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Sample records for aero propulsion laboratory

  1. FJ44 Turbofan Engine Test at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Joel T.; McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Harley, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A Williams International FJ44-3A 3000-lb thrust class turbofan engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. This report presents the test set-up and documents the test conditions. Farfield directivity, in-duct unsteady pressures, duct mode data, and phased-array data were taken and are reported separately.

  2. Traversing Microphone Track Installed in NASA Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory Dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Steven W.; Perusek, Gail P.

    1999-01-01

    The Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory is an acoustically treated, 65-ft-tall dome located at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Inside this laboratory is the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig (NATR), which is used in support of Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) and High Speed Research (HSR) to test engine exhaust nozzles for thrust and acoustic performance under simulated takeoff conditions. Acoustic measurements had been gathered by a far-field array of microphones located along the dome wall and 10-ft above the floor. Recently, it became desirable to collect acoustic data for engine certifications (as specified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)) that would simulate the noise of an aircraft taking off as heard from an offset ground location. Since nozzles for the High-Speed Civil Transport have straight sides that cause their noise signature to vary radially, an additional plane of acoustic measurement was required. Desired was an arched array of 24 microphones, equally spaced from the nozzle and each other, in a 25 off-vertical plane. The various research requirements made this a challenging task. The microphones needed to be aimed at the nozzle accurately and held firmly in place during testing, but it was also essential that they be easily and routinely lowered to the floor for calibration and servicing. Once serviced, the microphones would have to be returned to their previous location near the ceiling. In addition, there could be no structure could between the microphones and the nozzle, and any structure near the microphones would have to be designed to minimize noise reflections. After many concepts were considered, a single arched truss structure was selected that would be permanently affixed to the dome ceiling and to one end of the dome floor.

  3. Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2006-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) is a graphical simulation environment designed for the development of advanced control algorithms and rapid testing of these algorithms on a generic computational model of a turbofan engine and its control system. MAPSS is a nonlinear, non-real-time simulation comprising a Component Level Model (CLM) module and a Controller-and-Actuator Dynamics (CAD) module. The CLM module simulates the dynamics of engine components at a sampling rate of 2,500 Hz. The controller submodule of the CAD module simulates a digital controller, which has a typical update rate of 50 Hz. The sampling rate for the actuators in the CAD module is the same as that of the CLM. MAPSS provides a graphical user interface that affords easy access to engine-operation, engine-health, and control parameters; is used to enter such input model parameters as power lever angle (PLA), Mach number, and altitude; and can be used to change controller and engine parameters. Output variables are selectable by the user. Output data as well as any changes to constants and other parameters can be saved and reloaded into the GUI later.

  4. Current Challenges for HTCMC Aero-Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2007-01-01

    In comparison to the best metallic materials, HTCMC aero-propulsion engine components offer the opportunity of reduced weight and higher temperature operation, with corresponding improvements in engine cooling requirements, emissions, thrust, and specific fuel consumption. Although much progress has been made in the development of advanced HTCMC constituent materials and processes, major challenges still remain for their implementation into these components. The objectives of this presentation are to briefly review (1) potential HTCMC aero-propulsion components and their generic material performance requirements, (2) recent progress at NASA and elsewhere concerning advanced constituents and processes for meeting these requirements, (3) key HTCMC component implementation challenges that are currently being encountered, and (4) on-going activities within the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that are addressing these challenges.

  5. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  6. Exhaust System Experiments at NASA's AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the planned testing in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab (AAPL) in the coming 15 months. It was stressed in the presentation that these are plans that are subject to change due to changes in funding and/or programmatic direction. The first chart shows a simplified schedule of test entries with funding sponsor and dates for each. In subsequent charts are pages devoted to the Objectives and Issues with each test entry, along with a graphic intended to represent the test activity. The chart for each test entry also indicates sponsorship of the activity, and a contact person.!

  7. The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation is a flexible turbofan engine simulation environment that provides the user a platform to develop advanced control algorithms. It is capable of testing the performance of control designs on a validated and verified generic engine model. In addition, it is able to generate state-space linear models of the engine model to aid in controller design. The engine model used in MAPSS is a generic high-pressure ratio, dual-spool, lowbypass, military-type, variable cycle turbofan engine with a digital controller. MAPSS is controlled by a graphical user interface (GUI) and this guide explains how to use it to take advantage of the capabilities of MAPSS.

  8. Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Lavelle, Thomas; Litt, Jonathan; Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) software package is a nonlinear dynamic simulation of a 40,000-pound (approximately equals 178-kN) thrust class commercial turbofan engine, written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model has been tuned to capture the behavior of flight test data, and is capable of running at any point in the flight envelope [up to 40,000 ft (approximately equals 12,200 m) and Mach 0.8]. In addition to the open-loop engine, the simulation includes a controller whose architecture is representative of that found in industry. C-MAPSS40k fills the need for an easy-to-use, realistic, transient simulation of a medium-size commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller. It is a detailed component level model (CLM) written in the industry-standard graphical MATLAB/Simulink environment to allow for easy modification and portability. At the time of this reporting, no other such model exists in the public domain.

  9. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  10. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  11. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the lowboom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.

  12. Future NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development. Finally, the presentation examines what type of non-traditional learning areas should be emphasized in student curriculum so that the engineering needs of the third decade of the 21st Century are met.

  13. AeroPropulsoServoElasticity: Dynamic Modeling of the Variable Cycle Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2012-01-01

    This presentation was made at the 2012 Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference and it covers research work for the Dynamic Modeling of the Variable cycle Propulsion System that was done under the Supersonics Project, in the area of AeroPropulsoServoElasticity. The presentation covers the objective for the propulsion system dynamic modeling work, followed by the work that has been done so far to model the variable Cycle Engine, modeling of the inlet, the nozzle, the modeling that has been done to model the affects of flow distortion, and finally presenting some concluding remarks and future plans.

  14. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling for the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle: AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.propulsion system dynamics, the structural dynamics, and aerodynamics.

  15. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  16. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  17. Comparison of Aero-Propulsive Performance Predictions for Distributed Propulsion Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Deere, Karen A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Viken, Sally A.; Patterson, Michael D.; Litherland, Brandon L.; Stoll, Alex M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's X-57 "Maxwell" flight demonstrator incorporates distributed electric propulsion technologies in a design that will achieve a significant reduction in energy used in cruise flight. A substantial portion of these energy savings come from beneficial aerodynamic-propulsion interaction. Previous research has shown the benefits of particular instantiations of distributed propulsion, such as the use of wingtip-mounted cruise propellers and leading edge high-lift propellers. However, these benefits have not been reduced to a generalized design or analysis approach suitable for large-scale design exploration. This paper discusses the rapid, "design-order" toolchains developed to investigate the large, complex tradespace of candidate geometries for the X-57. Due to the lack of an appropriate, rigorous set of validation data, the results of these tools were compared to three different computational flow solvers for selected wing and propulsion geometries. The comparisons were conducted using a common input geometry, but otherwise different input grids and, when appropriate, different flow assumptions to bound the comparisons. The results of these studies showed that the X-57 distributed propulsion wing should be able to meet the as-designed performance in cruise flight, while also meeting or exceeding targets for high-lift generation in low-speed flight.

  18. Integrated Aero-Propulsion CFD Methodology for the Hyper-X Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Engelund, Walter C.; Bittner, Robert D.; Dilley, Arthur D.; Jentink, Tom N.; Frendi, Abdelkader

    2000-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools have been used extensively in the analysis and development of the X-43A Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV). A significant element of this analysis is the prediction of integrated vehicle aero-propulsive performance, which includes an integration of aerodynamic and propulsion flow fields. This paper describes analysis tools used and the methodology for obtaining pre-flight predictions of longitudinal performance increments. The use of higher-fidelity methods to examine flow-field characteristics and scramjet flowpath component performance is also discussed. Limited comparisons with available ground test data are shown to illustrate the approach used to calibrate methods and assess solution accuracy. Inviscid calculations to evaluate lateral-directional stability characteristics are discussed. The methodology behind 3D tip-to-tail calculations is described and the impact of 3D exhaust plume expansion in the afterbody region is illustrated. Finally, future technology development needs in the area of hypersonic propulsion-airframe integration analysis are discussed.

  19. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  20. Artist's Concept of NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  1. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of a Supersonic Commercial Transport Turbo-Machinery Propulsion System for Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elasticity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joe; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kopasakis, George; Woolwine, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic model for a variable cycle turbofan engine, supersonic inlet, and convergent-divergent nozzle that can be integrated with an aeroelastic vehicle model to create an overall Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) modeling tool. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to capture relevant thrust dynamics of a full supersonic propulsion system by using relatively simple quasi-one dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods that will allow for accurate control algorithm development and capture the key aspects of the thrust to feed into an APSE model. Previously, propulsion system component models have been developed and are used for this study of the fully integrated propulsion system. An overview of the methodology is presented for the modeling of each propulsion component, with a focus on its associated coupling for the overall model. To conduct APSE studies the described dynamic propulsion system model is integrated into a high fidelity CFD model of the full vehicle capable of conducting aero-elastic studies. Dynamic thrust analysis for the quasi-one dimensional dynamic propulsion system model is presented along with an initial three dimensional flow field model of the engine integrated into a supersonic commercial transport.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of a Supersonic Commercial Transport Turbo-Machinery Propulsion System for Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elasticity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Woolwine, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic model for a variable cycle turbofan engine, supersonic inlet, and convergent-divergent nozzle that can be integrated with an aeroelastic vehicle model to create an overall Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) modeling tool. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to capture relevant thrust dynamics of a full supersonic propulsion system by using relatively simple quasi-one dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods that will allow for accurate control algorithm development and capture the key aspects of the thrust to feed into an APSE model. Previously, propulsion system component models have been developed and are used for this study of the fully integrated propulsion system. An overview of the methodology is presented for the modeling of each propulsion component, with a focus on its associated coupling for the overall model. To conduct APSE studies the de- scribed dynamic propulsion system model is integrated into a high fidelity CFD model of the full vehicle capable of conducting aero-elastic studies. Dynamic thrust analysis for the quasi-one dimensional dynamic propulsion system model is presented along with an initial three dimensional flow field model of the engine integrated into a supersonic commercial transport.

  3. User's Guide for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Dean K.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    This report is a Users Guide for the NASA-developed Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS) software, which is a transient simulation of a large commercial turbofan engine (up to 90,000-lb thrust) with a realistic engine control system. The software supports easy access to health, control, and engine parameters through a graphical user interface (GUI). C-MAPSS provides the user with a graphical turbofan engine simulation environment in which advanced algorithms can be implemented and tested. C-MAPSS can run user-specified transient simulations, and it can generate state-space linear models of the nonlinear engine model at an operating point. The code has a number of GUI screens that allow point-and-click operation, and have editable fields for user-specified input. The software includes an atmospheric model which allows simulation of engine operation at altitudes from sea level to 40,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0 to 0.90, and ambient temperatures from -60 to 103 F. The package also includes a power-management system that allows the engine to be operated over a wide range of thrust levels throughout the full range of flight conditions.

  4. User's Guide for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS): Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan; Frederick, Dean K.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Chan, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This report is a Users Guide for version 2 of the NASA-developed Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS) software, which is a transient simulation of a large commercial turbofan engine (up to 90,000-lb thrust) with a realistic engine control system. The software supports easy access to health, control, and engine parameters through a graphical user interface (GUI). C-MAPSS v.2 has some enhancements over the original, including three actuators rather than one, the addition of actuator and sensor dynamics, and an improved controller, while retaining or improving on the convenience and user-friendliness of the original. C-MAPSS v.2 provides the user with a graphical turbofan engine simulation environment in which advanced algorithms can be implemented and tested. C-MAPSS can run user-specified transient simulations, and it can generate state-space linear models of the nonlinear engine model at an operating point. The code has a number of GUI screens that allow point-and-click operation, and have editable fields for user-specified input. The software includes an atmospheric model which allows simulation of engine operation at altitudes from sea level to 40,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0 to 0.90, and ambient temperatures from -60 to 103 F. The package also includes a power-management system that allows the engine to be operated over a wide range of thrust levels throughout the full range of flight conditions.

  5. Advances in SiC/SiC Composites for Aero-Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the development and application of ceramic matrix composites consisting of silicon carbide (SiC) based matrices reinforced by small-diameter continuous-length SiC-based fibers. For example, these SiC/SiC composites are now in the early stages of implementation into hot-section components of civil aero-propulsion gas turbine engines, where in comparison to current metallic components they offer multiple advantages due to their lighter weight and higher temperature structural capability. For current production-ready SiC/SiC, this temperature capability for long time structural applications is 1250 degC, which is better than 1100 degC for the best metallic superalloys. Foreseeing that even higher structural reliability and temperature capability would continue to increase the advantages of SiC/SiC composites, progress in recent years has also been made at NASA toward improving the properties of SiC/SiC composites by optimizing the various constituent materials and geometries within composite microstructures. The primary objective of this chapter is to detail this latter progress, both fundamentally and practically, with particular emphasis on recent advancements in the materials and processes for the fiber, fiber coating, fiber architecture, and matrix, and in the design methods for incorporating these constituents into SiC/SiC microstructures with improved thermo-structural performance.

  6. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) bibliography 39-26 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1984, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications (82-, 83-, 84-series, etc.), in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Program Report (42-series); and (3) articles published in the open literature.

  7. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Over 500 externally distributed technical reports released during 1981 that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory are listed by primary author. Of the total number of entries, 311 are from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report, and its successor, the Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report.

  8. Activities of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Work accomplished by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under contract to NASA in 1985 is described. The work took place in the areas of flight projects, space science, geodynamics, materials science, advanced technology, defense and civil programs, telecommunications systems, and institutional activities.

  9. NDE Activity at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    None, This is a viewgraph outline from an oral presentation. From Intro.: Our speaker will review the NDE technology under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Emphasis will be given to Ultrasonics and application of sensors to space technology. Further, the efforts of JPL in technology transfer to the industry in the area of NDE will be covered.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Cruise Propulsion Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Raymond S.; Mizukami, Masahi; Barber, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity" is NASA's most recent mission to Mars, launched in November 2011, and landed in August 2012. It is a subcompact car-sized nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. Entry, descent and landing used a unique "skycrane" concept. This report describes the propulsive maneuvering operations during cruise from Earth to Mars, to control attitudes and to target the vehicle for entry. The propulsion subsystem, mission operations, and flight performance are discussed. All trajectory control maneuvers were well within accuracy requirements, and all turns and spin corrections were nominal.

  11. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

  12. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Jet propulsion Laboratory (JPL) bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1983, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included. JPL Publication (81-,82-,83-series, etc.), in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment, articles published in the open literature, and articles from the quarterly telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (42-series) are included. Each collection of articles in this class of publication presents a periodic survey of current accomplishments by the Deep Space Network as well as other developments in Earth-based radio technology.

  13. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography cites 958 externally distributed technical papers released during calendar year 1978, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The publications are indexed by author, subject, publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author.

  14. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calender year 1985, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplisment; Articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report; and article published in the open literature.

  15. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1988, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report; and articles published in the open literature.

  16. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    JPL Bibliography 39-28 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calender year 1986, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment, (2) Articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report, and (3) Articles published in the open literature.

  17. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  18. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography includes 1004 technical reports, released during calendar year 1979, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications; (2) articles published in the open literature; and (3) articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report. The publications are indexed by: (1) author, (2) subject, and (3) publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first listed) author. Unless designated otherwise, all publications listed are unclassified.

  19. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    JPL Bibliography 39-33 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1992, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed or managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publication (92-series) in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (42-series) (each collection of articles in this class of publication presents a periodic survey of current accomplishments by the Deep Space Network as well as other developments in Earth-based radio technology); and (3) articles published in the open literature.

  20. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, located in the foothills near Pasadena, California, is the nation's lead center for the robotic exploration of space. Intense activity in space missions was the hallmark of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a new generation of smaller, less expensive spacecraft were sent out from Earth. From late 1998 to mid-1999, JPL launched a craft testing a futuristic ion engine, an orbiter and lander bound for Mars, a mission to fly by a comet and return a sample of its dust to Earth, a small infrared telescope, and an Earth-circling satellite that uses radar to gauge winds over the oceans. This unprecedented schedule resulted in spectacular achievements, tempered by highly visible mission losses. Weighed together, the successes and failures dramatically underscored the difficulty and risk involved in the unique business of space science and exploration. Among the achievements, the ion-engine-powered Deep Space 1, comet-bound Stardust and Earth-orbiting SeaWinds were joined by such ongoing missions as Mars Global Surveyor, Galileo and Cassini in delivering on their promise and, in some cases, providing surprising new views of space and Earth. At the same time, mission teams were disappointed by the losses of an orbiter and lander at Mars, as well as a small infrared telescope. JPL worked closely with NASA to learn from these experiences and build successful future missions. The Laboratory also achieved a key goal by winning the International Organization of Standards' 'ISO 9001' certification - a standard shared by the world's best engineering organizations. As the year rolled to a close, clocks rolled over from 1999 to 2000. Operations teams at JPL and NASA watched with satisfaction as a major campaign of Year 2000 readiness paid off with no problems among the thousands of computer systems that support the Laboratory's missions. With that auspicious beginning, JPL was positioned to step into the 21st century and embark on even yet unimagined

  1. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The formalized technical reporting, released January through December 1975, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described and indexed. The following classes of publications are included: (1) technical reports; (2) technical memorandums; (3) articles from bi-monthly Deep Space Network (DSN) progress report; (4) special publications; and (5) articles published in the open literature. The publications are indexed by: (1) author, (2) subject, and (3) publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author. Unless designated otherwise, all publications listed are unclassified.

  2. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography cites by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar year 1980, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL Publications (77-, 78-, 79-series, etc.), in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment and can e tailored to wide or limited audiences and be presented in an established standard format or special format to meet unique requirements; (2) articles published in the open literature; and (3) articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network (DSN) Progress Repot (42-series) and its successor, the Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (also 42-series).

  3. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Year 2000 began with an intense period of self-examination for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Late in the previous year, two Mars-bound missions failed as they were arriving at the red planet, disappointing engineers, scientists and the public at large. After a probing series of internal and external reviews, a redesigned Mars program emerged that is intended to be more robust and more tightly coupled to the questions that scientists are attempting to answer. NASA expressed a significant vote of confidence in JPL by assigning an ambitious project to the Laboratory - to design, build and fly twin rovers to Mars in 2003. Among other missions and research programs, the news was more gratifying. Another Mars orbiter completed its first year of mapping operations, gathering more pictures than those collected over the entire missions of the two Viking orbiters. Stalwart spacecraft such as Galileo continued to deliver scientific discoveries, while a new generation of smaller solar system exploration missions got under way. In Earth sciences, a growing array of spaceborne instruments and satellites gave us new perspectives on the home planet, including an imaging radar mission on the Space Shuttle and two JPL instruments that began science operations after their launch on NASA's Terra orbiter in late 1999. In astronomy and physics, a JPL-built camera continued to perform flawlessly on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, offering previously unglimpsed views of the deep universe.

  4. Comparison of Aero/Propulsion Transition Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumowicz, Tim; Margason, Richard; Wardwell, Doug; Hange, Craig; Arledge, Tom; Olson, Lawerence E. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Ames conducted a series tests of a large-scale powered model of Lockheed Martin Skunk Works' JSF STOVL configuration at the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The model uses a modified version of an F-16 fighter engine (a Pratt & Whitney F100-229 engine). To provide vertical flight capability, the Lockheed aircraft incorporates a forward fuselage mounted vertical lift fan in addition to an aft mounted vectoring nozzle all driven by a single engine. The lift fan is driven off the engine by means of a shaft and gear system. The data presented is for STOVL configuration 140, a wing-body-canard planform. The main goal of this testing was to obtain propulsion induced data for evaluating differences between small- and large-scale model testing during the transition flight regime between jet- and wing-borne flight. The data presented is from aerodynamic testing of the model in both the unpowered (engine-off) and powered (engine running) configurations. This data, when combined with the propulsion system thrust calibration data from the NASA Ames' Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (OARF), is used to determine the propulsion induced effects during transition.

  5. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    If you stepped outdoors on the final evening of 2003 and looked up into the night sky, many celestial events were taking place. A hundred million miles away from Earth, a dust storm swirled across the terracotta peaks and gullies of Mars, as two six-wheeled robots bore down on the planet. They were soon to join two orbital sentries already stationed there. A few hops across the inner solar system, another spacecraft was closing in on a ball of ice and rock spewing forth a hailstorm of dust grains, heated as it swung in toward the Sun. Closer in, two newly lofted space telescopes scanned the skies, their mirrors gathering photons that had crossed the empty vastness of space for billions of years, recording ancient events in unimaginably distant galaxies. And streaking overhead every few minutes directly above our home planet, a handful of satellites was recording the unfolding events of a tropical cyclone off the east coast of Africa and a blizzard that carpeted the northwestern United States. As 2003 drew to a close, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was on the cusp of an extraordinarily busy period, a time when JPL will execute more fly-bys, landings, sample returns and other milestones than at any other time in its history. The exploration we undertake is important for its own sake. And it serves other purposes, none more important than inspiring the next generation of explorers. If the United States wishes to retain its status as a world leader, it must maintain the technological edge of its workforce. What we do here is the stuff of dreams that will inspire a new generation to continue the American legacy of exploration.

  6. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Many milestones are celebrated in the business of space exploration, but one of them that arrived this year has particular meaning for us. Half a century ago, on January 31, 1958, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was responsible for creating America's first satellite, Explorer 1, and joined with the Army to launch it into orbit. That makes 2007 the 50th year we have been sending robotic craft from Earth to explore space. No other event before or since has had such a profound effect on JPL's basic identity, setting it on the path to become the world's leader in robotic solar system exploration. It is not lost on historians that Explorer 1, besides being America's first satellite, was also the first spacecraft from any country to deliver scientific results in its case, the discovery of the Van Allen Radiation Belts that surround Earth. Science, of course, has been the prime motivator for all the dozens of missions that we have lofted into space in the half-century since then. JPL has sent spacecraft to every planet in the solar system from Mercury to Neptune, some of them very sophisticated machines. But in one way or another, they all owe their heritage to the 31-pound bullet-shaped probe JPL shot into space in 1958. Although we have ranged far and wide across the solar system, we have a very strong contingent of satellites and instruments dedicated, like Explorer, to the environment of our home planet. JPL missions have been providing much of the data to establish the facts of global warming - most especially, the melting of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. During the past year, JPL and our parent organization, the California Institute of Technology, have created a task force to focus the special capabilities of the Laboratory and campus on ways to better understand the physics of global change. While Earth is a chaotic and dynamic system capable of large natural variations, evidence is mounting that human activities are playing an increasingly important role

  7. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    2009 was truly the year of astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. While the world at large was celebrating the International Year of Astronomy, we were sending more telescopes into space than in any other year, ever. As these missions unfold, the astronomers are sure to change the way we see the universe. One of the newly lofted observatories is on a quest to find planets like our own Earth orbiting other stars. Another is a telescope that gathers infrared light to help discover objects ranging from near-Earth asteroids to galaxies in the deepest universe. We also contributed critical enabling technologies to yet two other telescopes sent into space by our partners in Europe. And astronauts returned to Earth with a JPL-built camera that had captured the Hubble Space Telescope's most memorable pictures over many years. And while it was an epic time for these missions, we were no less busy in our other research specialties. Earth's moon drew much attention from our scientists and engineers, with two JPL instruments riding on lunar orbiters; previously unseen views of shadowed craters were provided by radar imaging conducted with the giant dish antennas of the Deep Space Network, our worldwide communication portal to spacecraft around the solar system. At Mars, our rovers and orbiters were highly productive, as were missions targeting Saturn, comets and the asteroid belt. Here at our home planet, satellites and instruments continued to serve up important information on global climate change. But our main business is, of course, exploring. Many initiatives will keep us busy for years. In 2009, NASA gave approval to start planning a major flagship mission to Jupiter's moon Europa in search of conditions that could host life, working with our partners in Europe. In addition to our prospective Earth science projects, we have full slates of missions in Mars exploration, planetary exploration and space-based astronomy. This year's annual report continues our recent

  8. Laboratory Graduate Fellowship Program, 1989. Appendix A. Forms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    institution listed. Transcripts should be LABORATORY LIST LABORATORY 1: LABORATORY 5: AERO PROPULSION LABORATORY ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER Wright...Patterson AFB, (Dayton), Ohio Tyndall AFB, (Panama City), Florida Research Programs in Airbreathing Propulsion , Aerospace Power, Research in the...Sciences d. Hypersonic Flows relating to Rocket Propulsion and Interdisciplinary Space e. High Temperature Structural Behavior Technology for future ICBMs

  9. Tree Topping Ceremony at NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications. This photo depicts construction workers taking part in a tree topping ceremony as the the final height of the laboratory is framed. The ceremony is an old German custom of paying homage to the trees that gave their lives in preparation of the building site.

  10. A Study on the Installed Performance Seeking Control for Aero-Propulsion under Supersonic State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fengyong; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-12-01

    An integrated model including inlet, engine and nozzle with their internal and external characteristics was built to simulate the propulsion installed performance. With the integrated model, a new performance seeking control scheme under supersonic state is firstly proposed, taking inlet ramp angle as optimizing variable, which is equally important to fuel flow rate, nozzle throat area, guided vane angle of fan and compressor. Specially, engine installed thrust replaces its total thrust as one crucial factor for performance seeking control. Installed performances under supersonic state are significantly improved with the new scheme, as installed thrust increases of up to 4.9% in the maximum thrust mode, installed specific fuel consumption improvements of up to 3.8% in the minimum fuel consumption mode, and turbine temperature decreases of up to 0.6% in the minimum turbine temperature mode. The simulation results also indicates that, the performance seeking control scheme proposed shows superiority in restraining of the increasing of rotational speed and turbine temperature in performance seeking control.

