocity and anisotropy, as well as discontinuity topographies, and implementation of nonlinear crustal corrections for waveforms. A comparison of our new three-dimensional model, S362ANI, with two other models derived from comparable data sets but using different techniques reveals persistent features: (1) strong, ˜200-km-thick, high-velocity anomalies beneath cratons, likely representing the continental lithosphere, underlain by weaker, fast anomalies extending below 250 km, which may represent continental roots, (2) weak velocity heterogeneity between 250 and 400 km depths, (3) fast anomalies extending horizontally up to 2000-3000 km in the mantle transition zone beneath subduction zones, (4) lack of strong long-wavelength heterogeneity below 650 km suggesting inhibiting character of the upper mantle-lower mantle boundary, and (5) slow-velocity superplumes beneath the Pacific and Africa. The shear wave radial anisotropy is strongest at 120 km depth, in particular beneath the central Pacific. Lateral anisotropic variations appreciably improve the fit to data that are predominantly sensitive to the uppermost and lowermost mantle but not to the waveforms that control the transition zone and midmantle depths. Tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy are negligible in the uppermost mantle but noticeable at the bottom of the mantle.

  16. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Ahrens, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bell, G.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Hankin, S.; Harper, D.; Hook, N.; Jones, P.; Middleton, D. E.; Miller, R.; Nienhouse, E.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shipman, G.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wang, F.; Wilcox, H.; Wilhelmi, N.

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  17. Earth Rotation and Geoid Constraints Upon The Modern Rate of Global Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.

    The explanation for the tide gauge inferred rate of secular sea level rise that has been ongoing over the last century remains enigmatic. Various explanations have been pro- posed for the fact that there is a large shortfall between the sum of the estimates of the steric and small ice sheets and glaciers contributions, respectively 0.6 mm yr-1 and ~0.3 mm yr-1 and the tide gauge inferred rate of ~1.8 mm yr-1( see Douglas and Peltier, Physics Today, March 2002 for a recent discussion). Possible explanations in- clude climate induced melting of the great polar ice sheets on Greenland and Antarc- tica, substantial upwards bias in the tide gauge inferred rates ( Cabanes et al., Science, 2002), or substantial underestimation of the steric rate most recently analysed in de- tail be Levitus and others(Science 2001,2002). Strong arguments exist as to why the second explanation is not likely to be correct. If we accept that the steric and small ice sheets estimates are reliable then we are forced to accept a significant contribution due to the modern day melting of polar ice. Yet the extent to which this contribution could be significant is strongly constrained by Earth rotation observations. I will ad- dress the issue as to how firm these constraints actually are. Grace observations of the time dependent geoid height, a signal which is also contaminated by the GIA process, as are Topex/Poseidon observations, once filtered to remove this effect, are expected to be immensely valuable in resolving the remaining uncertainties.

  18. Global Scale Observations of Ionospheric Instabilities from GPS in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard; Goodman, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The GPS receiver used for navigation on the Space Shuttle exhibits range rate noise which appears to result from scintillation of the satellite signals by irregularities in ionospheric plasma. The noise events cluster in geographic regions previously identified as susceptible to instability and disturbed ionospheric conditions. These mechanisms are reviewed in the context of the GPS observations. Range rate data continuously monitored during the free orbiting phase of several space shuttle missions reveals global scale distribution of ionospheric irregularities. Equatorial events cluster +/- 20 degrees about the magnetic equator and polar events exhibit hemispheric asymmetry suggesting influence of off axis geomagnetic polar oval system. The diurnal, seasonal and geographic distribution is compared to previous work concerning equatorial spread F, Appleton anomaly and polar oval. The observations provide a succinct demonstration of the utility of space based ionospheric monitoring using GPS. The susceptability of GPS receivers to scintillation represents 'an unanticipated technical risk not factored into the selection of receivers for the United States space program.

  19. Abiogenic formation of alkanes in the Earth's crust as a minor source for global hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Westgate, T. D.; Ward, J. A.; Slater, G. F.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2002-04-01

    Natural hydrocarbons are largely formed by the thermal decomposition of organic matter (thermogenesis) or by microbial processes (bacteriogenesis). But the discovery of methane at an East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent and in other crustal fluids supports the occurrence of an abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. These abiogenic hydrocarbons are generally formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide, a process which is thought to occur during magma cooling and-more commonly-in hydrothermal systems during water-rock interactions, for example involving Fischer-Tropsch reactions and the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Suggestions that abiogenic hydrocarbons make a significant contribution to economic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been difficult to resolve, in part owing to uncertainty in the carbon isotopic signatures for abiogenic versus thermogenic hydrocarbons. Here, using carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses of abiogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks of the Canadian shield, we show a clear distinction between abiogenic and thermogenic hydrocarbons. The progressive isotopic trends for the series of C1-C4 alkanes indicate that hydrocarbon formation occurs by way of polymerization of methane precursors. Given that these trends are not observed in the isotopic signatures of economic gas reservoirs, we can now rule out the presence of a globally significant abiogenic source of hydrocarbons.

  20. Near-global distribution of CO isotopic fractionation in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, C. A.; Buzan, E. M.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    The first near-global (-85° to 85°) measurements of the isotopic fractionation of 13CO relative to 12CO have been obtained from 5 to 90 km using the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer). These observations have been compared to predictions from WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). The highest positive fractionation (i.e. relatively more 13CO) values of over 100‰ are observed in the lower thermosphere during winter in both hemispheres, whereas the highest negative fractionation (i.e. relatively more 12CO) is observed in the mesosphere in the summer at high latitudes (due to the highly fractionating effect that UV light has on CO2) and year round in the tropics. Agreement between measurements and model results is generally good at high altitude, although ACE shows a stronger fractionation effect from CO2 photolysis than predicted by WACCM. In the lower atmosphere, agreement is qualitatively good, although there is a distinct discrepancy at 40 km in all seasons, which is likely a retrieval artifact.

  1. Earth as humans’ habitat: global climate change and the health of populations

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced climate change, with such rapid and continuing global-scale warming, is historically unprecedented and signifies that human pressures on Earth’s life-supporting natural systems now exceed the planet’s bio-geo-capacity. The risks from climate change to health and survival in populations are diverse, as are the social and political ramifications. Although attributing observed health changes in a population to the recent climatic change is difficult, a coherent pattern of climate- and weather-associated changes is now evident in many regions of the world. The risks impinge unevenly, especially on poorer and vulnerable regions, and are amplified by pre-existing high rates of climate-sensitive diseases and conditions. If, as now appears likely, the world warms by 3-5oC by 2100, the health consequences, directly and via massive social and economic disruption, will be severe. The health sector has an important message to convey, comparing the health risks and benefits of enlightened action to avert climate change and to achieve sustainable ways of living versus the self-interested or complacent inaction. PMID:24596901

  2. Abiogenic formation of alkanes in the Earth's crust as a minor source for global hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sherwood Lollar, B; Westgate, T D; Ward, J A; Slater, G F; Lacrampe-Couloume, G

    2002-04-01

    Natural hydrocarbons are largely formed by the thermal decomposition of organic matter (thermogenesis) or by microbial processes (bacteriogenesis). But the discovery of methane at an East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent and in other crustal fluids supports the occurrence of an abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. These abiogenic hydrocarbons are generally formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide, a process which is thought to occur during magma cooling and-more commonly-in hydrothermal systems during water-rock interactions, for example involving Fischer-Tropsch reactions and the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Suggestions that abiogenic hydrocarbons make a significant contribution to economic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been difficult to resolve, in part owing to uncertainty in the carbon isotopic signatures for abiogenic versus thermogenic hydrocarbons. Here, using carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses of abiogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks of the Canadian shield, we show a clear distinction between abiogenic and thermogenic hydrocarbons. The progressive isotopic trends for the series of C1-C4 alkanes indicate that hydrocarbon formation occurs by way of polymerization of methane precursors. Given that these trends are not observed in the isotopic signatures of economic gas reservoirs, we can now rule out the presence of a globally significant abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. PMID:11932741

  3. Diagnostics of a cause-effect relation between solar activity and the Earth's global surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, I. I.; Smirnov, D. A.

    2008-06-01

    The influence of solar activity on the Earth’s global surface temperature (GST) was quantified. The method for estimation of the Granger causality was used, with analysis of the improvement of the prediction of one process by using data from another process as compared to autoprediction. Two versions of reconstructions of the solar flux variations associated with solar activity were used, according to Hoyt et al. [1997] for 1680 1992 (data H) and according to Lean et al. [2005] for 1610 2005 (data L). In general, the estimation results for the two reconstructions are reasonably well consistent. A significant influence of solar activity on GST with a positive sign was found for two periods, from the late 19th century to the late 1930s and from the latter half of the 1940s to the early 1990s, with no inertia or time delay. In these periods, up to 8 and 25% of the variance of the GST change, respectively, can be attributed to solar activity variations. The solar influence increased in the 1980s to the early 1990s according to data H and began to decrease in the latter half of the 1980s according to data L.

  4. Global-scale modelling of melting and isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle: melting modules for TERRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heck, Hein J.; Davies, J. Huw; Elliott, Tim; Porcelli, Don

    2016-04-01

    Many outstanding problems in solid-Earth science relate to the geodynamical explanation of geochemical observations. Currently, extensive geochemical databases of surface observations exist, but satisfying explanations of underlying mantle processes are lacking. One way to address these problems is through numerical modelling of mantle convection while tracking chemical information throughout the convective mantle. We have implemented a new way to track both bulk compositions and concentrations of trace elements in a finite-element mantle convection code. Our approach is to track bulk compositions and trace element abundances via particles. One value on each particle represents bulk composition and can be interpreted as the basalt component. In our model, chemical fractionation of bulk composition and trace elements happens at self-consistent, evolving melting zones. Melting is defined via a composition-dependent solidus, such that the amount of melt generated depends on pressure, temperature and bulk composition of each particle. A novel aspect is that we do not move particles that undergo melting; instead we transfer the chemical information carried by the particle to other particles. Molten material is instantaneously transported to the surface layer, thereby increasing the basalt component carried by the particles close to the surface and decreasing the basalt component in the residue. The model is set to explore a number of radiogenic isotopic systems, but as an example here the trace elements we choose to follow are the Pb isotopes and their radioactive parents. For these calculations we will show (1) the evolution of the distribution of bulk compositions over time, showing the buildup of oceanic crust (via melting-induced chemical separation in bulk composition), i.e. a basalt-rich layer at the surface, and the transportation of these chemical heterogeneities through the deep mantle; (2) the amount of melt generated over time; (3) the evolution of the

  5. Global scale modeling of melting and isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heck, H. J.; Davies, J. H.; Elliott, T.; Porcelli, D.

    2015-11-01

    Many outstanding problems in solid Earth science relate to the geodynamical explanation of geochemical observations. Currently, extensive geochemical databases of surface observations exist, but satisfying explanations of underlying mantle processes are lacking. One way to address these problems is through numerical modelling of mantle convection while tracking chemical information throughout the convective mantle. We have implemented a new way to track both bulk compositions and concentrations of trace elements in a finite element mantle convection code. Our approach is to track bulk compositions and trace element abundances via particles. One value on each particle represents bulk composition, and can be interpreted as the basalt component. In our model, chemical fractionation of bulk composition and trace elements happens at self-consistent, evolving melting zones. Melting is defined via a composition-dependent solidus, such that the amount of melt generated depends on pressure, temperature and bulk composition of each particle. A novel aspect is that we do not move particles that undergo melting; instead we transfer the chemical information carried by the particle to other particles. Molten material is instantaneously transported to the surface layer, thereby increasing the basalt component carried by the particles close to the surface, and decreasing the basalt component in the residue. The model is set to explore a number of radiogenic isotopic systems but as an example here the trace elements we choose to follow are the Pb isotopes and their radioactive parents. For these calculations we will show: (1) The evolution of the distribution of bulk compositions over time, showing the build up of oceanic crust (via melting-induced chemical separation in bulk composition); i.e. a basalt-rich layer at the surface, and the transportation of these chemical heterogeneities through the deep mantle. (2) The amount of melt generated over time. (3) The evolution of the

  6. Plate tectonics hiati as the cause of global glaciations: 2. The late Proterozoic 'Snowball Earth'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2003-04-01

    A fundamental reappraisal of the mechanisms that drive plate tectonics has yielded the remarkable conclusion that, for at least the past 130 Ma, the principal agent has not been ridge-push or slab-pull but a CW-directed torque (probably of electromagnetic origin at the CMB) reaching the deep (>600 km, e.g.[1]) tectospheric keel of the Antarctica craton. Major changes in spreading direction marked both ends of the 122--85 Ma Cretaceous Superchron and started by forming the Ontong Java Plateau. Action of MORs as gearlike linkages has driven Africa and India CCW since Gondwana breakup and continues to drive the Pacific plate CCW. In the Arctic there is now no cratonic keel to pick up any corresponding polar torque, so northern hemisphere plate tectonics is far less active. The thesis of this contribution is that in the Neoproterozoic the lack of cratons at high latitudes would have deprived plate tectonics of this motivation, causing MORs to die (see below) and a major fall in sea-level, leading to global glaciation as outlined in Part 1 for the Huronian events. Like that seen during that first hiatus, dyke-swarm volcanism could have arisen from thermal shrinkage of the global lithosphere, providing CO2 and ash-covering that interrrupted glacial episodes. In oceanic settings this volcanism would have lowered pH and supplied Fe2+ for shallow bio-oxygenic action to deposit as BIF. My multifacet studies of the subduction process convince me that the rapid development of "flat-slab" interface profiles involves the physical removal of hanging-wall material in front of the downbend by basal subduction tectonic erosion (STE). Historically this, and its inferred ubiquity in the Archaean as the precursor to PSM (Part 1), suggests that the required subducting-plate buoyancy is thermal. Accordingly, a redesign [2] of the MOR process has incorporated the heat-containing LVZ as an integral part of the plate and luckily provides a lot more ridge-push to ensure the subduction of

  7. MODELING THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTEGRATED EARTH SYSTEM AND THE VALUE OF GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES USING THE GUMBO MODEL. (R827169)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A global unified metamodel of the biosphere (GUMBO) was developed to simulate the integrated earth system and assess the dynamics and values of ecosystem services. It is a `metamodel' in that it represents a synthesis and a simplification of several existing dynamic gl...

  8. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  9. Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, ecosystems, and acidification in Eastern Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The world's major Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) such as the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare current generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution

  10. Biologically induced initiation of snowball-Earth events, and the circulations of ice and ocean in a globally glaciated scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.; Finn, C.; McEntee, C.; Krause, F.; Harden, J. W.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Pendall, E.; Alves Jesus Rydin, C.; Krasa, D.; Shrestha, G.; Cavallaro, N.; Kuperberg, J.; Løvholt, F.; Horspool, N.; Cavanaugh, M. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Davis, J. L.; Evans, J. E.; Gurwick, N. P.; Richardson, R. M.; Landau, E. A.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Albert, M. R.; Rack, F. R.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Giardino, M.; Wiggins, H. V.; Habib, M. A.; Horan, P.; Stover, D. B.; Kuperberg, J.; Koch, D. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Isern, A. R.; Borg, S. G.; Ryabinin, V.; Hik, D.; Winther, J.; McConnell, W. J.; Baerwald, T. J.; Liu, J.; Winter, J. M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jacobs, C. A.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Cummins, P. R.; Harjadi, P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Netting, R.; Grunsfeld, J. M.; Freilich, M. H.; Green, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Stammer, D.; Wefer, G.; Lefebvre, A.; Lucarini, V.; Kanzow, T.; Goddard, L.; McCreary, J. P.; Sprintall, J.; Patterson, M.; Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Nave, L. E.; Harden, J. W.; Horan, P.; Koch, D. M.; Laviolette, R.; Frost, G. J.; Middleton, P.; Uhle, M. E.; Gurney, R. J.; Impey, A.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Escobar, V. M.; Murphy, F.; Callaghan, S.; Graber, J. R.; Lawford, R. G.; Koike, T.; Cripe, D.; Gundersen, L. C.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Bohan, M.; Kaye, J. A.; Freilich, M. H.; Volz, S. M.; Friedl, L.; Komar, G.; Jacobberger-Jellison, P. A.; Luce, P.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Agarwal, D.; Biraud, S. C.; Billesbach, D. P.; Humphrey, M.; Law, B. E.; Papale, D.; Wofsy, S. C.; Quadrelli, R.; Wilson, S.; Liverman, D. M.; Liss, P. S.; Killeen, T.; Watson, R.; Zebiak, S. E.; Tang, Q.; Hong, Y.; Chen, D.; Yang, D.; Rumburg, J.; Newmark, J. S.; Giles, B. L.; DeLuca, E.; Hagan, M. E.; Studinger, M.; Jezek, K. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Lea, P.; Passalacqua, P.; Oskin, M. E.; Crosby, C.; Glennie, C. L.; Lechner, H. N.; Bowman, L. J.; Barton, T.; Uhle, M. E.; Anderson, G. J.; Fountain, D. M.; Hess, J. W.; Harper, H. E.; Gingerich, P. D.; Groffman, P. M.; Weathers, K. C.; Bernhardt, E. S.; SanClements, M.; Loescher, H. W.; Pitelka, L.; Sandgathe, S. A.; Eleuterio, D. P.; Cortinas, J. V.; McElroy, B. J.; Hsu, L.; Kim, W.; Martin, R. L.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hill, M. C.; Freymueller, J. T.; Marks, D. G.; Sztein, E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Gordeev, E.; Myers, M.; Scholl, D. W.; Ackley, S. F.; Schofield, O.; Costa, D. P.; Marin, J. A.; Pilpipenko, V. A.; Vega, P.; Zesta, E.; Stepanova, M. V.; Uozumi, T.; Nolin, A. W.; Sturm, M.; Tziperman, E.; Abbot, D. S.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Gildor, H.; Halevy, I.; Johnston, D. T.; Knoll, A.; Losch, M. J.; Pollard, D.; Schoof, C.; Schrag, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Three different aspects of Neoproterozoic snowball events will be presented. First, the glaciations of the Neoproterozoic Era (1,000 to 542 Myr BP) were preceded by dramatically light 13C isotopic excursions preserved in pre-glacial deposits. Standard explanations of these excursions involve remineralization of isotopically light organic matter and imply strong enhancement of atmospheric CO2 greenhouse gas concentration, apparently inconsistent with the glaciations that followed. We propose a scenario in which the isotopic signal, as well as the global glaciation, result from changes to the ocean biology, possibly due to the evolution of microorganisms, specifically eukaryotes. These changes may have lead to enhanced export of organic matter from the upper ocean into anoxic sub-surface waters and sediments. The organic matter undergoes anoxic remineralization at depth via either sulfate- or iron-reducing bacteria. In both cases this can lead to changes in carbonate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic pool that efficiently lower the atmospheric CO2 concentration, possibly plunging Earth into an ice age. (With Itay Halevy, Andrew Knoll, David Johnston, Dan Schrag). Second, the problem of ice flow in two horizontal dimensions over a snowball ocean will be briefly discussed. The formulation of ice flow problem in two dimensions, following the well-known ice-shelf equations in glaciology, will be derived in spherical coordinates, and numerical solutions and scaling arguments developed. It will be shown how the existence of semi-enclosed seas or narrow passages between continents may lead to strong sea-ice thickness gradients, consistent with previous studies that demonstrated this in simpler geometry. (With Dorian Abbot, Yossi Ashkenazy, Hezi Gildor, David Pollard, Christian Schoof, Dan Schrag). Finally, the ocean circulation under a thick snowball cover based on GCM simulations and dynamical analysis will be described and its dynamics analyzed. (With Yossi Ashkenazy

  11. Global Assessment of Dryland Degradation Using Long-Term Earth Observation Data Sets of Precipitation and Vegetation Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Tagesson, T.; Rasmussen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous time series of high quality Earth Observation (EO) based estimates of vegetation are key information for the assessment of long-term degradation in ecosystem function and productivity. In arid and semi-arid areas it has been reported that land degradation (LD) affects the well-being of 250 million people worldwide, which places it among today's most pressing environmental issues. However scientifically robust methods for assessing land degradation at global scale are still lacking. Indeed LD processes are complex and driven by multiple factors, either natural (e.g. changes in climate variability) or anthropic (eg. over-/mis- use of land resources), those factors often being region dependent. Traditionally LD assessment methods are based on the postulate that water availability is the major climate determinant for plant growth and production in drylands. Relationships between precipitation and above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) have been extensively studied to better understand the impact of climate variability on dryland vegetation productivity. Besides it has been claimed that the ratio ANPP to precipitation, known as the Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE), is a conservative property of the vegetation cover in drylands if the vegetation cover is not subject to non-precipitation related LD; and therefore change in RUE could inform on human-induced degradation. However several authors have put forward the many limitations of RUE and gave recommendations for a proper use of this concept (e.g. Fensholt et al. 2013, Prince et al. 2007). Fensholt et al. (2013) notably recommend to restrict its use to areas where a linear relationship between rainfall and the selected EO based proxy for ANPP is found and where the regression offset of this relationship is close to zero. In this study the concept of RUE as indicator of human-induced LD in drylands will be evaluated at global scale. Both long-term trends and abrupt changes in RUE time series will be analyzed

  12. Global Unique Identification of Geoscience Samples: The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.; Lenhardt, W. C.