  11. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The year 2002 brought advances on many fronts in our space exploration ventures. A new orbiter settled in at Mars and delivered tantalizing science results suggesting a vast store of water ice under the planet's surface, a discovery that may have profound consequences for exploring Mars. A long-lived spacecraft made its final fly-bys of Jupiter's moons, while another started its final approach toward Saturn and yet another flew by an asteroid on its way to a comet. A new ocean satellite began science observations, joined in Earth orbit by a pair of spacecraft measuring our home planets gravity field, as well as JPL instruments on NASA and Japanese satellites. A major new infrared observatory and a pair of Mars rovers were readied for launch. All told, JPL is now communicating with 14 spacecraft cast like gems across the velvet expanses of the solar system. It is a far cry from the early 1960's, when JPL engineers made prodigious efforts to get the first planetary explorers off the ground and into space - an achievement of which we were especially mindful this year, as 2002 marked the 40th anniversary of the first successful planetary mission, Mariner 2, which barely reached our closest planetary neighbor, Venus. Added to this anniversary were celebrations surrounding the 25th anniversaries of the launches of Voyagers 1 and 2, two remarkable spacecraft that are still flying and are actively probing the outer realms of the solar system. These events of the past and present provide an occasion for reflection on the remarkable era of exploration that we at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are privileged to be a part of. As 2002 neared its end, the Laboratory had yet another reason for celebration, as a new five-year management contract between NASA and the California Institute of Technology was signed that calls for a closer working relationship with NASA and other NASA centers as a member of the 'One NASA' team. There is a strong emphasis on cost control and management

  12. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Once or twice in an age, a year comes along that the historians proclaim as an Annus Mirabilis - a year of wonders. For the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2004 was just that sort of time. From beginning to end, it was a nonstop experience of wondrous events in space. Imagine that two robot rovers embark on cross-country rambles across Mars, scrutinizing rocks for signs of past water on the now-arid world. A flagship spacecraft brakes into orbit at Saturn to begin longterm surveillance of the ringed world, preparing to drop a sophisticated probe to the surface of its haze-shrouded largest moon. Another craft makes the closest-ever pass by the nucleus of a comet, collecting sample particles as it goes. Two new space telescopes peer into the depths of the universe far beyond our solar system, viewing stars, nebulas and galaxies in invisible light beyond the spectrum our eyes can see. A pair of instruments is lofted on a NASA Earth-orbiting satellite to monitor air quality and the protective layer of ozone blanketing our home planet. A small probe brings samples of the solar wind to Earth for in-depth study. While JPL was absorbed with all of these ventures on other worlds, NASA and the White House unveiled an ambitious new plan of space exploration. The Vision for Space Exploration announced in January foresees a program of robotic and astronaut missions leading to a human return to the Moon by 2020, and eventual crewed expeditions to Mars. The vision also calls for more robotic missions to the moons of the outer planets; spaceborne observatories that will search for Earth-like planets around other stars and explore the formation and evolution of the universe; and continued study of our home planet. In order to accomplish all of this, NASA must perfect many as-yet-uninvented technologies and space transportation capabilities. JPL has a great deal to bring to this vision. Robotic exploration of Mars will lead the way for missions that will carry women and men to the red

  13. CAP - JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CONTAMINATION ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Contamination Analysis Program (CAP) is a generalized transient executive analysis computer code which solves realistic mass transport problems in the free molecular flow environment. These transport problems involve mass flux from surface source emission and re-emission, venting, and engine emission. CAP solution capability allows for one-bounce mass reflections if required. CAP was developed to solve thin-film contamination problems in the free molecular flow environment, the intent being to provide a powerful analytic tool for evaluating spacecraft contamination problems. The solution procedure uses an enclosure method based on a lumped-parameter multinodal approach with mass exchange between nodes. Transient solutions are computed by the finite difference Euler method. First-order rate theory is used to represent surface emission and reemission (user care must be taken to insure the problem is appropriate for such behavior), and all surface emission and reflections are assumed diffuse. CAP does not include the effects of post-deposition chemistry or interaction with the ambient atmosphere. CAP reads in a model represented by a multiple-block data stream. CAP allows the user to edit the input data stream and stack sequential editing operations (or cases) in order to make complex changes in behavior (surface temperatures, engine start-up and shut-down, etc.) in a single run if desired. The eight data blocks which make up the input data stream consist of problem control parameters, nodal data (area, temperature, mass, etc.), engine or vent distribution factors (based upon plume definitions), geometric configuration factors (diffuse surface emission), surface capture coefficient tables, source emission rate constant tables, reemission rate constant tables, and partial node to body collapse capability (for deposition rates only). The user must generate this data stream, since neither the problem-specific geometric relationships, the

  14. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A bibliography is presented which describes and indexes by author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during the calender year 1987, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Lab. Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) Articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report; and (3) Articles published in the open literature.

  15. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations. Part 1; History of JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation briefly reviews the history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from its founding by Dr von Karman in 1936 for research in rocketry through the post-Sputnik shift to unmanned space exploration in 1957. The presentation also reviews the major JPL missions with views of the spacecraft.

  16. Engines and innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia Parker

    1991-01-01

    This book is an institutional history of the NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1940, when Congress authorized funding for a third laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, through the 1980s. The history of the laboratory is discussed in relation to the development of American propulsion technology, with particular focus on the transition in the 1940s from the use of piston engines in airplanes to jet propulsion and that from air-breathing engines to rocket technology when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958. The personalities and research philosophies of the people who shaped the history of the laboratory are discussed, as is the relationship of Lewis Research Center to the Case Institute of Technology.

  17. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nothing is as gratifying in space exploration as when we are surprised by the unexpected. Much of our work progresses in an orderly way, from concept to plan to creation to finding. But now and then we are caught off-guard by something startlingly new, and it is these moments that make our hearts race and leave us with many of our most compelling memories. And 2006 was an exceptional year for the unforeseen. One of our orbiters shocked many with stark proof that liquid water, the seemingly long-gone force that reshaped so much of the scenery of Mars, still flows there today,at least in occasional bursts. Another spacecraft caught us by surprise with photos of Yellowstone-like geysers on one of Saturn's seemingly nondescript moons, Enceladus. A spaceborne observatory created to plumb the life histories of stars and galaxies showed off a completely unexpected talent when it revealed the day and night faces of a fire and ice planet far beyond our solar system 40 light-years away. A newly launched Earth observer revealed that the clouds that decorate our own planet are not what we thought them to be in many ways. Of course, not all of the high points of the year arrived on our doorstep in such unexpected ways. There was also great drama when missions came off exactly as planned, such as when Stardust's sample return capsule made a flawless landing in the Utah desert, bringing home samples of cometary and interstellar dust. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter slipped into orbit around the red planet exactly as planned. Numerous other missions and technology programs likewise made great achievements during the year. In all, 17 spacecraft and six instruments were stationed across the solar system, studying our own world, other planets, comets and the deeper universe. All of these achievements were enabled by many teams and systems at the Laboratory. The Deep Space Network of communications complexes across three continents supported all of NASA's solar system missions, and

  18. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Nothing is more exciting than when science mines the far end of our knowledge for the new and the unexpected. In 2008, the world was taken by surprise when JPL astronomers announced the discovery of organic compounds on a planet orbiting another star. We were equally excited to learn from the Spitzer Space Telescope that many, if not most, sun-like stars have rocky planets roughly similar to Earth. Together these are very intriguing clues in our quest to learn if there is life elsewhere in the universe, which certainly has to be one of the most profound mysteries of our age.There are times when, dealing with unknowns, we are reminded to be humble. Very impressive progress is being made by the team developing our next flagship mission, Mars Science Laboratory. Ther conclusion, however, is that it would not be safe to try to fly during the Mars launch window in 2009, and reset for the next opportunity in 2011. We are lucky to have valuable assets that support us as we venture into the unknown. One is the global Deep Space Network, which functions both as our communication gateway to our spacecraft across the solar system as well as a research tool itself in conducting radar astronomy. Our successes depend on our entire team, administrators and business specialists as much as technical people. There are those who help share our missions with the public, finding imaginative venues such as sending out dispatches on the Internet's Twitter.com during the Phoenix mission. We also benefit greatly from the intellectual infusion that comes from our unique identity as a division of the California Institute of Technology and a member of the NASA family.

  19. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-05

    PROPULSION LABORATORY Executive Summary The Center for Aerospace Research (CAR) was formed in 1992 at North Carolina A&T State University (NCAT) to...from the Department of Defense (DOD). NCAT provided the laboratory space. CAR, on the other hand, was organized in 1992 through the use of the funds it...at NCAT in 1992 , it was given formal approved to plan and establish in 1995 by the President of the UNC Board of Governors. I.D. Internet Home Page URL

  20. Integrated Line-of-Sight Modeling of the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    compensator. The PID coefficients were adjusted to match the measured behavior. The measured and tuned results are shown in Fig. 6. Measured Tuned ...strain energy in the bond between them. As with the measured data, this mode is destabilized in the tuned model as shown in Figure 6 with the PID ...uncertainty with model tuning based on available experimental measurements was examined for one flight condition. 2. INTRODUCTION The Airborne Aero

  1. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory: 1990 and 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    JPL Bibliography 39-32 describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during calendar years 1990 and 1991, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed or managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three classes of publications are included: (1) JPL publications (90- and 91-series) in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; (2) articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report (42-series); and (3) articles published in the open literature.

  2. Laboratory Demonstrations for PDE and Metals Combustion at NASA MSFC's Advanced Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Report provides status reporting on activities under order no. H-30549 for the period December 1 through December 31, 1999. Details the activities of the contract in the coordination of planned conduct of experiments at the MSFC Advanced Propulsion Laboratory in pulse detonation MHD power production and metals combustion.

  3. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of a Hypersonic Vehicle with Significant Aero-Thermo-Elastic-Propulsion Interactions: Elastic, Thermal and Mass Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Jaidev

    This thesis examines themodeling, analysis, and control system design issues for scramjet powered hypersonic vehicles. A nonlinear three degrees of freedom longitudinal model which includes aero-propulsion-elasticity effects was used for all analyses. This model is based upon classical compressible flow and Euler-Bernouli structural concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics and finite element methods are needed for more precise intermediate and final evaluations. The methods presented within this thesis were shown to be useful for guiding initial control relevant design. The model was used to examine the vehicle's static and dynamic characteristics over the vehicle's trimmable region. The vehicle has significant longitudinal coupling between the fuel equivalency ratio (FER) and the flight path angle (FPA). For control system design, a two-input two-output plant (FER - elevator to speed-FPA) with 11 states (including 3 flexible modes) was used. Velocity, FPA, and pitch were assumed to be available for feedback. Aerodynamic heat modeling and design for the assumed TPS was incorporated to original Bolender's model to study the change in static and dynamic properties. De-centralized control stability, feasibility and limitations issues were dealt with the change in TPS elasticity, mass and physical dimension. The impact of elasticity due to TPS mass, TPS physical dimension as well as prolonged heating was also analyzed to understand performance limitations of de-centralized control designed for nominal model.

  4. OTV Propulsion Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The statistical technology needs of aero-assist maneuvering, propulsion, and usage of cryogenic fluids were presented. Industry panels discussed the servicing of reusable space based vehicles and propulsion-vehicle interation.

  5. Mars Science Laboratory Propulsive Maneuver Design and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Mau C.; Kangas, Julie A.; Ballard, Christopher G.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, was launched on November 26, 2011 and successfully landed at the Gale Crater on Mars. For the 8-month interplanetary trajectory from Earth to Mars, five nominal and two contingency trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM) were planned. The goal of these TCMs was to accurately deliver the spacecraft to the desired atmospheric entry aimpoint in Martian atmosphere so as to ensure a high probability of successful landing on the Mars surface. The primary mission requirements on maneuver performance were the total mission propellant usage and the entry flight path angle (EFPA) delivery accuracy. They were comfortably met in this mission. In this paper we will describe the spacecraft propulsion system, TCM constraints and requirements, TCM design processes, and their implementation and verification.

  6. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Space Exploration: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette

    1993-01-01

    The most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are discussed. To aid understanding of these results, a brief background of JPL's history is presented, followed by a description of the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft. The results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are described. The atmosphere, rings, satellites and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are discussed with particular emphasis on novelty of the discoveries and the challenges encountered in explaining them. A brief discussion of the impact of spray research upon space exploration follows. This is because most recently launched missions used liquid fueled rockets to escape Earth's gravity. A summary of future missions and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's new policies is presented in the conclusion.

  7. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration: Past, present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette

    1993-01-01

    The most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are discussed. To aid understanding of these results, a brief background of JPL's history is presented, followed by a description of the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft. The results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are described. The atmosphere, rings, satellites and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are discussed with particular emphasis on novelty of the discoveries and the challenges encountered in explaining them. A brief discussion of the impact of spray research upon space exploration follows. This is because most recently launched missions used liquid fueled rockets to escape Earth's gravity. A summary of future missions and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's new policies is presented in the conclusion.

  8. NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory Customer Guide Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Lewis Research Center. The PSL complex supports two large engine test cells (PSL-3 and PSL-4) that are capable of providing flight simulation to altitudes of 70,000 ft. Facility variables at the engine or test-article inlet, such as pressure, temperature, and Mach number (up to 3.0 for PSL-3 and up to 6.0 planned for PSL-4), are discussed. Support systems such as the heated and cooled combustion air systems; the altitude exhaust system; the hydraulic system; the nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen systems; hydrogen burners; rotating screen assemblies; the engine exhaust gas-sampling system; the infrared imaging system; and single- and multiple-axis thrust stands are addressed. Facility safety procedures are also stated.

  9. Mass spectrometry technology at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of mass spectrometry taking place at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory are highlighted. The pertinent research and development is aimed at producing an ultrahigh sensitivity mass spectrograph for both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. The unique aspect of the JPL developed technology is an integrating focal plane ion detector that obviates the need for spectral scanning since all ions over a wide mass range are monitored simultaneously. The ion detector utilizes electro-optical technology and is therefore referred to as an Electro-Optical Ion Detector (EOID). A technical description of the JPL MS/EOID, some of the current applications, and its potential benefits for internal contamination analysis are discussed.

  10. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  11. Future Air Force aircraft propulsion control systems: The extended summary paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skira, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydromechanical control technology simply cannot compete against the performance benefits offered by electronics. Future military aircraft propulsion control systems will be full authority, digital electronic, microprocessor base systems. Anticipating the day when microprocessor technology will permit the integration and management of aircraft flight control, fire control and propulsion control systems, the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory is developing control logic algorithms for a real time, adaptive control and diagnostic information system.

  12. Compendium of Test Results of Recent Single Event Effect Tests Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Allen, Gregory R.; Irom, Farokh; Scheick, Leif Z.; Adell, Philippe C.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton-induced single event effect (SEE) results from recent tests for a variety of microelectronic devices. The compendium covers devices tested over the last two years by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. A Strategy for an Enterprise-Wide Data Management Capability at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhrman, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a Federally Research and Development Center (FFRDC) operated by the California Institute of Technology that is engaged in the quest for knowledge about the solar system, the universe, and the Earth.

  14. NACA Conference on Some Problems of Aircraft Operation Held at Lewis Flight Propulsion Lab., Cleveland, Ohio on October 9-10, 1950

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-10-10

    Problems of Aircraft Operation, Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio, October 9 and 10, 1950: Addams , W. J. United Airlines Allen, J. J...Kartveli, Alexander: Propulsion Analysis for Long-Rangce Transport Airplanes. Aero. Eng. Rev., vol. 9, no. 6, Jane 1950, pp. 12-15, 69. 80 2. Hamilton

  15. Laboratory Facilities and Measurement Techniques for Beamed-Energy-Propulsion Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Chanes Júnior, José Brosler; Cordeiro Marcos, Thiago Victor; Pinto, David Romanelli; Santos Vilela, Renan Guilherme; Barros Galvão, Victor Alves; Mantovani, Arthur Freire; da Costa, Felipe Jean; dos Santos Assenção, José Adeildo; dos Santos, Alberto Monteiro; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto; Sala Minucci, Marco Antonio; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Salvador, Israel Irone; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2011-11-01

    Laser propulsion is an innovative concept of accessing the space easier and cheaper where the propulsive energy is beamed to the aerospace vehicle in flight from ground—or even satellite-based high-power laser sources. In order to be realistic about laser propulsion, the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Brazilian Air Force in cooperation with the United States Air Force and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute are seriously investigating its basic physics mechanisms and engineering aspects at the Henry T. Hamamatsu Laboratory of Hypersonic and Aerothermodynamics in São José dos Campos, Brazil. This paper describes in details the existing facilities and measuring systems such as high-power laser devices, pulsed-hypersonic wind tunnels and high-speed flow visualization system currently utilized in the laboratory for experimentation on laser propulsion.

  16. GPS Data Analysis for Earth Orientation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J.; Webb, F.; Lindqwister, U.; Lichten, S.; Jefferson, D.; Ibanez-Meier, R.; Heflin, M.; Freedman, A.; Blewitt, G.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning June 1992 and continuing indefinitely as part of our contribution to FLINN (Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Science Network), DOSE (NASA's Dynamics of the Solid Earth Program), and the IGS (International GPS Geodynamics Service), analysts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have routinely been reducing data from a globally-distributed network of Rogue Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.

  17. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO2 TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO2 lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 μs); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  18. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO{sub 2} TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-08

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO{sub 2} lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 {mu}s); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  19. Architectures for mission control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Reger A.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    JPL is currently converting to an innovative control center data system which is a distributed, open architecture for telemetry delivery and which is enabling advancement towards improved automation and operability, as well as new technology, in mission operations at JPL. The scope of mission control within mission operations is examined. The concepts of a mission control center and how operability can affect the design of a control center data system are discussed. Examples of JPL's mission control architecture, data system development, and prototype efforts at the JPL Operations Engineering Laboratory are provided. Strategies for the future of mission control architectures are outlined.

  20. Activities of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    There are many facets to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for JPL is an organization of multiple responsibilities and broad scope, of diverse talents and great enterprise. The Laboratory's philosophy, mission, and goals have been shaped by its ties to the California Institute of Technology (JPL's parent organization) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (JPL's principal sponsor). JPL's activities for NASA in planetary, Earth, and space sciences currently account for almost 75 percent of the Laboratory's overall effort. JPL Research activities in the following areas are discussed: (1) deep space exploration; (2) telecommunications systems; (3) Earth observations; (4) advanced technology; (5) defense programs; and (6) energy and technology applications.

  1. Containerless processing technologies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Trinh, E.; Rhim, W.-K.; Kerrisk, D.; Barmatz, M.; Elleman, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Acoustic and electrostatic levitation (EL) techniques for maintaining sample-wall distance in order to ensure contamination-free conditions during microgravity materials science experiments on board the Shuttle are examined. A laboratory model for acoustic containerless (AC) processing is described, noting the use of three commercially available drivers for sample levitation. The arrangement of the speakers results in a point node to which a liquid drop sample migrates. Varying the field through manipulation of the dB levels and phase of the drivers' outputs permits control of sample position and movement. Rotation of a styrofoam ball at 2000 rpm has been achieved. Oscillations can also be induced. An advanced version of the AC system is analytically defined, with further studies mentioned for stable levitation modes using a cylindrical chamber and optimizing acoustic power transfer between hot and cold regions. A tetrahedral EL system has proven to work in a reduced gravity environment. El involves imparting an electrical charge to an object and then positioning and maintaining it through use of EM fields. The presence of human operators to perform the processing on the Shuttle is mentioned as offering real-time capability of altering the experimental conditions.

  2. The Astronautics Laboratory of the Air Force Systems Command electric propulsion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sanks, T.M.; Andrews, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Ongoing projects at the Astronautics Laboratory (AL) of the USAF Systems Command are described. Particular attention is given to experiments with arcjets, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, ion engines, and the Electric Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE). ELITE involves the integration of high-power ammonia arcjets, low-power xenon ion thrusters, advanced photovoltaic solar arrays, and an autononomous flight control system. It is believed that electric propulsion will become a dominant element in the military and industrial use of space. 6 refs.

  3. Advanced Technology for Aero Gas Turbine Components: Conference Proceedings Held at the Propulsion and Energetics Panel (69th) Symposium in Paris (France) on 4-8 May 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Flows AGARD Advisory Report 182 (in English and French). Results of WG 14 (June/August 1983) Producibility and Cost Studies of Aviation Kerosines AGARD...Design to Cost and Life Cycle Cost to Aircraft Engines AGARD LS 107 (May 1980) Microcomputer Applications in Power and Propulsion Systems AGARD LS...is also a key part of ensuring the maximum and most rapid availability of the new technologies at the most reasonable cost . The Air Force is doing this

  4. Workstation technology for engineering mission operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1990-10-01

    The Operations Engineering Laboratory (OEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been developing graphics tools to automate document preparation in support of space flight mission operations. One such tool, which generates a daily Space Flight Operations Schedule (SFOS), a timeline display of the schedule of spacecraft activities for the Voyager mission is described. The tool consists of two parts: a series of programs that preprocess various command files and a graphics editor. The code of the graphics editor was developed with reusability as a primary objective and has since served as the basis for the generation of other automation tools.

  5. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1977. [NASA research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 900 externally distributed technical reports released during calendar year 1977, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Report topics cover 81 subject areas related in some way to the various NASA programs. The publications are indexed by: (1) author, (2) subject, and (3) publication type and number. A descriptive entry appears under the name of each author of each publication; an abstract is included with the entry for the primary (first-listed) author.

  6. Empirical and Face Validity of Software Maintenance Defect Models Used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taber, William; Port, Dan

    2014-01-01

    At the Mission Design and Navigation Software Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory we make use of finite exponential based defect models to aid in maintenance planning and management for our widely used critical systems. However a number of pragmatic issues arise when applying defect models for a post-release system in continuous use. These include: how to utilize information from problem reports rather than testing to drive defect discovery and removal effort, practical model calibration, and alignment of model assumptions with our environment.

  7. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  8. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Recognizing a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The objectives of this effort are to ensure that all flight projects adequately cope with information flow problems at an early stage of system design, and that cost-effective, multi-mission capabilities are developed when capital investments are made in supporting elements. The paper reviews the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the Laboratory, and notes the ties to the NASA End-to-End Data System program.

  9. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in the 1994 annual report for the NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center's Sixth Annual Symposium. This conference covered: (1) Combustors and Nozzles; (2) Turbomachinery Aero- and Hydro-dynamics; (3) On-board Propulsion systems; (4) Advanced Propulsion Applications; (5) Vaporization and Combustion; (6) Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics; and (7) Atomization and Sprays.

  10. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory. Electric and hybrid propulsion systems, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-12-31

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during FY 1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass six battery technologies [Na/S, Li/FeS, Ni/Metal-Hydride, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and lie evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  11. Advances in Engine Test Capabilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter M.; Panek, Joseph W.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Piendl, Barry R.; Lizanich, Paul J.; Klann, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center is one of the premier U.S. facilities for research on advanced aeropropulsion systems. The facility can simulate a wide range of altitude and Mach number conditions while supplying the aeropropulsion system with all the support services necessary to operate at those conditions. Test data are recorded on a combination of steady-state and highspeed data-acquisition systems. Recently a number of upgrades were made to the facility to meet demanding new requirements for the latest aeropropulsion concepts and to improve operational efficiency. Improvements were made to data-acquisition systems, facility and engine-control systems, test-condition simulation systems, video capture and display capabilities, and personnel training procedures. This paper discusses the facility s capabilities, recent upgrades, and planned future improvements.

  12. Supreme Court Hears Privacy Case Between NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    After NASA put into practice the 2004 Homeland Security Presidential Directive-12, known as HSPD-12, Dennis Byrnes talked to then-NASA administrator Michael Griffin. Byrnes recalls that Griffin told him in 2007 that if he didn’t like the agency's implementation of HSPD-12, he should go to court. That's exactly what Byrnes, an employee of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) working as a senior engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., did. Concerned about prying and open-ended background investigations of federal contractors through NASA's implementation of HSPD-12, he, along with lead plaintiff Robert Nelson and 26 other Caltech employees working at JPL, sued NASA. Following several lower court decisions, including an injunction issued by a U.S. federal appeals court in response to a plaintiff motion, the case made it all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which heard oral arguments on 5 October.

  13. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested. For each pressure altitude test point conducted the ambient static temperature was predicted using a NASA engine icing risk computer model for the given ambient static pressure while maintaining the engine speed.

  14. From Mars to man - Biomedical research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckenbach, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of the unmanned exploration of the solar system, which the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has managed for NASA, major advances in computerized image processing, materials research, and miniature electronics design have been accomplished. This presentation shows some of the imaging results from space exploration missions, as well as biomedical research tasks based in these technologies. Among other topics, the use of polymeric microspheres in cancer therapy is discussed. Also included are ceramic applications to prosthesis development, laser applications in the treatment of coronary artery disease, multispectral imaging as used in the diagnosis of thermal burn injury, and some examples of telemetry systems as they can be involved in biological systems.

  15. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G; Manatt, Kenneth S; Mowrey, Victoria S; Jackson, Shannon P; Kisor, Adam K; Shevade, Abhijit V; Homer, Margie L

    2004-06-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  16. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Mixed-Phase Icing Cloud Simulations in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Struk, Peter; Van Zante, Judith

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of a numerical model that couples the thermal interaction between ice particles, water droplets, and the flowing gas of an icing wind tunnel for simulation of NASA Glenn Research Centers Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). The ultimate goal of the model is to better understand the complex interactions between the test parameters and have greater confidence in the conditions at the test section of the PSL tunnel. The model attempts to explain the observed changes in test conditions by coupling the conservation of mass and energy equations for both the cloud particles and flowing gas mass. Model predictions were compared to measurements taken during May 2015 testing at PSL, where test conditions varied gas temperature, pressure, velocity and humidity levels, as well as the cloud total water content, particle initial temperature, and particle size distribution.

  18. Current results and developments in astrometric VLBI at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Cohen, E. J.; Fanselow, J. L.; Rogstad, D. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Thomas, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's program of astrometric VLBI as one element of a navigation system for interplanetary spacecraft includes developing a radioastrometric source catalog, and a catalog of positions of compact extragalactic radio sources correct to about 0.01 arc sec. The three (64 m) antenna complexes of the Deep Space Network in Spain, Australia, and the U.S. are involved, each equipped to receive simultaneously at wavelengths of 13 and 3.6 cm with total system temperatures of about 20-25 K at both wavelengths. The program is to provide precise values of parameters used in navigational computations, including UT1 accurate to about 0.001s, and current values of polar motion to 30 cm. Bandwidth synthesis methods were applied to measure delays as well as rates regarding source positions derived from observations using the Mark II VLBI recording system which has a sampling rate of four million bits per second.

  19. Experience with Data Science as an Intern with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittell, J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Whitehall, K. D.; Ramirez, P.; Goodale, C. E.; Boustani, M.; Hart, A. F.; Kim, J.; Waliser, D. E.; Joyce, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES, http://rcmes.jpl.nasa.gov) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory seeks to improve regional climate model output by comparing past model predictions with Earth-orbiting satellite data (Mattmann et al. 2013). RCMES ingests satellite and RCM data and processes these data into a common format; as needed, the software queries the RCMES database for these datasets, on which it runs a series of statistical metrics including model-satellite comparisons. The development of the RCMES software relies on collaboration between climatologists and computer scientists, as evinced by RCMES longstanding work with CORDEX (Kim et al. 2012). Over a total of 17 weeks in 2011, 2012, and 2013, I worked as an intern at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in a supportive capacity for RCMES. A high school student, I had no formal background in either Earth science or computer technology, but was immersed in both fields. In 2011, I researched three earth-science data management projects, producing a high-level explanation of these endeavors. The following year, I studied Python, contributing a command-line user interface to the RCMES project code. In 2013, I assisted with data acquisition, wrote a file header information plugin, and the visualization tool GrADS. The experience demonstrated the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to data processing: to streamline data ingestion and processing, scientists must understand, at least on a high-level, any programs they might utilize while to best serve the needs of earth scientists, software engineers must understand the science behind the data they handle.

  20. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at the Air Force Research Laboratory (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-28

    FA8655-03-1-3061, DLR – German Aerospace Center, Institute of Technical Physics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D70569 Stuttgart, Germany, May 2004. 36 . E...PROPULSION, SPACE SOLAR POWER REVIEW, 5, 1985, 207 29. HORA , H; LOB, HW, EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF ANTIHYDROGEN BY LASER FOR SPACE PROPULSION...SUPPORTED DETONATION AND BLAST WAVES FOR LASER PROPULSION, JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER, 5, 1989, 282 36 . KORDE, UA, STUDY OF A WAVE ENERGY

  1. The Air Force Research Laboratory’s In-Space Propulsion Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    electric propulsion. Advanced chemical propulsion programs are developing thrusters that operate on a class of non-toxic, energetic propellants that offer...propulsion. Advanced chemical propulsion programs are developing thrusters that operate on a class of non-toxic, energetic propellants that offer per...traditionally chemical propellants (e.g. hydrazine, energetic ionic liquids, etc.) - Sustain Hall thruster technologies and optimize them for specific

  2. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, January through December 1974. [deep space network, Apollo project, information theory, and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formalized technical reporting is described and indexed, which resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The five classes of publications included are technical reports, technical memorandums, articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report, special publications, and articles published in the open literature. The publications are indexed by author, subject, and publication type and number.

  3. Space Shuttle 750 psi Helium Regulator Application on Mars Science Laboratory Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Yankura, George; Rust, Thomas; Anderson, John R.; Dien, Anthony; Garda, Hoshang; Bezer, Mary Ann; Johnson, David; Arndt, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is NASA's next major mission to Mars, to be launched in September 2009. It is a nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. The descent and landing uses a unique 'skycrane' concept, where a rocket-powered descent stage decelerates the vehicle, hovers over the ground, lowers the rover to the ground on a bridle, then flies a safe distance away for disposal. This descent stage uses a regulated hydrazine propulsion system. Performance requirements for the pressure regulator were very demanding, with a wide range of flow rates and tight regulated pressure band. These indicated that a piloted regulator would be needed, which are notoriously complex, and time available for development was short. Coincidentally, it was found that the helium regulator used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter main propulsion system came very close to meeting MSL requirements. However, the type was out of production, and fabricating new units would incur long lead times and technical risk. Therefore, the Space Shuttle program graciously furnished three units for use by MSL. Minor modifications were made, and the units were carefully tuned to MSL requirements. Some of the personnel involved had built and tested the original shuttle units. Delta qualification for MSL application was successfully conducted on one of the units. A pyrovalve slam start and shock test was conducted. Dynamic performance analyses for the new application were conducted, using sophisticated tools developed for Shuttle. Because the MSL regulator is a refurbished Shuttle flight regulator, it will be the only part of MSL which has physically already been in space.

  4. Geodetic and Atmospheric Measurements GPS Data Analysis for Earth Orientation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, J.; Webb, F.; Lindqwister, U.; Lichten, S.; Jefferson, D.; Ibanez-Meier, R.; Heflin, M.; Freedman, A.; Blewitt, G.

    1994-09-01

    Beginning in June 1992 and continuing indefinitely as part of our contribution to FLINN (Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Science Network), DOSE (NASA's Dynamics of the Solid Earth Program), and the IGS (International GPS Geodynamics Service), analysts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have routinely been reducing data from a globally-distributed network of Rogue Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Three products are produced and distributed weekly: (i) precise GPS satellite ephemerides, (ii) estimates of daily polar motion and length-of-day, and (iii) a descriptive narrative of the analysis for the week. These are typically made available to the public approximately two wecks following the data recording. In addition, more sophisticated data reduction techniques have been developed for non-routine, research-oriented GPS data analysis. These have been successfully utilized to measure subdaily Earth orientation fluctuations. Based on comparisons of our earth orientation parameters with independent techniques, we estimate daily pole position accuracies (la) of ±0.6 milliarcseconds and length-ofday accuracies of ±0.13 msec. Ongoing work at JPL is aimed at continuing the trend of producing more and higher-quality results at lower cost.

  5. 1st ACT global trajectory optimisation competition: Results found at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Finlayson, Paul A.; Whiffen, Gregory J.; Sims, Jon A.

    2007-11-01

    Results obtained at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the 1st ACT global trajectory optimisation competition are presented and the methods used to obtain them are described. The search for the globally optimal, low-thrust, gravity-assist trajectory for maximally deflecting an asteroid is performed in two steps. The first step involves a rough global search of the global search space, which has, however, been somewhat bounded based on prior mission-design experience, intuition, and energy arguments. A shape-based method is used to represent the low-thrust arcs, while the ballistic portions are searched almost exhaustively. The second step involves local optimisation of trajectories which stand out from the rough global search. The low-thrust optimisation problem is turned into a parameter optimisation problem by approximating the continuous thrusting as a series of impulsive manoeuvres. Of the many trajectories found, three optimal trajectories are reported and compared, including the one submitted for the competition. The best one employed a double-Venus, quadruple-Earth, Jupiter Saturn Jupiter gravity-assist sequence. The trajectory submitted for the competition used one less Venus flyby and one less Earth flyby.

  6. A Summer Research Program of NASA/Faculty Fellowships at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) is designed to give college and university faculty members a rewarding personal as well as enriching professional experience. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and JPL host colleague. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have participated in the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program for the past 25 years. Administrative offices are maintained both at the Caltech Campus and at JPL; however, most of the activity takes place at JPL. The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U.S. citizen and hold a teaching or research appointment at a U.S. university or college. A travel allowance is paid to those fellows outside the 50-mile radius of JPL.

  7. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL): Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) Facility in February 2013. Honeywell Engines supplied the test article, an obsolete, unmodified Lycoming ALF502-R5 turbofan engine serial number LF01 that experienced an un-commanded loss of thrust event while operating at certain high altitude ice crystal icing conditions. These known conditions were duplicated in the PSL for this testing.

  8. Multibody system applications and simulations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [emphasizing attitude and science platform articulation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    The historical development of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of generic computer programs for solving the H-M-H equations of motion of point-connected sets of rigid bodies in a topological tree is traced, as well as the application of these programs and the multibody modelling approach to the design of spacecraft control systems. These include thrust vector control and science instrument articulation on such vehicles as Mariner 9, Mariner 10, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager.

  9. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  10. Advanced Optical Diagnostics for Ice Crystal Cloud Measurements in the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.; Fagan, Amy; Van Zante, Judith F.; Kirkegaard, Jonathan P.; Rohler, David P.; Maniyedath, Arjun; Izen, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    A light extinction tomography technique has been developed to monitor ice water clouds upstream of a direct connected engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The system consists of 60 laser diodes with sheet generating optics and 120 detectors mounted around a 36-inch diameter ring. The sources are pulsed sequentially while the detectors acquire line-of-sight extinction data for each laser pulse. Using computed tomography algorithms, the extinction data are analyzed to produce a plot of the relative water content in the measurement plane. To target the low-spatial-frequency nature of ice water clouds, unique tomography algorithms were developed using filtered back-projection methods and direct inversion methods that use Gaussian basis functions. With the availability of a priori knowledge of the mean droplet size and the total water content at some point in the measurement plane, the tomography system can provide near real-time in-situ quantitative full-field total water content data at a measurement plane approximately 5 feet upstream of the engine inlet. Results from ice crystal clouds in the PSL are presented. In addition to the optical tomography technique, laser sheet imaging has also been applied in the PSL to provide planar ice cloud uniformity and relative water content data during facility calibration before the tomography system was available and also as validation data for the tomography system. A comparison between the laser sheet system and light extinction tomography resulting data are also presented. Very good agreement of imaged intensity and water content is demonstrated for both techniques. Also, comparative studies between the two techniques show excellent agreement in calculation of bulk total water content averaged over the center of the pipe.

  11. Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Kennedy Space Center telerobotic inspection and manipulation demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Davis, Leon

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this effort is to demonstrate telerobotic inspection and mainpulation of space shuttle payloads in the presence of substantial communications time delays between the operator station and the robotic work space. The processing of space shuttle payloads provides a variety of tasks which are typical of both space shuttle ground operations and Space Station in-flight operations, and communications time delays are inevitable in space operations where the operator station will be light-seconds away from the telerobot. With this demonstration we hope to show the efficacy and safety of robotic technology for ground and space operations. Our approach is to develop an experimental telerobotic system with the remote sensing, actuation and reflex portions located at KSC in Florida, while the operator control station will be located at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California. The JPL portion of the system includes a high-level operator interface, intelligent spatial planning and machine vision, while the KSC portion includes the robot arm, end effectors, cameras and proximity sensors, and the necessary control and communications computers and software. The communications between JPL and KSC are over a limited-bandwidth network channel (19200 baud) with unpredictable and unrepeatable time delays. In FY89 we integrated a basic version of the robotic, communications, and computer hardware, and we developed the software to perform an operator-supervised inspection of a PAM-D satellite upper stage rocket motor and its shuttle support cradle. The demonstration, though severely limited by the bulk of the available computer arm, showed the potential of telerobotics for inspection tasks. In the future, we plan to develop additional capabilities which will allow manipulation tasks to be performed, including removal of dust covers and lens caps, insertion of connectors and batteries, and installation of payload objects.

  12. Mid and thermal infrared remote sensing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.

    2016-05-01

    The mid and thermal infrared (MTIR) for the Earth surface is defined between 3 and 14µm. In the outer solar system, objects are colder and their Planck response shifts towards longer wavelengths. Hence for these objects (e.g. icy moons, polar caps, comets, Europa), the thermal IR definition usually stretches out to 50µm and beyond. Spectroscopy has been a key part of this scientific exploration because of its ability to remotely determine elemental and mineralogical composition. Many key gas species such as methane, ammonia, sulfur, etc. also have vibrational bands which show up in the thermal infrared spectrum above the background response. Over the past few decades, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been building up a portfolio of technology to capture the MTIR for various scientific applications. Three recent sensors are briefly reviewed: The airborne Hyperspectral thermal emission spectrometer (HyTES), the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS)/DIVINER. Each of these sensors utilize a different technology to provide a remote sensing product based on MTIR science. For example, HyTES is a push-brooming hyperspectral imager which utilizes a large format quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The goal is to transition this to a new complementary barrier infrared photodetector (CBIRD) with a similar long wave cut-off and increased sensitivity. ECOSTRESS is a push-whisk Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) based high speed, multi-band, imager which will eventually observe and characterize plant/vegetation functionality and stress index from the International Space Station (ISS) across the contiguous United States (CONUS). MCS/DIVINER utilizes thermopile technology to capture the thermal emission from the polar caps and shadow regions of the moon. Each sensor utilizes specific JPL technology to capture unique science.

  13. America's first long-range-missile and space exploration program: The ORDCIT project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1943 - 1946: A memoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Research and achievements of the wartime Jet Propulsion Laboratory are outlined. Accomplishments included development of the solid-propellant Private A and private R rockets and the liquid-propellant nitric acid-aniline WAC Corporal rocket.

  14. AFRPL (Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory) Technical Objective Document FY 85.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    make to survive an expanding enemy anti- satellite ( ASAT ) threat. In both cases, improved propulsion will be critical. Improved propulsion will also be...technology to upgrade the lower stage of the air-launched ASAT to achieve an increase in altitude/range capability. The other, Pulsed Plasma Flight Test...enabling technologies to permit high-power space-based directed energy weapons, to provide enhancement of current ASAT systems, to locate enemy assets in

  15. Aero dopes and varnishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, H T S

    1927-01-01

    Before proceeding to discuss the preparation of dope solutions, it will be necessary to consider some of the essential properties which should be possessed of a dope film, deposited in and on the surface of an aero fabric. The first is that it should tighten the material and second it should withstand weathering.

  16. Aero/structural tailoring of engine blades (AERO/STAEBL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the Aero/Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (AERO/STAEBL) program, which is a computer code used to perform engine fan and compressor blade aero/structural numerical optimizations. These optimizations seek a blade design of minimum operating cost that satisfies realistic blade design constraints. This report documents the overall program (i.e., input, optimization procedures, approximate analyses) and also provides a detailed description of the validation test cases.

  17. Computing and information services at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - A management approach to a diversity of needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felberg, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a research and development organization with about 5,000 employees, presents a complicated set of requirements for an institutional system of computing and informational services. The approach taken by JPL in meeting this challenge is one of controlled flexibility. A central communications network is provided, together with selected computing facilities for common use. At the same time, staff members are given considerable discretion in choosing the mini- and microcomputers that they believe will best serve their needs. Consultation services, computer education, and other support functions are also provided.

  18. Large-Scale Testing and High-Fidelity Simulation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to Support Space Power and Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-21

    Sandia National Laboratories, as a Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, has major responsibility to ensure the safety and security needs of nuclear weapons. As such, with an experienced research staff, Sandia maintains a spectrum of modeling and simulation capabilities integrated with experimental and large-scale test capabilities. This expertise and these capabilities offer considerable resources for addressing issues of interest to the space power and propulsion communities. This paper presents Sandia's capability to perform thermal qualification (analysis, test, modeling and simulation) using a representative weapon system as an example demonstrating the potential to support NASA's Lunar Reactor System.

  19. Aero-Assisted Spacecraft Missions Using Hypersonic Waverider Aeroshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Jeremy

    This work examines the use of high-lift, low drag vehicles which perform orbital transfers within a planet's atmosphere to reduce propulsive requirements. For the foreseeable future, spacecraft mission design will include the objective of limiting the mass of fuel required. One means of accomplishing this is using aerodynamics as a supplemental force, with what is termed an aero-assist maneuver. Further, the use of a lifting body enables a mission designer to explore candidate trajectory types wholly unavailable to non-lifting analogs. Examples include missions to outer planets by way of an aero-gravity assist, aero-assisted plane change, aero-capture, and steady atmospheric periapsis probing missions. Engineering level models are created in order to simulate both atmospheric and extra-atmospheric space flight. Each mission is parameterized using discrete variables which control multiple areas of design. This work combines the areas of hypersonic aerodynamics, re-entry aerothermodynamics, spacecraft orbital mechanics, and vehicle shape optimization. In particular, emphasis is given to the parametric design of vehicles known as "waveriders" which are inversely designed from known shock flowfields. An entirely novel means of generating a class of waveriders known as "starbodies" is presented. A complete analysis is performed of asymmetric starbody forms and compared to a better understood parameterization, "osculating cone" waveriders. This analysis includes characterization of stability behavior, a critical discipline within hypersonic flight. It is shown that asymmetric starbodies have significant stability improvement with only a 10% reduction in the lift-to-drag ratio. By combining the optimization of both the shape of the vehicle and the trajectory it flies, much is learned about the benefit that can be expected from lifting aero-assist missions. While previous studies have conceptually proven the viability, this work provides thorough quantification of the

  20. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Clevleand, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSLthe first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal icing

  1. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  2. A Summer Research Program of NASA/Faculty Fellowships at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) is designed to give college and university faculty members a rewarding personal as well as enriching professional experience. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and his or her JPL host colleague. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have participated in the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program for more than 25 years. Administrative offices are maintained both at the Caltech Campus and at JPL; however, most of the activity takes place at JPL. The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U.S. citizen and hold a teaching or research appointment at a U.S. university or college. The American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) contracts with NASA and manages program recruitment. Over the past several years, we have made attempts to increase the diversity of the participants in the NFFP Program. A great deal of attention has been given to candidates from minority-serving institutions. There were approximately 100 applicants for the 34 positions in 2002. JPL was the first-choice location for more than half of them. Faculty from 16 minority-serving institutions participated as well as four women. The summer began with an orientation meeting that included introduction of key program personnel, and introduction of the fellows to each other. During this welcome, the fellows were briefed on their obligations to the program and to their JPL colleagues. They were also given a short historical perspective on JPL and its relationship to Caltech and NASA. All fellows received a package, which included information on administrative procedures, roster of fellows, seminar program, housing questionnaire, directions to JPL, maps of

  3. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-28

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in {approx}10 cm{sup 2} spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  4. Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

  5. Aero-optics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn D.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command (USASDC) has several ongoing and planned programs that utilize optical sensors aboard missiles traveling at hypersonic velocities in the atmosphere. Central to the missile homing problem are aero-optical effects upon a missile-borne sensor/seeker which looks through both an electromagnetic window and the flow field about the vehicle. Aspects of the problem include modeling and simulation of the flow field on incident radiation from a target, and finally, predicting the resultant image imperfections and error in apparent object position as perceived by the sensor.

  6. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project, 1977-1984: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D.; Roan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The JPL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project was established in the spring of 1977. Originally administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and later by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the overall Program objective was to decrease this nation's dependence on foreign petroleum sources by developing the technologies and incentives necessary to bring electric and hybrid vehicles successfully into the marketplace. The ERDA/DOE Program structure was divided into two major elements: (1) technology research and system development and (2) field demonstration and market development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been one of several field centers supporting the former Program element. In that capacity, the specific historical areas of responsibility have been: (1) Vehicle system developments (2) System integration and test (3) Supporting subsystem development (4) System assessments (5) Simulation tool development.

  7. Maintenance of time and frequency in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Borutzki, S. E.; Kirk, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, must maintain time and frequency within specified limits in order to accurately track the spacecraft engaged in deep space exploration. Various methods are used to coordinate the clocks among the three tracking complexes. These methods include Loran-C, TV Line 10, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Calculations are made to obtain frequency offsets and Allan variances. These data are analyzed and used to monitor the performance of the hydrogen masers that provide the reference frequencies for the DSN Frequency and Timing System (DFT). Areas of discussion are: (1) a brief history of the GPS timing receivers in the DSN, (2) a description of the data and information flow, (3) data on the performance of the DSN master clocks and GPS measurement system, and (4) a description of hydrogen maser frequency steering using these data.

  8. Nuclear blast response of airbreathing propulsion systems: laboratory measurements with an operational J-85-5 turbojet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.G.; Rafferty, J.M.

    1982-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental technique for controlled laboratory measurements of the nuclear blast response of airbreathing propulsion systems. The experiments utilize an available G.E. J-855 turbojet engine located in the test section of the Calspan Ludwieg-tube facility. Significant modifications were made to this facility in order to adapt it to the desired configuration. The J-85 engine had previously been used at Calspan for other purposes and thus came equipped with eight pressure transducers at four axial locations along the compressor section. These transducers have a frequency response on the order of 40 KHz. Pressure histories obtained at several circumferential and axial locations along the compressor are presented for blastwave equivalent overpressures up to 17.2 kPa (2.5 psi) at corrected engine speeds on the order of 94 percent of maximum speed.

  9. Minority University System Engineering: A Small Satellite Design Experience Held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory During the Summer of 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Miguel Angel

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), North Carolina A&T and California State University of Los Angeles participated during the summer of 1996 in a prototype program known as Minority University Systems Engineering (MUSE). The program consisted of a ten week internship at JPL for students and professors of the three universities. The purpose of MUSE as set forth in the MUSE program review August 5, 1996 was for the participants to gain experience in the following areas: 1) Gain experience in a multi-disciplinary project; 2) Gain experience working in a culturally diverse atmosphere; 3) Provide field experience for students to reinforce book learning; and 4) Streamline the design process in two areas: make it more financially feasible; and make it faster.

  10. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2016-01-01

    This presentation accompanies the paper titled Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory. NASA is evaluating whether PSL, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This presentation (and accompanying paper) presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  11. Hydrogen maser implementation in the Deep Space Network at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhnle, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    The Frequency Standard Test Laboratory and its activities are described. The test laboratory has the capability to measure the frequency stability of five frequency standards including environmental parameters. Nine frequency standards may be evaluated simultaneously upon completion of the current instrumentation expansion program. Frequency stability measurements and environmental data on five H-masers are presented.

  12. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  13. Modeling of Highly Instrumented Honeywell Turbofan Engine Tested with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL), an altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, has been used to test a highly instrumented turbine engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. This is a continuation of the PSL testing that successfully duplicated the icing events that were experienced in a previous engine (serial LF01) during flight through ice crystal clouds, which was the first turbofan engine tested in PSL. This second model of the ALF502R-5A serial number LF11 is a highly instrumented version of the previous engine. The PSL facility provides a continuous cloud of ice crystals with controlled characteristics of size and concentration, which are ingested by the engine during operation at simulated altitudes. Several of the previous operating points tested in the LF01 engine were duplicated to confirm repeatability in LF11. The instrumentation included video cameras to visually illustrate the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor (LPC) exit guide vane region in order to confirm the ice accretion, which was suspected during the testing of the LF01. Traditional instrumentation included static pressure taps in the low pressure compressor inner and outer flow path walls, as well as total pressure and temperature rakes in the low pressure compressor region. The test data was utilized to determine the losses and blockages due to accretion in the exit guide vane region of the LPC. Multiple data points were analyzed with the Honeywell Customer Deck. A full engine roll back point was modeled with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code. The mean line compressor flow analysis code with ice crystal modeling was utilized to estimate the parameters that indicate the risk of accretion, as well as to estimate the degree of blockage and losses caused by accretion during a full engine roll back point. The analysis provided additional validation of the icing risk parameters within the LPC, as well as the creation of models for

  14. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  15. Ka-band MMIC array system for ACTS aeronautical terminal experiment (Aero-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raquet, Charles A.; Zakrajsek, Robert J.; Lee, Richard Q.; Andro, Monty; Turtle, John P.

    1995-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Aeronautical Terminal Experiment (Aero-X) was successfully completed by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). 4.8 and 9.6 Kbps duplex voice links were established between the LeRC Learjet and the ACTS Link Evaluation Terminal (LET) in Cleveland, Ohio, via the ACTS. The antenna system used in this demonstration was developed by LeRC and featured LeRC and US Air Force experimental arrays using GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The antenna system consisted of three arrays mounted inside the LeRC Learjet, pointing out through the windows. An open loop tracking controller developed by LeRC used information from the aircraft position and attitude sensors to automatically steer the arrays toward ACTS during flight JPL ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) system hardware was used as transceivers both on the aircraft and at the LET. The single 32 element MMIC transmit array developed by NASA/LeRC and Texas Instruments has an EIRP of 23.4 dBW at boresight. The two 20 GHz MMIC receive arrays were developed in a cooperative effort with the USAF Rome Laboratory/Electronic System Center, taking advantage of existing USAF array development contracts with Boeing and Martin Marietta. The Boeing array has 23 elements and a G/T of 16/6 db/degK at boresight. The Martin Marietta array has 16 elements and a G/T of 16.1 db/degK at boresight. The three proof-of-concept arrays, the array control system and their integration and operation in the Learjet for Aero-X are described.

  16. [New aero-allergens].

    PubMed

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  17. A guidance-motivated sensitivity analysis of an aero-assisted boost vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W.; Gracey, C.; Armstrong, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    A simple model of an aero-assisted booster is used to examine the contributions of propulsion system type, aerodynamic lift and flight trajectory to the efficiency with which payloads can be placed into low earth orbit. The higher propulsive efficiency of ramjet and scramjet propulsion has the potential of increasing the payload mass ratio significantly. The contributions of turbojet propulsion and aerodynamic lift are less significant. The additional complexity involved in using aerodynamic propulsion and lift requires dealing with a more comprehensive set of design variables than for rocket boosters. The approach taken is to derive a set of sensitivity functions which relate booster performance to the design variables. The problems of optimum mixing of aerodynamic lift with thrust and determining the optimal boost trajectory is treated. The potential payload capacity of a horizontal take-off air-breathing boost vehicle is examined. The optimization problem which considers propulsive efficiency, aerodynamic configuration, and control and guidance issues is discussed.

  18. Hypersonic Interplanetary Flight: Aero Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Banks, Dan; Randolph, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The use of aero-gravity assist during hypersonic interplanetary flights is highlighted. Specifically, the use of large versus small planet for gravity asssist maneuvers, aero-gravity assist trajectories, launch opportunities and planetary waverider performance are addressed.

  19. LABVIEW graphical user interface for precision multichannel alignment of Raman lidar at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility.

    PubMed

    Aspey, R A; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Howe, J W; Walsh, T D

    2008-09-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory operates lidar systems at Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California (34.4 degrees N, 117.7 degrees W) and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (19.5 degrees N, 155.6 degrees W) under the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. To complement these systems a new Raman lidar has been developed at TMF with particular attention given to optimizing water vapor profile measurements up to the tropopause and lower stratosphere. The lidar has been designed for accuracies of 5% up to 12 km in the free troposphere and a detection capability of <5 ppmv. One important feature of the lidar is a precision alignment system using range resolved data from eight Licel transient recorders, allowing fully configurable alignment via a LABVIEW/C++ graphical user interface (GUI). This allows the lidar to be aligned on any channel while simultaneously displaying signals from other channels at configurable altitude/bin combinations. The general lidar instrumental setup and the details of the alignment control system, data acquisition, and GUI alignment software are described. Preliminary validation results using radiosonde and lidar intercomparisons are briefly presented.

  20. F100 Engine Emissions Tested in NASA Lewis' Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in atmospheric sciences have shown that the chemical composition of the entire atmosphere of the planet (gases and airborne particles) has been changed due to human activity and that these changes have changed the heat balance of the planet. National Research Council findings indicate that anthropogenic aerosols1 reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Atmospheric global models suggest that sulfate aerosols change the energy balance of the Northern Hemisphere as much as anthropogenic greenhouse gases have. In response to these findings, NASA initiated the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) to advance the research needed to define present and future aircraft emissions and their effects on the Earth's atmosphere. Although the importance of aerosols and their precursors is now well recognized, the characterization of current subsonic engines for these emissions is far from complete. Furthermore, since the relationship of engine operating parameters to aerosol emissions is not known, extrapolation to untested and unbuilt engines necessarily remains highly uncertain. Tests in 1997-an engine test at the NASA Lewis Research Center and the corresponding flight measurement test at the NASA Langley Research Center-attempted to address both issues by measuring emissions when fuels containing different levels of sulfur were burned. Measurement systems from four research groups were involved in the Lewis engine test: A Lewis gas analyzer suite to measure the concentration of gaseous species 1. including NO, NOx, CO, CO2, O2, THC, and SO2 as well as the smoke number; 2. A University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System to measure aerosol and particulate properties including the total concentration, size distribution, volatility, and hydration property; 3. An Air Force Research Laboratory Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer to measure the concentration of SO2 and SO3/H2SO4; and 4. An Aerodyne Research Inc

  1. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  2. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero- Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  3. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  4. Air Force Research in Aero Propulsion Technology (AFRAPT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-27

    impact on rotordynamic stability. Air (or other gas) flowing through the clearances of labyrinth seals can induce an asymmetric pressure distribution... Rotordynamic Instability, College Station, TX, May 1990. 17 B Ih=o.166 KgIS (baeJ A i6O.137 KgIS el r0.1S@ Kg/S

  5. Performance of an aero-space plane propulsion nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, George; Bae, Yoon-Yeong

    1989-01-01

    An inviscid and viscous analysis is provided for an exposed half nozzle that is used with a scramjet for thrust generation. The analysis is based on the inviscid theory of a two-dimensional, minimum length nozzle with a curved inlet surface, where the flow may be sonic or supersonic. Inlet conditions are prescribed and the gas is assumed to be perfect. Viscous, and when appropriate inviscid, nondimensional parametric results are provided for the thrust, lift, heat transfer, pitching moment, and a variety of boundary-layer thicknesses. In addition to global results, wall distributions of pressure, heat transfer, etc., are provided. The analysis demonstrates that the nozzle produces a considerable lift force whose magnitude may exceed the thrust and a significant pitching moment. The thrust is quite sensitive to the inlet Mach number; it rapidly decreases as the inlet Mach number increases There is little loss in the thrust as the nozzle's downstream wall is truncated. The corresponding decrease in lift and the pitching moment is moderate.

  6. Micro-optical Distributed Sensors for Aero Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S.; Otugen, V.; Seasholtz, Richard G. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS)-based sensors for time- and space-resolved measurements of flow properties in aerodynamics applications. The measurement technique we propose uses optical resonances in dielectric micro-spheres that can be excited by radiation tunneling from optical fibers. It exploits the tunneling-induced and morphology-dependent shifts in the resonant frequencies. The shift in the resonant frequency is dependent on the size, shape, and index of refraction of the micro-sphere. A physical change in the environment surrounding a micro-bead can change one or more of these properties of the sphere thereby causing a shift in frequency of resonance. The change of the resonance frequency can be detected with high resolution by scanning a frequency-tunable laser that is coupled into the fiber and observing the transmission spectrum at the output of the fiber. It is expected that, in the future, the measurement concept will lead to a system of distributed micro-sensors providing spatial data resolved in time and space. The present project focuses on the development and demonstration of temperature sensors using the morphology-dependent optical resonances although in the latter part of the work, we will also develop a pressure sensor. During the period covered in this report, the optical and electronic equipment necessary for the experimental work was assembled and the experimental setup was designed for the single sensor temperature measurements. Software was developed for real-time tracking of the optical resonance shifts. Some preliminary experiments were also carried out to detect temperature using a single bead in a water bath.

  7. Dynamic Systems Analysis for Turbine Based Aero Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The aircraft engine design process seeks to optimize the overall system-level performance, weight, and cost for a given concept. Steady-state simulations and data are used to identify trade-offs that should be balanced to optimize the system in a process known as systems analysis. These systems analysis simulations and data may not adequately capture the true performance trade-offs that exist during transient operation. Dynamic systems analysis provides the capability for assessing the dynamic tradeoffs at an earlier stage of the engine design process. The dynamic systems analysis concept, developed tools, and potential benefit are presented in this paper. To provide this capability, the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) was developed to provide the user with an estimate of the closed-loop performance (response time) and operability (high pressure compressor surge margin) for a given engine design and set of control design requirements. TTECTrA along with engine deterioration information, can be used to develop a more generic relationship between performance and operability that can impact the engine design constraints and potentially lead to a more efficient engine.