    2005-12-01

    Data on samples represent a primary foundation of Geoscience research across disciplines, ranging from the study of climate change, to biogeochemical cycles, to mantle and continental dynamics and are key to our knowledge of the Earth's dynamical systems and evolution. Different data types are generated for individual samples by different research groups, published in different papers, and stored in different databases on a global scale. The utility of these data is critically dependent on their integration. Such integration can be achieved within a Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure, but requires unambiguous identification of samples. Currently, naming of samples is arbitrary and inconsistent and therefore severely limits our ability to share, link, and integrate sample-based data. Major problems include name duplication, and changing of names as a sample is passed along over many years to different investigators. SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration (http://www.geosamples.org), addresses this problem by building a registry that generates and administers globally unique identifiers for Geoscience samples: the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN). Implementation of the IGSN in data publication and digital data management will dramatically advance interoperability among information systems for sample-based data, opening an extensive range of new opportunities for discovery and for interdisciplinary approaches in research. The IGSN will also facilitate the ability of investigators to build on previously collected data on samples as new measurements are made or new techniques are developed. With potentially broad application to all types of Geoscience samples, SESAR is global in scope. It is a web-based system that can be easily accessed by individual users through an interactive web interface and by distributed client systems via standard web services. Samples can be registered individually or in batches and at various levels of granularity from entire cores

  13. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  14. Development of a global LAI/ FAPAR estimation algorithm for JAXA's new earth observation satellite,GCOM-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Nasahara, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Honda, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is planning to launch a new earth observation satellite, GCOM-C1 (Global Change Observation Mission 1st-Climate) in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2016. SGLI (Second generation GLobal Imager) is a radiometer, which has 17 channels from near ultraviolet to thermal infrared. Furthermore, it has the features, such as 250m spatial resolution, polarization, and multi-angle observation. In the GCOM-C1 land science team, vegetation index, above ground biomass, LAI (Leaf Area Index), FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation), etc. are scheduled to be generated from SGLI data as standard products. These are important in order to estimate terrestrial carbon cycle. In this study, we propose a new LAI and FAPAR estimation algorithm from SGLI data and the proposed algorithm was applied to Terra/ MODIS data. The relation between LAI and BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) in red and near infrared bands or FAPAR are dependent on crown cover ratio. Therefore, LUT (Look Up Table) of crown cover ratio, LAI and BRF in red and near infrared or FAPAR are created by FLiES which is 3-dimensional radiative transfer model (Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185). First, crown cover ratio is estimated from multiple land surface reflecntace in red and near infrared bands based on LUT of BRF in red and near infrared bands. Next, LAI and FAPAR are estimated from land surface reflectance in red and near infrared band based on estimated crown cover ratio and LUT of BRF in red and near infrared and FAPAR. As a result of applying Terra/ MODIS land surface reflectance product (MOD09), estimated LAI and FAPAR agreed with LAI and FAPAR observed at the AmeriFlux sites.

  15. Distribution of N2O in the atmosphere under global warming - a simulation study with the MPI Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Manzini, Elisa; Reick, Christian H.; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by an increasing release of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (N2O). Besides fossil fuel burning, also land use change and land management are anthropogenic sources of GHGs. Especially inputs of reactive nitrogen via fertilizer and deposition lead to enhanced emissions of N2O. One effect of a drastic future increase in surface temperature is a modification of atmospheric circulation, e.g. an accelerated Brewer Dobson circulation affecting the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decayed only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in atmospheric circulation, especially changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere, will affect the atmospheric transport, decay, and distribution of N2O. In our study we assess the impact of global warming on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O. As terrestrial N2O emissions are highly determined by inputs of reactive nitrogen - the location of which being determined by human choice - we examine in particular the importance of latitudinal source regions of N2O for its global distribution. For this purpose we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation.

  16. Building a global federation system for climate change research: the earth system grid center for enabling technologies (ESG-CET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Fraser, D.; Halliday, K.; Hankin, S.; Jones, P.; Kesselman, C.; Middleton, D. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.; Williams, D. N.

    2007-07-01

    The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the US role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading US climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 180 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 250 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single sign-on of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

  17. Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET)

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I.; Fox, P.; Fraser, D.; Halliday, K.; Hankin, S.; Jones, P.; Kesselman, C.; Middleton, J. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.; Williams, Dean N.

    2007-07-13

    The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the U.S. role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET. At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading U.S. climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG. In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 250 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 280 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single signon of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

  18. The Representation of Tropical Cyclones Within the Global William Putman Non-Hydrostatic Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) at Cloud-Permitting Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-S), an earth system model developed in the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), has integrated the non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid. The extension to a non-hydrostatic dynamical framework and the quasi-uniform cubed-sphere geometry permits the efficient exploration of global weather and climate modeling at cloud permitting resolutions of 10- to 4-km on today's high performance computing platforms. We have explored a series of incremental increases in global resolution with GEOS-S from irs standard 72-level 27-km resolution (approx.5.5 million cells covering the globe from the surface to 0.1 hPa) down to 3.5-km (approx. 3.6 billion cells).

  19. Current Challenges for HTCMC Aero-Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2007-01-01

    In comparison to the best metallic materials, HTCMC aero-propulsion engine components offer the opportunity of reduced weight and higher temperature operation, with corresponding improvements in engine cooling requirements, emissions, thrust, and specific fuel consumption. Although much progress has been made in the development of advanced HTCMC constituent materials and processes, major challenges still remain for their implementation into these components. The objectives of this presentation are to briefly review (1) potential HTCMC aero-propulsion components and their generic material performance requirements, (2) recent progress at NASA and elsewhere concerning advanced constituents and processes for meeting these requirements, (3) key HTCMC component implementation challenges that are currently being encountered, and (4) on-going activities within the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that are addressing these challenges.

  20. Common aero vehicle autonomous reentry trajectory optimization satisfying waypoint and no-fly zone constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorris, Timothy R.

    2007-12-01

    To support the Air Force's Global Reach concept, a Common Aero Vehicle is being designed to support the Global Strike mission. "Waypoints" are specified for reconnaissance or multiple payload deployments and "no-fly zones" are specified for geopolitical restrictions or threat avoidance. Due to time critical targets and multiple scenario analysis, an autonomous solution is preferred over a time-intensive, manually iterative one. Thus, a real-time or near real-time autonomous trajectory optimization technique is presented to minimize the flight time, satisfy terminal and intermediate constraints, and remain within the specified vehicle heating and control limitations. This research uses the Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV) as a simplified two-dimensional platform to compare multiple solution techniques. The solution techniques include a unique geometric approach developed herein, a derived analytical dynamic optimization technique, and a rapidly emerging collocation numerical approach. This up-and-coming numerical technique is a direct solution method involving discretization then dualization, with pseudospectral methods and nonlinear programming used to converge to the optimal solution. This numerical approach is applied to the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) as the test platform for the full three-dimensional reentry trajectory optimization problem. The culmination of this research is the verification of the optimality of this proposed numerical technique, as shown for both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional models. Additionally, user implementation strategies are presented to improve accuracy and enhance solution convergence. Thus, the contributions of this research are the geometric approach, the user implementation strategies, and the determination and verification of a numerical solution technique for the optimal reentry trajectory problem that minimizes time to target while satisfying vehicle dynamics and control limitation, and heating, waypoint, and no

  1. NASA Earth Remote Sensing Programs: An Overview with Special Emphasis on the NASA/JAXA Led Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of NASA's operations monitoring the earth from space. It includes information on NASA's administrative divisions and key operating earth science missions with specific information on the Landsat satellites, Seastar spacecraft, and the TRMM satellite.

  2. Chemically Inhomogeneous RE-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with High Figure of Merit: Solution to Global Rare Earth Criticality.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiaying; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi

    2016-01-01

    The global rare earth (RE) criticality, especially for those closely-relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-typed permanent magnets (PMs), has triggered tremendous attempts to develop new alternatives. Prospective candidates La/Ce with high abundance, however, cannot provide an equivalent performance due to inferior magnetic properties of (La/Ce)2Fe14B to Nd2Fe14B. Here we report high figure-of-merit La/Ce-rich RE-Fe-B PMs, where La/Ce are inhomogeneously distributed among the 2:14:1 phase. The resultant exchange coupling within an individual grain and magnetostatic interactions across grains ensure much superior performance to the La/Ce homogeneously distributed magnet. Maximum energy product (BH)max of 42.2 MGOe is achieved even with 36 wt. % La-Ce incorporation. The cost performance, (BH)max/cost, has been raised by 27.1% compared to a 48.9 MGOe La/Ce-free commercial magnet. The construction of chemical heterogeneity offers recipes to develop commercial-grade PMs using the less risky La/Ce, and also provides a promising solution to the REs availability constraints. PMID:27553789

  3. Fires, invasives, migrations, oh my! Scaling spatial processes into earth system models and global change projections. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spatial processes often drive ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles, and land-atmosphere feedbacks at the landscape-scale. Long-term responses of ecosystems to climate change requires dispersal and species migrations. Climate-sensitive disturbances, such as fire, pests, and pathogens, often spread contagiously across the landscape. Land-use change has created a highly fragmented landscape with a large fraction of 'edge' habitat that alters the surface energy dynamics and microclimate. These factors all interact, with fragmentation creating barriers for fire and migrations while creating corridors for rapid invasion. While the climate-change implications of these factors are often discussed, none of these processes are incorporated into earth system models because they occur at a spatial scale well below model resolution. Here we present a novel second-order spatially-implicit scheme for representing the spatial adjacencies of different vegetation types and edaphic classes. Adjacencies direct affect dispersal, contagious disturbance, radiation, and microclimate. We also demonstrate a means for approximating the size distribution of spatially contagious disturbances, such as fire, insects, and disease. Finally, we demonstrate a means for dynamically evolving spatial adjacency through time in response to disturbance and succession. This scheme is tested under a range of dispersal, disturbance, and land-use scenarios in comparison to a spatially explicit and conventional non-spatial alternatives. This scheme lays the ground for a more realistic global-scale exploration of how spatially-complex and heterogenous landscapes interact with climate-change drivers.

  4. Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

    2005-01-01

    An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

  5. Chemically Inhomogeneous RE-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with High Figure of Merit: Solution to Global Rare Earth Criticality

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiaying; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi

    2016-01-01

    The global rare earth (RE) criticality, especially for those closely-relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-typed permanent magnets (PMs), has triggered tremendous attempts to develop new alternatives. Prospective candidates La/Ce with high abundance, however, cannot provide an equivalent performance due to inferior magnetic properties of (La/Ce)2Fe14B to Nd2Fe14B. Here we report high figure-of-merit La/Ce-rich RE-Fe-B PMs, where La/Ce are inhomogeneously distributed among the 2:14:1 phase. The resultant exchange coupling within an individual grain and magnetostatic interactions across grains ensure much superior performance to the La/Ce homogeneously distributed magnet. Maximum energy product (BH)max of 42.2 MGOe is achieved even with 36 wt. % La-Ce incorporation. The cost performance, (BH)max/cost, has been raised by 27.1% compared to a 48.9 MGOe La/Ce-free commercial magnet. The construction of chemical heterogeneity offers recipes to develop commercial-grade PMs using the less risky La/Ce, and also provides a promising solution to the REs availability constraints. PMID:27553789

  6. 2005 PathfinderPlus Aero-Elastic Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the 2005 Pathfinder along with an investigation of its aeroelastic responses. The contents include: 1) HALE Class of Vehicles; 2) Aero-elastic Research Flights Overall Objective; 3) General Arrangement; 4) Sensor Locations; 5) NASA Ramp Operations; 6) Lakebed Operations; 7) 1st Flight Data Set; 8) Tool development / data usage; 9) HALE Tool Development & Validation; 10) Building a HALE Foundation; 11) Compelling Needs Drive HALE Efforts; and 12) Team Photo

  7. Improvement of the AeroClipper system for cyclones monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Philippe, Duvel Jean

    2016-07-01

    The AeroClipper developed by the French space agency (Centre National d'Études Spatiales, CNES) is a quasi-lagrangian device drifting with surface wind at about 20-30m above the ocean surface. It is a new and original device for real-time and continuous observation of air-sea surface parameters in open ocean remote regions. This device enables the sampling of the variability of surface parameters in particular under convective systems toward which it is attracted. The AeroClipper is therefore an ideal instrument to monitor Tropical Cyclones (TCs) in which they are likely to converge and provide original observations to evaluate and improve our current understanding and diagnostics of TCs as well as their representation in numerical models. In 2008, the AeroClipper demonstrates its capability to be captured by an Ocean Indian cyclone, as two models have converged, without damages, in the eye of Dora cyclone during the 2008 VASCO campaign. This paper will present the improvements of this balloon system for the international project 'the Year of Maritime Continent'.

  8. Aerosol Comparisons Between Observations and Models: AeroCom and ABC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Kinne, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    I will represent the AeroCom community to the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) workshop. I will summarize the activities and results from AeroCom Phase I activities in the past 8 years and introduce the new results and activities in the current AeroCom Phase II. We hope to coordinate some activities with the ABC community to share model output and data access for model evaluations, comparisons, and assessment.

  9. The national aero-space plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is an extremely versatile and adaptable aircraft. It can be developed into an Orient Express that would dramatically improve trade with countries in Asia and elsewhere: a commuter transport to ferry men and materials to space, an advanced tactical fighter or bomber, and an unparalleled high altitude spy-plane to observe troubled spots all over the globe. Utilizing the technology developed by this pilot program, it will be possible to quickly and easily get to low Earth orbit, go halfway around the world in a fraction of the time it previously took, and lead the world in the development of advanced technology to improve our lives and the lives of many others.

  10. Characterizing an Integrated Annual Global Measure of the Earth's Maximum Land Surface Temperatures from 2003 to 2012 Reveals Strong Biogeographic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildrexler, D. J.; Zhao, M.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a good indicator of the surface energy balance because it is determined by interactions and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and the ground. The variability of land surface properties and vegetation densities across the Earth's surface changes these interactions and gives LST a unique biogeographic influence. Natural and human-induced disturbances modify the surface characteristics and alter the expression of LST. This results in a heterogeneous and dynamic thermal environment. Measurements that merge these factors into a single global metric, while maintaining the important biophysical and biogeographical factors of the land surface's thermal environment are needed to better understand integrated temperature changes in the Earth system. Using satellite-based LST we have developed a new global metric that focuses on one critical component of LST that occurs when the relationship between vegetation density and surface temperature is strongly coupled: annual maximum LST (LSTmax). A 10 year evaluation of LSTmax histograms that include every 1-km pixel across the Earth's surface reveals that this integrative measurement is strongly influenced by the biogeographic patterns of the Earth's ecosystems, providing a unique comparative view of the planet every year that can be likened to the Earth's thermal maximum fingerprint. The biogeographical component is controlled by the frequency and distribution of vegetation types across the Earth's land surface and displays a trimodal distribution. The three modes are driven by ice covered polar regions, forests, and hot desert/shrubland environments. In ice covered areas the histograms show that the heat of fusion results in a convergence of surface temperatures around the melting point. The histograms also show low interannual variability reflecting two important global land surface dynamics; 1) only a small fraction of the Earth's surface is disturbed in any given year, and 2) when

  11. Host Model Uncertainties in Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates: Results from the AeroCom Prescribed Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, Phillip; Schutgens, Nick A.; Bellouin, N.; Bian, Huisheng; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Ghan, Steven J.; Huneeus, N.; Kinne, Stefan; Lin, G.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Myhre, G.; Penner, J. E.; Randles, Cynthia; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Takemura, T.; Yu, Fangqun; Yu, Hongbin; Zhou, Cheng

    2013-03-20

    Simulated multi-model "diversity" in aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates is often perceived as mea- sure of aerosol uncertainty. However, current models used for aerosol radiative forcing calculations vary considerably in model components relevant for forcing calculations and the associated "host-model uncertainties" are generally convoluted with the actual aerosol uncertainty. In this AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of identical aerosol radiative properties in nine participating models. Even with prescribed aerosol radiative properties,simulated clear-sky and all-sky aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity. For a purely scattering case with globally constant optical depth of 0.2, the global-mean all-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is -4.51 Wm-2 and the inter-model standard deviation is 0.70 Wm-2, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 15%. For a case with partially absorbing aerosol with an aerosol optical depth of 0.2 and single scattering albedo of 0.8, the forcing changes to 1.26 Wm-2, and the standard deviation increases to 1.21 W-2, corresponding to a significant relative standard deviation of 96%. However, the top-of-atmosphere forcing variability owing to absorption is low, with relative standard deviations of 9% clear-sky and 12% all-sky. Scaling the forcing standard deviation for a purely scattering case to match the sulfate radiative in the AeroCom Direct Effect experiment, demonstrates that host model uncertain- ties could explain about half of the overall sulfate forcing diversity of 0.13 Wm-2 in the AeroCom Direct Radiative Effect experiment. Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model components, such as stratocumulus cloud decks or areas with poorly constrained.

  12. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  13. Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect from AeroCom Phase II Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; vanNoije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J. -H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 W m(sup-2), with a mean of -0.27 W m(sup-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 W m(sup-2). Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study.We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results

  14. Aero-optical interaction mechanisms and resolution robustness in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, Fazlul Rahim

    Turbulence is a fundamental phenomena found is a wide variety of large Reynolds number flows with many practical and theoretical applications. This dissertation will outline studies done on turbulent free shear layers in order to gain a greater fundamental understanding of more complex turbulent flow fields. This study will focus on directed energy propagation through turbulence, imaging and image resolution robustness of turbulence, and the multi-fractal nature of turbulent scalar interfaces. In the first part of this study, aero-optical interactions along laser beam propagation paths in turbulent compressible separated shear layers are examined on the basis of combined experiments and computations of the aero-optical phenomena. We introduce the idea of the interaction optical path difference (IOPD), and its associated r.m.s. value (IOPD rms), and we investigate these quantities as functions of the laser beam propagation distance throughout the flow and also as functions of the laser aperture size. Evidence of non-monotonic behavior of the IOPDrms , shown by partial reductions in the aperture-averaged laser aberrations, as a function of propagation distance in the flow is observed for individual realizations. The extent of this non-monotonic behavior depends on the orientation of, and gradients across, the refractive turbulent interfaces. These observations of non-monotonic behavior suggest the presence of a fundamental turbulence-induced self-correction mechanism, determined by the geometrical and physical properties of the high-gradient refractive interfaces, that can be utilized to optimize aero-optical effects in airborne directed energy applications. In addition, this work investigates the extent of aero-optical resolution robustness, i.e. the effects of resolution reduction on the aero-optical interactions, using combined experiments and computations. High-resolution images of the refractive index field in turbulent compressible separated shear layers at

  15. A Global 3D P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Chang, M.; Lewis, J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Effectively monitoring for small nuclear tests (<<1 kT) using seismic data can be best performed via use of a true global model without seams, based on a single, simultaneous inversion of a global data set encompassing regional and teleseismic data from a variety of areas. Several such models have been developed, but generally for insight into the structure of the inner Earth, not for improving treaty-monitoring capability. We present our first generation global P-velocity model developed specifically to improve event location using both teleseismic and regional distance phases. Our data set is the global EHB catalog, consisting of 130,000 events spanning some 46 years (e.g., ISC, PDE; http://www.isc.ac.uk/EHB/ index.html). The total number of P, Pn, and Pg ray paths is over 14 million. To make the inversion computationally practical, and to prevent overweighting due to ray path redundancy, we cluster rays based on geometric similarity of the entire ray paths traced through our starting model, reducing the number of ray paths by more than 30%. Travel times and uncertainties for the representative rays are taken as the inverse uncertainty-weighted average of the values for the individual rays. The model is represented using the variable resolution tessellation developed by Ballard et al (2009). For our initial model, we use a simplified 2 layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Travel times are calculated using the robust and efficient ray-bending algorithm developed by Ballard et al (2009). Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We regularize using a variation of the progressive grid refinement methodology used by Simmons and Myers (2009). We begin the inversion at a coarse regular sampling, iterate to convergence, then add intermediate nodes at positions adjacent to adjusted nodes from the previous grid. The new model is iterated to convergence, then

  16. Building Nationally-Focussed, Globally Federated, High Performance Earth Science Platforms to Solve Next Generation Social and Economic Issues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben; Foster, Clinton; Pugh, Timothy; Uhlherr, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Digital geoscience data and information are integral to informing decisions on the social, economic and environmental management of natural resources. Traditionally, such decisions were focused on regional or national viewpoints only, but it is increasingly being recognised that global perspectives are required to meet new challenges such as predicting impacts of climate change; sustainably exploiting scarce water, mineral and energy resources; and protecting our communities through better prediction of the behaviour of natural hazards. In recent years, technical advances in scientific instruments have resulted in a surge in data volumes, with data now being collected at unprecedented rates and at ever increasing resolutions. The size of many earth science data sets now exceed the computational capacity of many government and academic organisations to locally store and dynamically access the data sets; to internally process and analyse them to high resolutions; and then to deliver them online to clients, partners and stakeholders. Fortunately, at the same time, computational capacities have commensurately increased (both cloud and HPC): these can now provide the capability to effectively access the ever-growing data assets within realistic time frames. However, to achieve this, data and computing need to be co-located: bandwidth limits the capacity to move the large data sets; the data transfers are too slow; and latencies to access them are too high. These scenarios are driving the move towards more centralised High Performance (HP) Infrastructures. The rapidly increasing scale of data, the growing complexity of software and hardware environments, combined with the energy costs of running such infrastructures is creating a compelling economic argument for just having one or two major national (or continental) HP facilities that can be federated internationally to enable earth and environmental issues to be tackled at global scales. But at the same time, if

  17. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with global forest data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESM). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first generation Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second generation DVMs, that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to a range of forest types around the globe, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 yr. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents a preferable alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody biomass turnover, typically used in current ESMs.

  18. Preliminary Global Topographic Model of Mars Based on MOLA Altimetry, Earth-Based Radar, and Viking, Mariner and MGS Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    The recent altimetry data acquired by MOLA over the northern hemisphere of Mars have been combined with the Earth-based radar data obtained between 1971 and 1982, and occultation measurements of the Viking 1 and 2 Orbiters, Mariner 9, and MGS to derive a global model of the shape and topography of Mars. This preliminary model has a horizontal resolution of about 300 km. Vertical accuracy is on average a few hundred meters in the region of the data. Datasets: The altimetry and radar datasets were individually binned in 1.25 degree grids and merged with the occultation data. The Viking and Mariner occultation data in the northern hemisphere were excluded from the combined dataset where MOLA altimetry were available. The laser altimetry provided extensive and almost complete coverage of the northern hemisphere north of latitude 30 while the radar provided longitudinal coverage at several latitude bands between 23N and 23S. South of this region the only data were occultations. The majority of the occultations were obtained from Mariner 9, and the rest from Viking 1 & 2, and MGS. Earlier studies had shown that the Viking and Mariner occultations were on average only accurate to 500 meters. The recent MGS occultations are accurate to a few tens of meters. However, the highest southern latitude reached by the MGS occultations is only about 64S and data near the target region for the Mars 98 lander is limited to a few Viking and Mariner observations of relatively poor quality. In addition to the above datasets the locations of the Viking 1, Viking 2, and Pathfinder landers, obtained from the radio tracking of their signals, were included.