  8. Aero-optimum hovering kinematics.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2015-08-07

    Hovering flight for flapping wing vehicles requires rapid and relatively complex reciprocating movement of a wing relative to a stationary surrounding fluid. This note develops a compact analytical aero-kinematic model that can be used for optimization of flapping wing kinematics against aerodynamic criteria of effectiveness (maximum lift) and efficiency (minimum power for a given amount of lift). It can also be used to make predictions of required flapping frequency for a given geometry and basic aerodynamic parameters. The kinematic treatment is based on a consolidation of an existing formulation that allows explicit derivation of flapping velocity for complex motions whereas the aerodynamic model is based on existing quasi-steady analysis. The combined aero-kinematic model provides novel explicit analytical expressions for both lift and power of a hovering wing in a compact form that enables exploration of a rich kinematic design space. Good agreement is found between model predictions of flapping frequency and observed results for a number of insects and optimal hovering kinematics identified using the model are consistent with results from studies using higher order computational models. For efficient flight, the flapping angle should vary using a triangular profile in time leading to a constant velocity flapping motion, whereas for maximum effectiveness the shape of variation should be sinusoidal. For both cases the wing pitching motion should be rectangular such that pitch change at stroke reversal is as rapid as possible.

  9. The Propulsion Center at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. Our mission is to move the nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft like access to earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space. Current efforts cover a wide range of exciting areas, including high-energy plasma thrusters, advanced fission and fusion engines, antimatter propulsion systems, beamed energy rockets and sails, and fundamental motive physics. Activities involve concept investigation, proof-of-concept demonstration, and breadboard validation of new propulsion systems. The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC provides an environment where NASA, national laboratories, universities, and industry researchers can pool their skills together to perform landmark propulsion achievements. We offer excellent educational opportunities to students and young researchers-fostering a wellspring of innovation that will revolutionize space transportation.

  10. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  11. Electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Philip W.

    Electric propulsion (EP) is an attractive option for unmanned orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's). Vehicles with solar electric propulsion (SEP) could be used routinely to transport cargo between nodes in Earth, lunar, and Mars orbit. Electric propulsion systems are low-thrust, high-specific-impulse systems with fuel efficiencies 2 to 10 times the efficiencies of systems using chemical propellants. The payoff for this performance can be high, since a principal cost for a space transportation system is that of launching to low Earth orbit (LEO) the propellant required for operations between LEO and other nodes. Several aspects of electric propulsion, including candidate systems and the impact of using nonterrestrial materials, are discussed.

  12. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  13. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  14. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  15. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  16. Spatial-temporal-covariance-based modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Curtis R; Tyler, Glenn A; Wittich, Donald J

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a framework for modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations that is based on spatial-temporal covariance matrices extracted from wavefront sensor measurements. Within this framework, we present a quasi-homogeneous structure function to analyze nonhomogeneous, mildly anisotropic spatial random processes, and we use this structure function to show that phase aberrations arising in aero-optics are, for an important range of operating parameters, locally Kolmogorov. This strongly suggests that the d5/3 power law for adaptive optics (AO) deformable mirror fitting error, where d denotes actuator separation, holds for certain important aero-optics scenarios. This framework also allows us to compute bounds on AO servo lag error and predictive control error. In addition, it provides us with the means to accurately simulate AO systems for the mitigation of aero-effects, and it may provide insight into underlying physical processes associated with turbulent flow. The techniques introduced here are demonstrated using data obtained from the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory.

  17. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    system with a low initial development and infrastructure cost and a high operating cost. Note however that this has resulted in a 'Catch 22' standoff between the need for large initial investment that is amortized over many launches to reduce costs, and the limited number of launches possible at today's launch costs. Some examples of missions enabled (either in cost or capability) by advanced propulsion include long-life station-keeping or micro-spacecraft applications using electric propulsion or BMDO-derived micro-thrusters, low-cost orbit raising (LEO to GEO or Lunar orbit) using electric propulsion, robotic planetary missions using aerobraking or electric propulsion, piloted Mars missions using aerobraking and/or propellant production from Martian resources, very fast (100-day round-trip) piloted Mars missions using fission or fusion propulsion, and, finally, interstellar missions using fusion, antimatter, or beamed energy. The NASA Advanced Propulsion Technology program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is aimed at assessing the feasibility of a range of near-term to far term advanced propulsion technologies that have the potential to reduce costs and/or enable future space activities. The program includes cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; and directly supported independent research at universities and industry. The cooperative program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry-supported research includes modeling and proof-of-concept experiments in advanced, high-lsp, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion.

  18. Resolution requirements for aero-optical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Ali Wang Meng; Moin, Parviz

    2008-11-10

    Analytical criteria are developed to estimate the error of aero-optical computations due to inadequate spatial resolution of refractive index fields in high Reynolds number flow simulations. The unresolved turbulence structures are assumed to be locally isotropic and at low turbulent Mach number. Based on the Kolmogorov spectrum for the unresolved structures, the computational error of the optical path length is estimated and linked to the resulting error in the computed far-field optical irradiance. It is shown that in the high Reynolds number limit, for a given geometry and Mach number, the spatial resolution required to capture aero-optics within a pre-specified error margin does not scale with Reynolds number. In typical aero-optical applications this resolution requirement is much lower than the resolution required for direct numerical simulation, and therefore, a typical large-eddy simulation can capture the aero-optical effects. The analysis is extended to complex turbulent flow simulations in which non-uniform grid spacings are used to better resolve the local turbulence structures. As a demonstration, the analysis is used to estimate the error of aero-optical computation for an optical beam passing through turbulent wake of flow over a cylinder.

  19. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  20. Public health assessment for Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA), Pasadena, Los Angeles County, California, Region 9: CERCLIS number CA9800013030. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-05

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located in Pasadena, California, northeast of Interstate 210. As a result of former site activities, chemicals, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOC) and perchlorate (a component of solid rocket fuel), used at JPL have been released to soil and groundwater. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted site visits in 1997 to assess the potential for public health hazards. During these visits, ATSDR identified two pathways where people could potentially be exposed to site-related contaminants: (1) exposure to contaminated groundwater and (2) exposure to contaminated soil. ATSDR also identified the following primary community concerns: (1) future groundwater and drinking water quality and (2) increased incidence of Hodgkin`s disease. ATSDR determined that VOC-contaminated groundwater does not present a past, present, or future public health to JPL employees or nearby residents. ATSDR also determined that exposure, if any, to contaminated soils associated with the JPL site and in the Arroyo Secco near the JPL boundary is unlikely to cause either short-term or long-term adverse health effects to employees and the public.

  1. Towards an Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elasticity Analysis of a Commercial Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George; Chwalowski, Pawel; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Silva, Walt A.; McNamara, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an aero-propulso-servo-elastic (APSE) model using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and linear structural deformations. The APSE model provides the integration of the following two previously developed nonlinear dynamic simulations: a variable cycle turbofan engine and an elastic supersonic commercial transport vehicle. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to include relevant dynamics of a turbomachinery propulsion system into the aeroelastic studies conducted during a vehicle design, which have historically neglected propulsion effects. A high fidelity CFD tool is used here for the integration platform. The elastic vehicle neglecting the propulsion system serves as a comparison of traditional approaches to the APSE results. An overview of the methodology is presented for integrating the propulsion system and elastic vehicle. Static aeroelastic analysis comparisons between the traditional and developed APSE models for a wing tip detection indicate that the propulsion system impact on the vehicle elastic response could increase the detection by approximately ten percent.

  2. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  3. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Joins Propulsion Park Display

    NASA Video Gallery

    A crane lifts a space shuttle solid rocket booster into its final position in the “propulsion park” outside Building 4205, the Propulsion Research & Development Laboratory at the Marshall Cente...

  4. Results of the AEROS satellite program: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerzahl, P.; Rawer, K.; Roemer, N.

    1980-01-01

    Published literature reporting aeronomic data collected on two AEROS missions is summarized. The extreme ultraviolet solar radiation and other significant parameters of the thermosphere/ionosphere were investigated. Kinetic pressure, the quantity of atomic nitrogen, and partial densities of helium, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and atomic nitrogen were determined. The thermal electron population, superthermal energy distribution, plasma density, ion temperature, and composition according to ion types were measured. The chief energy supply in the thermosphere was calculated. Aeronomic calculations showing that variations in the parameters of the ionosphere cannot be correlated with fluctuations of extreme ultraviolet solar radiation were performed. The AEROS data were compared with data from S3-1, ISIS, and AE-C satellites. Models of the thermosphere and ionosphere were developed.

  5. Transient aero-thermal simulations for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    Aero-thermal simulations are an integral part of the design process for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). These simulations utilize Computational Solid-Fluid Dynamics (CSFD) to estimate wind jitter and blur, dome and mirror seeing, telescope pointing error due to thermal drift, and to predict thermal effects on performance of components such as the primary mirror segments. Design guidance obtained from these simulations is provided to the Telescope, Enclosure, Facilities and Adaptive Optics groups. Computational advances allow for model enhancements and inclusion of phenomena not previously resolved, such as transient effects on wind loading and thermal seeing due to vent operation while observing or long exposure effects, with potentially different flow patterns corresponding to the beginning and end of observation. Accurate knowledge of the Observatory aero-thermal environment will result in developing reliable look-up tables for effective open loop correction of key active optics system elements, and cost efficient operation of the Observatory.

  6. Propulsion controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkney, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Increased system requirements and functional integration with the aircraft have placed an increased demand on control system capability and reliability. To provide these at an affordable cost and weight and because of the rapid advances in electronic technology, hydromechanical systems are being phased out in favor of digital electronic systems. The transition is expected to be orderly from electronic trimming of hydromechanical controls to full authority digital electronic control. Future propulsion system controls will be highly reliable full authority digital electronic with selected component and circuit redundancy to provide the required safety and reliability. Redundancy may include a complete backup control of a different technology for single engine applications. The propulsion control will be required to communicate rapidly with the various flight and fire control avionics as part of an integrated control concept.

  7. Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    that Isp is a measure of how efficiently we produce thrust. In a sense, it is similar to the specific fuel consumption for a gas turbine or miles...valves or pyro valve are often used instead. Check Valves. Check valves are used to allow gas flow in one direction but prevent gas from flowing in...propulsion absorbs direct solar energy with a heat exchanger. A propellant gas , typically hydrogen, flows over the heat exchanger and is expelled out of a

  8. Development and Validation of a New Blade Element Momentum Skewed-Wake Model within AeroDyn: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.

  9. Twenty First Century Space Propulsion Study Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    90265-7783 June 1991 Final Report DTIC ELECTE JUL15I9U ~> PHILLIPS LABOR.ATORY Propulsion Directorate ~ AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND EDWARDS AIR FORCE...Century Space Propulsion Study (Addendum) (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Forward, Robert L. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT...AL-TR-90-030, 21st Century Space Propulsion Study, October 1990, AD: A229279) evaluates a number of new space propulsion and sensor concepts. The major

  10. Aero/fluids database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, John E.; Violett, Duane L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The AFAS Database System was developed to provide the basic structure of a comprehensive database system for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Structures and Dynamics Laboratory Aerophysics Division. The system is intended to handle all of the Aerophysics Division Test Facilities as well as data from other sources. The system was written for the DEC VAX family of computers in FORTRAN-77 and utilizes the VMS indexed file system and screen management routines. Various aspects of the system are covered, including a description of the user interface, lists of all code structure elements, descriptions of the file structures, a description of the security system operation, a detailed description of the data retrieval tasks, a description of the session log, and a description of the archival system.

  11. Laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Putre, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The use of an earth-based high-power laser beam to provide energy for earth-launched rocket vehicle is investigated. The laser beam energy is absorbed in an opaque propellant gas and is converted to high-specific-impulse thrust by expanding the heated propellant to space by means of a nozzle. This laser propulsion scheme can produce specific impulses of several thousand seconds. Payload to gross-weight fractions about an order of magnitude higher than those for conventional chemical earth-launched vehicles appear possible. There is a potential for a significant reduction in cost per payload mass in earth orbit.

  12. Propulsion and Power Technologies for the NASA Exploration Vision: A Research Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2004-01-01

    Future propulsion and power technologies for deep space missions are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. The presentation includes diagrams illustrating possible future travel times to other planets in the solar system. The propulsion technologies researched at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) include: 1) Chemical Propulsion; 2) Nuclear Propulsion; 3) Electric and Plasma Propulsion; 4) Energetics. The presentation contains additional information about these technologies, as well as space reactors, reactor simulation, and the Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) at MSFC.

  13. Assessment of Angular Weaving for Turbine Components.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-23

    including foreign nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. RAYMONDP.VIN F. SCHMIDT, Chief Project Engineer ... Engine Assessment Branch Engine Assessment Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine Division Aero Propulsion Laboratory Aero Propulsion Laboratory FOR...F ....:. . . ......, . . iT u iepu t yie D i i s o .... .................... ......... .. Turbine Engine Di vision Jt. ib .tion ) Aero Propulsion

  14. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  15. Task-5 Heat Pipe Life Test Study; Facilities Upgrading and Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Aero Propulsion and Power Laboratory PLEASE RETURN TO: Wright Laboratory Air Force Systems Command BMO...Power Division Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate FOR THE COMMANDER William U. Borger (/ Chief, Aerospace...Power Division Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate IF YOUR ADDRESS HAS CHANGED, IF YOU WISH TO BE REMOVED FROM OUR MAIUNG LIST, OR IF THE ADDRESSEE IS

  16. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  17. Kite propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Pontavice, Emmanuel; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2014-11-01

    Kite propulsion is one way to harvest wind energy. The typical force is 1 kilo Newton per square meter, which means that with kites in the range 100 to 1000 square meters, one is able to propel ships from the trawler to the tanker. Several scientific issues arise when trying to design kites of these sizes. They first need to take off and land autonomously. This leads to the use of kites with an inflatable structure that can be compact when stored but very rigid and light once in the air. For that matter, we studied the behavior of large inflatable structures under static and dynamic load. Then, the kite needs to stay in the air. However, it appears that under certain conditions, kites without active control tend to engage into large oscillations and eventually crash. Through wind tunnel experiments, we try to understand this flight behavior to find the conditions of stability.

  18. Propulsion airframe integration session overview and review of Lewis PAI efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI) is a key issue for the High Speed Civil Transport. The aircraft performance, economics, and environmental acceptability can be adversely affected if the integration of the propulsion system and the airframe is not addressed properly or in a timely manner. Some of the goals are listed in this figure. In particular, these goals are highly influenced by how successfully the propulsion system and airframe are integrated. These goals were grouped by the 'Aero' and 'Propulsion' categories to suggest which group of technologists will likely be addressing them. In terms of the NASA High Speed Research Program, the ultimate objective for propulsion/airframe integration is to demonstrate the technologies for achievement of these goals on a 'single' integrated configuration.

  19. Aero-thermal modeling framework for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2011-09-01

    The Performance Error Budget of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) suggests that nearly one third of the total image degradation is due to aero-thermal disturbances (mirror and dome seeing, dynamic wind loading and thermal deformations of the optics, telescope structure and enclosure). An update of the current status of aero-thermal modeling and Computational Fluid-Solid Dynamics (CFSD) simulations for TMT is presented. A fast three-dimensional transient conduction-convection-radiation bulk-air-volume model has also been developed for the enclosure and selected telescope components in order to track the temperature variations of the surfaces, structure and interstitial air over a period of three years using measured environmental conditions. It is used for Observatory Heat Budget analysis and also provides estimates of thermal boundary conditions required by the CFD/FEA models and guidance to the design. Detailed transient CFSD conjugate heat transfer simulations of the mirror support assemblies determine the direction of heat flow from important heat sources and provide guidance to the design. Finally, improved CFD modeling is used to calculate wind forces and temperature fields. Wind loading simulations are demonstrated through TMT aperture deflector forcing. Temperature fields are transformed into refractive index ones and the resulting Optical Path Differences (OPDs) are fed into an updated thermal seeing model to estimate seeing performance metrics. Keck II simulations are the demonstrator for the latter type of modeling.

  20. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  1. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  2. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  3. AFRL Solid Propellant Laboratory Explosive Siting and Renovation Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Siting and Renovation Lessons Learned Daniel F. Schwartz Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate, 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB, CA...rocket propulsion technologies, the Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) Propulsion Directorate (RZ- West), located at EAFB routinely manufactures, tests...Schwartz Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate, Edwards AFB 2010 DDESB Seminar Portland, OR 13-15

  4. Advanced nuclear propulsion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Advanced nuclear propulsion can take on several forms. Radioactive thrust sheets directly use the decay of radioactive nuclei to provide propulsion. The fissioning of nuclei has been extensively studied for propulsion both analytically and experimentally. Fusion has been analytically examined as a means of providing propulsion during the last few decades. In the last decade, serious attention has been given to the direct annihilation of matter. Each of these technologies is discussed in this paper with the greatest emphasis on antiproton annihilation propulsion.

  5. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    sails, laser propulsion , tethers, fusion rockets, antimatter rockets Z9 BSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide if necessary and identify by block number) This...advanced propulsion Dr. Robert Frisbee, JPL - advanced propulsion Dr. Jonas Zmuidzinas, JPL - metastable helium Dr. Paul Massier, JPL - antimatter ... propulsion Dr. Duane Dipprey, JPL - antimatter propulsion Dr. Giulio Varsi, JPL - solar sails Dr. William Carroll, JPL - solar sails Dr. Duncan Steel

  6. Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.

  7. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  8. MEMS and mil/aero: technology push and market pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Thomas H.

    2001-04-01

    MEMS offers attractive solutions to high-density fluidics, inertial, optical, switching and other demanding military/aerospace (mil/aero) challenges. However, full acceptance must confront the realities of production-scale producibility, verifiability, testability, survivability, as well as long-term reliability. Data on these `..ilities' are crucial, and are central in funding and deployment decisions. Similarly, mil/aero users must highlight specific missions, environmental exposures, and procurement issues, as well as the quirks of its designers. These issues are particularly challenging in MEMS, because of the laws of physics and business economics, as well as the risks of deploying leading-edge technology into no-fail applications. This paper highlights mil/aero requirements, and suggests reliability/qualification protocols, to guide development effort and to reassure mil/aero users that MEMS labs are mindful of the necessary realities.

  9. JTEC panel report on space and transatmospheric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Duane

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The report focuses primarily upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in propulsion for spaceplanes and related transatmospheric areas. It also includes brief reference to Japan's solid rocket programs, as well as to supersonic air-breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway. The results are based upon the findings of a panel of U.S. engineers made up of individuals from academia, government, and industry, and are derived from a review of a broad array of the open literature, combined with visits to the primary propulsion laboratories and development agencies in Japan.

  10. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport (a combined aerodynamics/propulsion optimization study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baecher, Juergen; Bandte, Oliver; DeLaurentis, Dan; Lewis, Kemper; Sicilia, Jose; Soboleski, Craig

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the efforts of a Georgia Tech High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aerospace student design team in completing a design methodology demonstration under NASA's Advanced Design Program (ADP). Aerodynamic and propulsion analyses are integrated into the synthesis code FLOPS in order to improve its prediction accuracy. Executing the integrated product and process development (IPPD) methodology proposed at the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL), an improved sizing process is described followed by a combined aero-propulsion optimization, where the objective function, average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM), is constrained by flight stability, noise, approach speed, and field length restrictions. Primary goals include successful demonstration of the application of the response surface methodolgy (RSM) to parameter design, introduction to higher fidelity disciplinary analysis than normally feasible at the conceptual and early preliminary level, and investigations of relationships between aerodynamic and propulsion design parameters and their effect on the objective function, $/RPM. A unique approach to aircraft synthesis is developed in which statistical methods, specifically design of experiments and the RSM, are used to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, two uses of these techniques are demonstrated. First, response model equations are formed which represent complex analysis in the form of a regression polynomial. Next, a second regression equation is constructed, not for modeling purposes, but instead for the purpose of optimization at the system level. Such an optimization problem with the given tools normally would be difficult due to the need for hard connections between the various complex codes involved. The statistical methodology presents an alternative and is demonstrated via an example of aerodynamic modeling and planform optimization for a HSCT.

  11. High Energy Propulsion System (HEPS) Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    PL-TR-92-3025 APL-TR-PLTR92305 D A254 343 92-3025 1111I1111lI lllilllllllllltlllllllNll1111rýlr HIGH ENERGY PROPULSION SYSTEMS (HEPS) ANALYSIS Robert...T. Nachtrieb OLAC-PLIRKFE Edwards AFB, CA 93523-5000 July 1992 DTIC ELECTE AUG13 1992 Final Report S A 92-22749 PHILLIPS LABORATORY Propulsion ...NUMBERS HIGH ENERGY PROPULSION SYSTEM (HEPS) ANALYSIS PE: 62302F PR: 3058 6. AUTHOR(S) TA: OOP6 ROBERT T. NACHTRIEB 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  12. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  13. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  14. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  15. Beamed energy propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Beamed energy concepts offer an alternative for an advanced propulsion system. The use of a remote power source reduces the weight of the propulsion system in flight and this, combined with the high performance, provides significant payload gains. Within the context of this study's baseline scenario, two beamed energy propulsion concepts are potentially attractive: solar thermal propulsion and laser thermal propulsion. The conceived beamed energy propulsion devices generally provide low thrust (tens of pounds to hundreds of pounds); therefore, they are typically suggested for cargo transportation. For the baseline scenario, these propulsion system can provide propulsion between the following nodes: (1) low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit; (2) low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit; (3) low lunar orbit to low Mars orbit--only solar thermal; and (4) lunar surface to low lunar orbit--only laser thermal.

  16. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  17. Propulsion system ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to provide management visibility relative to the roles of simulation and propulsion system testing for future development programs through assessment of current propulsion related simulation capabilities and review of contributions from propulsion system test programs. The presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  18. Directions in propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is research at NASA Lewis in the area of propulsion controls as driven by trends in advanced aircraft. The objective of the Lewis program is to develop the technology for advanced reliable propulsion control systems and to integrate the propulsion control with the flight control for optimal full-system control.

  19. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  20. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis. PMID:27412335

  1. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-14

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  2. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  3. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  4. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  5. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  6. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Over the past year, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center at The Pennsylvania State University continued its progress toward meeting the goals of NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers (USERC) program. The USERC program was initiated in 1988 by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to provide an invigorating force to drive technology advancements in the U.S. space industry. The Propulsion Center's role in this effort is to provide a fundamental basis from which the technology advances in propulsion can be derived. To fulfill this role, an integrated program was developed that focuses research efforts on key technical areas, provides students with a broad education in traditional propulsion-related science and engineering disciplines, and provides minority and other under-represented students with opportunities to take their first step toward professional careers in propulsion engineering. The program is made efficient by incorporating government propulsion laboratories and the U.S. propulsion industry into the program through extensive interactions and research involvement. The Center is comprised of faculty, professional staff, and graduate and undergraduate students working on a broad spectrum of research issues related to propulsion. The Center's research focus encompasses both current and advanced propulsion concepts for space transportation, with a research emphasis on liquid propellant rocket engines. The liquid rocket engine research includes programs in combustion and turbomachinery. Other space transportation modes that are being addressed include anti-matter, electric, nuclear, and solid propellant propulsion. Outside funding supports a significant fraction of Center research, with the major portion of the basic USERC grant being used for graduate student support and recruitment. The remainder of the USERC funds are used to support programs to increase minority student enrollment in engineering, to maintain Center

  7. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  8. Aero-Structural Interaction, Analysis, and Shape Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., III

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis technique that has been shown to be independent of step-size selection is examined further. The accuracy of this step-size independent technique, which uses complex variables for determining sensitivity derivatives, has been previously established. The primary focus of this work is to validate the aero-structural analysis procedure currently being used. This validation consists of comparing computed and experimental data obtained for an Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2). Since the aero-structural analysis procedure has the complex variable modifications already included into the software, sensitivity derivatives can automatically be computed. Other than for design purposes, sensitivity derivatives can be used for predicting the solution at nearby conditions. The use of sensitivity derivatives for predicting the aero-structural characteristics of this configuration is demonstrated.

  9. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  10. A Probabilistic System Analysis of Intelligent Propulsion System Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Intelligent Propulsion System Technology (Propulsion 21) project focuses on developing adaptive technologies that will enable commercial gas turbine engines to produce fewer emissions and less noise while increasing reliability. It features adaptive technologies that have included active tip-clearance control for turbine and compressor, active combustion control, turbine aero-thermal and flow control, and enabling technologies such as sensors which are reliable at high operating temperatures and are minimally intrusive. A probabilistic system analysis is performed to evaluate the impact of these technologies on aircraft CO2 (directly proportional to fuel burn) and LTO (landing and takeoff) NO(x) reductions. A 300-passenger aircraft, with two 396-kN thrust (85,000-pound) engines is chosen for the study. The results show that NASA s Intelligent Propulsion System technologies have the potential to significantly reduce the CO2 and NO(x) emissions. The results are used to support informed decisionmaking on the development of the intelligent propulsion system technology portfolio for CO2 and NO(x) reductions.

  11. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine.

  12. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  13. Past, Present and Future Contribution on Research and Development of Aero-Propulsion Systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Changduk

    Korean government has recently allocated and invested large research and development fund in both engineering and science related projects including, information technology, marine, aerospace and high speed train transportation etc.

  14. Ultra-High Temperature Metallic Seal/Energizer Development for Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Ken; Newman, Jesse; Datta, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The industry is requiring seals to operate at higher and higher temperatures. Traditional static seal designs and materials experience stress relaxation, losing their ability to maintain contact with moving flanges. Ultra High Temperature seal development program is a multiphase program with incremental increases in seal operating temperatures.

  15. High Temperature Metallic Seal/Energizer Development for Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, Greg; Datta, Amit; Cornett, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The Ultra High Temperature seal program has successfully progressed and developed a high temperature static seal solution. The third prototype has successfully combined the first and second prototypes high performance capabilities in a commercially viable solution. Prototype II and Prototype III are viable solutions: Prototype II offers flexible load tune ability and seating load adjustment and Prototype III offers commercial viability for continuous hoop seals.

  16. Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate The McCook Field Years (1917-1927)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    balloons either tethered to the ground or to a boat. Observers perched in baskets suspended below the balloons telegraphed or dropped messages to the...6,750 dropped 15 percent. The Signal Corps formally accepted the airship on August 28, 1908 as Signal Corps Dirigible Number 1. The dirigible was...advance or retard the spark. The oil reservoir held .66 gallons of oil circulated by a small engine-driven pump. The vertical radiator, constructed

  17. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  18. Development priorities for in-space propulsion technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Michael; Palaszewski, Bryan; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; White, Harold

    2013-02-01

    During the summer of 2010, NASA's Office of Chief Technologist assembled 15 civil service teams to support the creation of a NASA integrated technology roadmap. The Aero-Space Technology Area Roadmap is an integrated set of technology area roadmaps recommending the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization for NASA's technology programs. The integrated set of roadmaps will provide technology paths needed to meet NASA's strategic goals. The roadmaps have been reviewed by senior NASA management and the National Research Council. With the exception of electric propulsion systems used for commercial communications satellite station-keeping and a handful of deep space science missions, almost all of the rocket engines in use today are chemical rockets; that is, they obtain the energy needed to generate thrust by combining reactive chemicals to create a hot gas that is expanded to produce thrust. A significant limitation of chemical propulsion is that it has a relatively low specific impulse. Numerous concepts for advanced propulsion technologies with significantly higher values of specific impulse have been developed over the past 50 years. Advanced in-space propulsion technologies will enable much more effective exploration of our solar system, near and far, and will permit mission designers to plan missions to "fly anytime, anywhere, and complete a host of science objectives at the destinations" with greater reliability and safety. With a wide range of possible missions and candidate propulsion technologies with very diverse characteristics, the question of which technologies are 'best' for future missions is a difficult one. A portfolio of technologies to allow optimum propulsion solutions for a diverse set of missions and destinations are described in the roadmap and herein.

  19. Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemati, Maziar Sam

    Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model

  20. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  1. NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is currently developing a high performance, simplified ion propulsion system. This propulsion system, which is throttleable from 0.5- to 2.3-kW output power to the thruster, targets primary propulsion applications for planetary and Earth-space missions and has been baselined as the primary propulsion system for the first New Millennium spacecraft. The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the design and delivery of a breadboard power processing unit (PPU) and an engineering model thruster (EMT) for this system and will manage the contract for the delivery of the flight hardware to JPL. The PPU requirements, which dictate a mass of less than 12 kg with an efficiency of 0.9 or greater at a 2.3-kW output, forced a departure from the state-of-the-art ion thruster PPU design. Several innovations--including dual-use topologies, simplified thruster control, and the use of ferrite magnetic materials--were necessary to meet these requirements.

  2. 76 FR 77108 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Engines Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1... engines. This AD was prompted by three reports of high- pressure turbine (HPT) case burn-through...

  3. Overview of NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both the space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development.

  4. Space station propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

  5. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  7. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  8. Electric Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having an annular discharge chamber housing an anode having a large surface area. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, a second electric propulsion thruster may be disposed in a cylindrical space disposed within an interior of the annulus.

  9. AFWAL FY82 Technical Accomplishments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Dynamics, Materials , Aero Propulsion 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary mid identify by block number) This report contains highlights of...i.e., the Aero Propulsion Laboratory (PO), the Avionics Laboratory (AA), the Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FI), the Materials Laboratory (ML). and the...50 v A, " " .- .? - , , .,’ ". . -. . MATERIALS LABORATORY. -Chemical

  10. Loop Shaping Control Design for a Supersonic Propulsion System Model Using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Specifications and Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated mixed compression inlet and turbojet engine that will be used for an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. Using previously created nonlinear component-level propulsion system models, a linear integrated propulsion system model and loop shaping control design have been developed. The design includes both inlet normal shock position control and jet engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A preliminary investigation of the impacts of the aero-elastic effects on the incoming flow field to the propulsion system are discussed, however, the focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion controls design that prevents unstart in the inlet and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) specifications and bounds, and aspects of classical loop shaping are used in the control design process. Model uncertainty is incorporated in the design to address possible error in the system identification mapping of the nonlinear component models into the integrated linear model.

  11. Propulsion Research and Technology: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John; Schmidt, George

    1999-01-01

    Propulsion is unique in being the main delimiter on how far and how fast one can travel in space. It is the lack of truly economical high-performance propulsion systems that continues to limit and restrict the extent of human endeavors in space. Therefore the goal of propulsion research is to conceive and investigate new, revolutionary propulsion concepts. This presentation reviews the development of new propulsion concepts. Some of these concepts are: (1) Rocket-based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion, (2) Alternative combined Cycle engines suc2 as the methanol ramjet , and the liquid air cycle engines, (3) Laser propulsion, (4) Maglifter, (5) pulse detonation engines, (6) solar thermal propulsion, (7) multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB) and other low-G cryogenic fluids, (8) Electric propulsion, (9) nuclear propulsion, (10) Fusion Propulsion, and (11) Antimatter technology. The efforts of the NASA centers in this research is also spotlighted.

  12. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. G. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories have initiated and completed, in part, a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the T700 and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  13. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  14. Bionic Propulsion on Water and Measurement of Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Liu; Si-yuan, Zhao; Shan-chao, Tu; Tian-yu, Zhu; Rong-xiang, Li

    Traditional propulsion fashion on water are propeller propulsion and jet propulsion, but the efficiency relatively low. Used by biological propulsion, after the last million years of evolution, the maximum utilization of its power. Bionic propulsion system designed in this paper consists of two large travel umbrella wing plate in reciprocating linear travel agencies, led by the reciprocating motion along the vertical, in the water under the influence of backward movement of the wing disk automatically open, resulting in the pull forward, the forward movement of the wing disk automatically shut down to reduce water resistance. This paper designs a bionic propulsion and drag model for the static test and measurement test propulsion.

  15. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  16. Pulsed Laser Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    Journal, Vol. 12, No. 9,September 1974, pp. 1254-1261. 5. D. D. Papailiou, ed., "Frontiers in Propulsion Research: Laser, Matter - Antimatter , Exited...82177AD-AI09 850 PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC WOBURN MA F/G 20/5 PULSED LASER PROPULSION .(U) OCT 78 P E NEBOLSINE, A N PIRRI, J S GOELA N00014-76-C 0738...UNCLASSIFIED PSI-TR-142 III~~D EEC~h~I -M 0 1111_L251.4 11 [4 LEVEL2PSI TR-1 2 LO "r PULSED LASER PROPULSION " P. E. Nebolsine, A. N. Pirri, J. S. Goela, G

  17. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  18. Electric Propulsion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    DTIC FILE COPY AL-TR-89-040 AD: AD-A227 121 Final Report forteprod Electric Propulsion Study 21 Sep 1988 to 30 Nov 1989 DTIC ’ELECTE0OCT 0c 41990u... Electric Propulsion Study (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Cravens, Dennis J. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE...identif bv block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Inductive theories, electric propulsion, unified field 21 0- theories, Conservatc!±,n Laws, Dynamic

  19. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  20. The NASA-JPL advanced propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) consists of two main areas: The first involves cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; the second involves research at universities and industry that is directly supported by JPL. The cooperative research program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C-60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry- supported research includes research (modeling and proof-of-concept experiments) in advanced, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion. These propulsion concepts were selected primarily to cover a range of applications from near-term to far-term missions. For example, the long-lived pulsed-xenon thruster research that JPL is supporting at Princeton University addresses the near-term need for efficient, long-life attitude control and station-keeping propulsion for Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The C-60-propellant ion engine has the potential for good efficiency in a relatively low specific impulse (Isp) range (10,000 - 30,000 m/s) that is optimum for relatively fast (less than 100 day) cis-lunar (LEO/GEO/Lunar) missions employing near-term, high-specific mass electric propulsion vehicles. Research and modeling on the C-60-ion engine are currently being performed by JPL (engine demonstration), Caltech (C-60 properties), MIT (plume modeling), and USC (diagnostics). The Li-propellant LFA engine also has good efficiency in the modest Isp range (40,000 - 50,000 m/s) that is optimum for near-to-mid-term megawatt-class solar- and nuclear-electric propulsion vehicles used for Mars missions transporting cargo (in support of a piloted mission). Research and modeling on the Li-LFA engine are currently being performed by JPL (cathode development), Moscow Aviation

  1. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  2. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  3. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  4. Propulsion technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lee W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on propulsion technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis O2/H2 system; hydrazine system advancements; common technology; fluids disposal; and storable bipropellant system.

  5. Spacecraft propulsion: new methods.

    PubMed

    Alfvén, H

    1972-04-14

    Cosmic plasmas contain energy which may be tapped and used for spacecraft propulsion. The energy needed for launching a spacecraft could be supplied to it from the ground through a plasma channel in the atmosphere.

  6. Advanced propulsion on a shoestring

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1990-05-01

    Consideration is given to propulsion concepts under study by NASA Advanced Propulsion Research Program. These concepts include fusion, antimatter-matter annihilation, microwave electrothermal, and electron cyclotron resonance propulsion. Results from programs to develop fusion technologies are reviewed, including compact fusion devices and inertial confinement experiments. Problems concerning both antimatter and fusion propulsion concepts are examined and the economic issues related to propulsion research are discussed.

  7. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  8. Adaptive guidance for an aero-assisted boost vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Price, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    An adaptive guidance system incorporating dynamic pressure constraint is studied for a single stage to low earth orbit (LEO) aero-assist booster with thrust gimbal angle as the control variable. To derive an adaptive guidance law, cubic spline functions are used to represent the ascent profile. The booster flight to LEO is divided into initial and terminal phases. In the initial phase, the ascent profile is continuously updated to maximize the performance of the boost vehicle enroute. A linear feedback control is used in the terminal phase to guide the aero-assisted booster onto the desired LEO. The computer simulation of the vehicle dynamics considers a rotating spherical earth, inverse square (Newtonian) gravity field and an exponential model for the earth's atmospheric density. This adaptive guidance algorithm is capable of handling large deviations in both atmospheric conditions and modeling uncertainties, while ensuring maximum booster performance.

  9. Fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engines: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Leonid M.; Petrunin, Ivan V.; Thompson, Chris

    2004-03-01

    A new genetic approach to fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engine blades is presented. The approach consists of simultaneously using two diagnostic features: the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform of vibroacoustical signals. This approach is more fundamental than traditional approaches based on the power spectral density, phase spectrum and Hartley transform; each of these approaches is a special case of the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given based on the processing of signals generated using a nonlinear model of tested blades. The generated signals are the forced vibroacoustical oscillations of cracked and un-cracked blades. The numerical examples show that crack detection ismore effective when using the new approach than when u sing the power spectral density approach. The presented experimental results using un-cracked and cracked turbuine blades from an aero-engine are matched with numerical results. The proposed approach offers an effectiveness improvement over the traditional approach based on power spectral density.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis for Coupled Aero-structural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunta, Anthony A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for calculating gradients of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for an aeroelastic aircraft model. This method uses the Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) to account for the aero-structural coupling, and a reduced-order modal analysis approach to condense the coupling bandwidth between the aerodynamic and structural models. Parallel computing is applied to reduce the computational expense of the numerous high fidelity aerodynamic analyses needed for the coupled aero-structural system. Good agreement is obtained between aerodynamic force and moment gradients computed with the GSE/modal analysis approach and the same quantities computed using brute-force, computationally expensive, finite difference approximations. A comparison between the computational expense of the GSE/modal analysis method and a pure finite difference approach is presented. These results show that the GSE/modal analysis approach is the more computationally efficient technique if sensitivity analysis is to be performed for two or more aircraft design parameters.

  11. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  12. EDI at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amago, B.

    1994-01-01

    The JPL Library and Information Center orders and claims material elecronically whenever feasible. The NASA Aerospace Research Information Network (ARIN) is used to order books for the library collection; BIP Plus on CD-ROM is used to order office copies. Paper copies of invoices are processed when material is received. Subscriptions are ordered using the vendor's online system; monthly and annual invoices are received both in paper and electronic format (diskette of FTP). Library-developed dbase programs complement or duplicate functions available through ARIN and/or the JPL institutional accounting system.

  13. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For many years before the clock counted down to midnight and the arrival of the year 2000, the world had anticipated 2001 as a special time and a new era. Now we know that 2001 will be a year none of us will ever forget. We began a new year, a new century, and a new millennium. Yet after September 11, the world in many ways seems profoundly changed. On that day we witnessed both the worst and best in human nature. Space exploration is one pursuit that points towards the best instincts in our nature. And certainly the pioneering spirit, so much a part of the American character, is a value deeply embedded into all the work we undertake at JPL. We are privileged that the nation has entrusted us with exploring space on its behalf. And we are fortunate to find ourselves part of two of the world's most accomplished institutions - NASA and the California Institute of Technology. Looking back over the past four decades, JPL has carried out an initial reconnaissance of nearly all of the solar systems planets. Today we have more than a dozen missions flying, and many more in various stages of development. Our challenge now is to create missions that help us understand these places more deeply. And in addition to exploring and understanding our solar system, we want to discover neighboring solar systems and explore them as well. The 21st century is upon us. So is a tremendous era of space exploration. There were many events in 2001 to celebrate, one being the arrival of the Mars Odyssey orbiter, which joins the Mars Global Surveyor orbiter in providing continuous coverage of the red planet. This is a major step in establishing a permanent robotic presence at Mars. Ahead for JPL will be both rewarding and challenging moments; thats the nature of being pioneers and explorers.

  14. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    What an amazing host of new sights 2005 brought us. With impeccable choreography, one spacecraft sent an impactor slamming into a comet, reversing the traditional view of these space wayfarers by revealing it to be buried in deep drifts of a fine talcum-like powder. Another spacecraft delivered a probe from our European partners to the surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan, disclosing a landscape eerily like Earth's, if we had methane rivers cascading down hillsides of ice. An orbiting observatory for the first time showed us the light from planets circling other stars, which astronomers previously knew to exist only from indirect clues. Throughout the year we also amassed continually expanding views of Earth as well as Mars, by far the most-explored planet after our own. In all, 18 spacecraft and five instruments were stationed across the solar system, studying our own world, other planets, comets and the deeper universe. These missions were enabled by the efforts of everyone at JPL. The Deep Space Network of communications complexes across three continents continued to experience a period of remarkable activity. Others were at work creating technologies both for NASA missions and other uses. JPL's contingent of scientific researchers was equally busy coordinating the science activities of our missions or pursuing independent investigations. None of this would be possible without the support of world-class business and administrative teams. All of our missions in one way or another support our nations Vision for Space Exploration, which envisages a gradually widening robotic and human presence across the solar system in the years ahead. The year was not without its challenges. NASA set forth to implement the Vision for Space Exploration, which resulted in some flight projects and technology efforts being terminated. To adjust to this new direction, it was necessary for us to reduce the JPL workforce by about five percent. Taking steps like this is painful, but we tried to make the process as orderly as possible. In the end, the adjustments made have left JPL on a healthy footing for the years ahead.

  15. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography of articles concerning topics on the deep space network, data acquisition, telecommunication, and related aerospace studies is presented. A sample of the diverse subjects include, solar energy remote sensing, computer science, Earth resources, astronomy, and satellite communication.

  16. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography describes and indexes by primary author the externally distributed technical reporting, released during 1989, that resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by JPL. Three classes of publications are included: JPL publications in which the information is complete for a specific accomplishment; articles from the quarterly Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Progress Report; and articles published in the open literature.

  17. NASA Center update: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, Sal

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: flight project support activities for TOPEX and the Mars Observer; and research/development and engineering activities for NiCd model development, secondary lithium battery development, the sodium-NiCl2 moderate temperature battery, Li-SOCl2 batteries for the Centaur launch vehicle, and direct hydrocarbon/methanol fuel cells.

  18. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This image, taken during the test, depicts the light being concentrated into the focal point inside the vacuum chamber. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  19. 2005 PathfinderPlus Aero-Elastic Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the 2005 Pathfinder along with an investigation of its aeroelastic responses. The contents include: 1) HALE Class of Vehicles; 2) Aero-elastic Research Flights Overall Objective; 3) General Arrangement; 4) Sensor Locations; 5) NASA Ramp Operations; 6) Lakebed Operations; 7) 1st Flight Data Set; 8) Tool development / data usage; 9) HALE Tool Development & Validation; 10) Building a HALE Foundation; 11) Compelling Needs Drive HALE Efforts; and 12) Team Photo

  20. Improvement of the AeroClipper system for cyclones monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Philippe, Duvel Jean

    2016-07-01

    The AeroClipper developed by the French space agency (Centre National d'Études Spatiales, CNES) is a quasi-lagrangian device drifting with surface wind at about 20-30m above the ocean surface. It is a new and original device for real-time and continuous observation of air-sea surface parameters in open ocean remote regions. This device enables the sampling of the variability of surface parameters in particular under convective systems toward which it is attracted. The AeroClipper is therefore an ideal instrument to monitor Tropical Cyclones (TCs) in which they are likely to converge and provide original observations to evaluate and improve our current understanding and diagnostics of TCs as well as their representation in numerical models. In 2008, the AeroClipper demonstrates its capability to be captured by an Ocean Indian cyclone, as two models have converged, without damages, in the eye of Dora cyclone during the 2008 VASCO campaign. This paper will present the improvements of this balloon system for the international project 'the Year of Maritime Continent'.

  1. Integrated approach for stress based lifing of aero gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Abdullahi Obonyegba

    In order to analyse the turbine blade life, the damage due to the combined thermal and mechanical loads should be adequately accounted for. This is more challenging when detailed component geometry is limited. Therefore, a compromise between the level of geometric detail and the complexity of the lifing method to be implemented would be necessary. This research focuses on how the life assessment of aero engine turbine blades can be done, considering the balance between available design inputs and adequate level of fidelity. Accordingly, the thesis contributes to developing a generic turbine blade lifing method that is based on the engine thermodynamic cycle; as well as integrating critical design/technological factors and operational parameters that influence the aero engine blade life. To this end, thermo-mechanical fatigue was identified as the critical damage phenomenon driving the life of the turbine blade.. The developed approach integrates software tools and numerical models created using the minimum design information typically available at the early design stages. Using finite element analysis of an idealised blade geometry, the approach captures relevant impacts of thermal gradients and thermal stresses that contribute to the thermo-mechanical fatigue damage on the gas turbine blade. The blade life is evaluated using the Neu/Sehitoglu thermo-mechanical fatigue model that considers damage accumulation due to fatigue, oxidation, and creep. The leading edge is examined as a critical part of the blade to estimate the damage severity for different design factors and operational parameters. The outputs of the research can be used to better understand how the environment and the operating conditions of the aircraft affect the blade life consumption and therefore what is the impact on the maintenance cost and the availability of the propulsion system. This research also finds that the environmental (oxidation) effect drives the blade life and the blade coolant

  2. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  3. A cermet fuel reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    Work on the cermet fuel reactor done in the 1960's by General Electric (GE) and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that had as its goal the development of systems that could be used for nuclear rocket propulsion as well as closed cycle propulsion system designs for ship propulsion, space nuclear propulsion, and other propulsion systems is reviewed. It is concluded that the work done in the 1960's has demonstrated that we can have excellent thermal and mechanical performance with cermet fuel. Thousands of hours of testing were performed on the cermet fuel at both GE and AGL, including very rapid transients and some radiation performance history. We conclude that there are no feasibility issues with cermet fuel. What is needed is reactivation of existing technology and qualification testing of a specific fuel form. We believe this can be done with a minimum development risk.

  4. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  5. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Sikes, W.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  6. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  7. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sinko, John E.; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2010-10-08

    It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.

  8. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  9. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) successfully demonstrated real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) main propulsion system (MPS). Specifically, the PITEX research project developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the MPS of the X-34 RLV, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The demonstration was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, the PITEX diagnostic system was subjected to numerous realistic effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. In all cases, the PITEX system performed as required. The research demonstrated potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  10. A liquid propulsion panorama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caisso, Philippe; Souchier, Alain; Rothmund, Christophe; Alliot, Patrick; Bonhomme, Christophe; Zinner, Walter; Parsley, Randy; Neill, Todd; Forde, Scott; Starke, Robert; Wang, William; Takahashi, Mamoru; Atsumi, Masahiro; Valentian, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    Liquid-propellant rocket engines are widely used all over the world, thanks to their high performances, in particular high thrust-to-weight ratio. The present paper presents a general panorama of liquid propulsion as a contribution of the IAF Advanced Propulsion Prospective Group. After a brief history of its past development in the different parts of the world, the current status of liquid propulsion, the currently observed trends, the possible areas of future improvement and a summarized road map of future developments are presented. The road map includes a summary of the liquid propulsion status presented in the "Year in review 2007" of Aerospace America. Although liquid propulsion is often seen as a mature technology with few areas of potential improvement, the requirements of an active commercial market and a renewed interest for space exploration has led to the development of a family of new engines, with more design margins, simpler to use and to produce associated with a wide variety of thrust and life requirements.

  11. Definition of an arcjet propulsion sub-system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Theodore W.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering flight demonstration of a 100 kW3 Space Reactor Power System is planned for the mid to late 1990s. An arcjet based propulsion subsystem will be included on the flight demonstraction as a secondary experiment. Two studies, sponsored by the Kay Technologies Directorate of the SDI Organization and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are currently under way to define that propulsion subsystem. The principal tasks of those contracts and the plans for two later phases, an experimental verification of the concept and a flight qualification/delivery of a flight unit, are described.

  12. Electric Propulsion Applications and Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Frank M.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Most space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems are often dominant spacecraft mass drivers. Presently, on-board systems account for more than half the injected mass for commercial communications systems and even greater mass fractions for ambitious planetary missions. Anticipated trends toward the use of both smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles will likely increase pressure on the performance of on-board propulsion systems. The acceptance of arcjet thrusters for operational use on commercial communications satellites ushered in a new era in on-board propulsion and exponential growth of electric propulsion across a broad spectrum of missions is anticipated. NASA recognizes the benefits of advanced propulsion and NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology supports an aggressive On-Board Propulsion program, including a strong electric propulsion element, to assure the availability of high performance propulsion systems to meet the goals of the ambitious missions envisioned in the next two decades. The program scope ranges from fundamental research for future generation systems through specific insertion efforts aimed at near term technology transfer. The On-Board propulsion program is committed to carrying technologies to levels required for customer acceptance and emphasizes direct interactions with the user community and the development of commercial sources. This paper provides a discussion of anticipated missions, propulsion functions, and electric propulsion impacts followed by an overview of the electric propulsion element of the NASA On-Board Propulsion program.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  14. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  15. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  16. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  17. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  18. Jet propulsion for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckingham, Edgar

    1924-01-01

    This report is a description of a method of propelling airplanes by the reaction of jet propulsion. Air is compressed and mixed with fuel in a combustion chamber, where the mixture burns at constant pressure. The combustion products issue through a nozzle, and the reaction of that of the motor-driven air screw. The computations are outlined and the results given by tables and curves. The relative fuel consumption and weight of machinery for the jet, decrease as the flying speed increases; but at 250 miles per hour the jet would still take about four times as much fuel per thrust horsepower-hour as the air screw, and the power plant would be heavier and much more complicated. Propulsion by the reaction of a simple jet can not compete with air screw propulsion at such flying speeds as are now in prospect.

  19. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  20. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  1. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, David L.; McMinn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-04-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  2. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  3. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  4. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  5. Supersonic laser propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rezunkov, Yurii; Schmidt, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    To produce supersonic laser propulsion, a new technique based on the interaction of a laser-ablated jet with supersonic gas flow in a nozzle is proposed. It is shown that such parameters of the jet, such as gas-plasma pressure and temperature in the ablation region as well as the mass consumption rate of the ablated solid propellant, are characteristic in this respect. The results of numerical simulations of the supersonic laser propulsion are presented for two types of nozzle configuration. The feasibility to achieve the momentum coupling coefficient of C(m)∼10(-3) N/W is shown.

  6. Nuclear thermal propulsion program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion program is described. The following subject areas are covered: lunar and Mars missions; national space policy; international cooperation in space exploration; propulsion technology; nuclear rocket program; and budgeting.

  7. 78 FR 32363 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... propose to rescind an airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday...

  8. 77 FR 35888 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes. This...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  12. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  13. SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

  14. Unsteady fluid and optical simulation of transonic aero-windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    The time-varying fluid and optical fields of several cavity configurations have been computed on overset mesh systems using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and geometric optics. Comparisons between numerical results and Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) flight data are made in two-dimensions for a quieted cavity geometry with two lip-blowing rates. In three-dimensions, two proposed aero-window locations for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) are discussed. The simulations indicate that convection of large shear layer structures across the aperture cause the blur circle diameter to be three times the diffraction-limited diameter in the near-infrared band.

  15. Fatigue Life Analysis of Turbine Disks Based on Load Spectra of Aero-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Feng; Lv, Zhiqiang; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Load spectra of aero-engines reflect the process of operating aircrafts as well as the changes of parameters of aircrafts. According to flight hours and speed cycle numbers of the aero-engines, the relationship between load spectra and the fatigue life of main components of the aero-engines is obtained. Based on distribution function and a generalized stress-strength interference model, the cumulative fatigue damage of aero-engines is then calculated. After applying the analysis of load spectra and the cumulative fatigue damage theory, the fatigue life of the first-stage turbine disks of the aero-engines is evaluated by using the S-N curve and Miner's rule in this paper.

  16. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  17. NASA Now: Propulsion

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll visit NASA’s Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, called B-2, at NASA Plum Brook Station. You’ll meet Dr. Louis Povinelli and Brian Jones who explain w...

  18. Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area is tasked to develop near and mid-term SEP technology to improve or enable science mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. The solar electric propulsion investments are primarily driven by SMD cost-capped mission needs. The technology needs are determined partially through systems analysis tasks including the recent "Re-focus Studies" and "Standard Architecture Study." These systems analysis tasks transitioned the technology development to address the near term propulsion needs suitable for cost-capped open solicited missions such as Discovery and New Frontiers Class missions. Major SEP activities include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), implementing a Standard Architecture for NSTAR and NEXT EP systems, and developing a long life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC). Lower level investments include advanced feed system development and xenon recovery testing. Future plans include completion of ongoing ISP development activities and evaluating potential use of commercial electric propulsion systems for SMD applications. Examples of enhanced mission capability and technology readiness dates shall be discussed.

  19. Advanced Propulsion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    23 2.4.9 Laser and Microwave ...Power Propulsion: Laser and Microwave Rockets............................................. 28 3.3.1 RF-Powered Lenticular Craft...Reusable Launch Vehicle RVT – Reusable Rocket Vehicle Test SDIO – Strategic Defense Initiative Organization SETI – Search for Extraterrestrial

  20. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  1. Turboprop Propulsion Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This instructional package consists of a plan of instruction, glossary, and student handouts and exercises for use in training Air Force personnel to become turboprop propulsion mechanics. Addressed in the individual lessons of the course are the following: common hand tools, hardware, measuring devices, and safety wiring; aircraft and engine…

  2. Rarefaction wave gun propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathe, Eric Lee

    A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing results are juxtaposed by a simple interior ballistic model to place the experimental findings into a context within which they may better be understood. Rarefaction wave gun (RAVEN) propulsion is an original contribution to the field of armament engineering. No precedent is known, and no experimental results of such a gun have been published until now. Recoil reduction in excess of 50% was experimentally achieved without measured loss in projectile velocity. RAVEN achieves recoil reduction by means of a delayed venting of the breech of the gun chamber that directs the high enthalpy propellant gases through an expansion nozzle to generate forward thrust that abates the rearward momentum applied to the gun prior to venting. The novel feature of RAVEN, relative to prior recoilless rifles, is that sufficiently delayed venting results in a rarefaction wave that follows the projectile though the bore without catching it. Thus, the projectile exits the muzzle without any compromise to its propulsion performance relative to guns that maintain a sealed chamber.

  3. First-Generation Jet Propulsion Laboratory "Hockey-Puck" Free-Flying Magnetometers for Distributed In-Situ Multiprobe Measurement of Current Density Filamentation in the Northern Auroral Zone: Enstrophy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, H.; Blaes, B.; Boehm, M.; Boykins, K.; Gibbs, J.; Goodman, W.; Lieneweg, U.; Lux, J.; Lynch, K.; Narvaez, P.

    2000-01-01

    The sub-orbital rocket mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to study filamentation phenomena in the northern Auroral zone. The Enstrophy mission test flies the JPL Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) concept. The FFM technology development task has been funded by NASA develop miniaturized, low-power, integrated "sensorcrafts". JPL's role was to design, integrate, test, and deliver four FFMs for deployment from the sounding rocket, allowing a unique determination of curl-B. This provides a direct measurement of magnetic-field-aligned current density along the rocket trajectory. A miniaturized three-axis fluxgate magnetometer was integrated with a 4-channel 22-bit sigma-delta Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), four temperature sensors, digital control electronics, seven (Li-SOCl2) batteries, two (4 deg x 170 deg field of view) sun-sensors, a fan-shaped-beam laser diode beacon, a (16 MHz) stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, Radio Frequency (RF) communication subsystem, and an antenna for approximately 15 minutes of operation where data was collected continuously and transmitted in three (3) bursts (approximately 26 seconds each) to ground station antennas at Poker Flat, Alaska. FFMs were stowed within two trays onboard the rocket during the rocket launch and were released simultaneously using the spinning action of the rocket at approximately 300 km altitude (approximately 100 sec. into the flight). FFMs were deployed with spin rate of approximately 17 Hz and approximately 3 m/sec linear velocity with respect to the rocket. For testing purposes while the rocket was in the launch pad and during flight prior to release of FFMs from the rocket, commands (such as "power on", "test", "flight", "power off', and clock "Reset" signal) were transmitted via a infrared Light Emitting Diode to an infrared detector in the FFM. Special attention was paid to low

  4. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  5. Small wind turbine performance evaluation using field test data and a coupled aero-electro-mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Brian D.