  19. Properties of low-latitude mantle plasma in the Earth's magnetotail: ARTEMIS observations and global MHD predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Ping; Lyons, Larry R.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-09-01

    The Earth's plasma mantle is one of the major suppliers of particles for the plasma sheet. To understand its plasma characteristics, spatial distributions, and dependencies on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction, we statistically analyzed the Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) observations in the low-latitude magnetotail (~10 RE above and below the current sheet) and investigated the predictions from global Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind-Roe-Upwind Scheme MHD simulations. The mantle plasma flows tailward along magnetic field lines (~50-200 km/s) and at the same time drifts toward midnight and toward the current sheet. The mantle plasma has similar temperature (~0.05-0.2 keV) to the magnetosheath plasma but has lower density (~0.1-1 cm-3). The mantle appearance is dawn-dusk asymmetric depending mainly on the IMF By direction. The occurrence rates, density, and V|| all decrease with decreasing |Y|. This density cross-tail profile suggests that the low-latitude mantle plasma mainly comes from the magnetosheath entering through the tail magnetopause along the open field lines. Density is highly and positively correlated with V||. These observations are qualitatively consistent with the MHD results. The simulations indicate that as IMF By becomes dominant, the source locations at the magnetopause for the mantle move to lower latitudes and become dawn-dusk asymmetric, and the tail cross section also becomes distorted with the magnetopause shape elongating and the current sheet tilting significantly. Degrees of these changes also vary with the downtail distances and IMF Bz direction. The source location change leads to the dawn-dusk asymmetric mantle appearance. The tail cross-section change alters the distance from the sources to the current sheet and thus the resulting mantle density distributions just outside the plasma sheet.

  20. Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparision. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modeled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  1. Modelled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long-range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present-day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparison. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modelled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  2. 78 FR 69600 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Industries S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for certain Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes. This proposed AD results from... proposed AD, contact Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A--Airworthiness Office, Via Luigi Cibrario,...

  3. 78 FR 69597 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...-16169 (75 FR 904, January 7, 2010). (c) Applicability This AD applies to PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A... Industries S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A Model P-180 airplanes that would supersede an existing AD....

  4. 77 FR 35888 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes....

  5. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  8. Comparison of Gravitational Effects of Earth's Lithosphere Calculated from GOCE Satellite Gravity Data and LITHO1.0 Global Geophysical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdun, J. L. M.; Roussel, C.; Cali, J.; Masson, F.

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, the increasing availability of satellite-measured gravity data, as provided by GOCE satellite mission, jointly with even more reliable geophysical models of Earth's crust and mantle has aroused renewed interest in computation of theoretical gravity effects up to global scale from geological models, directly comparable with satellite measurements. The computation of theoretical gravity effects well-suited for investigating GOCE gravity data, requires the use of ellipsoidal shaped models of the Earth interior particularly detailed from the crust down to the uppermost mantle, with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better. Our approach consists therefore in working out a new numerical calculation method of the complete gravity field - gravity vector components and gravity gradients - by Gauss-Legendre quadrature using ellipsoidal mass elements well-suited for ellipsoidal shaped bodies. Results of Earth's gravity field calculations carried out using LITHO1.0, 1° tessellated lithosphere model (Pasyanos et al., 2014) are presented and discussed. The results are then compared with GOCE gravity data obtained by averaging over few years of measurement.Pasyanos, M. E., T. G. Masters, G. Laske, and Z. Ma (2014), LITHO1.0: An updated crust and lithospheric model of the Earth, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 119, 2153-2173, doi:10.1002/2013JB010626.

  9. Jerks as Guiding Influences on the Global Environment: Effects on the Solid Earth, Its Angular Momentum and Lithospheric Plate Motions, the Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. M.; Leybourne, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Jerks are thought to be the result of torques applied at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) caused by either of two possible processes, working together or separately: 1) Electromagnetic Induction and 2) Mechanical Slippage. In the first case, it is thought that electromagnetic energy slowly builds-up at the CMB, reaches some critical level, and is then suddenly released, causing a geomagneticly induced torque at the CMB due to the differential electrical conductivity between the lower mantle and the surface of the outer core. The second case is driven by stress and strain increases that buildup mechanical potential energy, which is released when a critical level is reached, thereby generating a torque at the CMB. Generally, a trigger is required to start the Jerk process in motion. In the electromagnetic case, it is suggested that energy from the Sun may supply the requisite energy buildup that is subsequently released by a magnetic storm trigger, for instance. In the case of mechanical slippage, bari-center motion among the Earth, Moon, and Sun, as well as tidal forces and mass redistributions through Earth's wobbles combine to provide the accumulated stress/strain buildup and subsequent trigger. The resulting fluid flow changes at the CMB result in geomagnetic field changes and Joule heating throughout the solid Earth, its oceans, and atmosphere. It is shown that the Global Temperature Anomaly (GTA), which is measured at Earth's surface, correlates with changes in the geomagnetic non-dipole moment, and thus with core fluid motions. This links Global Warming and weather with core processes, important examples being the 1930's Dust Bowl Era and the 1947 Impulse. The CMB torque also affects Earth's angular momentum. But it appears that magnetic storms can as well. As a consequence, the Jet Stream, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the Global Oscillation System (i.e., El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decade Oscillation, etc.) are

  10. Future NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development. Finally, the presentation examines what type of non-traditional learning areas should be emphasized in student curriculum so that the engineering needs of the third decade of the 21st Century are met.

  11. Unsteady fluid and optical simulation of transonic aero-windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    The time-varying fluid and optical fields of several cavity configurations have been computed on overset mesh systems using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and geometric optics. Comparisons between numerical results and Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) flight data are made in two-dimensions for a quieted cavity geometry with two lip-blowing rates. In three-dimensions, two proposed aero-window locations for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) are discussed. The simulations indicate that convection of large shear layer structures across the aperture cause the blur circle diameter to be three times the diffraction-limited diameter in the near-infrared band.

  12. Development of a computational aero/fluids analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, P. B.

    1987-01-01

    The Computational Aero/Fluids Analysis System (AFAS) provides the analytical capability to perform state-of-the-art computational analyses in two difficult fluid dynamics disciplines associated with the Space Shuttle program. This system provides the analysis tools and techniques for rapidly and efficiently accessing, analyzing, and reformulating the large and expanding external aerodynamic data base while also providing tools for complex fluid flow analyses of the SSME engine components. Both of these fluid flow disciplines, external aerodynamics and internal gasdynamics, required this capability to ensure that MSFC can respond in a timely manner as problems are encountered and operational changes are made in the Space Shuttle.

  13. Exhaust System Experiments at NASA's AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the planned testing in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab (AAPL) in the coming 15 months. It was stressed in the presentation that these are plans that are subject to change due to changes in funding and/or programmatic direction. The first chart shows a simplified schedule of test entries with funding sponsor and dates for each. In subsequent charts are pages devoted to the Objectives and Issues with each test entry, along with a graphic intended to represent the test activity. The chart for each test entry also indicates sponsorship of the activity, and a contact person.!

  14. Hypersonic Interceptor Performance Evaluation Center aero-optics performance predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, George W.; Pond, John E.; Snow, Ronald; Hwang, Yanfang

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the Hypersonic Interceptor Performance Evaluation Center's (HIPEC) aerooptics performance predictions capability. It includes code results for three dimensional shapes and comparisons to initial experiments. HIPEC consists of a collection of aerothermal, aerodynamic computational codes which are capable of covering the entire flight regime from subsonic to hypersonic flow and include chemical reactions and turbulence. Heat transfer to the various surfaces is calculated as an input to cooling and ablation processes. HIPEC also has aero-optics codes to determine the effect of the mean flowfield and turbulence on the tracking and imaging capability of on-board optical sensors. The paper concentrates on the latter aspects.

  15. Evaluation of aero commander propeller acoustic data: Taxi operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The acoustic data from ground tests performed on an Aero Commander propeller driven aircraft are analyzed. An array of microphones flush mounted on the side of the fuselage were used to record data. The propeller blade passage noise during operations at several different taxi speeds is considered and calculations of the magnitude and phase of the blade passage tones, the amplitude stability of the tones, and the spatial phase and coherence of the tones are included. The measured results are compared to theoretical predictions for propeller noise and various evaluations which reveal important details of propeller noise characteristics are presented.

  16. Fatigue Life Analysis of Turbine Disks Based on Load Spectra of Aero-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Feng; Lv, Zhiqiang; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Load spectra of aero-engines reflect the process of operating aircrafts as well as the changes of parameters of aircrafts. According to flight hours and speed cycle numbers of the aero-engines, the relationship between load spectra and the fatigue life of main components of the aero-engines is obtained. Based on distribution function and a generalized stress-strength interference model, the cumulative fatigue damage of aero-engines is then calculated. After applying the analysis of load spectra and the cumulative fatigue damage theory, the fatigue life of the first-stage turbine disks of the aero-engines is evaluated by using the S-N curve and Miner's rule in this paper.

  17. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  18. An Overview on the Project to Develop Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Pan, M.; Gao, H.; Wood, E. F.; Houser, P. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Pinker, R.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    We aim to develop consistent, long-term Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) for the major components (storages and fluxes) of the terrestrial water cycle at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees (latitude-longitude) and for the period 1950 to near-present. The resulting ESDRs are intended to provide a consistent basis for estimating the mean state and variability of the land surface water cycle at the spatial scale of the major global river basins. The ESDRs to produce include a) surface meteorology (precipitation, air temperature, humidity and wind), b) surface downward radiation (solar and longwave) and c) derived and/or assimilated fluxes and storages such as surface soil moisture storage, total basin water storage, snow water equivalent, storage in large lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff. We construct data records for all variables back to 1950, recognizing that the post-satellite data will be of higher quality than pre-satellite (a reasonable compromise given the need for long-term records to define interannual and interdecadal variability of key water cycle variables). A distinguishing feature will be inclusion of two variables that reflect the massive effects of anthropogenic manipulation of the terrestrial water cycle, specifically reservoir storage, and irrigation water use. The overall goal of the project is to develop long term, consistent ESDRs for terrestrial water cycle states and variables by updating and extending previously funded Pathfinder data set activities to the investigators, and by making available the data set to the scientific community and data users via a state-of-the-art internet web-portal. The ESDRs will utilize algorithms and methods that are well documented in the peer reviewed literature. The ESDRs will merge satellite-derived products with predictions of the same variables by LSMs driven by merged satellite and in situ forcing data sets (most notably precipitation), with the constraint that the

  19. Three-dimensional FDTD modeling of impulsive electromagnetic propagation in the global Earth-ionosphere waveguide below 30 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Jamesina Jean

    2007-12-01

    Wave propagation at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum (below 300 kHz) in the Earth-ionosphere system is a problem having a rich history of theoretical investigation extending over many decades. Propagation within this system involves complex interactions of electromagnetic waves with the lithosphere, oceans, and ionosphere, leading to resonances that involve literally the entire planet Earth. Currently, electromagnetic phenomena below 300 kHz form the physics basis of remote-sensing investigations of lightning and sprites, global temperature change, subsurface structures, submarine communications, and potential earthquake precursors. This dissertation addresses the application of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to model impulsive electromagnetic wave propagation within the global Earth-ionosphere cavity at frequencies below 30 kHz. Two generations of numerical models are presented: a latitude-longitude grid-cell arrangement, and a geodesic grid-cell arrangement. Both types of models extend from 100 km below sea level to an altitude of 100 km, and enable a direct, full-vector, 3-D time-domain Maxwell's equations calculation of electromagnetic wave propagation due to an arbitrary excitation. Furthermore, they can account for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the ionosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and Earth's magnetic field. First, the models are verified by comparing the FDTD-calculated daytime ELF propagation attenuation with data reported in the literature. Next, four example applications are provided: (1) an investigation of hypothesized preseismic electromagnetic phenomena; (2) the development of a novel subsurface radar designed to sense the presence of major oil deposits; (3) the development of a novel radar for locating and characterizing localized ionospheric anomalies within 100 km of the Earth's surface; and (4) the development of a gyrotropic ionosphere plasma

  20. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  1. Towards the Development and Validation of a Global Field Size and Irrigation Map using Crowdsourcing, Mobile Apps and Google Earth Engine in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Nordling, J.; See, L. M.; McCallum, I.; Perger, C.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Mucher, S.; Bydekerke, L.; Havlik, P.; Kraxner, F.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has developed a global cropland extent map, which supports the monitoring and assessment activities of GEOGLAM (Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative). Through the European-funded SIGMA (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture and its Impact on the Environment in support of GEOGLAM) project, IIASA is continuing to support GEOGLAM by providing cropland projections in the future and modelling environmental impacts on agriculture under various scenarios. In addition, IIASA is focusing on two specific elements within SIGMA: the development of a global field size and irrigation map; and mobile app development for in-situ data collection and validation of remotely-sensed products. Cropland field size is a very useful indicator for agricultural monitoring yet the information we have at a global scale is currently very limited. IIASA has already created a global map of field size at a 1 km resolution using crowdsourced data from Geo-Wiki as a first approximation. Using automatic classification of Landsat imagery and algorithms contained within Google Earth Engine, initial experimentation has shown that circular fields and landscape structures can easily be extracted. Not only will this contribute to improving the global map of field size, it can also be used to create a global map that contains a large proportion of the world's irrigated areas, which will be another useful contribution to GEOGLAM. The field size map will also be used to stratify and develop a global crop map in SIGMA. Mobile app development in support of in-situ data collection is another area where IIASA is currently working. An Android app has been built using the Open Data Toolkit (ODK) and extended further with spatial mapping capabilities called GeoODK. The app allows users to collect data on different crop types and delineate fields on the ground, which can be used to validate the

  2. What do we mean by sensitivity analysis? The need for comprehensive characterization of "global" sensitivity in Earth and Environmental systems models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2015-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis is an essential paradigm in Earth and Environmental Systems modeling. However, the term "sensitivity" has a clear definition, based in partial derivatives, only when specified locally around a particular point (e.g., optimal solution) in the problem space. Accordingly, no unique definition exists for "global sensitivity" across the problem space, when considering one or more model responses to different factors such as model parameters or forcings. A variety of approaches have been proposed for global sensitivity analysis, based on different philosophies and theories, and each of these formally characterizes a different "intuitive" understanding of sensitivity. These approaches focus on different properties of the model response at a fundamental level and may therefore lead to different (even conflicting) conclusions about the underlying sensitivities. Here we revisit the theoretical basis for sensitivity analysis, summarize and critically evaluate existing approaches in the literature, and demonstrate their flaws and shortcomings through conceptual examples. We also demonstrate the difficulty involved in interpreting "global" interaction effects, which may undermine the value of existing interpretive approaches. With this background, we identify several important properties of response surfaces that are associated with the understanding and interpretation of sensitivities in the context of Earth and Environmental System models. Finally, we highlight the need for a new, comprehensive framework for sensitivity analysis that effectively characterizes all of the important sensitivity-related properties of model response surfaces.

  3. Global warming as a detectable thermodynamic marker of Earth-like extrasolar civilizations: the case for a telescope like Colossus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jeff R.; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.

    2015-07-01

    Earth-like civilizations generate heat from the energy that they utilize. The thermal radiation from this heat can be a thermodynamic marker for civilizations. Here we model such planetary radiation on Earth-like planets and propose a strategy for detecting such an alien unintentional thermodynamic electromagnetic biomarker. We show that astronomical infrared (IR) civilization biomarkers may be detected within an interestingly large cosmic volume using a 70 m-class or larger telescope. In particular, the Colossus telescope with achievable coronagraphic and adaptive optics performance may reveal Earth-like civilizations from visible and IR photometry timeseries' taken during an exoplanetary orbit period. The detection of an alien heat signature will have far-ranging implications, but even a null result, given 70 m aperture sensitivity, could also have broad social implications.

  4. Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

  5. Global Performance Characterization of the Three Burn Trans-Earth Injection Maneuver Sequence over the Lunar Nodal Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jacob; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Lee, David E.; Condon, Gerald L.; Dawn, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will be required to perform a three-burn trans-Earth injection (TEI) maneuver sequence to return to Earth from low lunar orbit. The origin of this approach lies in the Constellation Program requirements for access to any lunar landing site location combined with anytime lunar departure. This paper documents the development of optimized databases used to rapidly model the performance requirements of the TEI three-burn sequence for an extremely large number of mission cases. It also discusses performance results for lunar departures covering a complete 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle as well as general characteristics of the optimized three-burn TEI sequence.

  6. EarthEnv-DEM90: A nearly-global, void-free, multi-scale smoothed, 90m digital elevation model from fused ASTER and SRTM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Natalie; Regetz, James; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of DEM products are available to the public at no cost, though all are characterized by trade-offs in spatial coverage, data resolution, and quality. The absence of a high-resolution, high-quality, well-described and vetted, free, global consensus product was the impetus for the creation of a new DEM product described here, 'EarthEnv-DEM90'. This new DEM is a compilation dataset constructed via rigorous techniques by which ASTER GDEM2 and CGIAR-CSI v4.1 products were fused into a quality-enhanced, consistent grid of elevation estimates that spans ∼91% of the globe. EarthEnv-DEM90 was assembled using methods for seamlessly merging input datasets, thoroughly filling voids, and smoothing data irregularities (e.g. those caused by DEM noise) from the approximated surface. The result is a DEM product in which elevational artifacts are strongly mitigated from the input data fusion zone, substantial voids are filled in the northern-most regions of the globe, and the entire DEM exhibits reduced terrain noise. As important as the final product is a well defined methodology, along with new processing techniques and careful attention to final outputs, that extends the value and usability of the work beyond just this single product. Finally, we outline EarthEnv-DEM90 acquisition instructions and metadata availability, so that researchers can obtain this high-resolution, high-quality, nearly-global new DEM product for the study of wide-ranging global phenomena.

  7. Recent Progresses in Incorporating Human Land-Water Management into Global Land Surface Models Toward Their Integration into Earth System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-01-01

    The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management. As the changes in the water cycle on land can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to represent human land-water management in Earth system models (ESMs). During the recent past, noteworthy progress has been made in large-scale modeling of human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made in integrating the newly developed schemes into ESMs. This study reviews the progresses made in incorporating human factors in large-scale hydrological models and their integration into ESMs. The study focuses primarily on the recent advancements and existing challenges in incorporating human impacts in global land surface models (LSMs) as a way forward to the development of ESMs with humans as integral components, but a brief review of global hydrological models (GHMs) is also provided. The study begins with the general overview of human impacts on the water cycle. Then, the algorithms currently employed to represent irrigation, reservoir operation, and groundwater pumping are discussed. Next, methodological deficiencies in current modeling approaches and existing challenges are identified. Furthermore, light is shed on the sources of uncertainties associated with model parameterizations, grid resolution, and datasets used for forcing and validation. Finally, representing human land-water management in LSMs is highlighted as an important research direction toward developing integrated models using ESM frameworks for the holistic study of human-water interactions within the Earths system.

  8. Miga Aero Actuator and 2D Machined Mechanical Binary Latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gummin, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators provide the highest force-to-weight ratio of any known actuator. They can be designed for a wide variety of form factors from flat, thin packages, to form-matching packages for existing actuators. SMA actuators can be operated many thousands of times, so that ground testing is possible. Actuation speed can be accurately controlled from milliseconds to position and hold, and even electronic velocity-profile control is possible. SMA actuators provide a high degree of operational flexibility, and are truly smart actuators capable of being accurately controlled by onboard microprocessors across a wide range of voltages. The Miga Aero actuator is a SMA actuator designed specifically for spaceflight applications. Providing 13 mm of stroke with either 20- or 40-N output force in two different models, the Aero actuator is made from low-outgassing PEEK (polyether ether ketone) plastic, stainless steel, and nickel-titanium SMA wires. The modular actuator weighs less than 28 grams. The dorsal output attachment allows the Aero to be used in either PUSH or PULL modes by inverting the mounting orientation. The SPA1 actuator utilizes commercially available SMA actuator wire to provide 3/8-in. (approx. =.1 cm) of stroke at a force of over 28 lb (approx. = .125 N). The force is provided by a unique packaging of the single SMA wire that provides the output force of four SMA wires mechanically in parallel. The output load is shared by allowing the SMA wire to slip around the output attachment end to adjust or balance the load, preventing any individual wire segment from experiencing high loads during actuation. A built-in end limit switch prevents overheating of the SMA element following actuation when used in conjunction with the Miga Analog Driver [a simple MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) switching circuit]. A simple 2D machined mechanical binary latch has been developed to complement the capabilities of SMA wire

  9. The Whole Earth Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward more "earth-as-a-system" approaches in research and teaching about global science. Uses the "greenhouse effect" as a prototypical global change problem that requires interdisciplinary problem-solving approaches. (TW)

  10. Application of a global solar wind/planetary obstacle interaction computational model: Earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations undertaken in this report relate to studies of various solar wind interaction phenomena with Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. A computational model is developed for the determination of the detailed plasma and magnetic field properties associated with various planetary obstacles throughout the solar system.

  11. Developing an optimally estimated earth gravity model to degree and order 360 from a global set of 30 deg x 30 deg mean surface gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, D. M.

    An optimally estimated earth gravity model (EGM), consisting of a set of geopotential coefficients through a maximum degree and order of 360, has been created from a global set of 259,200 30 deg by 30 deg surface mean gravity anomalies. The model is optimal in the sense that its derivation follows the principles of least-squares collocation which results in the coefficients' error variance/covariance matrix having a minimal trace value. This paper presents: (1) an overview of the mathematical and geodetic principles behind the construction of the model, (2) a discussion on the practical concerns and problems associated with the implementation of these principles on a present-day high speed computer, (3) a brief description of the global 30 deg input mean anomaly file used, (4) an analysis of the statistical properties of the coefficients and their accuracies, and (5) a prognosis for the future.

  12. The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation is a flexible turbofan engine simulation environment that provides the user a platform to develop advanced control algorithms. It is capable of testing the performance of control designs on a validated and verified generic engine model. In addition, it is able to generate state-space linear models of the engine model to aid in controller design. The engine model used in MAPSS is a generic high-pressure ratio, dual-spool, lowbypass, military-type, variable cycle turbofan engine with a digital controller. MAPSS is controlled by a graphical user interface (GUI) and this guide explains how to use it to take advantage of the capabilities of MAPSS.

  13. Quasi-Cartesian Finite-Difference Computation of Seismic Wave Propagation for a Three-Dimensional Sub-global Earth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Komatsu, M.; Toyokuni, G.; Nakamura, T.; Okamoto, T.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient finite-difference scheme is developed to compute seismic wave propagation for a partial spherical shell model of a three-dimensionally (3-D) heterogeneous global earth structure. This new scheme solves the elastodynamic equations in the "quasi-Cartesian" coordinate system similar to a local Cartesian one, instead of the spherical coordinate system, with a staggered-grid finite-difference method in time domain (FDTD) which is one of the most popular numerical methods in seismic motion simulations for local to regional scale models. The proposed scheme may be useful for modeling seismic wave propagation in a very large region of sub-global scale beyond regional and less than global ones, where the effects of roundness of earth cannot be ignored. In "quasi-Cartesian" coordinates, x, y, and z are set to be locally in directions of latitude, longitude and depth, respectively. The stencil for each of the x-derivatives then depends on the depth coordinate at the evaluation point, while the stencil for each of the y-derivatives varies with both coordinates of the depth and latitude. In order to reduce lateral variations of the horizontal finite-difference stencils over the computational domain, we move the target area to a location around the equator of the computational spherical coordinate system using a way similar to the conversion from equatorial coordinates to ecliptic coordinates. The developed scheme can be easily implemented in 3-D Cartesian FDTD codes for local to regional scale modeling by changing a very small part of the codes. Our scheme may be able to open a window for multi-scale modeling of seismic wave propagation in scales from sub-global to local one.

  14. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  15. Measuring Earth's radiation imbalance with RAVAN: A CubeSat mission to measure the driver of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, W. H.; Dyrud, L. P.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Lorentz, S. R.; Papadakis, S.; Summers, R. A.; Smith, A. W.; Wu, D. L.; Deglau, D. M.; Arnold, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth radiation imbalance (ERI) is the single most important quantity for predicting the course of climate change over the next century. It is also the single most important metric for any geo-engineering scheme. We review the current scientific understanding of ERI and present a recently funded CubeSat mission, the Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN), that will demonstrate an affordable, accurate radiometer that directly measures Earth-leaving fluxes of total and solar-reflected radiation. Coupled with knowledge of the incoming radiation from the Sun, RAVAN directly gives ERI. The objective of RAVAN is to demonstrate that a compact spaceborne radiometer that is absolutely accurate to NIST-traceable standards can be built for low cost. The key technologies that enable a radiometer with all these attributes are: a gallium fixed-point blackbody as a built-in calibration source and a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) absorber. VACNTs are the blackest known substance, making them ideal radiometer absorbers with order-of-magnitude improvements in spectral flatness and stability over the existing art. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory heritage 3U Multi-Mission Nanosat will host RAVAN, providing the reliability, agility, and resources needed. RAVAN will pave the way for a constellation Earth radiation budget mission that can provide the measurements needed to enable vastly superior predictions of future climate change.

  16. Two-way coupling of the global EMAC and the regional COSMO model using the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, Astrid; Hofmann, Christiane; Glaeser, Gregor; Joeckel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Based on the well established one-way on-line coupling of the regional chemistry climate model COSMO/MESSy to the global EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) model, a two-way coupling of these two models is developed within the MiKlip (decadal predictions) subproject FLAGSHIP (Feedback of a Limited-Area model to the Global Scale implemented for HIndcasts and Projections). By means of the two-way coupling, smaller scale processes resolved in the COSMO model are fed back to the global scale. Expectably, this improves the representation of processes on the global scale. The technical implementation of the two-way coupling includes a number of challenges, especially the ECHAM and the COSMO model are models of different types: The global ECHAM model has a spectral core and solves the hydrostatic equations of motion, while the regional COSMO model is a non-hydrostatic grid point model. While the coupling of passive tracers and the humidity fields functions well in our test cases, the dynamical coupling proves to be an extra challenge, especially due to the pressure based vertical grid and the spectral core of the model. Here, we report the current status of the two-way coupling and show first results for idealised test cases.

  17. LES prediction and analysis of the aero-optical environment around a 3-D turret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Using wall-modeled large-eddy simulation, a Mach 0.4 flow over a hemisphere-on-cylinder turret at the experimental Reynolds number of ReD = 2 . 3 ×106 is simulated to study the aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent density fluctuations. The optical distortions are calculated at over 250 viewing angles during the simulation to thoroughly investigate the optical environment around the turret. Flow field and optical results show good comparisons with experimental measurements. A large database of three-dimensional velocity and density fields is generated for study of the connection between global flow dynamics and local optical distortions. Proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition are applied to both the distorted wavefronts and the flow-field database. A method of reconstructing the optical wavefronts from the density field modes is investigated. Relations between prominent flow features and wavefront components including tip/tilt and higher-order effects will be discussed. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001.

  18. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Allen, Arrington E.

    2013-01-01

    A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was completed in 2012 following the major modifications to the facility that included replacement of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger. The calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT.

  19. Global positioning system & Google Earth in the investigation of an outbreak of cholera in a village of Bengaluru Urban district, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Masthi, N.R. Ramesh; Madhusudan, M.; Puthussery, Yannick P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The global positioning system (GPS) technology along with Google Earth is used to measure (spatial map) the accurate distribution of morbidity, mortality and planning of interventions in the community. We used this technology to find out its role in the investigation of a cholera outbreak, and also to identify the cause of the outbreak. Methods: This study was conducted in a village near Bengaluru, Karnataka in June 2013 during a cholera outbreak. House-to-house survey was done to identify acute watery diarrhoea cases. A hand held GPS receiver was used to record north and east coordinates of the households of cases and these values were subsequently plotted on Google Earth map. Water samples were collected from suspected sources for microbiological analysis. Results: A total of 27 cases of acute watery diarrhoea were reported. Fifty per cent of cases were in the age group of 14-44 yr and one death was reported. GPS technology and Google Earth described the accurate location of household of cases and spot map generated showed clustering of cases around the suspected water sources. The attack rate was 6.92 per cent and case fatality rate was 3.7 per cent. Water samples collected from suspected sources showed the presence of Vibrio cholera O1 Ogawa. Interpretation & conclusions: GPS technology and Google Earth were easy to use, helpful to accurately pinpoint the location of household of cases, construction of spot map and follow up of cases. Outbreak was found to be due to contamination of drinking water sources. PMID:26658586

  20. Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

  1. Copenhagen 2009: Could a Cap-and-Trade Market Combat Global Warming and Conserve Earth's Tropical Forests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedle, Harold; Calhoun, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    As the world increasingly comes to terms with the reality of global warming, international negotiators are struggling to work out the terms of a new climate change framework to be finalized this December in Copenhagen, Denmark. One aspect being discussed is a plan to compensate developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by…

  2. Development of a global LAI estimation algorithm for JAXA's new earth observation satellite sensor, GCOM-C/SGLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Nasahara, K. N.; Kajiwara, K.; Honda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is defined as the one-side green leaf area per unit ground surface area. Global LAI products, such as MOD15 (Terra&Aqua/MODIS) and CYCLOPES (SPOT/VEGETATION) are used for many global terrestrial carbon models. Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is planning to launch GCOM-C (Global Change Observation Mission-Climate) which carries SGLI (Second-generation GLobal Imager) in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2017. SGLI has the features, such as 17-channel from near ultraviolet to thermal infrared, 250-m spatial resolution, polarization, and multi-angle (nadir and ±45-deg. along-track slant) observation. In the GCOM-C/SGLI land science team, LAI is scheduled to be generated from GCOM-C/SGLI observation data as a standard product (daily 250-m). In extisting algorithms, LAI is estimated by the reverse analysis of vegetation radiative transfer models (RTMs) using multi-spectral and mono-angle observation data. Here, understory layer in vegetation RTMs is assumed by plane parallel (green leaves + soil) which set up arbitrary understroy LAI. However, actual understory consists of various elements, such as green leaves, dead leaves, branches, soil, and snow. Therefore, if understory in vegetation RTMs differs from reality, it will cause an error of LAI to estimate. This report describes an algorithm which estimates LAI in consideration of the influence of understory using GCOM-C/SGLI multi-spectral and multi-angle observation data.

  3. Archean greenstone-tonalite duality: Thermochemical mantle convection models or plate tectonics in the early Earth global dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrich, Robert; Polat, Ali

    2006-03-01

    Mantle convection and plate tectonics are one system, because oceanic plates are cold upper thermal boundary layers of the convection cells. As a corollary, Phanerozoic-style of plate tectonics or more likely a different version of it (i.e. a larger number of slowly moving plates, or similar number of faster plates) is expected to have operated in the hotter, vigorously convecting early Earth. Despite the recent advances in understanding the origin of Archean greenstone-granitoid terranes, the question regarding the operation of plate tectonics in the early Earth remains still controversial. Numerical model outputs for the Archean Earth range from predominantly shallow to flat subduction between 4.0 and 2.5 Ga and well-established steep subduction since 2.5 Ga [Abbott, D., Drury, R., Smith, W.H.F., 1994. Flat to steep transition in subduction style. Geology 22, 937-940], to no plate tectonics but rather foundering of 1000 km sectors of basaltic crust, then "resurfaced" by upper asthenospheric mantle basaltic melts that generate the observed duality of basalts and tonalities [van Thienen, P., van den Berg, A.P., Vlaar, N.J., 2004a. Production and recycling of oceanic crust in the early earth. Tectonophysics 386, 41-65; van Thienen, P., Van den Berg, A.P., Vlaar, N.J., 2004b. On the formation of continental silicic melts in thermochemical mantle convection models: implications for early Earth. Tectonophysics 394, 111-124]. These model outputs can be tested against the geological record. Greenstone belt volcanics are composites of komatiite-basalt plateau sequences erupted from deep mantle plumes and bimodal basalt-dacite sequences having the geochemical signatures of convergent margins; i.e. horizontally imbricated plateau and island arc crust. Greenstone belts from 3.8 to 2.5 Ga include volcanic types reported from Cenozoic convergent margins including: boninites; arc picrites; and the association of adakites-Mg andesites- and Nb-enriched basalts. Archean cratons

  4. El Niño as a consequence of the global oscillation in the dynamics of the earth's climatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byshev, V. I.; Neiman, V. G.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Serykh, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    During study of the physical nature and potential precursor features of the El Niño phenomenon in the Pacific, it was found that a negative large-scale temperature anomaly on the Indian Ocean surface may be one of its significant precursors. This anomaly appears prior to the occurrence of El Niño and is accompanied by growth in atmospheric pressure. It gradually extends eastwards along the equator until the zone of planetary convection in the area of the Indonesian Region. The west wind that emerges on the eastern peripherals of the mentioned pressure anomaly leads to reversal of the Pacific segment of the Walker equatorial atmospheric circulation and to a subsequent change in the zonal thermal dipole polarity in the tropical zone of the Pacific (the latter means culmination of the El Niño phenomenon). In addition to the mentioned thermobaric anomaly in the Indian Ocean, other obvious signs of large-scale pressure anomalies have been found in the global atmospheric pressure field; these anomalies may be interpreted as manifestations of the intradecadal global oscillation in the dynamics of the modern climatic system. It is suggested that the whole known complex of events related to the El Niño phenomenon in the Pacific is a consequence and a regional link of the planetary structure of this global atmospheric phenomenon.

  5. Global excitation of wave phenomena in a dissipative multiconstituent medium. III - Response characteristics for different sources in the earth's thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Varosi, F.; Herrero, F. A.

    1987-01-01

    A linear trasnfer function model of the earth's thermosphere which includes the electric field momentum source is used to study the differences in the response characteristics for Joule heating and momentum coupling in the thermosphere. It is found that, for Joule/particle heating, the temperature and density perturbations contain a relatively large trapped component which has the property of a low-pass filter, with slow decay after the source is turned off. The decay time is sensitive to the altitude of energy deposition and is significantly reduced as the source peak moves from 125 to 150 km. For electric field momentum coupling, the trapped components in the temperature and density perturbations are relatively small. In the curl field of the velocity, however, the trapped component dominates, but compared with the temperature and density its decay time is much shorter. Outside the source region the form of excitation is of secondary importance for the generation of the various propagating gravity wave modes.

  6. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  7. Who launched what, when and why; trends in global land-cover observation capacity from civilian earth observation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belward, Alan S.; Skøien, Jon O.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a compendium of satellites under civilian and/or commercial control with the potential to gather global land-cover observations. From this we show that a growing number of sovereign states are acquiring capacity for space based land-cover observations and show how geopolitical patterns of ownership are changing. We discuss how the number of satellites flying at any time has progressed as a function of increased launch rates and mission longevity, and how the spatial resolutions of the data they collect has evolved. The first such satellite was launched by the USA in 1972. Since then government and/or private entities in 33 other sovereign states and geopolitical groups have chosen to finance such missions and 197 individual satellites with a global land-cover observing capacity have been successfully launched. Of these 98 were still operating at the end of 2013. Since the 1970s the number of such missions failing within 3 years of launch has dropped from around 60% to less than 20%, the average operational life of a mission has almost tripled, increasing from 3.3 years in the 1970s to 8.6 years (and still lengthening), the average number of satellites launched per-year/per-decade has increased from 2 to 12 and spatial resolution increased from around 80 m to less than 1 m multispectral and less than half a meter for panchromatic; synthetic aperture radar resolution has also fallen, from 25 m in the 1970s to 1 m post 2007. More people in more countries have access to data from global land-cover observing spaceborne missions at a greater range of spatial resolutions than ever before. We provide a compendium of such missions, analyze the changes and shows how innovation, the need for secure data-supply, national pride, falling costs and technological advances may underpin the trends we document.

  8. a Multiple Data Set Joint Inversion Global 3d P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Hipp, J. R.; Chael, E. P.; Encarnacao, A.; Maceira, M.; Yang, X.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W.

    2013-12-01

    SALSA3D is a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle developed specifically to provide seismic event locations that are more accurate and more precise than are locations from 1D and 2.5D models. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, for the first time jointly derived from multiple types of data: body wave travel times, surface wave group velocities, and gravity. The latter two are added to provide information in areas with poor body wave coverage, and are down-weighted in areas where body wave coverage is good. To constrain the inversions, we invoked empirical relations among the density, S velocity, and P velocity. We demonstrate the ability of the new SALSA3D model to reduce mislocations and generate statistically robust uncertainty estimates for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. We obtain path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainties for our model by computing the full 3D model covariance matrix of our tomographic system and integrating the model slowness variance and covariance along paths of interest. This approach yields very low travel time prediction uncertainties for well-sampled paths through the Earth and higher uncertainties for paths that are poorly represented in the data set used to develop the model. While the calculation of path-dependent prediction uncertainties with this approach is computationally expensive, uncertainties can be pre-computed for a network of stations and stored in 3D lookup tables that can be quickly and efficiently interrogated using GeoTess software.

  9. The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) Satellite Mission: An Earth System Pathfinder for Global Mapping of Soil Moisture and Land Freeze/Thaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E. G.; Spencer, M.; Kim, Y.; Smith, J.; McDonald, K. C.; vanZyl, J.; Houser, P.; Dorion, T.; Koster, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Girard, R.; Belair, S.; Crow, W.; Jackson, T. J.; Kerr, Y. H.; Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Pultz, T.; Shi, J.; Wood, E.

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrosphere State Mission (Hydros) is a pathfinder mission in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder Program (ESSP). The objective of the mission is to provide exploratory global measurements of the earth's soil moisture at 10-km resolution with two- to three-days revisit and land-surface freeze/thaw conditions at 3-km resolution with one- to two-days revisit. The mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements and associated algorithms for estimating the amount and phase (frozen or thawed) of surface soil moisture. The mission data will enable advances in weather and climate prediction and in mapping processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The Hydros instrument is a combined radar and radiometer system operating at 1.26 GHz (with VV, HH, and HV polarizations) and 1.41 GHz (with H, V, and U polarizations), respectively. The radar and the radiometer share the aperture of a 6-m antenna with a look-angle of 39 with respect to nadir. The lightweight deployable mesh antenna is rotated at 14.6 rpm to provide a constant look-angle scan across a swath width of 1000 km. The wide swath provides global coverage that meet the revisit requirements. The radiometer measurements allow retrieval of soil moisture in diverse (nonforested) landscapes with a resolution of 40 km. The radar measurements allow the retrieval of soil moisture at relatively high resolution (3 km). The mission includes combined radar/radiometer data products that will use the synergy of the two sensors to deliver enhanced-quality 10-km resolution soil moisture estimates. In this paper, the science requirements and their traceability to the instrument design are outlined. A review of the underlying measurement physics and key instrument performance parameters are also presented.

  10. Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Lavelle, Thomas; Litt, Jonathan; Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) software package is a nonlinear dynamic simulation of a 40,000-pound (approximately equals 178-kN) thrust class commercial turbofan engine, written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model has been tuned to capture the behavior of flight test data, and is capable of running at any point in the flight envelope [up to 40,000 ft (approximately equals 12,200 m) and Mach 0.8]. In addition to the open-loop engine, the simulation includes a controller whose architecture is representative of that found in industry. C-MAPSS40k fills the need for an easy-to-use, realistic, transient simulation of a medium-size commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller. It is a detailed component level model (CLM) written in the industry-standard graphical MATLAB/Simulink environment to allow for easy modification and portability. At the time of this reporting, no other such model exists in the public domain.

  11. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  12. Our Changing Planet: The FY 1993 US Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, a supplement to the US President's fiscal year 1993 budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Reasearch Program (USGCRP) was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY-1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction).

  13. The relationship of the global seismic activity with variations in the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation for 1720 - 2014 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris

    2016-04-01

    It is known that the seismic activity (SA) of the Earth is unstable both in time and in space. Periods of increase in seismic activity alternate with periods of its decrease. The objective of this work is to analyze the spatial-temporal the distributions of the density of seismic events and relationship between the global CA and variations in the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation (AVER). A density of the observed seismic events in the 1700-1895 years is several times less than in the period 1895-2014, so we carried out a separate analysis for both periods. To construct the spatial distributions of earthquake sources, we subdivided the Earth's surface into 18 latitudinal belts of 10° in extent. To analyze the temporal distribution, the entire observation period was subdivided into 5-year intervals and total number of events within each 5-year interval was calculated. To prepare the working catalog of strong earthquakes for the period of 1700-1895, we used the catalog of considerable earthquakes on Earth since 2150 B.C. compiled by NEIC from the NOAA database. We extracted events with M>=7.5. The total number of events is equal to 72 (38 in the Northern Hemisphere and 34 in the Southern one). Scatterplot for selected events (for latitude and time) and temporal distribution of events in five-year intervals were built. It is found that earthquakes to the north of latitude 60N and to the south of latitude 60S latitude were not observed. The Earth's SA has clearly expressed bimodal latitudinal distribution: two peaks in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (40°N-50°N) and the Southern Hemisphere (10°S-30°S), and the local minimum near the Equator. The same analysis was carried out for period 1890-2014 years (period of instrumental observations) and the similar bimodal distributions were obtained. The working catalog for the AVER for period 1720-2014 years was compiled on the basis of the world-known database IERS and data presented in the work [Mc

  14. Performance of a Bounce-Averaged Global Model of Super-Thermal Electron Transport in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Tim

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of our recent research on the application of a multiprocessor Cray T916 supercomputer in modeling super-thermal electron transport in the earth's magnetic field. In general, this mathematical model requires numerical solution of a system of partial differential equations. The code we use for this model is moderately vectorized. By using Amdahl's Law for vector processors, it can be verified that the code is about 60% vectorized on a Cray computer. Speedup factors on the order of 2.5 were obtained compared to the unvectorized code. In the following sections, we discuss the methodology of improving the code. In addition to our goal of optimizing the code for solution on the Cray computer, we had the goal of scalability in mind. Scalability combines the concepts of portabilty with near-linear speedup. Specifically, a scalable program is one whose performance is portable across many different architectures with differing numbers of processors for many different problem sizes. Though we have access to a Cray at this time, the goal was to also have code which would run well on a variety of architectures.

  15. The impact of climate change on the global coastal low-level wind jets: EC-EARTH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Bernardino, Mariana; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal low-level jets (CLLJ) are low tropospheric coast-parallel wind features, confined to the marine atmospheric boundary layer, which lay on the east flank of the semi-permanent sub-tropical high-pressure systems, in the mid-latitudes, along equator-ward eastern boundary currents. Coastal jets are of utmost relevance to the regional climate, through their impact on the along coast sea surface temperature, driving the upwelling of cold deep nutrient-rich waters, and by having a decisive impact on the aridity of the mid-latitude western coastal areas. Here the impact of a warmer climate in the CLLJ climate is investigated, through a 2-member ensemble of EC-Earth CMIP5 simulations of future climate, following the RCP8.5 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Besides the projected changes of the CLLJ, towards the end of the 21st century, the future characteristics of the coastal jets are also presented. No common feature of projected changes in the seven identified CLLJ areas was identified. The Iberian Peninsula and the Oman coastal jets are the ones that presented the highest differences, compared to present climate: highest projected increases in frequency of occurrence, as well as highest projected increases in jet strength (wind speed at the jet height) and jet height. This study presents a step forward towards a larger ensemble of CLLJ projections, required to better assess robustness and uncertainty of potential future climate change.

  16. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data

  18. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2014-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the da