    A series of field tests and theoretical analyses were performed on various wind turbine rotor designs at two Penn State residential-scale wind-electric facilities. This work involved the prediction and experimental measurement of the electrical and aerodynamic performance of three wind turbines; a 3 kW rated Whisper 175, 2.4 kW rated Skystream 3.7, and the Penn State designed Carolus wind turbine. Both the Skystream and Whisper 175 wind turbines are OEM blades which were originally installed at the facilities. The Carolus rotor is a carbon-fiber composite 2-bladed machine, designed and assembled at Penn State, with the intent of replacing the Whisper 175 rotor at the off-grid system. Rotor aerodynamic performance is modeled using WT_Perf, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed Blade Element Momentum theory based performance prediction code. Steady-state power curves are predicted by coupling experimentally determined electrical characteristics with the aerodynamic performance of the rotor simulated with WT_Perf. A dynamometer test stand is used to establish the electromechanical efficiencies of the wind-electric system generator. Through the coupling of WT_Perf and dynamometer test results, an aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedure is developed and provides accurate predictions of wind system performance. The analysis of three different wind turbines gives a comprehensive assessment of the capability of the field test facilities and the accuracy of aero-electro-mechanical analysis procedures. Results from this study show that the Carolus and Whisper 175 rotors are running at higher tip-speed ratios than are optimum for power production. The aero-electro-mechanical analysis predicted the high operating tip-speed ratios of the rotors and was accurate at predicting output power for the systems. It is shown that the wind turbines operate at high tip-speeds because of a miss-match between the aerodynamic drive torque and the operating torque of the wind

  6. AeroVironment technician checks a Helios solar cell panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A technician at AeroVironment's Design Development Center in Simi Valley, California, checks a panel of silicon solar cells for conductivity and voltage. The bi-facial cells, fabricated by SunPower, Inc., of Sunnyvale, California, are among 64,000 solar cells which have been installed on the Helios Prototype solar-powered aircraft to provide power to its 14 electric motors and operating systems. Developed by AeroVironment under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude aircraft which can perform atmospheric science missions and serve as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere. Target goals set by NASA for the giant 246-foot span flying wing include reaching and sustaining subsonic horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude in 2001, and sustained continuous flight for at least four days and nights above 50,000 feet altitude with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now under development in 2003.

  7. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  8. Spectral Behavior of Weakly Compressible Aero-Optical Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In classical theories of optical distortions by atmospheric turbulence, an appropriate and key assumption is that index-of-refraction variations are dominated by fluctuations in temperature and the effects of turbulent pressure fluctuations are negligible. This assumption is, however, not generally valid for aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent flow over an optical aperture, where both temperature and pressures fluctuations may contribute significantly to the index-of-refraction fluctuations. A general expression for weak fluctuations in refractive index is derived using the ideal gas law and Gladstone-Dale relation and applied to describe the spectral behavior of aero-optical distortions. Large-eddy simulations of weakly compressible, temporally evolving shear layers are then used to verify the theoretical results. Computational results support theoretical findings and confirm that if the log slope of the 1-D density spectrum in the inertial range is -mρ , the optical phase distortion spectral slope is given by - (mρ + 1) . The value of mρ is then shown to be dependent on the ratio of shear-layer free-stream densities and bounded by the spectral slopes of temperature and pressure fluctuations. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001 and Blue Waters Graduate Fellowship Program.

  9. The NASA Electric Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the NASA Electric Propulsion program is aimed at providing technology for auxiliary and primary propulsion functions for earth-orbital and planetary space missions. Efforts in electrostatic propulsion include analyses of ion propulsion for Geosynchronous (GEO) and planetary spacecraft, continued preflight efforts associated with the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), and research and technology for advanced and simplified ion thruster systems. In the area of electromagnetic propulsion, studies were conducted regarding the feasibility and impacts of the use of electromagnetic launchers. Research on magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, electromagnetic launchers, and Hall current thrusters was also performed. Studies in the electrothermal sector included an evaluation of electric propulsion options for the Space Station, taking into account also resistojets, a pulsed electrothermal thruster, and arc jets.

  10. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability

  11. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-11-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability

  12. A 2μm-pump laser-based DIRCM system and aero-optics in the mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renz, Günther; Bohn, Willy

    2007-10-01

    The improvement of the security of platforms (aircrafts) with countermeasure techniques in the mid-IR especially in the take-off or landing phase is nowadays more stringent due to upcoming threats. We report on the development of a Tm:YLF-fiber laser (1.908 μm) pumped Ho:YAG (2.09 µm) high energy laser system with pulse energies up to 100 mJ at pulse lengths close to 20 ns and repetition rates of 100 Hz. A high quality laser beam leaving a platform through a variable-index-of-refraction airflow will experience wave-front aberrations and consequently lose its ability to be perfectly focused in the far field. Two main causes of laser beam degradations are issued in this investigation. First, there is the degradation immediately around the fuselage, referred to aero-optic problems and second the atmospheric propagation influence via air turbulence. The aero-optic influence on the laser beam degradation will be investigated in a laboratory experimental approach with a mid-IR laser beam traversing a transonic free air stream relevant to a real air flow around a fuselage. The propagation characteristics of a laser beam passing turbulent air will be numerically simulated with a multiple phase-screen method and a Fourier propagation technique. Different turbulence degrees relevant to propagation directions especially behind aircrafts will be considered.

  13. Implementation of an Online Database for Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David B. Owen, II; McRight, Patrick S.; Cardiff, Eric H.

    2009-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University, Chemical Propulsion Information Analysis Center (CPIAC) has been working closely with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC); the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH); The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL); and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to capture satellite and spacecraft propulsion system information for an online database tool. The Spacecraft Chemical Propulsion Database (SCPD) is a new online central repository containing general and detailed system and component information on a variety of spacecraft propulsion systems. This paper only uses data that have been approved for public release with unlimited distribution. The data, supporting documentation, and ability to produce reports on demand, enable a researcher using SCPD to compare spacecraft easily, generate information for trade studies and mass estimates, and learn from the experiences of others through what has already been done. This paper outlines the layout and advantages of SCPD, including a simple example application with a few chemical propulsion systems from various NASA spacecraft.

  14. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  15. Power and Propulsion for the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kevin S.; Cockfield, Robert D.

    2005-02-01

    Lockheed Martin contributions to the Cassini mission included power and propulsion for the spacecraft, the Descent Imager / Spectral Radiometer, DISR instrument for the Huygens Probe, as well as the Titan IVB launch vehicle. Cassini is currently in orbit around Saturn performing its primary science mission, investigating Saturn, its many moons, and its complex and beautiful ring system. The Space Power Programs organization in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, an offsite of Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, provided the three General Purpose Heat Source - Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (GPHS-RTGs) used to provide electric power to the spacecraft during its mission to Saturn and its moons. The RTGs were the same design as those used to power the Galileo spacecraft on its mission to Jupiter and its moons, and the ESA Ulysses spacecraft on its mission to explore the Sun. Three RTGS provided 880 Watts of electrical power to the spacecraft at the beginning of mission, shortly after launch, 50% more than the power available for the Galileo mission. Other papers will describe the extensive science instrumentation made possible by the abundance of continuous, reliable, and long-lived power, unprecedented for a deep space planetary mission. The Cassini Propulsion Module Subsystem is the largest interplanetary propulsion system ever to successfully enter orbit around another planet. The propulsion system was designed to be fully redundant for this critical, 11-year scientific mission to Saturn. The system was designed, assembled and tested at Lockheed Martin's Space Exploration Systems Company in Littleton, Colorado, before being delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL in Pasadena California for integration and testing with the spacecraft. The bi-propellant system design holds 3,000 kg of Monomethyl Hydrazine, MMH and Nitrogen Tetroxide, NTO and uses 132 kg of High Purity Grade Hydrazine for 3-axis attitude control and Reaction Wheel Assembly, RWA

  16. Vehicle Dynamics due to Magnetic Launch Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galaboff, Zachary J.; Jacobs, William; West, Mark E.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The field of Magnetic Levitation Lind Propulsion (MagLev) has been around for over 30 years, primarily in high-speed rail service. In recent years, however, NASA has been looking closely at MagLev as a possible first stage propulsion system for spacecraft. This approach creates a variety of new problems that don't currently exist with the present MagLev trains around the world. NASA requires that a spacecraft of approximately 120,000 lbs be accelerated at two times the acceleration of gravity (2g's). This produces a greater demand on power over the normal MagLev trains that accelerate at around 0.1g. To be able to store and distribute up to 3,000 Mega Joules of energy in less than 10 seconds is a technical challenge. Another problem never addressed by the train industry and, peculiar only to NASA, is the control of a lifting body through the acceleration of and separation from the MagLev track. Very little is understood about how a lifting body will react with external forces, Such as wind gusts and ground effects, while being propelled along on soft springs such as magnetic levitators. Much study needs to be done to determine spacecraft control requirements as well as what control mechanisms and aero-surfaces should be placed on the carrier. Once the spacecraft has been propelled down the track another significant event takes place, the separation of the spacecraft from the carrier. The dynamics involved for both the carrier and the spacecraft are complex and coupled. Analysis of the reaction of the carrier after losing, a majority of its mass must be performed to insure control of the carrier is maintained and a safe separation of the spacecraft is achieved. The spacecraft angle of attack required for lift and how it will affect the carriage just prior to separation, along with the impacts of around effect and aerodynamic forces at ground level must be modeled and analyzed to define requirements on the launch vehicle design. Mechanisms, which can withstand the

  17. Analysis of System Margins on Missions Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.; Landau, Damon; Randolph, Thomas; Timmerman, Paul; Chase, James; Sims, Jon; Kowalkowski, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has conducted a study focused on the analysis of appropriate margins for deep space missions using solar electric propulsion (SEP). The purpose of this study is to understand the links between disparate system margins (power, mass, thermal, etc.) and their impact on overall mission performance and robustness. It is determined that the various sources of uncertainty and risk associated with electric propulsion mission design can be summarized into three relatively independent parameters 1) EP Power Margin, 2) Propellant Margin and 3) Duty Cycle Margin. The overall relationship between these parameters and other major sources of uncertainty is presented. A detailed trajectory analysis is conducted to examine the impact that various assumptions related to power, duty cycle, destination, and thruster performance including missed thrust periods have on overall performance. Recommendations are presented for system margins for deep space missions utilizing solar electric propulsion.

  18. A coupled-adjoint method for high-fidelity aero-structural optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Joaquim Rafael Rost A.

    A new integrated aero-structural design method for aerospace vehicles is presented. The approach combines an aero-structural analysis solver, a coupled aero-structural adjoint solver, a geometry engine, and an efficient gradient-based optimization algorithm. The aero-structural solver ensures accurate solutions by using high-fidelity models for the aerodynamics, structures, and coupling procedure. The coupled aero-structural adjoint solver is used to calculate the sensitivities of aerodynamic and structural cost functions with respect to both aerodynamic shape and structural variables. The aero-structural adjoint sensitivities are compared with those given by the complex-step derivative approximation and finite differences. The proposed method is shown to be both accurate and efficient, exhibiting a significant cost advantage when the gradient of a small number of functions with respect to a large number of design variables is needed. The optimization of a supersonic business jet configuration demonstrates the usefulness and importance of computing aero-structural sensitivities using the coupled-adjoint method.

  19. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  20. Hypersonic missile propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmar, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Pratt and Whitney is developing the technology for hypersonic components and engines. A supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) database was developed using hydrogen fueled propulsion systems for space access vehicles and serves as a point of departure for the current development of hydrocarbon scramjets. The Air Force Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) Program has put programs in place to develop the technologies necessary to demonstrate the operability, performance and structural durability of an expendable, liquid hydrocarbon fueled scramjet system that operates from Mach 4 to 8. This program will culminate in a flight type engine test at representative flight conditions. The hypersonic technology base that will be developed and demonstrated under HyTech will establish the foundation to enable hypersonic propulsion systems for a broad range of air vehicle applications from missiles to space access vehicles. A hypersonic missile flight demonstration is planned in the DARPA Affordable Rapid Response Missile Demonstrator (ARRMD) program in 2001.

  1. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  2. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  3. STOL propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denington, R. J.; Koenig, R. W.; Vanco, M. R.; Sagerser, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and the characteristics of quiet, clean propulsion systems for STOL aircraft are discussed. Engines are evaluated for augmentor wing and externally blown flap STOL aircraft with the engines located both under and over the wings. Some supporting test data are presented. Optimum engines are selected based on achieving the performance, economic, acoustic, and pollution goals presently being considered for future STOL aircraft. The data and results presented were obtained from a number of contracted studies and some supporting NASA inhouse programs, most of which began in early 1972. The contracts include: (1) two aircraft and mission studies, (2) two propulsion system studies, (3) the experimental and analytic work on the augmentor wing, and (4) the experimental programs on Q-Fan. Engines are selected and discussed based on aircraft economics using the direct operating cost as the primary criterion. This cost includes the cost of the crew, fuel, aircraft, and engine maintenance and depreciation.

  4. Emerging Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) investment area is the newest area within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project and strives to bridge technologies in the lower Technology Readiness Level (TRL) range (2 to 3) to the mid TRL range (4 to 6). A prioritization process, the Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP), was developed and applied in FY01 to establish initial program priorities. The EPT investment area emerged for technologies that scored well in the IISTP but had a low technical maturity level. One particular technology, the Momentum-eXchange Electrodynamic-Reboost (MXER) tether, scored extraordinarily high and had broad applicability in the IISTP. However, its technical maturity was too low for ranking alongside technologies like the ion engine or aerocapture. Thus MXER tethers assumed top priority at EPT startup in FY03 with an aggressive schedule and adequate budget. It was originally envisioned that future technologies would enter the ISP portfolio through EPT, and EPT developed an EPT/ISP Entrance Process for future candidate ISP technologies. EPT has funded the following secondary, candidate ISP technologies at a low level: ultra-lightweight solar sails, general space/near-earth tether development, electrodynamic tether development, advanced electric propulsion, and in-space mechanism development. However, the scope of the ISPT program has focused over time to more closely match SMD needs and technology advancement successes. As a result, the funding for MXER and other EPT technologies is not currently available. Consequently, the MXER tether tasks and other EPT tasks were expected to phased out by November 2006. Presentation slides are presented which provide activity overviews for the aerocapture technology and emerging propulsion technology projects.

  5. Army Ground Vehicle Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    IV (> 75 bhp ) compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. • Combat vehicle: permanent armor...propulsion system volume [ bhp /ft3] — Air filtration requirements, thermal management system, transmission, engine, ducting requirements, final drives...transmission 40 ft3;  engine 31 ft3;  air filtration 31 ft3 o Bradley FIV: Cummins VTA903 has SHRR of 0.6 BHP / BHP vs. today’s COTS > 0.85

  6. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  7. Chemical propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of NASA's low thrust liquid chemical propulsion program is presented with particular emphasis on thrust system technology in the ten to one thousand pound thrust range. Key technology issues include high performance of cooled low thrust engines; small cryogenic pumps; multiple starts-shutdowns (10) with slow ramps (approximately 10 seconds); thrust variation - 4/1 in flight and 20/1 between flights; long life (100 hours); improved system weight and size; and propellant selection.

  8. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  9. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  10. Tests on Thrust Augmenters for Jet Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Shoemaker, James M

    1932-01-01

    This series of tests was undertaken to determine how much the reaction thrust of a jet could be increased by the use of thrust augmenters and thus to give some indication as to the feasibility of jet propulsion for airplanes. The tests were made during the first part of 1927 at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. A compressed air jet was used in connection with a series of annular guides surrounding the jet to act as thrust augmenters. The results show that, although it is possible to increase the thrust of a jet, the increase is not large enough to affect greatly the status of the problem of the application of jet propulsion to airplanes.

  11. Geosynchronous earth orbit base propulsion - electric propulsion options

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electric propulsion and chemical propulsion requirements for a geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) base were analyzed. The base is resupplied from the Space Station's low earth orbit. Orbit-transfer Delta-Vs, nodal-regression Delta-Vs and orbit-maintenance Delta-Vs were considered. For resupplying the base, a cryogenic oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is currently-baselined. Comparisons of several electric propulsion options with the O2/H2 OTV were conducted. Propulsion requirements for missions related to the GEO base were also analyzed. Payload data for the GEO missions were drawn from current mission data bases. Detailed electric propulsion module designs are presented. Mission analyses and propulsion analyses for the GEO-delivered payloads are included. 23 references.

  12. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  13. The MAP Propulsion Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary T.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, integration, test, performance, and lessons learned of NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) propulsion subsystem. MAP was launched on a Delta-II launch vehicle from NASA's Kennedy Space Center on June 30, 2001. Due to instrument thermal stability requirements, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point was selected for the mission orbit. The L2 trajectory incorporated phasing loops and a lunar gravity assist. The propulsion subsystem's requirements are to manage momentum, perform maneuvers during the phasing loops to set up the lunar swingby, and perform stationkeeping at L2 for 2 years. MAP's propulsion subsystem uses 8 thrusters which are located and oriented to provide attitude control and momentum management about all axes, and delta-V in any direction without exposing the instrument to the sun. The propellant tank holds 72 kg of hydrazine, which is expelled by unregulated blowdown pressurization. Thermal management is complex because no heater cycling is allowed at L2. Several technical challenges presented themselves during I and T, such as in-situ weld repairs and in-situ bending of thruster tubes to accommodate late changes in the observatory CG. On-orbit performance has been nominal, and all phasing loop, mid-course correction, and stationkeeping maneuvers have been successfully performed to date.

  14. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  15. Miga Aero Actuator and 2D Machined Mechanical Binary Latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gummin, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators provide the highest force-to-weight ratio of any known actuator. They can be designed for a wide variety of form factors from flat, thin packages, to form-matching packages for existing actuators. SMA actuators can be operated many thousands of times, so that ground testing is possible. Actuation speed can be accurately controlled from milliseconds to position and hold, and even electronic velocity-profile control is possible. SMA actuators provide a high degree of operational flexibility, and are truly smart actuators capable of being accurately controlled by onboard microprocessors across a wide range of voltages. The Miga Aero actuator is a SMA actuator designed specifically for spaceflight applications. Providing 13 mm of stroke with either 20- or 40-N output force in two different models, the Aero actuator is made from low-outgassing PEEK (polyether ether ketone) plastic, stainless steel, and nickel-titanium SMA wires. The modular actuator weighs less than 28 grams. The dorsal output attachment allows the Aero to be used in either PUSH or PULL modes by inverting the mounting orientation. The SPA1 actuator utilizes commercially available SMA actuator wire to provide 3/8-in. (approx. =.1 cm) of stroke at a force of over 28 lb (approx. = .125 N). The force is provided by a unique packaging of the single SMA wire that provides the output force of four SMA wires mechanically in parallel. The output load is shared by allowing the SMA wire to slip around the output attachment end to adjust or balance the load, preventing any individual wire segment from experiencing high loads during actuation. A built-in end limit switch prevents overheating of the SMA element following actuation when used in conjunction with the Miga Analog Driver [a simple MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) switching circuit]. A simple 2D machined mechanical binary latch has been developed to complement the capabilities of SMA wire

  16. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-space Propulsion Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The solar electric propulsion technology area has been investing in NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Current status and expected capabilities of the solar electric propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  17. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  18. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that attains the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and worm-holes, and superluminal quantum effects. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. The methods of the program and the results of the 1997 workshop are presented. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  20. Embedded Wing Propulsion Conceptual Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Saunders, John D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of distributed propulsion work under NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts or RAC project, a new propulsion-airframe integrated vehicle concept called Embedded Wing Propulsion (EWP) is developed and examined through system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The idea behind the concept is to fully integrate a propulsion system within a wing structure so that the aircraft takes full benefits of coupling of wing aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of the EWP concept applied to large transport aircraft such as the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft. In this paper, some of early analysis and current status of the study are presented. In addition, other current activities of distributed propulsion under the RAC project are briefly discussed.

  1. 1995 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is a collection of 36 unclassified/unlimited distribution papers which were presented at the 1995 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) propulsion meeting. Specific subjects discussed include the integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology initiative, hybrid propulsion, electric propulsion, the Minuteman 2/3 missile system, slag, aluminum in propellant compositions, electric propulsion, rocket nozzle design, and tactical missiles.

  2. Simulation of Electric Propulsion Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Electric Propulsion Thrusters RTO-EN-AVT-194 17 - 3 [3] is a well-developed, highly successful numerical technique for simulating rarefied gas flows ... Rarefied Flows (Modeles et methodes de calcul des coulements de gaz rarefies ). RTO-EN-AVT-194 14. ABSTRACT Electric propulsion thrusters are replacing...METHODS The focus of this article is on numerical methods used to model the flow of gas and plasma through electric propulsion devices. Discussion

  3. Future of Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-16

    83 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION by A.P. Baranov DTIQ ~E tJ Approved for public release; 0.. distribution...MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION By: A.P. Baranov -,English pages: 10 Source: Sudostroyeniye, Nr. 12, December 1966, pp. 3-6 . Country of origin: USSR X...equations, etc. merged into this translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION A. P

  4. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  5. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  6. Solar Thermal Propulsion Optical Figure Measuring and Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Solar thermal propulsion has been an important area of study for four years at the Propulsion Research Center. Significant resources have been devoted to the development of the UAH Solar Thermal Laboratory that provides unique, high temperature, test capabilities. The facility is fully operational and has successfully conducted a series of solar thruster shell experiments. Although presently dedicated to solar thermal propulsion, the facility has application to a variety of material processing, power generation, environmental clean-up, and other fundamental research studies. Additionally, the UAH Physics Department has joined the Center in support of an in-depth experimental investigation on Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS) concentrators. Laboratory space has been dedicated to the concentrator evaluation in the UAH Optics Building which includes a vertical light tunnel. Two, on-going, research efforts are being sponsored through NASA MSFC (Shooting Star Flight Experiment) and the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Ground Demonstrator).

  7. Technical Note: Simulation of detailed aerosol chemistry on the global scale using MECCA-AERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, A.; Sander, R.; Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-06-01

    We present the MESSy submodel MECCA-AERO, which simulates both aerosol and gas phase chemistry within one comprehensive mechanism. Including the aerosol phase into the chemistry mechanism increases the stiffness of the resulting set of differential equations. The numerical aspects of the approach followed in MECCA-AERO are presented. MECCA-AERO requires input of an aerosol dynamical/microphysical model to provide the aerosol size and particle number information of the modes/bins for which the chemistry is explicitly calculated. Additional precautions are required to avoid the double counting of processes, especially for sulphate in the aerosol dynamical and the chemistry model. This coupling is explained in detail. To illustrate the capabilities of the new aerosol submodel, examples for species usually treated in aerosol dynamical models are shown. The aerosol chemistry as provided by MECCA-AERO is very sumptuous and not readily applicable for long-term simulations, though it provides a reference to evaluate simplified approaches.

  8. Technical Note: simulation of detailed aerosol chemistry on the global scale using MECCA-AERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, A.; Sander, R.; Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-03-01

    We present the MESSy submodel MECCA-AERO, which simulates both aerosol and gas phase chemistry with the same mechanism. Including the aerosol phase into the chemistry mechanism increases the stiffness of the resulting set of differential equations. The numerical aspects of the approach followed in MECCA-AERO are presented. MECCA-AERO requires input of an aerosol dynamical/microphysical model to provide the aerosol size and particle number information of the modes/bins for which the chemistry is explicitly calculated. Additional precautions are required to avoid the double counting of processes, especially for sulphate in the aerosol dynamical and the chemistry model. This coupling is explained in detail. To illustrate the capabilities of the new aerosol submodel, examples for species usually treated in aerosol dynamical models are shown. The aerosol chemistry as provided by MECCA-AERO is very sumptuous and not readily applicable for long-term simulations, though it provides a reference to evaluate simplified approaches.

  9. [Flight nurses' comprehension about their role in the multiprofesional team of aero-medical transport].

    PubMed

    Scuissiato, Dayane Reinhardt; Boffi, Letícia Valois; da Rocha, Roseline da Rocha; Montezeli, Juliana Helena; Bordin, Michelle Taverna; Peres, Aida Maris

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive qualitative research which aimed at identifying the flight nurses' comprehension by about their role in the aero-medical multiprofesional team. A semi-structured interview was carried out with eight flight nurses from Curitiba-PR, from June to August 2009. The speeches were analyzed by the content analysis, from which three categories emerged. The first describes the responsibilities of the flight nurses as managers of the aero-medical mission, planning for before, during and after the transport, what includes the aircraft check-list and knowledge of the patient's case. The second category deals with aspects of these professionals as care providers to the aero-transferred patient. The third describes communication and team-work as fundamental requirements for flight nurses. It was concluded that the nurse in aero-medical team mixes management and caring in his/her professional practice by the use of specific competences.

  10. Miniature propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John G.

    1992-07-01

    Miniature solenoid valves, check valves and a hydrazine gas generator typify the miniaturization used in the liquid propulsion system for the Army Light Weight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP). The pressure control subsystem uses a solenoid valve weighing 24 grams to control flow of helium to pressurize the propellant tanks. The attitude control subsystem uses a gas generator weighing 71 grams to produce decomposed hydrazine as the gaseous propellant for miniature 1 lbf ACS thrusters weighing 5.4 grams. The successful use of these miniature components in development tests and a hover test of the LEAP is described.

  11. Plug nozzle propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, Dan A.

    1992-02-01

    General Dynamics studied a vertical takeoff/vertical landing fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concept for medium payload missions. A hydrogen oxygen plug nozzle main engine integrates well in the wide aft end. The principal driver for its selection was the promise of very high I(sub SP), 480 seconds vacuum. Further, preliminary design and analysis with Rocketdyne showed uncertainties and performance losses degrading this number to 467.4 seconds. Nevertheless, this SSTO configuration appears to be optimum for a plug nozzle main engine system. The merits and risks of this propulsion system are discussed. Continued development is recommended.

  12. Radiation Augmented Propulsion Feasibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    FE 1~ 1986 December 1985 Authors: Rockwell International S . C. Hurlock Rocketdyne Division V. Quan 6633 Canoga Ave ()J. Blauer Canoga Park, CA 91304 00...Organization Report Number( s ) RI /RD85-257 AFRPL-TR-85-068 Gam NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION b. OF FICE SY MBO L 7. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION...EW - PropulsionFeasibilityStudy_(U) ______ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Hurlock, S . C.; Quan, V.; Blauer, J.; Hall, J. R.; Wagner, R. I.; Wilson, R. 0. 113

  13. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  14. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  15. Propulsion by tachyon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.

    1989-07-01

    A possibility of generating collimated beams of faster-than-light particles (tachyons) and using them for rocket propulsion is explored. The relativistic rocket equations are derived, and are solved for a single-stage rocket with constant mass flow rate, constant exhaust velocity and no coasting period. The features of these solutions for faster-than-light exhaust velocities are discussed. It is shown that a tachyon drive would not violate the first law of thermodynamics. However, as seen in the Galactic frame, it would violate the second law.

  16. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Allen, Arrington E.

    2013-01-01

    A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was completed in 2012 following the major modifications to the facility that included replacement of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger. The calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  18. Space propulsion technology and cryogenic fluid depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Information on space propulsion and technology and the cryogenic fluid depot is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer, electric propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, and program objectives.

  19. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles Les

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an area density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In addition, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. The presentation will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within NASA, near-term solar sail mission applications, and near-term plans for further development.

  20. Dynamic finite element model validation of an assembled aero-engine casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zi; Zang, Chaoping; Jiang, Yuying; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-09-01

    Structural dynamic model updating and validation of an aero-engine casing is critical to the design and development of an aircraft engine. It helps to identify the dynamic characteristics and reduce the response of the aero-engine. The modelling and parameter identification of joint are extremely difficult and important in structural dynamic analysis of the assembled aero-engine casing. In this paper, dynamic model validation technique was applied to update and validate the finite element model of an assembled aero-engine casing. First, modal test of individual casings and the assembled casing was performed by using the traditional acceleration sensors and a hammer. The modal frequencies and mode shapes were obtained by modal analysis tools. Second, the Inverse Eigen-sensitivity Method was used to correct frequency errors and MAC values of correlated mode pairs in the individual components to obtain validated models. Last, the bolt joints of two aero-engine casings were modelled by thin layer of shell elements. The material parameters or element properties of the thin-layer contact elements were updated to obtain reliable connection parameters. The results show that the errors of natural frequencies between the validated FE model of an assembled aero-engine casing and test data are within 7%, and the MAC values of main modes are above 70%, which can verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach.

  1. Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

  2. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  3. Jet propulsion without inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric

    2010-08-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e., jetting) surfaces are considered and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number, which corresponds to the potential flow created by a source dipole at the sphere center. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increases as the body becomes more oblate and limits to approximately 162% in the case of a flat plate swimming along its axis of symmetry. Our results are discussed in the light of slime extrusion mechanisms occurring in many cyanobacteria.

  4. Integrated airframe propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, R. E.; Black, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    Perturbation equations which describe flight dynamics and engine operation about a given operating point are combined to form an integrated aircraft/propulsion system model. Included in the model are the dependence of aerodynamic coefficients upon atmospheric variables along with the dependence of engine variables upon flight condition and inlet performance. An off-design engine performance model is used to identify interaction parameters in the model. Inclusion of subsystem interaction effects introduces coupling between flight and propulsion variables. To analyze interaction effects on control, consideration is first given to control requirements for separate flight and engine models. For the separate airframe model, feedback control provides substantial improvement in short period damping. For the integrated system, feedback control compensates for the coupling present in the model and provides good overall system stability. However, this feedback control law involves many non-zero gains. Analysis of suboptimal control strategies indicates that performance of the closed loop integrated system can be maintained with a feedback matrix in which the number of non-zero gains is small relative to the number of components in the feedback matrix.

  5. Assessing potential propulsion breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Millis, Marc G

    2005-12-01

    The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations have begun. During 1996-2002 NASA supported the breakthrough propulsion physics project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging, since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but energy can serve as a basis for comparison. A hypothetical space drive would require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (1) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects, or critical issues; (2) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications; and (3) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

  6. Assessing Potential Propulsion Breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2005-01-01

    The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations into these goals have begun. From 1996 to 2002, NASA supported the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but kinetic energy can serve as a basis for comparison. In terms of kinetic energy, a hypothetical space drive could require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications, and (c) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

  7. Rocket Scientist for a Day: Investigating Alternatives for Chemical Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelin, Marcus; Rahm, Martin; Gabrielsson, Erik; Gumaelius, Lena

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces rocket science from a chemistry perspective. The focus is set on chemical propulsion, including its environmental impact and future development. By combining lecture-based teaching with practical, theoretical, and computational exercises, the students get to evaluate different propellant alternatives. To…

  8. Computational Structures Technology for Airframes and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Housner, Jerrold M. (Compiler); Starnes, James H., Jr. (Compiler); Hopkins, Dale A. (Compiler); Chamis, Christos C. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This conference publication contains the presentations and discussions from the joint University of Virginia (UVA)/NASA Workshops. The presentations included NASA Headquarters perspectives on High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), goals and objectives of the UVA Center for Computational Structures Technology (CST), NASA and Air Force CST activities, CST activities for airframes and propulsion systems in industry, and CST activities at Sandia National Laboratory.

  9. Propulsion Selection for 85kft Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Science Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Hahn, Andrew; Cyrus, John; Schmitz, Paul; Harp, Jim; King, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how a 3 stage turbocharged gasoline engine was selected to power NASA's atmospheric science unmanned aircraft now under development. The airplane, whose purpose is to fly sampling instruments through targeted regions of the upper atmosphere at the exact location and time (season, time of day) where the most interesting chemistry is taking place, must have a round trip range exceeding 1000 km, carry a payload of about 500 lb to altitudes exceeding 80 kft over the site, and be able to remain above that altitude for at least 30 minutes before returning to base. This is a subsonic aircraft (the aerodynamic heating and shock associated with supersonic flight could easily destroy the chemical species that are being sampled) and it must be constructed so it will operate out of small airfields at primitive remote sites worldwide, under varying climate and weather conditions. Finally it must be low cost, since less than $50 M is available for its development. These requirements put severe constraints on the aircraft design (for example, wing loading in the vicinity of 10 psf) and have in turn limited the propulsion choices to already-existing hardware, or limited adaptations of existing hardware. The only candidate that could emerge under these circumstances was a propeller driven aircraft powered by spark ignited (SI) gasoline engines, whose intake pressurization is accomplished by multiple stages of turbo-charging and intercooling. Fortunately the turbocharged SI powerplant, owing to its rich automotive heritage and earlier intensive aero powerplant development during WWII, enjoys in addition to its potentially low development costs some subtle physical advantages (arising from its near-stochiometric combustion) that may make it smaller and lighter than either a turbine engine or a diesel for these altitudes. Just as fortunately, the NASA/industry team developing this aircraft includes the same people who built multi-stage turbocharged SI powerplants

  10. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion.

  11. Progress in NASA Rotorcraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reviews recent progress made under NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) propulsion research activities. Advances in engines, drive systems and optimized propulsion systems are discussed. Progress in wide operability compressors, modeling of variable geometry turbine performance, foil gas bearings and multi-speed transmissions are presented.

  12. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics: implications for wheelchair sports.

    PubMed

    Vanlandewijck, Y; Theisen, D; Daly, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art review on biomechanics in hand rim wheelchair propulsion, with special attention to sport-specific implications. Biomechanical studies in wheelchair sports mainly aim at optimising sport performance or preventing sport injuries. The sports performance optimisation question has been approached from an ergonomic, as well as a skill proficiency perspective. Sports medical issues have been addressed in wheelchair sports mainly because of the extremely high prevalence of repetitive strain injuries such as shoulder impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome. Sports performance as well as sports medical reflections are made throughout the review. Insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms of hand rim wheelchair propulsion has been achieved through a combination of experimental data collection under realistic conditions, with a more fundamental mathematical modelling approach. Through a synchronised analysis of the movement pattern, force generation pattern and muscular activity pattern, insight has been gained in the hand rim wheelchair propulsion dynamics of people with a disability, varying in level of physical activity and functional potential. The limiting environment of a laboratory, however, has hampered the drawing of sound conclusions. Through mathematical modelling, simulation and optimisation (minimising injury and maximising performance), insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms during wheelchair propulsion is sought. The surplus value of inverse and forward dynamic simulation of hand rim stroke dynamics is addressed. Implications for hand rim wheelchair sports are discussed. Wheelchair racing, basketball and rugby were chosen because of the significance and differences in sport-specific movement dynamics. Conclusions can easily be transferred to other wheelchair sports where movement dynamics are fundamental.

  13. U.S. Air Force Research Technology Area Plan, FY 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    a knowledge base that permits the production, storage and controlled use of antimatter as a future source of energy. o. Provide advanced propulsion ...Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Aero Propulsion Laboratory (AFWAL/PO) Avionics Laboratory...High Energy Density Propellants and other advanced propulsion concepts - Civil and environmental engineering to enhance air base operations - Vertical

  14. The NASA Electric Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Lisa Wood; Curran, Francis M.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems typically have a major impact on spacecraft mass and cost. Electric propulsion systems offer major performance advantages over conventional chemical systems for many mission functions and the NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) supports an extensive effort to develop the technology for high-performance, on-board electric propulsion system options to enhance and enable near- and far-term US space missions. This program includes research and development efforts on electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic propulsion system technologies to cover a wide range of potential applications. To maximize expectations of technology transfer, the program emphasizes strong interaction with the user community through a variety of cooperative and contracted approaches. This paper provides an overview of the OSAT electric propulsion program with an emphasis on recent progress and future directions.

  15. Propulsion Flight-Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray

    2003-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center s new Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF), designed in house, is an airborne engine-testing facility that enables engineers to gather flight data on small experimental engines. Without the PFTF, it would be necessary to obtain such data from traditional wind tunnels, ground test stands, or laboratory test rigs. Traditionally, flight testing is reserved for the last phase of engine development. Generally, engines that embody new propulsion concepts are not put into flight environments until their designs are mature: in such cases, either vehicles are designed around the engines or else the engines are mounted in or on missiles. However, a captive carry capability of the PFTF makes it possible to test engines that feature air-breathing designs (for example, designs based on the rocket-based combined cycle) economically in subscale experiments. The discovery of unknowns made evident through flight tests provides valuable information to engine designers early in development, before key design decisions are made, thereby potentially affording large benefits in the long term. This is especially true in the transonic region of flight (from mach 0.9 to around 1.2), where it can be difficult to obtain data from wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. In January 2002, flight-envelope expansion to verify the design and capabilities of the PFTF was completed. The PFTF was flown on a specially equipped supersonic F-15B research testbed airplane, mounted on the airplane at a center-line attachment fixture, as shown in Figure 1. NASA s F-15B testbed has been used for several years as a flight-research platform. Equipped with extensive research air-data, video, and other instrumentation systems, the airplane carries externally mounted test articles. Traditionally, the majority of test articles flown have been mounted at the centerline tank-attachment fixture, which is a hard-point (essentially, a standardized weapon-mounting fixture

  16. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  17. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Using Electric Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    the Red Planet naturally and thereby reducing the required on-board propellant (NASA, 2005). An aero-capture depletes enough energy to change a...satellite’s trajectory from hyperbolic to elliptic, hence capturing it in an orbit around an attracting planet /body. An aero-glide combines non...beneficial to remain as close to the planet as possible without entering the atmosphere to avoid large energy losses and rapid orbit decay. Remaining close

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  19. AeroCOM Biomass Burning Emissions Experiment-Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M. M.; Chin, M.; Kahn, R. A.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is one of the major sources of optically and chemically potent carbonaceous aerosols, gaseous aerosol precursors, and volatile organic compounds. It is, therefore, important to represent these emissions as accurately as possible in the global and regional models. To correctly simulate BB emissions from a fire, the model needs two key inputs: emission source strength for the fire and the emission injection height. Based on pilot studies of injection height by M. Val Martin et al. (2010, 2012), and of source strength by M. Petrenko et al. (2012), we proposed an AeroCom-coordinated multi-model BB experiment. The core objectives of the experiment are: To inter-compare and quantify the accuracy and diversity of the AeroCom model simulated BB AOD using a common emissions inventory. To propose a region-by-region emission correction scheme based on the comparisons of model output with satellite snapshots of smoke-plume optical depth from the MODIS and MISR instruments. This will allow us to bring the widely used GFED v3 emissions inventory to the levels needed to improve model-observation comparisons. To test smoke injection height-emission intensity relationships used in global models against MISR multi-angle smoke-plume-height retrievals. With the first stage of the BB experiment focused on the source strength, this talk will provide an update on development and testing the method of using satellite-measured aerosol optical depth snapshots to constrain BB aerosol emissions in the global models. The global datasets of fire-and-smoke events, observed by MISR and MODIS during 2006, 2007 and 2008, to be used for model-satellite comparisons, will also be described. These events were selected according to a number of criteria to be suitable for model-observation comparison at the scales of global model resolution. In addition, we will showcase preliminary results of model inter-comparisons within the BB experiment, outline plans for future output analysis

  20. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  1. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  3. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  4. Propulsion by directional adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Prakash, Manu

    2008-03-01

    The rough, hairy integument of water-walking arthropods is well known to be responsible for their water-repellency; we here consider its additional propulsive role. We demonstrate that the tilted flexible leg hairs of water-walking arthropods render the leg cuticle directionally anisotropic: contact lines advance most readily towards the leg tips. The dynamical role of the resulting unidirectional adhesion is explored, and yields new insight into the manner in which water-walking arthropods generate thrust, glide and leap from the free surface. We thus provide new rationale for the fundamental topological difference in the roughness on plants and insects, and suggest novel directions for biomimetic design of smart, hydrophobic surfaces.

  5. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  6. Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Technology Design Guide. Part VI. Status of Gas Bearing Technology Applicable to Aero Propulsion Machinery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    a 3.5 lb/ sec Flow Rate Gas Turbine 47 14 Load Chart, 1200 Partial ArcL L/D 1 [6]-----------------------------------------------4 15 Spring-Mounted... Frottement Des Solids. Frottement Dans le Vide", Comptes Rendus, 150, 960-8 (1910). 3. Ferranti, S.Z. de., "Improvements in, and Relating to Methods of and

  7. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph, taken at MSFC's Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility, shows a concentrator mirror, a combination of 144 mirrors forming this 18-ft diameter concentrator, and a vacuum chamber that houses the focal point. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-foot diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  8. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  9. Dynamic performance of an aero-assist spacecraft - AFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ho-Pen; French, Raymond A.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic performance of the Aero-assist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft was investigated using a high-fidelity 6-DOF simulation model. Baseline guidance logic, control logic, and a strapdown navigation system to be used on the AFE spacecraft are also modeled in the 6-DOF simulation. During the AFE mission, uncertainties in the environment and the spacecraft are described by an error space which includes both correlated and uncorrelated error sources. The principal error sources modeled in this study include navigation errors, initial state vector errors, atmospheric variations, aerodynamic uncertainties, center-of-gravity off-sets, and weight uncertainties. The impact of the perturbations on the spacecraft performance is investigated using Monte Carlo repetitive statistical techniques. During the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) deorbit phase, a target flight path angle of -4.76 deg at entry interface (EI) offers very high probability of avoiding SRM casing skip-out from the atmosphere. Generally speaking, the baseline designs of the guidance, navigation, and control systems satisfy most of the science and mission requirements.

  10. On the precision of aero-thermal simulations for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Thompson, Hugh

    2016-08-01

    Environmental effects on the Image Quality (IQ) of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are estimated by aero-thermal numerical simulations. These simulations utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to estimate, among others, thermal (dome and mirror) seeing as well as wind jitter and blur. As the design matures, guidance obtained from these numerical experiments can influence significant cost-performance trade-offs and even component survivability. The stochastic nature of environmental conditions results in the generation of a large computational solution matrix in order to statistically predict Observatory Performance. Moreover, the relative contribution of selected key subcomponents to IQ increases the parameter space and thus computational cost, while dictating a reduced prediction error bar. The current study presents the strategy followed to minimize prediction time and computational resources, the subsequent physical and numerical limitations and finally the approach to mitigate the issues experienced. In particular, the paper describes a mesh-independence study, the effect of interpolation of CFD results on the TMT IQ metric, and an analysis of the sensitivity of IQ to certain important heat sources and geometric features.

  11. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  12. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  13. Electric propulsion and interstellar flight

    SciTech Connect

    Matloff, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Two general classes of interstellar space-flights are defined: endothermic and exothermic. Endothermic methods utilize power sources external to the vehicle and associated technology. Faster exothermic methods utilize on-board propulsive power sources or energy-beam technology. Various proposed endothermic electric propulsion methods are described. These include solar electric rockets, mass drivers, and ramjets. A review of previously suggested exothermic electric propulsion methods is presented. Following this review is a detailed discussion of possible near future application of the beamed-laser ramjet, mainly for ultimate relativistic travel. Electric/magnetic techniques offer an excellent possibility for decelerating an interstellar vehicle, regardless of the acceleration technique. 20 references.

  14. Combined microwave science and propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined use of high-power active science instruments and high-power electric propulsion is investigated with a view to new science opportunities and measurements on future planetary missions. An example of a comet rendezvous mission that could benefit from this combination is discussed. It was found that, with electric propulsion, the launch mass of the comet spacecraft could be reduced by 61-68 percent over the chemical propulsion baseline mission. This high-power spacecraft is also capable of delivering a significant high-power radar science payload to the comet. 28 references.

  15. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  16. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  17. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  18. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  19. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  20. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  1. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  2. Electric Propulsion Test & Evaluation Methodologies for Plasma in the Environments of Space and Testing (EP TEMPEST) (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2015-April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electric Propulsion Test & Evaluation Methodologies for Plasma...Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory Electric Propulsion Test & Evaluation Methodologies for Plasma in the Environments...of Space and Testing (EP TEMPEST) AFOSR T&E Program Review 13-17 April 2015 Dr. Daniel L. Brown In-Space Propulsion Branch (RQRS) Aerospace Systems

  3. 1998 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 40 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 1998 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting (JPM), held 15-17 July 1998 at the Cleveland Marriott Downtown at Key Center and the Celebreeze Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio. The 1998 JPM was co-located with the 1998 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Joint Propulsion Conference. Specific subjects discussed include reusable liquid boosters, controllable solid propulsion, advanced propellants for the 2.75' rocket system, air-turbo-rocket propulsion, issues in gun propulsion, electric propulsion, liquid engine turbomachinery, and new liquid propulsion technology.

  4. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production. .

  5. Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

  6. Propulsion System for Very High Altitude Subsonic Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Harp, James L., Jr.; King, Joseph F.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains why a spark ignited gasoline engine, intake pressurized with three cascaded stages of turbocharging, was selected to power NASA's contemplated next generation of high altitude atmospheric science aircraft. Beginning with the most urgent science needs (the atmospheric sampling mission) and tracing through the mission requirements which dictate the unique flight regime in which this aircraft has to operate (subsonic flight at greater then 80 kft) we briefly explore the physical problems and constraints, the available technology options and the cost drivers associated with developing a viable propulsion system for this highly specialized aircraft. The paper presents the two available options (the turbojet and the turbocharged spark ignited engine) which are discussed and compared in the context of the flight regime. We then show how the unique nature of the sampling mission, coupled with the economic considerations pursuant to aero engine development, point to the spark ignited engine as the only cost effective solution available. Surprisingly, this solution compares favorably with the turbojet in the flight regime of interest. Finally, some remarks are made about NASA's present state of development, and future plans to flight demonstrate the three stage turbocharged powerplant.

  7. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinglong; Wang, Yu; He, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments. PMID:26512668

  9. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Test)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine M.; Arrington, E. Allen; VanZante, Judith Foss

    2012-01-01

    A major modification of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) occurred in autumn of 2011. It is standard practice at NASA Glenn to perform a full aero-thermal calibration of the test section of a wind tunnel facility upon completion of major modifications. This paper will discuss the tools and techniques used to complete an aero-thermal calibration of the IRT and the results that were acquired. The goal of this test entry was to complete a flow quality survey and aero-thermal calibration measurements in the test section of the IRT. Test hardware that was used includes the 2D Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) array, 9-ft pressure survey rake, hot wire survey rake, and the quick check survey rake. This test hardware provides a map of the velocity, Mach number, total and static pressure, total temperature, flow angle and turbulence intensity. The data acquired were then reduced to examine pressure, temperature, velocity, flow angle, and turbulence intensity. Reduced data has been evaluated to assess how the facility meets flow quality goals. No icing conditions were tested as part of the aero-thermal calibration. However, the effects of the spray bar air injections on the flow quality and aero-thermal calibration measurements were examined as part of this calibration.

  10. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglong; Wang, Yu; He, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-10-23

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  11. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  12. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

  13. Environmental benefits of chemical propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Joyce A.; Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Anderson, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies the necessity of chemical propulsion to satellite usage and some of the benefits accrued through monitoring global resources and patterns, including the Global Climate Change Model (GCM). The paper also summarized how the satellite observations are used to affect national and international policies. Chemical propulsion, like all environmentally conscious industries, does provide limited, controlled pollutant sources through its manufacture and usage. However, chemical propulsion is the sole source which enables mankind to launch spacecraft and monitor the Earth. The information provided by remote sensing directly affects national and international policies designed to protect the environment and enhance the overall quality of life on Earth. The resultant of chemical propulsion is the capability to reduce overall pollutant emissions to the benefit of mankind.

  14. Propulsion issues, options and trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Doug J.

    1986-01-01

    Several different types of propulsion concepts are discussed: pulsed fission; continuous nuclear fission; chemical; and chemical boost with advanced nuclear fission. Some of the key characteristics of each type are provided, and typical concepts of each are shown.

  15. Trajectory correction propulsion for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H. R.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A blowdown-pressurized hydrazine propulsion system was selected to provide trajectory correction impulse for outer planet flyby spacecraft as the result of cost/mass/reliability tradeoff analyses. Present hydrazine component and system technology and component designs were evaluated for application to the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS); while general hydrazine technology was adequate, component design changes were deemed necessary for TOPS-type missions. A prototype hydrazine propulsion system was fabricated and fired nine times for a total of 1600 s to demonstrate the operation and performance of the TOPS propulsion configuration. A flight-weight trajectory correction propulsion subsystem (TCPS) was designed for the TOPS based on actual and estimated advanced components.

  16. Fundamentals of Electrical Propulsion Plant Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-06

    Classification. Turboelectric Propulsion Plants ( TEGU ). Diesel- Electric Propulsion Plants (DEGU). § 9.3 Excitation and Control Systems with...is evident, for example, from /431 the data in Table 9.1. Table 9.1 Turboelectric Propulsion Plant ( TEGU ) Basic Characteristics Ship Name Plant Output...generators for GEU: nonsalient-pole machinery in turboelectric propulsion plants ( TEGU ) and salient-pole in diesel electric propulsion plants. Primary

  17. Theory for Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    2009-11-01

    Electrical propulsion of rockets is developing potentially into the use of 3 different thrusters for future long-distance space missions that primarily involve plasma dynamics. These are the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster, the Plasma Induction Thruster (PID), and the VASIMIR Thruster. The history of the development of electrical propulsion into these prospects and the current research of particularly the VASIMIR Thruster are reviewed. Theoretical questions that need to be addressed in that development are explored.

  18. Propulsion Induced Effects Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark; Bencze, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane and design variations through computational analysis and experimental subsonic through supersonic wind tunnel testing. The Milestone will generate a comprehensive CFD and wind tunnel data base of the baseline, and design variations. Emphasis will be placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the Technology Concept Airplane with all appropriate wind tunnel corrections.

  19. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-23

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  20. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  1. Detonation Propulsion - A Navy Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Session 2 Detonation Propulsion -A Navy Perspective Gabriel Roy Office of Naval Research Global 46 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Office of Naval Research Global 8...ADA593185 2013 International Workshop for Detonations in Propulsion (IWDP 2013) Held in Tainan, Taiwan on July 26-28, 2013. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT

  2. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  3. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph shows a fully assembled solar thermal engine placed inside the vacuum chamber at the test facility prior to testing. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move theNation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  4. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  5. Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis X.; Melcher, Cory; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For over eighty years, it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.

  6. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R.

    1980-07-29

    An aircraft pollution reducing propulsion airfoil system comprising a wing having upper and lower surfaces comprising wing skin plates extending longitudinally on the wing and being spaced one from another in chordwise directions, spars extending into the wing between the surfaces, stringer ducts extending along internal sides of the wing surfaces, the stringers having relatively rigid surface-supporting structure and having outward directed openings extending across the wing surfaces, interrupting the wing surfaces between edges of the wing skin plates, the ducts thereby forming stringer structural elements supporting the wing skin plates, the outward directed openings of the stringer ducts being arranged perpendicularly to the wing surfaces in a leading portion of the wing and tangential to the wing surfaces in a trailing portion of the wing surfaces, suction means connected to the stringer ducts with perpendicular opening for drawing gas into the ducts through those openings and blowing means connected to the ducts with tangential openings for flowing gas out of the tangential openings, combustion means connected to the suction means and to the blowing meanas for accelerating gas through the means.

  7. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  8. Aero-thermal analysis of lifting body configurations in hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-09-01

    The aero-thermal analysis of a hypersonic vehicle is of fundamental interest for designing its thermal protection system. The aero-thermal environment predictions over several critical regions of the hypothesized lifting body vehicle, including the stagnation region of the nose-cap, cylindrically swept leading edges, fuselage-upper, and fuselage-lower surfaces, are discussed. The drag (Λ=70°) and temperature (Λ=80°) minimized sweepback angles are considered in the configuration design of the two hypothesized lifting body shape hypersonic vehicles. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the aero-thermal characteristics of these two lifting body configurations at same heat capacity. Accordingly, a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation has been carried out at Mach number (M∞=7), H=35 km altitude with zero Angle of Attack. Finally, the material selection for thermal protection system based on these predictions and current methodology is described.

  9. SFC Optimization for Aero Engine Based on Hybrid GA-SQP Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on on-line specific fuel consumption (SFC) optimization of aero engines. For solving this optimization problem, a nonlinear pneumatic and thermodynamics model of the aero engine is built and a hybrid optimization technique which is formed by combining the genetic algorithm (GA) and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is presented. The ability of standard GA and standard SQP in solving this type of problem is investigated. It has been found that, although the SQP is fast, very little SFC reductions can be obtained. The GA is able to solve the problem well but a lot of computational time is needed. The presented hybrid GA-SQP gives a good SFC optimization effect and saves 76.6% computational time when compared to the standard GA. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-SQP is a more effective and higher real-time method for SFC on-line optimization of the aero engine.

  10. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  11. AeroMACS C-Band Interference Modeling and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A new C-band (5091-5150 MHz) airport communications system designated as Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being planned under the Federal Aviation Administration s NextGen program. It is necessary to establish practical limits on AeroMACS transmission power from airports so that the threshold of interference into the Mobile Satellite Service (Globalstar) feeder uplinks is not exceeded. To help provide guidelines for these limits, interference models have been created with the commercial software Visualyse Professional. In this presentation, simulation results were shown for the aggregate interference power at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at each of up to 757 airports in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the surrounding area. Both omni-directional and sectoral antenna configurations were modeled. Effects of antenna height, beamwidth, and tilt were presented.

  12. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  13. Propulsion Technology Needs for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of currently planned exploration efforts, as well as those further in the future, require significant advancements in propulsion technologies. The current Lunar exploration architecture has set goals and mission objectives that necessitate the use of new systems and the extension of existing technologies beyond present applications. In the near term, the majority of these technologies are the result of a need to apply high performing cryogenic propulsion systems to long duration in-space applications. Advancement of cryogenic propulsion to these applications is crucial to provide higher performing propulsion systems that reduce the vehicle masses; enhance the safety of vehicle systems and ground operations; and provide a path for In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU).Use of a LOX/LH2 main propulsion system for Lunar Lander Descent is a top priority because more conventional storable propellants are far from meeting the performance needs of the current architecture. While LOX/LH2 pump feed engines have been used in flight applications for many years, these engines have limited throttle capabilities. Engines that are capable of much greater throttling while still meeting high performance goals are a necessity to achieving exploration goals. Applications of LOX/CH4 propulsion to Lander ascent propulsion systems and reaction control systems are also if interest because of desirable performance and operations improvements over conventional storable systems while being more suitable for use of in-situ produced propellants. Within the current lunar architecture, use of cryogenic propulsion for the Earth Departure Stage and Lunar Lander elements also necessitate the need for advanced Cryogenic Fluid Management technologies. These technologies include long duration propellant storage/distribution, low-gravity propellant management, cryogenic couplings and disconnects, light weight composite tanks and support structure, and subsystem integration. In addition to

  14. On Proper Selection of Multihop Relays for Future Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2015-01-01

    As the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed communications network over major US airports, it is now time to contemplate whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS is sufficient to meet the demands set forth by all fixed and mobile applications over the airport surface given the AeroMACS constraints regarding bandwidth and transmit power. The underlying idea in this article is to present IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX as a technology that can address future capacity enhancements and therefore is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements and virtually no rise in interference levels to co-allocated applications. The IEEE 802.16j-based multihop relay systems are briefly described. The focus is on key features of this technology, frame structure, and its architecture. Next, AeroMACS is described as a WiMAX-based wireless network. The two major relay modes supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment, i.e., transparent and non-transparent are described. The benefits of employing multihop relays are listed. Some key challenges related to incorporating relays into AeroMACS networks are discussed. The selection of relay type in a broadband wireless network affects a number of network parameters such as latency, signal overhead, PHY (Scalable Physical Layer) and MAC (Media Access Layer) layer protocols, consequently it can alter key network quantities of throughput and QoS (Quality of Service).

  15. NASA Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy; Adams, Charles

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program has developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an areal density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. The first system, developed by ATK Space Systems of Goleta, California, uses rigid booms to deploy and stabilize the sail. In the second approach, L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, California uses inflatable booms that rigidize in the coldness of space to accomplish sail deployment. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In a separate effort, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. Preceding and in conjunction with these technology efforts, NASA sponsored several mission application studies for solar sails. Potential missions include those that would be flown in the near term to study the sun and be used in space weather prediction to one that would use an evolved sail capability to support humanity's first mission into nearby interstellar space. This paper will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within

  16. High Energy Density Matter for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrick, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) program is to identify, develop, and exploit high energy atomic and molecular systems as energetic sources for rocket propulsion applications. It is a high risk, high payoff program that incorporates both basic and applied research, experimental and theoretical efforts, and science and engineering efforts. The HEDM program is co-sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and the Phillips Laboratory (PURKS). It includes both in-house and contracted University/Industry efforts. Technology developed by the HEDM program offers the opportunity for significant breakthroughs in propulsion system capabilities over the current state-of-the-art. One area of great interest is the use of cryogenic solids to increase the density of the propellant and to act as a stable matrix for storage of energetic materials. No cryogenic solid propellant has ever been used in a rocket, and there remain engineering challenges to such a propellant. However, these solids would enable a wide class of highly energetic materials by providing an environment that is at very low temperatures and is a physical barrier to recombination or energy loss reactions. Previous to our experiments only hydrogen atoms had been isolated in solid hydrogen. To date we have succeeded in trapping B, Al, Li, N, and Mg atoms in solid H2. Small molecules, such as B2 and LiB, are also of interest. Current efforts involve the search for new energetic small molecules, increasing free radical concentrations up to 5 mole percent, and scale-up for propulsion testing.

  17. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2004 and 2005 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen; Pastor, Christine M.; Gonsalez, Jose C.; Curry, Monroe R., III

    2010-01-01

    A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel was completed in 2004 following the replacement of the inlet guide vanes upstream of the tunnel drive system and improvement to the facility total temperature instrumentation. This calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT. The 2004 test was also the first to use the 2-D RTD array, an improved total temperature calibration measurement platform.

  18. Megawatt Electromagnetic Plasma Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James; Lapointe, Michael; Mikellides, Pavlos

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center program in megawatt level electric propulsion is centered on electromagnetic acceleration of quasi-neutral plasmas. Specific concepts currently being examined are the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). In the case of the MPD thruster, a multifaceted approach of experiments, computational modeling, and systems-level models of self field MPD thrusters is underway. The MPD thruster experimental research consists of a 1-10 MWe, 2 ms pulse-forming-network, a vacuum chamber with two 32 diffusion pumps, and voltage, current, mass flow rate, and thrust stand diagnostics. Current focus is on obtaining repeatable thrust measurements of a Princeton Benchmark type self field thruster operating at 0.5-1 gls of argon. Operation with hydrogen is the ultimate goal to realize the increased efficiency anticipated using the lighter gas. Computational modeling is done using the MACH2 MHD code, which can include real gas effects for propellants of interest to MPD operation. The MACH2 code has been benchmarked against other MPD thruster data, and has been used to create a point design for a 3000 second specific impulse (Isp) MPD thruster. This design is awaiting testing in the experimental facility. For the PIT, a computational investigation using MACH2 has been initiated, with experiments awaiting further funding. Although the calculated results have been found to be sensitive to the initial ionization assumptions, recent results have agreed well with experimental data. Finally, a systems level self-field MPD thruster model has been developed that allows for a mission planner or system designer to input Isp and power level into the model equations and obtain values for efficiency, mass flow rate, and input current and voltage. This model emphasizes algebraic simplicity to allow its incorporation into larger trajectory or system optimization codes. The systems level approach will be extended to the pulsed inductive

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  1. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars

  2. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  3. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schwenterly, WIlliam; Hitt, Michael; Lepore, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (V ASIMR) for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft and has the potential to open the entire solar system to human exploration. One feature of this propulsion technology is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode that maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode that maximizes thrust. Variation of specific impulse and thrust enhances the ability to optimize interplanetary trajectories and results in shorter trip times and lower propellant requirements than with a fixed specific impulse. In its ultimate application for interplanetary travel, the VASIMR would be a multi-megawatt device. A much lower power system is being designed for demonstration in the 2004 timeframe. This first space demonstration would employ a lO-kilowatt thruster aboard a solar powered spacecraft in Earth orbit. The 1O-kilowatt V ASIMR demonstration unit would operate for a period of several months with hydrogen or deuterium propellant with a specific impulse of 10,000 seconds.

  4. Propulsion Health Monitoring for Enhanced Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, Mark G.; Rodriguez, Hector M.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the NASA contract Propulsion System Health Management for Enhanced Safety performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GE AE), General Electric Global Research (GE GR), and Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory (PSU ARL) under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This activity supports the overall goal of enhanced civil aviation safety through a reduction in the occurrence of safety-significant propulsion system malfunctions. Specific objectives are to develop and demonstrate vibration diagnostics techniques for the on-line detection of turbine rotor disk cracks, and model-based fault tolerant control techniques for the prevention and mitigation of in-flight engine shutdown, surge/stall, and flameout events. The disk crack detection work was performed by GE GR which focused on a radial-mode vibration monitoring technique, and PSU ARL which focused on a torsional-mode vibration monitoring technique. GE AE performed the Model-Based Fault Tolerant Control work which focused on the development of analytical techniques for detecting, isolating, and accommodating gas-path faults.

  5. Hypersonic propulsion - Breaking the thermal barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The challenges of hypersonic propulsion impose unique features on the hypersonic vehicle - from large volume requirements to contain cryogenic fuel to airframe-integrated propulsion required to process sufficient quantities of air. Additional challenges exist in the design of the propulsion module that must be capable of efficiently processing air at very high enthalpies, adding and mixing fuel at supersonic speeds and expanding the exhaust products to generate thrust greater than drag. The paper explores the unique challenges of the integrated hypersonic propulsion system, addresses propulsion cycle selection to cope with the severe thermal environment and reviews the direction of propulsion research at hypervelocity speeds.

  6. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  7. Space propulsion: The antimatter advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, A.; Edwards, C.; Kane, A.; Pandipati, S. )

    1993-11-01

    With each century come new and exciting technologies, but perhaps the most challenging innovations have occurred in the modern era as a result of man's quest to explore the universe. While enormous advancements have occurred during the space age, there still remain significant obstacles in deep space exploration. A practical challenge to exploration is the development of a type of propulsion suitable for deep space endeavors. The development of such a propulsion system would greatly facilitate space research, while providing additional opportunities for other classes of exploration not yet defined. Based upon current research, there exist several possibilities for future propulsion techniques. Some of the most promising research has dealt with antimatter and its usefulness in energy production. The potential of antimatter as an efficient and renewable energy source exists, yet important practical and scientific concerns must be overcome to make this technology feasible. For deep space exploration to be successful, more advanced and powerful propulsion systems need to be devised. Current rocket technology is inadequate to meet these future needs. The authors predict that antimatter propulsion will emerge as the new standard for space exploration. At least the beginnings of this new technology are expected within the next twenty years.

  8. LISA Propulsion Module Separation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each spacecraft is delivered to it operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently baselined for the sciencecraft are micronewton level thrusters, such as FEEP or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30-40 microN of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the spacecraft. Due to these thrusters limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a design study of the propulsion module separation system that is shown to safely deliver the LISA sciencecraft to its final operational orbit.

  9. System Analysis and Performance Benefits of an Optimized Rotorcraft Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The propulsion system of rotorcraft vehicles is the most critical system to the vehicle in terms of safety and performance. The propulsion system must provide both vertical lift and forward flight propulsion during the entire mission. Whereas propulsion is a critical element for all flight vehicles, it is particularly critical for rotorcraft due to their limited safe, un-powered landing capability. This unparalleled reliability requirement has led rotorcraft power plants down a certain evolutionary path in which the system looks and performs quite similarly to those of the 1960 s. By and large the advancements in rotorcraft propulsion have come in terms of safety and reliability and not in terms of performance. The concept of the optimized propulsion system is a means by which both reliability and performance can be improved for rotorcraft vehicles. The optimized rotorcraft propulsion system which couples an oil-free turboshaft engine to a highly loaded gearbox that provides axial load support for the power turbine can be designed with current laboratory proven technology. Such a system can provide up to 60% weight reduction of the propulsion system of rotorcraft vehicles. Several technical challenges are apparent at the conceptual design level and should be addressed with current research.

  10. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the

  11. Sound Transmission through Ducts and Aircraft Noise Prediction. Volume I. Technical Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED DTIC EECTE WRIGHT-PATTERSONN AI FOC BAS,8HI AERO PROPULSION LABORATORY AIR FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABORATORIES ...DATE Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory (POTC) January 1982 AF Wright Aeronautical Laboratories , AFSC 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Wright-Patterson AFB, OH...Entered) Unclassified SECUF4ITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(When Date Entered) ABSTRACT (continued) - oermitted the prediction of sound prooagation in

  12. NASA Hypersonic Propulsion: Overview of Progress from 1995 to 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikanek, Harry A., III; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Klem, Mark D.; Rausch, Vince L.

    2007-01-01

    conceptually defined, fewer designed and some built and one flown to demonstrate several technical advancements including propulsion. The X-43 flights were a culmination of these efforts for airbreathing propulsion. During the course of that period, there was a balance of funding and emphasis toward rocket propulsion but still very substantial airbreathing propulsion effort. The broad objectives of these programs were to both advance and test the state of the art so as to provide a basis for options to be pursued for broad space transportation needs, most importantly focused on crew carrying capability. NASA cooperated with the Department of Defense in planning and implementation of these programs to make efficient use of objectives and capabilities where appropriate. Much of the work was conducted in industry and academia as well as Government laboratories. Many test articles and data-bases now exist as a result of this work. At the conclusion of the period, the body of work made it clear that continued research and technology development was warranted, because although not ready for a NASA system development decision, results continued to support the promise of air-breathing propulsion for access to space.

  13. Advanced Plasma Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    measurements were carried out on an existing laboratory Hall thruster. In this Hall thruster, we expected MHz-level azimuthally propagating waves associated...did not permit similar measurements on the DCF. The measurements obtained on the SCF-T are summarized later in this report. ST5 Kinetic Simulations ...from a simulated cathode. Electron collisions were not included in the simulations carried out so far, although the effect of secondary ionization on

  14. An Overview of Electric Propulsion Activities at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John W., Jr.; Hamley, John A.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of NASA s activities in the area of electric propulsion with an emphasis on project directions, recent progress, and a view of future project directions. The goals of the electric propulsion programs are to develop key technologies to enable new and ambitious science missions and to transfer these technologies to industry. Activities include the development of gridded ion thruster technology, Hall thruster technology, pulsed plasma thruster technology, and very high power electric propulsion technology, as well as systems technology that supports practical implementation of these advanced concepts. The performance of clusters of ion and Hall thrusters is being revisited. Mission analyses, based on science requirements and preliminary mission specifications, guide the technology projects and introduce mission planners to new capabilities. Significant in-house activity, with strong industrial/academia participation via contracts and grants, is maintained to address these development efforts. NASA has initiated a program covering nuclear powered spacecraft that includes both reactor and radioisotope power sources. This has provided an impetus to investigate higher power and higher specific impulse thruster systems. NASA continues to work closely with both supplier and user communities to maximize the understanding and acceptance of new technology in a timely and cost-effective manner. NASA s electric propulsion efforts are closely coordinated with Department of Defense and other national programs to assure the most effective use of available resources. Several NASA Centers are actively involved in these electric propulsion activities, including, the Glenn Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Nuclear thermal propulsion workshop overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is planning an Exploration Technology Program as part of the Space Exploration Initiative to return U.S. astronauts to the moon, conduct intensive robotic exploration of the moon and Mars, and to conduct a piloted mission to Mars by 2019. Nuclear Propulsion is one of the key technology thrust for the human mission to Mars. The workshop addresses NTP (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) technologies with purpose to: assess the state-of-the-art of nuclear propulsion concepts; assess the potential benefits of the concepts for the mission to Mars; identify critical, enabling technologies; lay-out (first order) technology development plans including facility requirements; and estimate the cost of developing these technologies to flight-ready status. The output from the workshop will serve as a data base for nuclear propulsion project planning.

  16. Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

    2007-01-01

    The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

  17. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  18. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1996-01-01

    In 1996, a team of government, university and industry researchers proposed a program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that can approach and, if possible, circumvent light speed, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Because the breakthrough goals are beyond existing science, a main emphasis of this program is to establish metrics and ground rules to produce near-term credible progress toward these incredible possibilities. An introduction to the emerging scientific possibilities from which such solutions can be sought is also presented.

  19. Conceptual study of space plane powered by hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maita, Masataka; Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Tatsuo; Mori, Takashige

    1990-10-01

    The paper describes the investigations of aerospace plane concept, conducted by the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) of Japan, with particular attention given to a concept which integrates a scram/liquid air cycle engine (LACE) hypersonic propulsion system fueling with slush hydrogen. The key requirements in achieving the space plane using scram/LACE propulsion system are described along with the mission requirements and the vehicle characteristics. Typical outputs of SSTO analysis are presented.

  20. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  1. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  2. Electric propulsion - A high energy capability for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of spacecraft electric (ion thruster) propulsion are briefly reviewed. Attention is given to the inner and outer planet applications of electric (and solar electric) propulsion. Electric propulsion is considered as a stepping stone to nuclear electric propulsion.

  3. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One advantageous feature of this rocket concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode which maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode which maximizes thrust. This presentation will describe a proposed flight experiment in which a simple version of the rocket will be tested in space. In addition to the plasma rocket, the flight experiment will also demonstrate the use of a superconducting electromagnet, extensive use of heat pipes, and possibly the transfer of cryogenic propellant in space.

  4. Rocket propulsion research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.

    1992-01-01

    A small contingent of engineers at NASA LeRC pioneered the basic research on liquid propellants for rockets shortly after World War 2. Carried on through the 1950s, this work influenced the important early decisions made by Abe Silverstein when he took charge of the Office of Space Flight Programs for NASA. He strongly supported the development of liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel in the face of resistance from Wernher von Braun. Members of the LeRC staff played an important role in bringing liquid hydrogen technology to the point of reliability through their management of the Centaur Program. This paper demonstrates how the personality and engineering intuition of Abe Silverstein shaped the Centaur program and left a lasting imprint on the laboratory research tradition. Many of the current leaders of LeRC received their first hands-on engineering experience when they worked on the Centaur program in the 1960s.

  5. Rocket Propulsion Research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.

    1992-01-01

    A small contingent of engineers at NASA Lewis Research Center pioneered in basic research on liquid propellants for rockets shortly after World War II. Carried on through the 1950s, this work influenced the important early decisions made by Abe Silverstein when he took charge of the Office of Space Flight Programs for NASA. He strongly supported the development of liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel in the face of resistance from Wernher von Braun. Members of the Lewis staff played an important role in bringing liquid hydrogen technology to the point of reliability through their management of the Centaur Program. This paper demonstrates how the personality and engineering intuition of Abe Silverstein shaped the Centaur program and left a lasting imprint on the laboratory research tradition. Many of the current leaders of Lewis Research Center received their first hands-on engineering experience when they worked on the Centaur program in the 1960s.

  6. AFOSR Contractors Meeting on Propulsion, 15-19 Jun 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-07

    Propulsion 3 S M Correa , General Electric Corporate Research and Development 1 I I THURSDAY. 18 JUNE 1992 Session Topic:Diagnostics Chairman:G S Roy...HIGHLY STRAINED NON-PREMIXED FLAMES AFOSR Contract No. F-49620-91-C-0072 Principal Investigator: Sanjay M. Correa General Electric Research Center...Inc, Wasatch Menlo Park CA 94025 Box 524 I (415)859-4449 Brigham City UT 84302 (801)863-2980 Dr Greg Berry Dr Oscar Biblarz Argonne National Laboratory

  7. Antimatter Propulsion Developed by NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie shows possible forms of an antimatter propulsion system being developed by NASA. Antimatter annihilation offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. It is about 10 billion times more powerful than that of chemical energy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion. Antimatter would be the perfect rocket fuel, but the problem is that the basic component of antimatter, antiprotons, doesn't exist in nature and has to manufactured. The process of antimatter development is ongoing and making some strides, but production of this as a propulsion system is far into the future.

  8. Workshop on Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David; Marvin, Dean

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the discussion at the workshop on solar electric propulsion (SEP) is presented. The purpose of ELITE SEP flight experiment is to demonstrate operation of solar array powered electric thrusters for raising spacecraft from parking orbit to higher altitudes, leading to definition of an operational SEP orbit transfer vehicles (OTV) for Air Force missions. Many of the problems or potential problems that may be associated with SEP are not well understood nor clearly identified, and system level phenomena such as interaction of thruster plume with the solar arrays cannot be simulated in a ground test. Therefore, an end-to-end system flight test is required to demonstrate solar electric propulsion.

  9. Nuclear Propulsion Project Workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.; Clark, John S.; Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the planning and coordination of a joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Project which will investigate both nuclear electric and nuclear thermal concepts. The three-agency team has been tasked with the development of an Interagency Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding, as well as the drafting of a statement as to astronaut crew guidelines and values, the assessment of human-rating requirements, the development of an interagency safety and environmental assessment plan, and the development of test facility requirements. Attention is to be given to the role of SP-100 for nuclear-electric propulsion applications.

  10. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  11. Propulsion on a superhydrophobic ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrianne, Philippe; Dupeux, Guillaume; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2013-11-01

    As shown by Linke in 2006, an evaporating Leidenfrost drop self-propels on a hot ratchet. Indeed, the vapour flow below the drop can be rectified by the asymmetric teeth of the ratchet and, therefore, entrain the levitating drop by viscosity. This motion is usually observed above the Leidenfrost temperature. We show how the use of a super-hydrophobic ratchet allows us to extend self-propulsion down to the boiling point of water, and even below. We discuss a possible explanation for this ``cold regime'' of propulsion.

  12. Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    s T*S IFI /G i’ u A "m = - ILI l ~2 U0k.. ’~la BASIC PROCESSES OF PLASMA PROPULSION Herbert 0. Schrade Institut fir Raumfahrtsysteme Universitat...discharge channel with respect to a small disturbance. IZ4 q, , L No cl W) 03Cii >i 04 -9- Depending on the amouunt of e given in eqs. (la) and (Ib) and...available at the University of Stuttgart about a year ago. H. 0. Schrade, M. Auweter-Kurtz and H. L . Kurtz, "Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion

  13. 77 FR 30371 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all International Aero Engines AG (IAE) V2500-A1, V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, and certain serial numbers (S/Ns) of IAE...

  14. 78 FR 22168 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain International Aero Engines AG (IAE), V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, with a certain No. 4 bearing internal scavenge tube and...

  15. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  16. 78 FR 69600 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Industries S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for certain Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes. This proposed AD results from... p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in...

  17. 75 FR 5690 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P- 180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains the NPRM...: 2010-03-04 PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A.: Amendment 39-16187; Docket No. FAA-2009-1081;...

  18. 76 FR 27872 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model P-180 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model P- 180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ] ACTION: Final... known U.S. owners and operators of PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A (Piaggio) Model PIAGGIO P-180 airplanes... fuselage on a number of Piaggio Model P.180 aeroplanes, which resulted in jamming of the flight...

  19. Swept Blade Aero-Elastic Model for a Small Wind Turbine (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.; Lee, S.; Larwood, S.

    2014-07-01

    A preprocessor for analyzing preswept wind turbines using the in-house aero-elastic tool coupled with a multibody dynamic simulator was developed. A baseline 10-kW small wind turbine with straight blades and various configurations that featured bend-torsion coupling via blade-tip sweep were investigated to study their impact on ultimate loads and fatigue damage equivalent loads.

  20. Application of Multihop Relay for Performance Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A new transmission technology, based on IEEE 802.16-2009 (WiMAX), is currently being developed for airport surface communications. A C-band spectrum allocation at 5091 to 5150 MHz has been created by International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to carry this application. The proposed technology, known as AeroMACS, will be used to support fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. This article proposes and demonstrates that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. This amendment introduces multihop relay as an optional deployment that may be used to provide additional coverage and/or enhance the capacity of the network. Particular airport surface radio coverage situations for which IEEE 802.16-2009-WiMAX provides resolutions that are inefficient, costly, or excessively power consuming are discussed. In all these cases, it is argued that 16j technology offers a much better alternative. A major concern about deployment of AeroMACS is interference to co-allocated applications such as the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder link. Our initial simulation results suggest that no additional interference to MSS feeder link is caused by deployment of IEEE 802.16j-based AeroMACS.

  1. 78 FR 56589 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model P-180 airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information...., Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piaggio Aero Industries...

  2. 78 FR 1776 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aero Engines AG (IAE), V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, with a certain number (No.) 4 bearing... prompted by a report of an engine under-cowl fire and commanded in-flight shutdown. This proposed AD...

  3. 76 FR 82202 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... International Aero Engines AG (IAE) V2500-A1, V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, and certain serial numbers... engines. The existing AD currently requires initial and repetitive on-wing ultrasonic inspections...

  4. Common Aero Vehicle Autonomous Reentry Trajectory Optimization Satisfying Waypoint and No-Fly Zone Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    used to converge to the optimal solution. This numerical approach is applied to the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) as the test platform for the full three...6 EAGLE Evolved Acceleration Guidance Logic for Entry . . . . . . 10 POSTII Program To Optimize Simulated Trajectories II...11 LQR linear quadratic regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 MILP Mixed- Integer Linear Programming

  5. OC3 -- Benchmark Exercise of Aero-Elastic Offshore Wind Turbine Codes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Passon, P.; Kuhn, M.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Camp, T.; Larsen, T. J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper introduces the work content and status of the first international investigation and verification of aero-elastic codes for offshore wind turbines as performed by the "Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration" (OC3) within the "IEA Wind Annex XXIII -- Subtask 2".

  6. Computational methods to compute wavefront error due to aero-optic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genberg, Victor; Michels, Gregory; Doyle, Keith; Bury, Mark; Sebastian, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Aero-optic effects can have deleterious effects on high performance airborne optical sensors that must view through turbulent flow fields created by the aerodynamic effects of windows and domes. Evaluating aero-optic effects early in the program during the design stages allows mitigation strategies and optical system design trades to be performed to optimize system performance. This necessitates a computationally efficient means to evaluate the impact of aero-optic effects such that the resulting dynamic pointing errors and wavefront distortions due to the spatially and temporally varying flow field can be minimized or corrected. To this end, an aero-optic analysis capability was developed within the commercial software SigFit that couples CFD results with optical design tools. SigFit reads the CFD generated density profile using the CGNS file format. OPD maps are then created by converting the three-dimensional density field into an index of refraction field and then integrating along specified paths to compute OPD errors across the optical field. The OPD maps may be evaluated directly against system requirements or imported into commercial optical design software including Zemax® and Code V® for a more detailed assessment of the impact on optical performance from which design trades may be performed.

  7. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... avail itself of the services provided by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) (http://www.sti.nasa.gov) for the conduct of research or research and development required under this contract. CASI provides a variety of services and products as a NASA repository and database of...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... avail itself of the services provided by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) (http://www.sti.nasa.gov) for the conduct of research or research and development required under this contract. CASI provides a variety of services and products as a NASA repository and database of...

  9. AERO: A Decision Support Tool for Wind Erosion Assessment in Rangelands and Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloza, M.; Webb, N.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind erosion is a key driver of global land degradation, with on- and off-site impacts on agricultural production, air quality, ecosystem services and climate. Measuring rates of wind erosion and dust emission across land use and land cover types is important for quantifying the impacts and identifying and testing practical management options. This process can be assisted by the application of predictive models, which can be a powerful tool for land management agencies. The Aeolian EROsion (AERO) model, a wind erosion and dust emission model interface provides access by non-expert land managers to a sophisticated wind erosion decision-support tool. AERO incorporates land surface processes and sediment transport equations from existing wind erosion models and was designed for application with available national long-term monitoring datasets (e.g. USDI BLM Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring, USDA NRCS Natural Resources Inventory) and monitoring protocols. Ongoing AERO model calibration and validation are supported by geographically diverse data on wind erosion rates and land surface conditions collected by the new National Wind Erosion Research Network. Here we present the new AERO interface, describe parameterization of the underpinning wind erosion model, and provide a summary of the model applications across agricultural lands and rangelands in the United States.

  10. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  11. A Coupled-Adjoint Method for High-Fidelity Aero-Structural Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    geometry engine, and an efficient gradient-based optimization algorithm. The aero-structural solver ensures accurate solutions by using high-fidelity...22 2.3.1 Geometry Engine and Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3.2 Displacement Transfer...86 5-6 Airfoil geometry at the root. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5-7 Airfoil geometry at mid semi-span

  12. Application of Multihop Relay for Performance Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A new transmission technology, based on IEEE 802.16-2009 (WiMAX), is currently being developed for airport surface communications. A C-band spectrum allocation at 5091-5150 MHz has been created by ITU to carry this application. The proposed technology, known as AeroMACS, will be used to support fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. This article proposes and demonstrates that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. This amendment introduces multihop relay as an optional deployment that may be used to provide additional coverage and/or enhance the capacity of the network. Particular airport surface radio coverage situations for which IEEE 802.16-2009-WiMAX provides resolutions that are inefficient, costly, or excessively power consuming are discussed. In all these cases, it is argued that 16j technology offers a much better alternative. A major concern about deployment of AeroMACS is interference to co-allocated applications such as the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder link. Our initial simulation results suggest that no additional interference to MSS feeder link is caused by deployment of IEEE 802.16j-based AeroMACS.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of aero-optical distortion and turbulent structure in a heated boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxton-Fox, Theresa; McKeon, Beverley; Smith, Adam; Gordeyev, Stanislav

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between turbulent structures and the aero-optical distortion of a laser beam passing through a turbulent boundary layer. Previous studies by Smith et al. (AIAA, 2014--2491) have found a bulk convection velocity of 0 . 8U∞ for aero-optical distortion in turbulent boundary layers, motivating a comparison of the distortion with the outer boundary layer. In this study, a turbulent boundary layer is developed over a flat plate with a moderately-heated section of length 25 δ . Density variation in the thermal boundary layer leads to aero-optical distortion, which is measured with a Malley probe (Smith et al., AIAA, 2013--3133). Simultaneously, 2D PIV measurements are recorded in a wall-normal, streamwise plane centered on the Malley probe location. Experiments are run at Reθ = 2100 and at a Mach number of 0.03, with the heated wall 10 to 20°C above the free stream temperature. Correlations and conditional averages are carried out between Malley probe distortion angles and flow features in the PIV vector fields. Aero-optical distortion in this study will be compared to distortion in higher Mach number flows studied by Gordeyev et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2014), with the aim of extending conclusions into compressible flows. This research is made possible by the Department of Defense through the National Defense & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant # FA9550-12-1-0060.

  14. 77 FR 67764 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Aero Industries S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes. That AD currently requires replacement of any firewall... only affects those firewall shutoff valves referenced in the referenced service information. We are... determination of whether any firewall shutoff or crossfeed valve with a serial number in a certain range...

  15. Integrated Booster-Rocket Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Dickinson, William J.; Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Report summarizes study of conceptual integrated booster propulsion module for use in launching spacecraft. Substitution of integrated propulsion modules for multiple engines of present booster rockets intended to simplify ground operations and reduce costs.

  16. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Nontoxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for nontoxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of nontoxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of nontoxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of nontoxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that nontoxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  17. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Non-Toxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for non-toxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of non-toxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of non-toxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of non-toxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that non-toxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  18. Electrolysis Propulsion Provides High-Performance, Inexpensive, Clean Spacecraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolysis propulsion system consumes electrical energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are stored in separate tanks and used when needed in gaseous bipropellant thrusters for spacecraft propulsion. The propellant and combustion products are clean and nontoxic. As a result, costs associated with testing, handling, and launching can be an order of magnitude lower than for conventional propulsion systems, making electrolysis a cost-effective alternative to state-of-the-art systems. The electrical conversion efficiency is high (>85 percent), and maximum thrust-to-power ratios of 0.2 newtons per kilowatt (N/kW), a 370-sec specific impulse, can be obtained. A further advantage of the water rocket is its dual-mode potential. For relatively high thrust applications, the system can be used as a bipropellant engine. For low thrust levels and/or small impulse bit requirements, cold gas oxygen can be used alone. An added innovation is that the same hardware, with modest modifications, can be converted into an energy-storage and power-generation fuel cell, reducing the spacecraft power and propulsion system weight by an order of magnitude.

  19. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  20. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability