Science.gov

Sample records for aero seat passenger

  1. 76 FR 64795 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies Installed on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Passenger Seat Assemblies Installed on Various Transport Category Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... passenger seat assemblies, installed on various transport category airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... supplemental NPRM (76 FR 22830, April 25, 2011). Request to Remove Airplanes From the Proposed...

  2. 77 FR 24360 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not Limited to, ATR-GIE Avions de Transport R gional Airplanes... assemblies, installed on, but not limited to, ATR--GIE Avions de Transport R gional Model ATR42 and ATR72... assemblies in the applicability instead of Model 9405 series passenger seat assemblies. We are issuing...

  3. 76 FR 68304 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... unsafe condition as: Several occurrences of cracked central and lateral spreaders on passenger seats... spreaders, causing injury to passengers or crew members during heavy turbulence in flight or in the event of... specified products. The MCAI states: Several occurrences of cracked central and lateral spreaders...

  4. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  5. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  6. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  7. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  8. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  9. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  10. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  11. Aircraft seating comfort: the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Florian; Guenzkofer, Fabian; Sedlmeier, Claudia; Sabbah, Olaf; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important factors influencing aircraft seating comfort in economy class, is legroom. In an airline interior mock up, with the ability to adjust the seat pitch in a range of 28 inches to 43 inches, a study to investigate the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being was conducted. In a pre-study, aspects of subjective postural sensations and spatial perception were identified, and a questionnaire was developed. In the main study, 30 subjects rated at different seat pitch settings the spatial perception and the ability of adopting and changing sitting postures. As a result a functional relationship between overall well-being, the subjects' anthropometry and seat pitch was developed. Furthermore it was identified, that there is a maximum overall well-being at a seat pitch of 34 inches to 40 inches, depending on the passengers' anthropometry. A further enlargement of seat pitch, led to a reduction of well-being.

  12. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  13. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  14. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  15. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  16. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  17. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  18. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  19. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  20. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  1. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  2. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  3. Coach design for the Korean high-speed train: a systematic approach to passenger seat design and layout.

    PubMed

    Jung, E S; Han, S H; Jung, M; Choe, J

    1998-12-01

    Proper ergonomic design of a passenger seat and coach layout for a high-speed train is an essential component that is directly related to passenger comfort. In this research, a systematic approach to the design of passenger seats was described and the coach layout which reflected the tradeoff between transportation capacity and passenger comfort was investigated for the Korean high-speed train. As a result, design recommendations and specifications of the passenger seat and its layout were suggested. The whole design process is composed of four stages. A survey and analysis of design requirement was first conducted, which formed the base for designing the first and second class passenger seats. Prototypes were made and evaluated iteratively, and seat arrangement and coach layout were finally obtained. The systematic approach and recommendations suggested in this study are expected to be applicable to the seat design for public transportations and to help modify and redesign existing vehicular seats.

  4. The NASA Ames integral aircraft passenger seat concept - A human engineering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A new NASA Ames concept for an aircraft passenger seat has been under research and development since 1968. It includes many human-factor features that will provide protection to the passenger from vibration, jostle, and high impact. It is comfortable and safer than any of the seats presently in use. An in-depth design, fabrication, and impact analysis was conducted in order to design a seat that will maximize passenger protection in high g impacts (20 g horizontal -Gx, 36 g vertical +Gz, 16 g lateral Gy). The method for absorbing impact energy was accomplished with a combination of stretching stainless steel cables, thread breaking of stitches, hydraulic mechanism and the special Temper Form cushions. The restraint system for the seat consisted of a lap belt and shoulder harness inertia reel combination.

  5. Dynamic Model of Aircraft Passenger Seats for Vibration Comfort Evaluation and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šika, Z.; Valášek, Michael; Vampola, T.; Füllekrug, U.; Klimmek, T.

    The paper deals with the development of the seat dynamical model for vibration comfort evaluation and control. The aircraft seats have been tested extensively by vibrations on the 6 DOF vibrating platform. The importance of the careful comfort control together with the flight mechanics control is namely stressed for the blended wing body (BWB) aircrafts. They have a very large fuselage, where the mechanical properties (accelerations, angular accelerations) vary considerably for different seat places. The model have been improved by adding of dynamical models of the aircraft passenger seats identified by the measurements on the 6 DOF vibrating platform. The experiments, their results and the identification of the dynamical seat model are described. The model is further modified by adding of the comfort evaluation norms represented by dynamical filters. The structure and identification of the seat model is briefly described and discussed.

  6. Development of an energy-absorbing passenger seat for a transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial air transport passenger safety and survivability, in the event of an impact-survivable crash, are subjects receiving increased technical focus/study by the aviation community. A B-720 aircraft, highly instrumented, and remotely controlled from the ground by a pilot in a simulated cockpit, was crashed on a specially prepared gravel covered impact site. The aircraft was impacted under controlled conditions in an air-to-ground gear-up mode, at a nominal speed of 150 knots and 4-1/2 deg glide slope. Data from a number of on board, crash worthiness experiments provided valuable information related to structural loads/failure modes, antimisting kerosene fuel, passenger and attendant restraint systems and energy absorbing seats. The development of an energy absorbing (EA) seat accomplished through innovative modification of a typical modern standard commercial aviation transport, three passenger seat is described.

  7. Performance of Booster Seats in Side Impacts: Effect of Adjacent Passengers and Isofix Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Judith L.; Fildes, Brian; Taranto, David; Laemmle, Ronald; Smith, Stuart; Clark, Anthony; Holden, GM

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a booster seat in different seating configurations in side-impact hyGe sled tests (crash severity 30 km/h) with two attachment systems: a standard seatbelt and ISOfix (rigid). The objectives of the study were twofold: (i) to identify the relative benefits of ISOfix attachment compared with seatbelt attachment of a near-side booster seat in a 3-abreast seating configuration with adjacent occupants in child restraints (CRS); and (ii) to examine the effects of 3-abreast seating configurations compared with no adjacent passengers on booster seat crash protection characteristics. Overall, the findings confirmed the superior performance of the rigid anchorages in reducing lateral motion of the booster as well as the two adjacent CRS. However, the expected benefits of the rigid attachment in reducing head accelerations were not uniformly observed across the three occupants/seating positions and also appeared to be influenced by seating configuration (3-abreast versus no adjacent occupant). Further research is warranted to explore the applicability of the findings for different CRS types and seating configurations. PMID:18184490

  8. Booster seats for child passengers: lessons for increasing their use

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, F; Bennett, E; Crispin, B; Kruger, K; Ebel, B; Sarewitz, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To explore parental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to use of booster seats in cars for 4–8 year old children. Methods—Three focus groups conducted by a professional marketing firm. Results—Many parents were confused about the appropriate weight and age of children who should be in booster seats; most parents incorrectly identified the age at which it was safe to use a lap-shoulder belt. Legislation was viewed as a positive factor in encouraging use. Cost of seats was frequently cited as a barrier to ownership, as were child resistance, peer pressure from older children, the need to accommodate other children in the vehicle, and the belief that a lap belt was adequate. Messages from health care providers, emergency medical services, or law enforcement personnel were believed to be most effective. Conclusion—Campaigns to promote booster seat use should address issues of knowledge about appropriate age and size of the child, cost, inadequacy of lap belts, and resistance to use by the child. PMID:11565986

  9. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  10. Vibrations transmitted to human subjects through passenger seats and considerations of passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the vertical and lateral vibration-transmission characteristics of several types of transport vehicle seats (two aircraft and one bus) to obtain preliminary estimates and comparisons of the ride acceptability of the various seat types. Results of this investigation indicate that from the standpoint of human comfort the seats exhibit undesirable dynamic response characteristics. Amplification of floor vibrations occurred at the frequencies known to be most critical for human comfort in both vertical and lateral axes. An average transmissibility function for aircraft seats was tabulated together with the associated variability for use by designers who incorporate similar types of seats in their vehicles. The acceptability of vibrations resulting from floor inputs of 0.10g and 0.15g was low over a broad range of frequencies for both axes and all seat types, and was especially low at frequencies where the input was being amplified.

  11. Development of 2 underseat energy absorbers for application to crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrick, J. C.; Desjardins, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a program conducted to develop two underseat energy absorber (E/A) concepts for application to nonadjustable crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft. One concept utilizes an inflated air bag, and the other, a convoluted sheet metal bellows. Prototypes of both were designed, built, and tested. Both concepts demonstrated the necessary features of an energy absorber (load-limiter); however, the air bag concept is particularly encouraging because of its light weight. Several seat frame concepts also were investigated as a means of resisting longitudinal and lateral loads and of guiding the primary vertical stroke of the underseat energy absorber. Further development of a seat system design using the underseat energy absorbers is recommended because they provide greatly enhanced crash survivability as compared with existing general aviation aircraft seats.

  12. Fire resistivity and toxicity studies of candidate aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire resistivity studies were conducted on a wide range of candidate nonmetallic materials being considered for the construction of improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seats. These materials were evaluated on the basis of FAA airworthiness burn and smoke generation tests, colorfastness, limiting oxygen index, and animal toxicity tests. Physical, mechanical, and aesthetic properties were also assessed. Candidate seat materials that have significantly improved thermal response to various thermal loads corresponding to reasonable fire threats as they relate to in-flight fire situations, are identified.

  13. Fabrics for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesoro, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The essential elements of the problem and of approaches to improved fire resistance in aircraft seats are reviewed. The performance requirements and availability of materials, delay in the ignition of upholstery fabric by a small source are considered a realistic objective. Results of experimental studies on the thermal response of fabrics and fabric/foam combinations suggest significant conclusions regarding: (1) the ignition behavior of a commercial 90/10 wool/nylon upholstery fabric relative to fabrics made from thermally stable polymers; (2) the role of the foam backing; (3) the behavior of seams. These results, coupled with data from other sources, also confirm the importance of materials' interactions in multicomponent assemblies, and the need for system testing prior to materials' selection. The use of an interlinear or thermal barrier between upholstery fabric and foam is a promising and viable approach to improved fire resistance of the seat assembly, but experimental evaluation of specific combinations of materials or systems is an essential part of the selection process.

  14. Testing of aircraft passenger seat cushion materials. Full scale, test description and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Gaume, J. G.; Duskin, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different seat cushion configurations were subjected to full-scale burn tests. Each cushion configuration was tested twice for a total of sixteen tests. Two different fire sources were used. They consisted of one liter of Jet A fuel for eight tests and a radiant energy source with propane flame for eight tests. Both fire sources were ignited by a propane flame. During each test, data were recorded for smoke density, cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, animal response to combustion products, rate of weight loss of test specimens, cabin temperature, and for the type and content of gas within the cabin atmosphere. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advanced materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  15. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests.

    PubMed

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners.

  16. 75 FR 3144 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat 90xx and 92xx Series Passenger Seats, Installed on, But...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...) 2 54 03 39 39; fax +33 (0) 2 54 03 15 16; e-mail: customerservices@sicma.zodiac.com ; Internet http://www.sicma.zodiac.com/en/ . (3) You may review copies of the service information at the FAA,...

  17. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  18. Human factors in design of passenger seats for commercial aircraft: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaedel, S. F.; Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Seat comfort and safety research since the early part of the century is reviewed. The approach blends empirical and theoretical human factors and technical knowledge of seated humans under static and dynamic conditions experienced on commercial aircraft.

  19. Conference on the Development of Fire-Resistant Aircraft Passenger Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with the development of aircraft seats with the minimum fire risk. Criteria examined include: flame spread, heat release, and smoke and/or toxic fumes. Materials and performance specifications of all seat material options are provided.

  20. [The mechanism of injuring of front-seat passengers in head-on motor vehicle collisions: forensic issues].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Zivković, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Forensic pathologists sometimes need to determine seating positions of automobile occupants after road traffic accidents as accurately as possible. That could be of essential significance particularly in regard to the question of guilt both in the criminal and civil law. So far, medical surveys have implied the specific injury which would undoubtedly point at the allocation of the seating positions of fatally injured car occupant. Some of the injuries could occur by both direct and indirect force action. Same type of injury of the specific body region in both drivers and front seat passengers could occur by different mechanism and in different phases of the accident. Sometimes neither the order of injury occurrence remains unclear, nor whether some of the injuries are post-mortal. What makes it even harder is the fact that same body regions, i.e. head and thorax, are most affected in both drivers and front seat passengers, and that these injuries are often fatal. Even if the victim survives the accident for some time and later dies in hospital, the possibility of accident reconstruction and determination of car occupants seating position at the moment of accident declines with the time length of survival period. Examining the victims' clothes, searching for biological traces, technical expert inspection of the vehicle, traffic expert analysis of the site, enables adequate reconstruction of the traffic accident. All this implies that in such cases the knowledge of underlying mechanism of car occupants' injury is insufficient, and that a close cooperation between forensic pathologists and the team of other forensic technical experts is necessary.

  1. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  2. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  3. Ingress and egress motion strategies of elderly and young passengers for the rear seat of minivans with sliding doors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun-Ming; Tada, Mitsunori; Endo, Yui; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the motion strategies performed by elderly and young passengers while entering and exiting the rear seat of minivans with sliding doors. A minivan mock-up was constructed with four adjustable parameters to represent nine different conditions of vehicle geometry. Ten elderly male participants (66.8 ± 3.8 years old) and ten young male participants (31.5 ± 6.6 years old) were recruited. Each of them entered and exited the minivan mock-up for five times under each condition, and the motion data were acquired by the optical motion capture system. Based on the criteria derived from previous studies, all motions were automatically categorized into seven ingress motion strategies and seven egress motion strategies. Further, the differences among motion strategies are discussed in terms of vehicle factors and passenger factors, which provide clues for future studies.

  4. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Shook, W. H.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests are reported of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a source fire consisting of one and one-half pounds of newspaper in a tented configuration was developed. Finally, a preliminary seat specification was written based upon materials data and general seat design criteria.

  5. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  6. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  7. [Peculiarities of injuries to the extremities of the driver and the front-seat passenger in a head-on collision between cars].

    PubMed

    Shadymov, A B; Novoselov, A S

    2009-01-01

    The study included two stages. At the first one, it was experimentally established which segments of the upper and lower extremities of the driver and the front-seat passenger experience maximum traumatic stress at the moment offrontal collision between cars. At the second stage, results of forensic medical examination of the bodies of drivers and front-seat passengers who had died in motor-vehicle accidents were used to elucidate certain morphological features of the injured extremities and to clarify their possible mechanism.

  8. Testing of aircraft passenger seat cushion material, full scale. Data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Gaume, J. G.; Duskin, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    Burn characteristics of presently used and proposed seat cushion materials and types of constructions were determined. Eight different seat cushion configurations were subjected to full scale burn tests. Each cushion configuration was tested twice for a total of 16 tests. Two different fire sources were used: Jet A-fuel for eight tests, and a radiant energy source with propane flame for eight tests. Data were recorded for smoke density, cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, animal response to combustion products, rate of weight loss of test specimens, cabin temperature, and type and content of gas within the cabin. When compared to existing seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advanced materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance. Flammability comparison tests were conducted upon one fire blocking configuration and one polyimide configuration.

  9. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... using the seat cushion retention test. Those provisions make the language more consistent with that of a...., Washington, DC 20590. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background--October 21, 2008 Final Rule... greater than 16,000 lbs. are most often an integrated vehicle designed specifically for that...

  10. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lavatory a sign or placard that reads: “Federal law provides for a penalty of up to $2,000 for tampering..., no person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with passenger information signs that meet... signs must be constructed so that the crewmembers can turn them on and off. (b) Except as provided...

  11. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The procurement and testing of a wide range of candidate materials is reported. Improved fire resistant nonmetallic materials were subjected to tests to evaluate their thermal characteristics, such as burn, smoke generation, heat release rate and toxicity. In addition, candidate materials were evaluated for mechanical, physical and aesthetic properties. Other properties considered included safety, comfort, durability and maintainability. The fiscal year 1977 and the projected 1980 cost data were obtained for aircraft seat materials.

  12. Driver and front seat passenger fatalities associated with air bag deployment. Part 1: A Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Shkrum, Michael J; McClafferty, Kevin J; Nowak, Edwin S; German, Alan

    2002-09-01

    Real world motor vehicle collision research of injuries due to deployment of "first-generation" air bags has been conducted by Transport Canada since 1993. Fifty-three fatal crashes (36 frontal impacts; 17 side collisions) involving 48 drivers and 10 right front passengers were reviewed. In the Canadian data, air bag deployment in five of nine low severity frontal crashes (delta-V (deltaV) < 25 km/h or 15 mph) was linked to five deaths, four of whom were autopsied (four adults with craniocervical (basal skull and C2 fracture with brainstem avulsion; "closed head injury"--no autopsy) or chest trauma (aortic or pulmonary artery tears); one child with atlanto-occipital dislocation). An occupant who is close ("out-of-position") to the air bag at the time of deployment is at risk for injury. In 27 high severity frontal impacts, unusual (e.g., pulmonary "blast" hemorrhage in one autopsied case) or isolated potentially survivable injuries (e.g., clinically documented ruptured right atrium; probable flail chest observed during the autopsy on a decomposed body) localized to the head, neck or chest in three possibly out-of-position drivers pointed to the deployed air bag as a source of injury. In one of 17 side collisions an out-of-position driver sustained a radiographically confirmed C1-C2 dislocation in a minimally intruded vehicle.

  13. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  14. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  15. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  16. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  17. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85...

  18. Analysis of Seating and Restraint Limitations Restricting Total Body Weight for Aircrew and Passengers on U.S. Army Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    largest available flight suit (size 48L), SRU-21/P survival vest, and webbing restraints accommodate a 47-inch waist circumference . Aviation Life Support Equipment, Restraint, Aircrew, Helicopters, Aircraft seats, Survival vest

  19. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  20. 75 FR 1731 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat 9140, 9166, 9173, 9174, 9184, 9188, 9196, 91B7, 91B8...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: Cracks have been found on seat... certification dynamic tests and cannot be replaced by similar stronger links without performing again all dynamic tests for each seat part number. Failure of the backrest links could result in injury to...

  1. Applying basic principles of child passenger safety to improving transportation safety for children who travel while seated in wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Manary, Miriam A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2011-01-01

    Occupant restraint systems are designed based on knowledge of crash dynamics and the application of proven occupant-protection principles. For ambulatory children or children who use wheelchairs but can transfer out of their wheelchair when traveling in motor vehicles, there is a range of child safety seats that comply with federal safety standards and that therefore offer high levels of crash protection. For children who remain seated in wheelchairs for travel, the use of wheelchairs and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) that comply with voluntary industry standards significantly enhances safety. Revisions to the initial versions of these standards will further improve safety for smaller children who travel seated in wheelchairs by requiring wheelchairs for children between 13 and 22 kg (18 and 50 lb) to provide a five-point, wheelchair-integrated crash-tested harness similar to that used in forward-facing child safety seats. While wheelchair and tiedown/restraint manufacturers, van modifiers, transportation personnel, clinicians, and others involved with children who use wheelchairs have clearly defined responsibilities relative to providing these children with safe transportation, parents and caregivers should be knowledgeable about best-practice in wheelchair transportation safety and should use this knowledge to advocate for the safest transportation possible.

  2. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae.

  3. 14 CFR 125.183 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... position that obscures any passenger's view of the “seat belt” sign, “no smoking” sign, or any required... passenger compartment. (5) Its location does not obscure any passenger's view of the “seat belt” sign, “no... emergency landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is...

  4. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  5. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit.

  6. 14 CFR 125.183 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... airplane. (b) Cargo may be carried aft of the foremost seated passengers if it is carried in an approved... emergency landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is...

  7. 14 CFR 125.183 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... airplane. (b) Cargo may be carried aft of the foremost seated passengers if it is carried in an approved... emergency landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is...

  8. 14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... position that obscures any passenger's view of the “seat belt” sign “no smoking” sign, or any required exit... obscures any passenger's view of the “seat belt” sign, “no smoking” sign or placard, or any required exit... landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is...

  9. Seat Design for Crash Worthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Rosenberg, Edmund G

    1957-01-01

    A study of many crash deceleration records suggested a simplified model of a crash deceleration pulse, which incorporates the essential properties of the pulse. The model pulse is considered to be composed of a base pulse on which are superimposed one or more secondary pulses of shorter duration. The results of a mathematical analysis of the seat-passenger deceleration in response to the airplane deceleration pulse are provided. On the basis of this information, presented as working charts, the maximum deceleration loads experienced by the seat and passenger in response to the airplane deceleration pulse can be computed. This maximum seat-passenger deceleration is found to depend on the natural frequency of the seat containing the passenger, considered as a mass-spring system. A method is presented that shows how to arrive at a combination of seat strength, natural frequency, and ability to absorb energy in deformation beyond the elastic limit that will allow the seat to serve without failure during an airplane deceleration pulse taken as the design requirement.

  10. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her by... them when smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a...

  11. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her by... them when smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a...

  12. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  13. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  14. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  15. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  16. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  17. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission to... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  18. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission to... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  19. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission to... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  20. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission to... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  1. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission to... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  2. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “fasten seat belt” sign is lighted. (e) Each... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  3. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “fasten seat belt” sign is lighted. (e) Each... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  4. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  5. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  6. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  8. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  9. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  13. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  15. 78 FR 79074 - Technical Report Evaluating Seat Belt Pretensioners and Load Limiters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... seats of passenger cars and LTVs. The report's title is: Effectiveness of Pretensioners and Load... vehicles. By model year 2008, all new cars and LTVs sold in the United States were equipped with... without pretensioners and load limiters at those seats. In passenger cars, CUVs, and minivans, a...

  16. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... shall not release or fail when a forward longitudinal force, in newtons, equal to 20 times the mass...

  17. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a gross... of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... separated by: (A) A fixed trimmed surface whose top surface is unpadded and that has a width not less...

  18. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either letters... belts should be fastened must: (a) When illuminated, be legible to each person seated in the...

  19. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either letters... belts should be fastened must: (a) When illuminated, be legible to each person seated in the...

  20. Aero dopes and varnishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, H T S

    1927-01-01

    Before proceeding to discuss the preparation of dope solutions, it will be necessary to consider some of the essential properties which should be possessed of a dope film, deposited in and on the surface of an aero fabric. The first is that it should tighten the material and second it should withstand weathering.

  1. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  2. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    PubMed

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  3. Hospital-based rental programs to increase car seat usage.

    PubMed

    Colletti, R B

    1983-05-01

    The ability of hospital-based car seat rental programs to provide car seats inexpensively throughout an entire state and the effect of these rental programs on car seat usage by newborns were evaluated. In July 1979 individuals and groups committed to child passenger safety formed a coalition called Vermont SEAT (Seatbelts Eliminate Automobile Tragedies). During the next 3 years SEAT asked the major hospitals in the state to allow volunteers to operate car seat rental programs on their premises. The number of rental programs increased from 0 to 13; the percentage of newborns born in a hospital with a rental program increased from 0% to 99%. The estimated statewide rate of car seat usage by newborns, based on observations at discharge at five hospitals, increased from 15% to 70%. These findings suggest that a network of hospital-based car seat rental programs operated by volunteers can make car seats readily available throughout a state or region, and can significantly increase car seat usage by newborns. It is recommended that such programs be a part of comprehensive strategies to improve child passenger safety.

  4. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  5. Aero/structural tailoring of engine blades (AERO/STAEBL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the Aero/Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (AERO/STAEBL) program, which is a computer code used to perform engine fan and compressor blade aero/structural numerical optimizations. These optimizations seek a blade design of minimum operating cost that satisfies realistic blade design constraints. This report documents the overall program (i.e., input, optimization procedures, approximate analyses) and also provides a detailed description of the validation test cases.

  6. The use of seat belts on British motorways.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J P; Richardson, J M

    1994-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the advantages of seat belts in improving safety of road travel is overwhelming and has resulted in government legislation. This study was performed to investigate compliance with this legislation by fast-moving traffic on British motorways, for which no previous data exists. Analysis of seat belt use by 2564 travellers in 1526 cars in October 1992 revealed the following rates of use: drivers 98%; front passengers 96%; rear seat passengers with available belts 53%. The overall low rate of rear seat restraint use was seen in all age groups except babies. When the study was repeated 8 months later, the rates of restraint amongst 3910 travellers in 1881 cars had not increased. In view of the continuing heavy death toll on British motorways and roads, there is an obvious need for measures to improve rear seat belt use. This would be most appropriately achieved by both enforcing and publicizing the current legislation. PMID:8182674

  7. The use of seat belts on British motorways.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, J P; Richardson, J M

    1994-04-01

    Evidence demonstrating the advantages of seat belts in improving safety of road travel is overwhelming and has resulted in government legislation. This study was performed to investigate compliance with this legislation by fast-moving traffic on British motorways, for which no previous data exists. Analysis of seat belt use by 2564 travellers in 1526 cars in October 1992 revealed the following rates of use: drivers 98%; front passengers 96%; rear seat passengers with available belts 53%. The overall low rate of rear seat restraint use was seen in all age groups except babies. When the study was repeated 8 months later, the rates of restraint amongst 3910 travellers in 1881 cars had not increased. In view of the continuing heavy death toll on British motorways and roads, there is an obvious need for measures to improve rear seat belt use. This would be most appropriately achieved by both enforcing and publicizing the current legislation.

  8. Aero-optics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn D.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command (USASDC) has several ongoing and planned programs that utilize optical sensors aboard missiles traveling at hypersonic velocities in the atmosphere. Central to the missile homing problem are aero-optical effects upon a missile-borne sensor/seeker which looks through both an electromagnetic window and the flow field about the vehicle. Aspects of the problem include modeling and simulation of the flow field on incident radiation from a target, and finally, predicting the resultant image imperfections and error in apparent object position as perceived by the sensor.

  9. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  10. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  11. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  12. Child Passenger Safety in the Somali Communities of Columbus, Ohio.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Lara B; Fowler, Erica; Roberts, Kristin J; Kaercher, Roxanne M

    2017-04-01

    Children (particularly low-income minorities and refugees) are at high risk for serious injury or death from motor vehicle crashes. Interpreter-assisted data collection included key informant interviews, focus groups and face-to-face surveys with the Somali community of Columbus, Ohio about child passenger safety. Measurements included prevalence of child safety seats use, awareness and knowledge of and barriers to proper use in order to inform development, implementation, and initial evaluation of a culturally-appropriate intervention for Somali families. Somali parents regarded child passenger safety as an important topic, but many reported improper restraint behaviors of one or more children and/or did not have an adequate number of child safety seats. Few parents reported having child safety seats installed by a professional technician. Child passenger safety practices in the Somali communities of Columbus are a public health concern that should be addressed with culturally-appropriate interventions.

  13. Passenger ride quality in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Richards, L. G.; Conner, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships are presented which can be used to account for passenger ride quality in transport aircraft. These relations can be used to predict passenger comfort and satisfaction under a variety of flight conditions. Several applications are detailed, including evaluation of use of spoilers to attenuate trailing vortices, identifying key elements in a complex maneuver which leads to discomfort, determining noise/motion tradeoffs, evaluating changes in wing loading, and others. Variables included in the models presented are motion, noise, temperature, pressure, and seating.

  14. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  15. The effect of rear-seat overloading in a car crash: pathological and kinematics evidences.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Duccio; Sammicheli, Michele; Cortucci, Cristiano

    2013-09-01

    Seat belts have been shown to decrease the incidence of lethal lesions to the head, chest, and abdomen. Since the introduction of seat belts, it is reported that the incidence of traumatic lesions in these body parts is reduced. In the meantime, the characteristic lesions to the chest and abdomen caused by the use of seat belts are described (J Trauma. 2007;62(6):1473-1480).Reported is a peculiar case of an oblique front-to-rear car collision, in which overloading of the rear seat with packages pushed forward the passenger front seat in an abnormal way, causing fatal thoracic and abdominal lesions.The authors underline that the seat belt protection device is defeated if front seats are damaged by heavy unanchored bags on the rear seat or on the rear parcel shelf of a motor vehicle.

  16. [New aero-allergens].

    PubMed

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Hypersonic Interplanetary Flight: Aero Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Banks, Dan; Randolph, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The use of aero-gravity assist during hypersonic interplanetary flights is highlighted. Specifically, the use of large versus small planet for gravity asssist maneuvers, aero-gravity assist trajectories, launch opportunities and planetary waverider performance are addressed.

  18. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  19. Rear seat safer: seating position, restraint use and injuries in children in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Alexia; Siskind, Vic; Haworth, Narelle

    2008-03-01

    Car crashes are a major cause of death and serious injury to children but most analyses of risk are based on US data. The Australian context is different in at least three ways: (1) the proportion of passenger-side airbags, a potential risk to children in front seats, is much lower; (2) unlike in the US, Australian airbags are designed to work with restrained passengers; (3) restraint use for children 0-12 years is high (>90%). Official data drawn from Victorian crash records (n=30,631) were used to calculate relative risks of death or serious injury for children (0-3 years, 4-7 years; 8-12 years) traveling in passenger cars during 1993-1998 and 1999-2004. Over 90% were reportedly wearing a restraint, and 20% were traveling in the front seat. For children under 4 years traveling in the front seat, the relative risk of death was twice as great as when traveling in the rear, and that of serious injury was 60% greater. The relative risk of death whilst traveling in the front seat was almost four times greater for children aged under 1 year. We suggest that serious consideration should be given to mandating rear seating for children, particularly those aged 4 and under.

  20. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  1. Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing.

  2. 14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) or this section, no certificate holder may carry cargo in the passenger compartment of an airplane... landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is installed... bin. (3) The bin may not impose any load on the floor or other structure of the airplane that...

  3. 14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) or this section, no certificate holder may carry cargo in the passenger compartment of an airplane... landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is installed... bin. (3) The bin may not impose any load on the floor or other structure of the airplane that...

  4. Passenger well-being in airplanes.

    PubMed

    Hinninghofen, H; Enck, P

    2006-10-30

    Passenger well-being is influenced by cabin environmental conditions which interact with individual passenger characteristics like age and health conditions. Cabin environment is composed of different aspects, some of which have a direct influence on gastrointestinal functions and may directly generate nausea, such as cabin pressure, oxygen saturation, and motion or vibration. For example, it has been shown that available cabin pressure during normal flight altitude can significantly inhibit gastric emptying and induce dyspepsia-like symptoms when associated with a fibre-rich meal. Other aspects of the cabin environment such as space and variability of seating, air quality, and noise, also have been shown to modulate (reduce or increase) discomfort and nausea during flights. Individual passenger characteristics and health status also have been demonstrated to increase vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and discomfort.

  5. Evaluation of a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Pastò, L; Baker, A G

    2001-07-01

    The authors evaluated a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use among the front seat occupants of cars at a junior college, in a jurisdiction with a mandatory belt use law. The intervention included public posting of performance feedback and distribution of an informational flyer to cars in target parking lot. Feedback was the display of the proportion of drivers observed wearing seat belts on the previous observation day. Seat belt use among drivers increased from 64% during the baseline phase to 71% during the intervention phase. Seat belt use among front passengers increased from 49% during the baseline phase to 67% during the intervention phase. In both cases, seat belt use at follow-up was comparable to seat belt use during the intervention phase, although a trend toward decreasing belt use was noted. Also found was higher seat belt use among females as compared with males irrespective of their front seat occupant status (driver or passenger). Effects of the intervention are discussed in the context of increasing seat belt use in a hardcore nonuser population of predominantly young adults.

  6. Airbags & children: making correct choices in child passenger restraints.

    PubMed

    Kamerling, Susan Nudelman

    2002-01-01

    Countless numbers of young lives are lost each year due to motor vehicle crashes. One of the most effective means of reducing the number of children killed and injured as occupants in motor vehicles is through the use of child passenger restraints. Seat belts and child safety seats save lives and reduce the severity of injuries sustained by occupants in motor vehicle crashes. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and influence families on the proper way to safely transport all motor vehicle passengers. Therefore, nurses working with infants, children, and families have a moral and professional obligation to understand the basics of child passenger safety. At the very least, nurses should be able to direct families appropriately for specifics related to child passenger restraints. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of child passenger safety through a historical, theoretical, and clinical approach. Proper child restraint use is reviewed based on current recommendations for age and size. The potential hazards of child restraint misuse, with an in-depth discussion on airbags, is presented. The discussion on airbags serves to dispel any misconceptions that may be held about airbags. The article includes two case studies that illustrate the injury potential of relatively common misuse patterns. The clinical implications for maternal-child nurses include the recognition that child passenger deaths are primarily due to child restraint nonuse and misuse and the realization of nursing's role in the promotion of proper child passenger restraint.

  7. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  8. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  9. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  10. Announcement: National Child Passenger Safety Week - September 18-24, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-09-16

    This year, National Child Passenger Safety Week is September 18-24. In the United States, motor vehicle-related injuries are a leading cause of death among children (1). In 2014, a total of 602 passenger vehicle occupants aged 0-12 years died as a result of a crash (2), and more than 121,350 were injured (1). Of the children who died in 2014, 34% were known to be unrestrained (2). To keep child passengers as safe as possible, drivers should use age- and size-appropriate restraints for all child passengers until adult seat belts fit properly (a lap belt should lay across upper thighs, not abdomen, and a shoulder belt should lay across shoulder and chest, not neck or face) and follow the American Academy of Pediatrics child passenger safety recommendations (3). In addition, children aged <13 years should be properly restrained in the back seat.

  11. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

  12. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.

  13. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  14. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  15. Rear seat belt use as an indicator of safe road behaviour in a rapidly developing country.

    PubMed

    McIlvenny, Shirley; Al Mahrouqi, Fatma; Al Busaidi, Thuraiya; Al Nabhani, Ahmed; Al Hikmani, Fatma; Al Kharousi, Zaher; Al Mammari, Salima; Al Hoti, Anwaral; Al Shihi, Aysha; Al Lawati, Anwar; Al Kharousi, Ibtisam

    2004-11-01

    Injuries from road traffic accidents are set to become the second highest cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in developing countries by 2020. The number of injuries and deaths are disproportionately high in low income countries, which account for only 40% of all motor vehicles. Human behaviour is thought to be a major factor in most accidents. In Oman wearing a seat belt is compulsory in the front seats but not in the rear. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the severity of injuries when sitting in rear seats. This study examines the use of seat belts in cars entering a university and hospital campus in Oman to determine the degree of seat belt wearing in the rear. At peak times on a selected day, cars were stopped at the university's entrance barrier. The type of driver was identified - student, employee, hospital patient or visitor - and the degree of seat belt wearing among driver and passengers was noted. A total of 1,066 cars were stopped. Of this total, 90.1% of drivers and 80.9% of front seat passengers were wearing a restraint complying with Local traffic regulations. However, only 1.4% of back seat passengers wore a seat belt. Only 3.7% of children under the age of five were restrained in a child seat and only 16.7% of five- to 12-year-olds were strapped in. A third (34.6%) of under-fives were sitting in the front seat. In cars with child occupants, 40% of the time parents wore seat belts but the children did not. Occupants conformed to the law but behaviour indicated a lack of awareness of the dangers of not wearing seat belts, especially towards children. Traffic regulations need to be updated and the public educated about the need to wear seat belts. Health agencies could be more active in educating the public about road safety behaviour and should also be involved in the overall strategy to reduce injuries and deaths.

  16. Spatially distributed smart skin seat sensor for high-resolution real-time occupant position tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Burke, Shawn E.

    1999-07-01

    A 2D spatially distributed smart skin sensor for real-time seat occupant position sensing is presented. The sensor exploits principles of spatial aperture shading of distributed transducers such as piezo-electric polymers and resistors, which are used as the active sensing medium. An example application is presented in which the sensor is used to report passenger position to an automobile air bag control system. The real-time data is used to modulate airbag deployment energies, mitigating passenger injury.

  17. Child booster seats and lethal seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Noblett, H

    2004-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy travelling in the rear seat of a sedan car was wearing a lap-shoulder seat belt and sitting on a booster seat. Following a collision the boy 'submarined' under the seat belt sustaining trauma to the anterior aspect of his neck, cardiac arrest and subsequent death from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This case demonstrates a potential problem with unsecured older-style booster seats. Movement of a seat in a collision may cause a child to slip under a seat belt and sustain significant neck injuries. Seatbelts for children must be correctly fitted, booster seats or capsules must be securely fastened and manufacturer's recommendations for size and weight limits should be followed. Unfortunately older booster seats may not have attached instructions for installation and use, may not fit later model vehicles, may not conform to current safety recommendations and may have worn webbing. For these reasons their use should be discouraged.

  18. Aero-optimum hovering kinematics.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2015-08-07

    Hovering flight for flapping wing vehicles requires rapid and relatively complex reciprocating movement of a wing relative to a stationary surrounding fluid. This note develops a compact analytical aero-kinematic model that can be used for optimization of flapping wing kinematics against aerodynamic criteria of effectiveness (maximum lift) and efficiency (minimum power for a given amount of lift). It can also be used to make predictions of required flapping frequency for a given geometry and basic aerodynamic parameters. The kinematic treatment is based on a consolidation of an existing formulation that allows explicit derivation of flapping velocity for complex motions whereas the aerodynamic model is based on existing quasi-steady analysis. The combined aero-kinematic model provides novel explicit analytical expressions for both lift and power of a hovering wing in a compact form that enables exploration of a rich kinematic design space. Good agreement is found between model predictions of flapping frequency and observed results for a number of insects and optimal hovering kinematics identified using the model are consistent with results from studies using higher order computational models. For efficient flight, the flapping angle should vary using a triangular profile in time leading to a constant velocity flapping motion, whereas for maximum effectiveness the shape of variation should be sinusoidal. For both cases the wing pitching motion should be rectangular such that pitch change at stroke reversal is as rapid as possible.

  19. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  20. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  1. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  2. Effective Presentation Media for Passenger Safety I: Comprehension of Briefing Card Pictorials and Pictograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Results indicate that safety briefing card pictorials/pictograms need to be designed and implemented with respect to novice passengers who do not have a...prepotent understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, emergency equipment, and/or aircraft emergency procedures. Furthermore...such as “fasten seat belts, no smokng n the lavatory, move handle n drecton of arrow, open door, place head between legs, and use seat cushon

  3. Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. 16. Abstract This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT...as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back...evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was

  4. Optimization of Car Seats in the Interaction of Sitting Man on the Size of the Contact Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martonka, R.; Fliegel, V.

    The crew vehicle, the driver and passengers are in a car in direct interaction with the car seat while driving, which affects a sitting person in many areas such as safety, comfort, a feeling of comfort and customization to individual requirements, ergonomics and variability. All these effects are caused by one or a group of elements used in the construction of the seat. Objective assessment of the requirements for the construction of car seats, regardless of the characteristics of the occupant is not possible to provide a subjective feeling of comfort for any seated person. Therefore, we include in the design of automotive seat occupant's subjective feelings. It is clear that car seats must "adapt" individual characteristics of a seated man (weight, corpulence, age, gender,…). One of the subjective feelings of a man sitting in the seat is comfortable for any seated person defined differently. Correlation was found between comfort seats and contact pressure distribution depending on the weight of a seated man. It is understandable that every sitting person has a different distribution of contact pressure. This has resulted in the same seat each person differently seems comfortable-hard. The research objective is always to ensure maximum contact area for any seated person. Parameter that must be optimized is the hardness of butt pads sitting person (usually polyurethane pad coated fabric cover).In the conventional design seat cushion hardness is fixed, without the possibility of adaptability by the individuality sitting man. This article deals with the assessment, definition and optimization of hardness of pad in the automobile seat, the contact pressure distribution and determining the regulatory range of hardness depending on the weight of a seated man.

  5. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  6. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  7. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  8. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  9. Evaluation of the influence of velocity on dynamic passenger loads during a frontal minibus impact against an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochowski, L.; Dębowski, A.; Żuchowski, A.; Zielonka, K.

    2016-09-01

    The safety of people travelling by minibus is a very complex issue, in which the decisive role is played by load-bearing vehicle structure, passenger seats, and personal protection means. In order to maximize the number of people transported, the seats are spaced very closely to each other and this may pose a hazard to the passengers. Based on an analysis of experimental test results, a computer model representing a system composed of a minibus floor segment, seats, and dummies was built. For the analysis, seats integrated with seat belts were adopted. A seat of this type was based on a high-rigidity frame necessary to bear, inter alia, the strong force exerted (during a collision) by passenger's torso on the shoulder seat belt and transmitted to the upper seat belt anchorage point on the seat backrest. Within this work, the frontal minibus impact against an obstacle with velocities ranging from 20 km/h to 70 km/h was considered. The analysis covered the motion of, and dynamic loads on, a test dummy representing a 50th percentile adult male (Hybrid III dummy). Within the analysis, realizations of dynamic loads caused by inertial forces and reactions exerted by a three-point seat belt were taken into account. Special attention was paid to the extreme values of the loads that acted on dummy's head, neck, and torso when the head hit the backrest of the preceding seat in the culminating phase of the vehicle impact against an obstacle. The values of biomechanical indicators HIC, ThAC, Nij , and FAC and of the joint injury risk indicator were calculated.

  10. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  11. Resolution requirements for aero-optical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Ali Wang Meng; Moin, Parviz

    2008-11-10

    Analytical criteria are developed to estimate the error of aero-optical computations due to inadequate spatial resolution of refractive index fields in high Reynolds number flow simulations. The unresolved turbulence structures are assumed to be locally isotropic and at low turbulent Mach number. Based on the Kolmogorov spectrum for the unresolved structures, the computational error of the optical path length is estimated and linked to the resulting error in the computed far-field optical irradiance. It is shown that in the high Reynolds number limit, for a given geometry and Mach number, the spatial resolution required to capture aero-optics within a pre-specified error margin does not scale with Reynolds number. In typical aero-optical applications this resolution requirement is much lower than the resolution required for direct numerical simulation, and therefore, a typical large-eddy simulation can capture the aero-optical effects. The analysis is extended to complex turbulent flow simulations in which non-uniform grid spacings are used to better resolve the local turbulence structures. As a demonstration, the analysis is used to estimate the error of aero-optical computation for an optical beam passing through turbulent wake of flow over a cylinder.

  12. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M; Berger, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. Setting: The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. Methods: In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. Results: For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%–21%. Rates for infants (71%–80%) far exceeded rates for 1–4 year old children (5%–14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. Conclusions: A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores. PMID:12460964

  13. A Flying Ejection Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollrock, R. H.; Barzda, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    To increase aircrewmen's chances for safe rescue in combat zones, the armed forces are investigating advanced escape and rescue concepts that will provide independent flight after ejection and thus reduce the risk of capture. One of the candidate concepts is discussed; namely, a stowable autogyro that serves as the crewman's seat during normal operations and automatically converts to a flight vehicle after ejection. Discussed are (1) the mechanism subsystems that the concept embodies to meet the weight and cockpit-packaging constraints and (2) tests that demonstrated the technical feasibility of the stowage, deployment, and flight operation of the rotor lift system.

  14. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  15. Valve designed with elastic seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Glashan, W. F., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Absolute valve closure is accomplished by a machined valve with an axially annular channel which changes the outlet passage into a thin tubular elastic seat member with a retainer backup ring. The elasticity of the seat provides tight conformity to ball irregularity.

  16. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  17. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  18. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    PubMed

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  19. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  20. 75 FR 46838 - Special Conditions: Embraer ERJ 190-100 Series Airplane Seats With Non-Traditional, Large, Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Embraer ERJ 190-100 Series Airplane... issued for the Embraer ERJ 190- 100 series airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design... arrangement of 112 slim passenger seats in the ERJ 190-100 STD, ERJ 190-100 LR, and ERJ ] 190-100 IGW....

  1. The Minnesota Child Passenger Restraint and Education Account. A Report to the Minnesota Legislature on Activities and Expenditures as Required by the 1994 Session Laws, Chapter 635, Section 15 as Contained in M.S. 169.685, Subdivision 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Public Safety, St. Paul. Office of Traffic Safety.

    Minnesota Statute 169.685 (Seat Belts and Passenger Restraint Systems for Children) requires all drivers to correctly place children under the age of 4 years in child car seats. In response to the requirements of the amended statute, this report presents information to the Minnesota legislature on the commissioner's activities and expenditure of…

  2. Improving the in-flight security by employing seat occupancy sensors based on Fiber Bragg grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Wang, Pengfei

    2012-06-01

    The current schemes of detecting the status of passengers in airplanes cannot satisfy the more strict regulations recently released by the United States Transportation Security Administration. In basis of investigation on the current seat occupancy sensors for vehicles, in this paper we present a novel scheme of seat occupancy sensors based on Fiber Bragg Grating technology to improve the in-flight security of airplanes. This seat occupancy sensor system can be used to detect the status of passengers and to trigger the airbags to control the inflation of air bags, which have been installed in the airplanes of some major airlines under the new law. This scheme utilizes our previous research results of Weight-In- Motion sensor system based on optical fiber Bragg grating. In contrast to the current seat occupancy sensors for vehicles, this new seat occupancy sensor has so many merits that it is very suitable to be applied in aerospace industry or high speed railway system. Moreover, combined with existing Fiber Bragg Grating strain or temperature sensor systems built in airplanes, this proposed method can construct a complete airline passenger management system.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of motor vehicle seat belt buckles.

    PubMed

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Renfroe, David; Herbst, Brian; Pozzi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have reported that inertially sensitive buckles are susceptible to impact unlatching. The present work synthesizes the results from various experimental studies conducted over the years to study the mechanical behavior of buckles and subsequent injuries to occupants. First, the side press button seat buckle due to impact a lateral impact from an adjacent child restraint seat component indicated that the side button RCF-67 buckle released at a speed of 2.2 m/sec with a force range of 264 to 440 N and acceleration range of 100 to 175 G. In contrast, the top button Autoliv Lockarm buckles did not release up to 1300 vertical G's. Second, side release RCF-67 buckles when loaded with the webbing required approximately three times more force to open than top press buckles. Inverted occupants in a three-point belt could not release the RCF-67 buckle. Third, a side sled impact on the drivers side of a production vehicle buck with a three-point belt and a RCF-67 buckle was done at 7 m/s to 8 m/s. A convertible child seat with a dummy in the passenger seat moved inboard toward the buckle and unlatched it. Fourth, an intact vehicle drop study at 0.3 m showed that the accelerations on a JDC buckle on a metal stalk are large compared to acceleration of the floor pan. The present study provides comprehensive data to evaluate the mechanical behavior of seat buckles under various motor vehicle crash conditions.

  4. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part of the seat, seat supports, or accessories attached to the seat shall be more than 125 mm (5.0 in... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall...

  5. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part of the seat, seat supports, or accessories attached to the seat shall be more than 125 mm (5.0 in... axis. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain a permanent mark or ring that clearly indicates...

  6. Knowledge and behaviors of physicians and caregivers about appropriate child passenger restraint use.

    PubMed

    Brixey, Suzanne N; Guse, Clare E

    2009-12-01

    The object of this research was to ascertain caregivers' and physicians' knowledge, behaviors, and comfort levels regarding child passenger safety restraint transitions with belt positioning booster seats (BPB). A targeted survey of physicians caring for 4-8 year olds plus convenience sampling surveys of caregivers across an urban community was conducted. Data revealed 42% of physicians and 47% of caregivers did not know that motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children in this age group. Only 34% of caregivers consistently placed children in booster seats; 48% reported receiving physician information about proper restraint; 67% reported wanting to learn about proper restraint; and 36% wanted such information from physicians. Caregivers who recalled physician questions about restraints were three times more likely than others to use booster seats correctly. 70% of physicians reported asking about child restraint in vehicles in this age group. However, only 48% were very comfortable with knowing when to recommend booster seats, 43% reported having received no training in child passenger safety, and only 37% knew where to refer caregivers for more information. Physicians need more information about appropriate child passenger safety restraints as children grow and ways to deliver and reinforce the message so that it is retained to improve community health. Caregivers indicate willingness to learn, but providers miss many opportunities to teach.

  7. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  8. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  9. Results of the AEROS satellite program: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerzahl, P.; Rawer, K.; Roemer, N.

    1980-01-01

    Published literature reporting aeronomic data collected on two AEROS missions is summarized. The extreme ultraviolet solar radiation and other significant parameters of the thermosphere/ionosphere were investigated. Kinetic pressure, the quantity of atomic nitrogen, and partial densities of helium, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and atomic nitrogen were determined. The thermal electron population, superthermal energy distribution, plasma density, ion temperature, and composition according to ion types were measured. The chief energy supply in the thermosphere was calculated. Aeronomic calculations showing that variations in the parameters of the ionosphere cannot be correlated with fluctuations of extreme ultraviolet solar radiation were performed. The AEROS data were compared with data from S3-1, ISIS, and AE-C satellites. Models of the thermosphere and ionosphere were developed.

  10. Transient aero-thermal simulations for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    Aero-thermal simulations are an integral part of the design process for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). These simulations utilize Computational Solid-Fluid Dynamics (CSFD) to estimate wind jitter and blur, dome and mirror seeing, telescope pointing error due to thermal drift, and to predict thermal effects on performance of components such as the primary mirror segments. Design guidance obtained from these simulations is provided to the Telescope, Enclosure, Facilities and Adaptive Optics groups. Computational advances allow for model enhancements and inclusion of phenomena not previously resolved, such as transient effects on wind loading and thermal seeing due to vent operation while observing or long exposure effects, with potentially different flow patterns corresponding to the beginning and end of observation. Accurate knowledge of the Observatory aero-thermal environment will result in developing reliable look-up tables for effective open loop correction of key active optics system elements, and cost efficient operation of the Observatory.

  11. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  12. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  13. Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Skalkidou, A; Lescohier, I; Trichopoulos, D

    1998-04-01

    The protective effect of child restraint and the relative safety of front and rear seating in a population where children often travel unrestrained was assessed in a population based case-control study. The cases were all 129 children aged 0-11 years injured as car passengers in a motor vehicle accident who contacted, during 1996, one of the two major children's hospitals in Athens; emergency cases are accepted by the two hospitals on alternate days throughout the year, thus generating a random sample of children injured as car passengers. The prevalence of the studied exposures in the study base was estimated from an inspection survey comprising a random sample of 191 children of the same age who travelled in passenger cars. The survey was conducted by medical staff from our centre in collaboration with the road traffic police. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated after adjustment for confounding factors through the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. The OR for injury was 3.3 among unrestrained children compared with restrained children (comparison essentially limited to children aged 0-4 years) and 5.0 for children seated in the front compared with those seated in the rear (comparison essentially limited among unrestrained children). Protective effect estimates derived from this analytical study suggest that in Greece about two thirds of all childhood injuries from car crashes could have been avoided through the regular use of a proper child restraint. The data also indicate that, in the absence of a child restraint system, a rear seating position conveys substantial protection and could explain the low mortality of children as car passengers in Greece, a country which is characterised by a high overall road traffic mortality as well as a high childhood accident mortality.

  14. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  15. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.

  16. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  17. 14 CFR 125.331 - Carriage of persons without compliance with the passenger-carrying provisions of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING... airplane without complying with the passenger-carrying requirements of this part: (a) A crewmember. (b) A person necessary for the safe handling of animals on the airplane. (c) A person necessary for the...

  18. 14 CFR 125.331 - Carriage of persons without compliance with the passenger-carrying provisions of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING... airplane without complying with the passenger-carrying requirements of this part: (a) A crewmember. (b) A person necessary for the safe handling of animals on the airplane. (c) A person necessary for the...

  19. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  20. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  1. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Seat Comfort in Aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciloglu, Hakan

    This research focuses on the dynamic seat comfort in aircrafts specifically during takeoff, landing and cruise through turbulence flight conditions. The experiments are performed using a multi axis shaker table in the Automotive Centre of Excellence (ACE) at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology subjected to sample takeoff, landing and cruise vibration recordings obtained onboard of an actual flight. The input vibrations introduced to the aircraft seats during actual flight conditions and during the experiments in the ACE are compared and it is concluded that the given flight conditions were successfully replicated for the interest of this thesis. The experiments are conducted with two different aircraft seats, economy class and business class. Furthermore, to investigate the importance of seat cushion characteristics in addition to economy and business class seat cushions, three laboratory made cushions were included in the investigation as well. Moreover, the effect of passenger weight is also discussed by conducting the experiments with 1 and 2 identical dummies. It is concluded that static seat properties play a significant role in the comfort perception level as well as flight conditions. Among the three flight condition, landing appeared to be the most uncomfortable case comparing to takeoff and cruise. In addition to experimental work, a numerical study to simulate the flight conditions is undertaken with the initial work of CAD modelling. The simulated responses of the seat is partially matching with experimental results due to unknown parameters of the cushion and the connections of the aircraft seat that cannot be created in the CAD model due to unknown manufacturing processes.

  3. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  4. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  5. [Possibilities of traffic-injury prevention using seat belts and their disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Serafimov, K

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the increasing number of serious injuries, and/or deaths caused by automobile accidents, seatbelts, along with other safety items are installed in cars. The idea of having automobile seatbelts came from the aircraft seatbelt. In our country there is no law requiring installation of seatbelts in all automobiles. Most imported cars, however do have built-in seat builts which are more or less used by the drivers and passengers. Wearing seatbelts is a necessity because, according to statistics, of 100,000 registered vehicles, 340.8 drivers and/or passengers lose their lives. In Sweden however, this value is 44.1 or eight times less. The number of injuries in Yugoslavia is also great. One of every three injuries are serious with chances of causing invalidity. The basic cause of death in an automobile accident is being thrown out of the vehicle by inertia during a collision has a five fold less a chance of surviving than if he were not thrown out. Secondary impacts of the passenger's body with objects within the automobile are: dashboard, doors, steering wheel, etc. are also a significant cause of many severe injuries. The force of inertia of a 70 kg passenger when the vehicle in which he is riding decelerates from a speed of 80 km/hr to 0 km/hr in a time span of 0.14 sec, and distances of 2 meters equals 878.83 kg. The greater the force of inertia is: (sometimes reaching 2000 kg). The advantages of the safety belt are in that they prevent ejection and secondary impacts of the passenger with protruding objects within the passenger compartment. Today the 2-point seatbelt is no longer in use, having been replaced by the 3-poing seat belt. The 3-point seatbelt must fit snugly about the wearers body so that it cannot be pulled away more than a distance of one or two fingerbreadths. The automatic 3-point seat belt, (the latest of designs), permits freedom of body movement. Should a collison occur, the seat belt locks in position holding the passenger back

  6. Aero-thermal modeling framework for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2011-09-01

    The Performance Error Budget of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) suggests that nearly one third of the total image degradation is due to aero-thermal disturbances (mirror and dome seeing, dynamic wind loading and thermal deformations of the optics, telescope structure and enclosure). An update of the current status of aero-thermal modeling and Computational Fluid-Solid Dynamics (CFSD) simulations for TMT is presented. A fast three-dimensional transient conduction-convection-radiation bulk-air-volume model has also been developed for the enclosure and selected telescope components in order to track the temperature variations of the surfaces, structure and interstitial air over a period of three years using measured environmental conditions. It is used for Observatory Heat Budget analysis and also provides estimates of thermal boundary conditions required by the CFD/FEA models and guidance to the design. Detailed transient CFSD conjugate heat transfer simulations of the mirror support assemblies determine the direction of heat flow from important heat sources and provide guidance to the design. Finally, improved CFD modeling is used to calculate wind forces and temperature fields. Wind loading simulations are demonstrated through TMT aperture deflector forcing. Temperature fields are transformed into refractive index ones and the resulting Optical Path Differences (OPDs) are fed into an updated thermal seeing model to estimate seeing performance metrics. Keck II simulations are the demonstrator for the latter type of modeling.

  7. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  8. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...: The seat belt is approved and rated for such use; the structural strength requirements for the seat..., this allowance was permissible because seat belts were generally rated in terms of strength and some... approved and rated for such use; (2) the structural strength requirements for the seat were not...

  9. Seating Aggregation as an Index of Contagion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, David; And Others

    1970-01-01

    In a situation where cheating increases, the students most apt to become cheaters are those seated adjacent to identified cheaters. In all cases, cheaters tend to voluntarily seat themselves adjacent to one another rather than seating themselves adjacent to noncheaters. The voluntary isolation appears to persist even as cheating increases or…

  10. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations, written procedures established for making determinations in regard to exit row seating. (g) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each...

  11. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations, written procedures established for making determinations in regard to exit row seating. (g) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each...

  12. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  13. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  14. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  15. Transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza on passenger aircraft: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thornley, Craig N; Mills, Clair; Roberts, Sally; Perera, Shanika; Peters, Julia; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian; Wilson, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the risk of transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza (pandemic A/H1N1) from an infected high school group to other passengers on an airline flight and the effectiveness of screening and follow-up of exposed passengers. Design Retrospective cohort investigation using a questionnaire administered to passengers and laboratory investigation of those with symptoms. Setting Auckland, New Zealand, with national and international follow-up of passengers. Participants Passengers seated in the rear section of a Boeing 747-400 long haul flight that arrived on 25 April 2009, including a group of 24 students and teachers and 97 (out of 102) other passengers in the same section of the plane who agreed to be interviewed. Main outcome measures Laboratory confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infection in susceptible passengers within 3.2 days of arrival; sensitivity and specificity of influenza symptoms for confirmed infection; and completeness and timeliness of contact tracing. Results Nine members of the school group were laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic A/H1N1 infection and had symptoms during the flight. Two other passengers developed confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infection, 12 and 48 hours after the flight. They reported no other potential sources of infection. Their seating was within two rows of infected passengers, implying a risk of infection of about 3.5% for the 57 passengers in those rows. All but one of the confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infected travellers reported cough, but more complex definitions of influenza cases had relatively low sensitivity. Rigorous follow-up by public health workers located 93% of passengers, but only 52% were contacted within 72 hours of arrival. Conclusions A low but measurable risk of transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 exists during modern commercial air travel. This risk is concentrated close to infected passengers with symptoms. Follow-up and screening of exposed passengers is slow and difficult once they have left the

  16. Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.

  17. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  18. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

  19. Integrated seat frame and back support

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  20. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  1. MEMS and mil/aero: technology push and market pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Thomas H.

    2001-04-01

    MEMS offers attractive solutions to high-density fluidics, inertial, optical, switching and other demanding military/aerospace (mil/aero) challenges. However, full acceptance must confront the realities of production-scale producibility, verifiability, testability, survivability, as well as long-term reliability. Data on these `..ilities' are crucial, and are central in funding and deployment decisions. Similarly, mil/aero users must highlight specific missions, environmental exposures, and procurement issues, as well as the quirks of its designers. These issues are particularly challenging in MEMS, because of the laws of physics and business economics, as well as the risks of deploying leading-edge technology into no-fail applications. This paper highlights mil/aero requirements, and suggests reliability/qualification protocols, to guide development effort and to reassure mil/aero users that MEMS labs are mindful of the necessary realities.

  2. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  3. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-08-02

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents' child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents' knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention.

  4. Conical seat shut off valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A valve includes a housing defining a bore having an inlet and extending along a longitudinal axis. A head is attached to the housing and defines a head passage having an outlet. A piston is disposed within the bore and includes a piston passage extending through the piston along the longitudinal axis. The piston is moveable between a closed position in which a sealing end of the piston abuts a seat of the head to close fluid communication through the piston passage and an open position in which the sealing end of the piston is axially spaced along the longitudinal axis from the seat of the head to permit fluid communication through the piston passage between the inlet and the outlet. The housing defines an equalizing chamber in fluid communication with the head passage for damping movement of the piston.

  5. Rear seat occupant safety: kinematics and injury of PMHS restrained by a standard 3-point belt in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Jarett; Forman, Jason; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi

    2008-11-01

    Very little experimental research has focused on the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of rear-seated occupants. This study seeks to develop a baseline response for rear-seated post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in frontal crashes. Three PMHS sled tests were performed in a sled buck designed to represent the interior rear-seat compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. All occupants were positioned in the right-rear passenger seat and subjected to simulated frontal crashes with an impact speed of 48 km/h. The subjects were restrained by a standard, rear seat, 3-point seat belt. The response of each subject was evaluated in terms of whole-body kinematics, dynamics, and injury. All the PMHS experienced excessive forward translation of the pelvis resulting in a backward rotation of the torso at the time of maximum forward excursion. The three subjects experienced maximum normalized chest deflections of 30%, 45%, and 30%, respectively, and maximum 3 ms clip resultant chest accelerations of 50, 42, and 52 g, respectively. Additionally, each PMHS received at least 13 rib fractures (maximum of 29 fractures), and flexion-tension induced neck injuries initiating in the lower cervical spine (C4-T1). The neck trauma ranged from ligament damage (AIS 1) to complete cervical spine transection (AIS 5).

  6. Aero-Assisted Spacecraft Missions Using Hypersonic Waverider Aeroshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Jeremy

    This work examines the use of high-lift, low drag vehicles which perform orbital transfers within a planet's atmosphere to reduce propulsive requirements. For the foreseeable future, spacecraft mission design will include the objective of limiting the mass of fuel required. One means of accomplishing this is using aerodynamics as a supplemental force, with what is termed an aero-assist maneuver. Further, the use of a lifting body enables a mission designer to explore candidate trajectory types wholly unavailable to non-lifting analogs. Examples include missions to outer planets by way of an aero-gravity assist, aero-assisted plane change, aero-capture, and steady atmospheric periapsis probing missions. Engineering level models are created in order to simulate both atmospheric and extra-atmospheric space flight. Each mission is parameterized using discrete variables which control multiple areas of design. This work combines the areas of hypersonic aerodynamics, re-entry aerothermodynamics, spacecraft orbital mechanics, and vehicle shape optimization. In particular, emphasis is given to the parametric design of vehicles known as "waveriders" which are inversely designed from known shock flowfields. An entirely novel means of generating a class of waveriders known as "starbodies" is presented. A complete analysis is performed of asymmetric starbody forms and compared to a better understood parameterization, "osculating cone" waveriders. This analysis includes characterization of stability behavior, a critical discipline within hypersonic flight. It is shown that asymmetric starbodies have significant stability improvement with only a 10% reduction in the lift-to-drag ratio. By combining the optimization of both the shape of the vehicle and the trajectory it flies, much is learned about the benefit that can be expected from lifting aero-assist missions. While previous studies have conceptually proven the viability, this work provides thorough quantification of the

  7. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat...-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological...

  8. The influence of parental education and other socio-economic factors on child car seat use

    PubMed Central

    Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children’s healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. Results 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Conclusions Low educational attainment influences parents’ behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families. PMID:28289464

  9. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  10. An apparatus and procedure for evaluating the toxic hazards of smoldering seating and bedding materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure are described for evaluating the toxicity of the gases evolved from the smoldering combustion of seating and bedding materials. The method combines initiation of smoldering combustion in fabric/cushion combinations by a lighted cigarette and exposure of laboratory animals to the gases evolved. The ratio of the surface available for smoldering to the compartment volume in this apparatus is approximately five times the ratio expected in a California living room, and 100 times the ratio expected in a wide-body aircraft passenger cabin. Based on fabric/cushion combinations tested, the toxicity of gases from smoldering combustion does not appear to be a significant hazard in aircraft passenger cabins, but seems to be a basis for careful selection of materials for residential environments.

  11. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... measurement. (1) As used in this section, “seating surface” only includes the seat cushion and soft trim and excludes unpadded trim components such as a decorative seat shield, seat adjusters, or adjuster covers. As... side of the seating surface at that measurement location. If outboard interior trim contacts the...

  12. Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2006-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) is a graphical simulation environment designed for the development of advanced control algorithms and rapid testing of these algorithms on a generic computational model of a turbofan engine and its control system. MAPSS is a nonlinear, non-real-time simulation comprising a Component Level Model (CLM) module and a Controller-and-Actuator Dynamics (CAD) module. The CLM module simulates the dynamics of engine components at a sampling rate of 2,500 Hz. The controller submodule of the CAD module simulates a digital controller, which has a typical update rate of 50 Hz. The sampling rate for the actuators in the CAD module is the same as that of the CLM. MAPSS provides a graphical user interface that affords easy access to engine-operation, engine-health, and control parameters; is used to enter such input model parameters as power lever angle (PLA), Mach number, and altitude; and can be used to change controller and engine parameters. Output variables are selectable by the user. Output data as well as any changes to constants and other parameters can be saved and reloaded into the GUI later.

  13. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis. PMID:27412335

  14. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-14

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  15. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  16. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  17. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  18. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  19. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  20. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  1. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  2. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  3. 76 FR 31803 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... concluded that even non-compliant seats still offer a high level of protection. JTA also asked that we... of seat failures resulting from high-level turbulence events. AAPA, AEA, China Airlines, and JTA... level of safety. Only those seats that fail the testing will be required to be removed from...

  4. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-28

    recent, large-scale Army anthropometry study UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 8 Driver Mockup • Steering wheel, pedals, adjustable seat(fore-aft, up...all configurations at all garb conditions) UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 9 Squad Mockup • Fixed seat (no sitter adjustments) • Range of seat

  5. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal... (NPRM). SUMMARY: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness... responders during emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to...

  6. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  7. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  8. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), are proposing accessibility guidelines for the construction and alteration of passenger vessels covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to ensure that the vessels are readily accessible to and usable by passengers with disabilities. The guidelines would apply to passenger vessels, other than ferries......

  9. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to these... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions...

  10. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to these... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions...

  11. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  12. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  13. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  14. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  15. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, M. H.; Magnusson, M.; Broman, N. H.; Hasson, T.

    1998-01-01

    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower extremity is quite common in many occupations. The importance of posture and seat design in attenuation of impulses has been established. PMID:9807718

  16. Aero-Structural Interaction, Analysis, and Shape Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., III

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis technique that has been shown to be independent of step-size selection is examined further. The accuracy of this step-size independent technique, which uses complex variables for determining sensitivity derivatives, has been previously established. The primary focus of this work is to validate the aero-structural analysis procedure currently being used. This validation consists of comparing computed and experimental data obtained for an Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2). Since the aero-structural analysis procedure has the complex variable modifications already included into the software, sensitivity derivatives can automatically be computed. Other than for design purposes, sensitivity derivatives can be used for predicting the solution at nearby conditions. The use of sensitivity derivatives for predicting the aero-structural characteristics of this configuration is demonstrated.

  17. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., or otherwise open emergency exits; (iv) To lift out, hold, deposit on nearby seats, or maneuver...

  18. Self-alining valve poppet and seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, U. P.

    1978-01-01

    Poppet-and-seat combination is useful in fluid-control system that has to operate at high temperatures with low leak rates. Contaminants in flow stream are removed before they reach sealing surfaces by altering direction of flow several times before it enters poppet-and-seat flow passage. Particles are separated and deposited on surfaces not affecting sealing performance.

  19. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  20. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car.How should I wear my seat belt?The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  1. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  2. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  3. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  4. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  5. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  6. The thematic structure of passenger comfort experience and its relationship to the context features in the aircraft cabin.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Lindgaard, Gitte; Robert, Jean-Marc; Pownall, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes passenger comfort as an experience generated by the cabin interior features. The findings of previous studies are affirmed regarding a set of 22 context features. Passengers experience a certain level of comfort when these features impact their body and elicit subjective perceptions. New findings characterise these perceptions in the form of eight themes and outline their particular eliciting features. Comfort is depicted as a complex construct derived by passengers' perceptions beyond the psychological (i.e. peace of mind) and physical (i.e. physical well-being) aspects, and includes perceptual (e.g. proxemics) and semantic (e.g. association) aspects. The seat was shown to have a focal role in eliciting seven of those themes and impacting comfort through its diverse characteristics. In a subsequent study, a group of aircraft cabin interior designers highlighted the possibility of employing the eight themes and their eliciting features as a framework for design and evaluation of new aircraft interiors.

  7. Risk of injury associated with the use of seat belts and air bags in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2008-01-01

    Although air bags have been reported to reduce passenger mortality in frontal collisions, they have also been reported as a cause of injury in motor vehicle collisions(MVCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients involved in MVCs to determine mortality and the pattern of injuries associated with seat belt use and air bag deployment. Information on patients involved in MVCs from 1988 to 2004 was obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). The data was evaluated based on four groups of safety devices: seat belt and deployed air bag (SBAB), seat belt only (SBO), deployed air bag only (ABO), and no safety devices (None). A total of 35,333 patients met study inclusion criteria. Air bags and seat belts used in combination decreased the risk of potentially fatal injuries, but increased the risk of lower extremity injuries (odds ratio, 1.35). The use of any type of restraint led to a decrease in the risk of injury or mortality in MVCs. Only half of all individuals in this study used any type of restraint device, which indicates the need for significant improvements in public health and safety seat belt utilization programs.

  8. Seat Belt Use and its Effect on Abdominal Trauma: A National Trauma Databank Study.

    PubMed

    Nash, Nick A; Okoye, Obi; Albuz, Ozgur; Vogt, Kelly N; Karamanos, Efstathios; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-02-01

    We sought to use the National Trauma Databank to determine the demographics, injury distribution, associated abdominal injuries, and outcomes of those patients who are restrained versus unrestrained. All victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) were identified from the National Trauma Databank and stratified into subpopulations depending on the use of seat belts. A total of 150,161 MVC victims were included in this study, 72,394 (48%) were belted. Young, male passengers were the least likely to be wearing a seat belt. Restrained victims were less likely to have severe injury as measured by Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Score. Restrained victims were also less likely to suffer solid organ injuries (9.7% vs 12%, P < 0.001), but more likely to have hollow viscous injuries (1.9% vs 1.3%, P < 0.001). The hospital and intensive care unit length of stay were significantly shorter in belted victims with adjusted mean difference: -1.36 (-1.45, -1.27) and -0.96 (-1.02, -0.90), respectively. Seat belt use was associated with a significantly lower crude mortality than unrestrained victims (1.9% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001), and after adjusting for differences in age, gender, position in vehicle, and deployment of air bags, the protective effect remained (adjusted odds ratio for mortality 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.54). In conclusion, MVC victims wearing seat belts have a significant reduction in the severity of injuries in all body areas, lower mortality, a shorter hospital stay, and decreased length of stay in the intensive care unit. The nature of abdominal injuries, however, was significantly different, with a higher incidence of hollow viscous injury in those wearing seat belts.

  9. Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemati, Maziar Sam

    Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model

  10. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  11. An Open-Access Modeled Passenger Flow Matrix for the Global Air Network in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J.; Fik, Timothy J.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data. PMID:23691194

  12. Injury prevention: role of the hospital-based Child Passenger Safety Program (CPSP).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kristine G; Mowery, Betsey

    2010-12-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death for people 3 to 34 years of age. Despite evidence that child safety seats (CSS) reduce the risk of fatal injury by 71% for infants (< 1 year of age) and by 54% for toddlers (1-4 years of age) in passenger cars, 48% of the 23 Arkansas children under age 16 that died in 2007 were unrestrained. We review the goals of a hospital-based CPSP, briefly review one American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Statement, describe how one CPSP functions, and provide resources to those interested in program development.

  13. Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

  14. The development of a model for predicting passenger acceptance of short-haul air transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    Meaningful criteria and methodology for assessing, particularly in the area of ride quality, the potential acceptability to the traveling public of present and future transportation systems were investigated. Ride quality was found to be one of the important variables affecting the decision of users of air transportation, and to be influenced by several environmental factors, especially motion, noise, pressure, temperature, and seating. Models were developed to quantify the relationship of subjective comfort to all of these parameters and then were exercised for a variety of situations. Passenger satisfaction was found to be strongly related to ride quality and was so modeled. A computer program was developed to assess the comfort and satisfaction levels of passengers on aircraft subjected to arbitrary flight profiles over arbitrary terrain. A model was deduced of the manner in which passengers integrate isolated segments of a flight to obtain an overall trip comfort rating. A method was established for assessing the influence of other links (e.g., access, terminal conditions) in the overall passenger trip.

  15. 76 FR 77108 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Engines Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1... engines. This AD was prompted by three reports of high- pressure turbine (HPT) case burn-through...

  16. Overview of NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both the space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development.

  17. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... strap— (1) Comply with the requirements for Type 1 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4.4(a) of... occupant restraint shall comply with the requirements for Type 2 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  18. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strap— (1) Comply with the requirements for Type 1 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4.4(a) of... occupant restraint shall comply with the requirements for Type 2 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  19. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... strap— (1) Comply with the requirements for Type 1 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4.4(a) of... occupant restraint shall comply with the requirements for Type 2 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  20. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) If incorporating webbing or a strap— (1) Comply with the requirements for Type 1 safety belt systems... wheelchair occupant restraint shall comply with the requirements for Type 2 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  1. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... strap— (1) Comply with the requirements for Type 1 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4.4(a) of... occupant restraint shall comply with the requirements for Type 2 safety belt systems in S4.2, S4.3, and S4... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  2. Comparison of Contact Stress Distribution for Foam Seat and Seat of Auxetic Spring Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus-Michalska, M.; Jasińska, D.; Smardzewski, J.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and compare the results of numerical solutions of contact problem for two types of seats subjected to typical sitting loadings. The first seat is made of a typical hyperelastic foam, the other is designed with an auxetic polyamid spring skeleton. Computer simulations of the seat structure under a typical static loading exerted by a human body are performed by means of ABAQUS FEA. The model provides an insight into deformation modes and stress field in relation to geometric and material parameters of the seat structure.The other type of seat, due to the fact of global auxecity and progressive springs characteristics reduces contact stress concentrations, giving an advantegous distribution of pressure and provides the sensation of physical comfort. The proper seat skeleton shape leads to an improvement of ergonomic quality.

  3. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  4. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  5. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  6. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  7. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  8. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  9. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  10. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  11. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  14. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  15. Seat Interfaces for Aircrew Performance and Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, seat pan and...consisted of manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, seat...in Figure 5. The manikin coordinate system used was an inverted SAE J211 system. The torques were reversed from SAE J211. Flexion was measured

  16. Operational Effects on Crashworthy Seat Attenuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    absorbers not meeting the manufacturer’s specified load-deflection characteristics were modeled by computer simulation to determine the change In injury...21 TABLE S. TROOP SEAT ENERGY ABSORBER TEST RESULTS SUIMMARY (3) pek Meet $ Energy Energy(I) Average Peak Manufacturer Absorber Aircraft Test T=2...deflection requirmansts may have been violated. 22 TABLE 5 (CONTO). TROOP SEAT ENERGY ABSORBER TEST RESULTS SU4ARY Meet $ Energy Energy") Average Peak

  17. The Minicomputer System for Seat Reservations (MSRM),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-13

    MSRM minicomputer seat reservation system, which will be presented in this article . This conception is based on a completely dif- * ferent principle...results of an analysis of work carried out by the POLRES reservation office are presented in this article ; the analysis was carried out on the basis...at the end of the article . The Concept of the MSRM System As has already been mentioned, one of the characteristic features of the traditional seat

  18. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  19. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  20. Car Seats for Growing Children: Guidelines for Counselling Parents on Which Type of Car Seat To Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Transportation, Springfield. Div. of Traffic Safety.

    Children's car seats provide protection from the types of injury with the worst consequences. This document presents guidelines for selecting and installing child car seats, booster seats, and seat belts. The document includes suggestions for identifying when a child's safety restraint system should be changed, for determining if the restraint…

  1. Transportation safety standards for wheelchair users: a review of voluntary standards for improved safety, usability, and independence of wheelchair-seated travelers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Manary, Miriam A; Hobson, Douglas A; Bertocci, Gina E

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards, voluntary standards for the design and performance of WTORS, and for wheelchairs used as seats in motor vehicles, have been developed. The initial versions of these standards qualify equipment for use in all types and sizes of motor vehicles using a 30-mph (48-kph), 20-g frontal sled-impact test. The wheelchair standard requires four accessible, crash-tested securement points on wheelchairs so they can be more easily and effectively secured using a four-point strap-type tie-down system. Future voluntary standards are aimed at reducing injury risk for wheelchair-seated occupants in rear impacts and at providing a method for evaluating the crashworthiness of wheelchair seating systems independent of wheelchair base-frames. They also address improved usability and independence for wheelchair-seated travelers using public transportation by specifying universal docking interface geometry for wheelchairs and design and performance requirements for rear-facing wheelchair passenger stations for use in the very low-g environments of large fixed-route transit buses.

  2. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  3. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  4. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  5. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  6. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  7. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  8. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  9. SAFEGUARD seat/compartment evaluation methodology for vehicles with suspended seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostens, I.; Amditis, A.; Stefani, O.; Dangelmaier, M.; Bekiaris, E.; Schaerli, H.; Bullinger, A.; Ramon, H.

    2004-09-01

    Back pain is observed in a high percentage of professional drivers of heavy-duty vehicles and trucks. It was found that whole-body vibrations, prolonged sitting and posture, because of task handling and seating system, are the main factors in the development of back pain. The attenuation of vibrations and the provision of a good ergonomic posture at all times are therefore becoming more important. To achieve this a better knowledge of human behaviour towards vibrations and when seated on suspended seats is required using more appropriate evaluation techniques. The EC project SAFEGUARD aims at developing a new seat evaluation methodology where with controlled vibration tests and virtual reality simulations as many features as possible of human behaviour when seated on suspended seats are combined. The results of this combined methodology will lead to better understanding of the driver-seat-cabin system and the relation to comfort and health. They will also provide a more accurate way to interpret the efficiency of new seat features in improving comfort and health.

  10. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... and seating systems may not meet certain flammability and strength criteria. Failure to meet strength... of static, dynamic, and flammability testing on delivered seats. Failure to meet strength criteria... strength requirements in certain load cases. Section 25.562, which was created by Amendment 25-64,...

  11. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... structural strength requirements for the seat are not exceeded. This clarification also emphasizes that... appropriate if: (1) The belt is approved and rated for this type of use; (2) the structural strength... because seat belts were generally rated in terms of strength and some were rated for more than...

  12. Characteristics of Designated Drivers and their Passengers from the 2007 National Roadside Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Gwen; Yao, Jie; Shults, Ruth A.; Romano, Eduardo; Lacey, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of designated driving in the United States, compare these results with those from the 1996 National Roadside Survey, and explore the demographic, drinking, and trip characteristics of both designated drivers and their passengers. Methods The data used were from the 2007 National Roadside Survey which randomly stopped drivers, administered breath tests for alcohol, and administered a questionnaire to drivers and front seat passengers. Results Almost a third (30%) of nighttime drivers reported being designated drivers, with 84% of them having a blood alcohol concentration of zero. Drivers who were more likely to be designated drivers were those with a blood alcohol concentration that was over zero but still legal, who were under 35 years of age, who were African-American, Hispanic or Asian, and whose driving trip originated at a bar, tavern, or club. Over a third of passengers of designated drivers reported consuming an alcoholic drink the day of the survey compared with a fifth of passengers of non-designated drivers. One-fifth of designated driver passengers who reported drinking consumed five or more drinks that day. Conclusions Designated driving is widely used in the United States, with the majority of designated drivers abstaining from drinking alcohol. However as designated driving separates drinking from driving for passengers in a group travelling together, this may encourage passengers to binge drink, which is associated with many adverse health consequences in addition to those arising from alcohol-impaired driving. Designated driving programs and campaigns, although not proven to be effective when used alone, can complement proven effective interventions to help reduce excessive drinking and alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:24372499

  13. Adaptive guidance for an aero-assisted boost vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Price, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    An adaptive guidance system incorporating dynamic pressure constraint is studied for a single stage to low earth orbit (LEO) aero-assist booster with thrust gimbal angle as the control variable. To derive an adaptive guidance law, cubic spline functions are used to represent the ascent profile. The booster flight to LEO is divided into initial and terminal phases. In the initial phase, the ascent profile is continuously updated to maximize the performance of the boost vehicle enroute. A linear feedback control is used in the terminal phase to guide the aero-assisted booster onto the desired LEO. The computer simulation of the vehicle dynamics considers a rotating spherical earth, inverse square (Newtonian) gravity field and an exponential model for the earth's atmospheric density. This adaptive guidance algorithm is capable of handling large deviations in both atmospheric conditions and modeling uncertainties, while ensuring maximum booster performance.

  14. Fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engines: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Leonid M.; Petrunin, Ivan V.; Thompson, Chris

    2004-03-01

    A new genetic approach to fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engine blades is presented. The approach consists of simultaneously using two diagnostic features: the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform of vibroacoustical signals. This approach is more fundamental than traditional approaches based on the power spectral density, phase spectrum and Hartley transform; each of these approaches is a special case of the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given based on the processing of signals generated using a nonlinear model of tested blades. The generated signals are the forced vibroacoustical oscillations of cracked and un-cracked blades. The numerical examples show that crack detection ismore effective when using the new approach than when u sing the power spectral density approach. The presented experimental results using un-cracked and cracked turbuine blades from an aero-engine are matched with numerical results. The proposed approach offers an effectiveness improvement over the traditional approach based on power spectral density.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis for Coupled Aero-structural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunta, Anthony A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for calculating gradients of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for an aeroelastic aircraft model. This method uses the Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) to account for the aero-structural coupling, and a reduced-order modal analysis approach to condense the coupling bandwidth between the aerodynamic and structural models. Parallel computing is applied to reduce the computational expense of the numerous high fidelity aerodynamic analyses needed for the coupled aero-structural system. Good agreement is obtained between aerodynamic force and moment gradients computed with the GSE/modal analysis approach and the same quantities computed using brute-force, computationally expensive, finite difference approximations. A comparison between the computational expense of the GSE/modal analysis method and a pure finite difference approach is presented. These results show that the GSE/modal analysis approach is the more computationally efficient technique if sensitivity analysis is to be performed for two or more aircraft design parameters.

  16. Current Challenges for HTCMC Aero-Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2007-01-01

    In comparison to the best metallic materials, HTCMC aero-propulsion engine components offer the opportunity of reduced weight and higher temperature operation, with corresponding improvements in engine cooling requirements, emissions, thrust, and specific fuel consumption. Although much progress has been made in the development of advanced HTCMC constituent materials and processes, major challenges still remain for their implementation into these components. The objectives of this presentation are to briefly review (1) potential HTCMC aero-propulsion components and their generic material performance requirements, (2) recent progress at NASA and elsewhere concerning advanced constituents and processes for meeting these requirements, (3) key HTCMC component implementation challenges that are currently being encountered, and (4) on-going activities within the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that are addressing these challenges.

  17. Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael; Elliott, Michael; Cornejo, Rebecca A; Arbogast, Kristy B; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of children's exposure to passenger air bag (PAB) deployments and to determine the relative risk of both minor and more serious nonfatal injuries to restrained children exposed to PABs in frontal impact collisions. Data were collected from 1 December 1998 to 30 November 2001 from a large-scale, child-specific crash surveillance system based on insurance claims, a telephone survey, and on-site crash investigations. Vehicles qualifying for inclusion were State Farm-insured, model year 1990 or newer, and involved in a crash with at least one child occupant < or =15 years of age. Qualifying crashes were limited to those that occurred in 15 states and the District of Columbia. A stratified cluster sample was designed in order to select vehicles (the unit of sampling) for the conduction of a telephone survey with the driver. For cases in which child occupants were seriously injured or killed, in-depth crash investigations were performed. The prevalence of exposure to PABs was calculated as the number of children occupying the right front seat in a PAB deployment crash among all children occupying the right front seat in vehicles equipped with PABs. Complete interview data were obtained on 9,779 vehicles involving 15,341 children. Among PAB-exposed children, 175 (14%) suffered serious injuries versus 41 (7.5%) of those in the comparison group (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). The overall risk of any injury (both minor and serious) was 86% among children exposed to PABs, compared to 55% among the comparison group (OR 5.3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.4). Exposure to PABs increased the risk of both minor injuries, including facial and chest abrasions, and more serious injuries, particularly upper extremity fractures.

  18. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  19. Promoting Use of Booster Seats in Rural Areas Through Community Sports Programs

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Mary E.; Miller, Beverly K.; Anderson, Byron L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Monroe, Kathy W.; Daniels, Dawn; O'Neil, Joseph; Scherer, L.R."Tres"; Hafner, John; Mullins, Samantha H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Booster seats reduce mortality and morbidity for young children in car crashes, but use is low, particularly in rural areas. This study targeted rural communities in 4 states using a community sports-based approach. Objective The Strike Out Child Passenger Injury (Strike Out) intervention incorporated education about booster seat use in children ages 4–7 years within instructional baseball programs. We tested the effectiveness of Strike Out in increasing correct restraint use among participating children. Methods Twenty communities with similar demographics from 4 states participated in a non-randomized, controlled trial. Surveys of restraint use were conducted before and after baseball season. Intervention communities received tailored education and parents had direct consultation on booster seat use. Control communities received only brochures. Results 1,014 pre-intervention observation surveys for children ages 4–7 years (Intervention Group (I): N = 511, Control (C): N = 503) and 761 post-intervention surveys (I: N = 409, C: N = 352) were obtained. For 3 of 4 states, the intervention resulted in increases in recommended child restraint use (Alabama +15.5%, Arkansas +16.1%, Illinois +11.0%). Communities in one state (Indiana) did not have a positive response (−9.2%). Overall, unadjusted restraint use increased 10.2% in intervention and 1.7% in control communities (P =.02). After adjustment for each state in the study, booster seat use was increased in intervention communities (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel OR 1.56, 95% CI (1.16–2.10)). Conclusions A tailored intervention using baseball programs increased appropriate restraint use among targeted rural children overall and in 3 of 4 states studied. Such interventions hold promise for expansion into other sports and populations. PMID:23944283

  20. 2005 PathfinderPlus Aero-Elastic Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the 2005 Pathfinder along with an investigation of its aeroelastic responses. The contents include: 1) HALE Class of Vehicles; 2) Aero-elastic Research Flights Overall Objective; 3) General Arrangement; 4) Sensor Locations; 5) NASA Ramp Operations; 6) Lakebed Operations; 7) 1st Flight Data Set; 8) Tool development / data usage; 9) HALE Tool Development & Validation; 10) Building a HALE Foundation; 11) Compelling Needs Drive HALE Efforts; and 12) Team Photo

  1. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime...

  2. Train Timetable Evaluation from the Viewpoints of Passengers by Microsimulation of Train Operation and Passenger Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimatsu, Taketoshi; Hirai, Chikara; Tomii, Norio

    In order to evaluate train timetables from passengers' points of view, it is indispensable to estimate the disutilities of passengers. This can be done by estimating the movements of passengers and trains accurately. In particular, when there are many passengers, an interaction between the passengers and trains must be considered. To this end, we have developed a microsimulation system to simulate both train operation and passengers' train choice behavior. The system can simulate train choice behaviors of more than one million passengers as well as their positions in trains. It is possible to estimate the delays caused by congestion in trains as well. The system is based on models of different attitudes of the passengers with respect to the train choice behavior, with includes the choice of the earliest train, transfer avoidance, and congestion avoidance; a passengers' train choice behavior reflects his/her preferences. We applied this system to an actual railway line in a metropolitan area and evaluated two train schedules by calculating the generalized cost that reflects each passenger's disutility in his/her experience. Through the numerical experiments, we have confirmed that the proposed method is very useful for evaluating timetables from passengers' points of view.

  3. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  8. Improvement of the AeroClipper system for cyclones monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Philippe, Duvel Jean

    2016-07-01

    The AeroClipper developed by the French space agency (Centre National d'Études Spatiales, CNES) is a quasi-lagrangian device drifting with surface wind at about 20-30m above the ocean surface. It is a new and original device for real-time and continuous observation of air-sea surface parameters in open ocean remote regions. This device enables the sampling of the variability of surface parameters in particular under convective systems toward which it is attracted. The AeroClipper is therefore an ideal instrument to monitor Tropical Cyclones (TCs) in which they are likely to converge and provide original observations to evaluate and improve our current understanding and diagnostics of TCs as well as their representation in numerical models. In 2008, the AeroClipper demonstrates its capability to be captured by an Ocean Indian cyclone, as two models have converged, without damages, in the eye of Dora cyclone during the 2008 VASCO campaign. This paper will present the improvements of this balloon system for the international project 'the Year of Maritime Continent'.

  9. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  10. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  11. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  12. NASA seat experiment and occupant responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the crash test of a remotely piloted transport aircraft instrumented to measure a NASA energy-absorbing transport seat are given. Human tolerance limits to acceleration and a dynamic response index model are discussed. It was found that the acceleration levels at the rear of the airplane were quite low and were below the stroking threshold of the NASA EA-seat. Therefore, dummies in the standard and EA-seat responded approximately the same. All longitudinal accelerations were quite low for the primary impact with very low forces measured in the lap belts. The vertical (spineward) acceleration levels measured in the dummies were also relatively low and very survivable from an impact tolerance standpoint. The pilot with an 18 G peak acceleration received by far the highest vertical acceleration and could have possibly received slight spinal injury.

  13. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) of injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the passengers inside the car passenger compartment based on the analysis of 599 archival expert documents available from 45 regional state bureaus of forensic medical examination of the Russian federation for the period from 1995 till 2014. These materials included the data obtained by the examination of 200 corpses and 300 live persons involved in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use the sequential analysis method based on the Byes and Wald formulas yielded the diagnostic coefficients that made it possible to identify the most important signs characterizing the risk of injuries for the passenger occupying the front seat of the vehicle. In the case of the lethal outcome, such injuries include fractures of the right femur (DC -8.9), bleeding (DC -7.1), wounds in the soft tissues of the right thigh (DC -5.0) with the injurious force applied to its anterior surface, bruises on the posterior surface of the right shoulder (DC -6.2), the right deltoid region (DC -5.9), and the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -5.5), fractures of the right humerus (DC -5.), etc. When both the driver and the passengers survive, the most informative signs in the latter are bleeding and scratches (DC -14.5 and 11.5 respectively) in the soft tissues at the posterior surface of the right shoulder, fractures of the right humerus (DC -10.0), bruises on the anterior surface of the right thigh (DC -13.0), the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -10.0) and the fontal region of the right lower leg (DC -10.0), bleeding in the posterior region of the right forearm (DC -9.0) and the anterior region of the left thigh (DC -8.6), fractures of the right femur (DG -8.1), etc. It is concluded that the knowledge of diagnostic coefficients helps to draw attention of the experts to the analysis of the

  14. Seated Occupant Apparent Mass Characteristics Under Automotive Postures and Vertical Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAKHEJA, S.; HARU, I.; BOILEAU, P.-É.

    2002-05-01

    The biodynamic apparent mass response characteristics of 24 human subjects (12 males and 12 females) seated under representative automotive postures with hands-in-lap (passengers) and hands-on-steering wheel (drivers) are reported. The measurements were carried out under white noise vertical excitations of 0·25, 0·5 and 1·0m/s2r.m.s. acceleration magnitudes in the 0·5-40Hz frequency range and a track measured input (1·07m/s2). The measured data have been analyzed to study the effects of hands position, body mass, magnitude and type of vibration excitation, and feet position, on the biodynamic response expressed in terms of apparent mass. A comparison of the measured response of subjects assuming typical automotive postures involving inclined cushion, inclined backrest and full use of backrest support with data determined under different postural conditions and excitation levels revealed considerable differences. The biodynamic response of automobile occupants seated with hands in lap, peaks in the 6·5-8·6Hz frequency range, which is considerably higher than the reported range of fundamental frequencies (4·5-5Hz) in most other studies involving different experimental conditions. The peak magnitude tends to decrease considerably for the driving posture with hands-on-steering wheel, while a second peak in the 8-12 Hz range becomes more apparent for this posture. The results suggest that biodynamic response of occupants seated in automotive seats and subject to vertical vibration need to be characterized, as a minimum, by two distinct functions for passenger and driving postures. A higher body mass, in general, yields higher peak magnitude response and lower corresponding frequency for both postures. The strong dependence of the response on the body mass is further demonstrated by grouping the measured data into four different mass ranges: less than 60 kg, between 60·5 and 70 kg, between 70·5 and 80 kg, and above 80 kg. From the results, it is concluded that

  15. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  16. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  17. 76 FR 66274 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Education, Primary and Alternate seats; Fishing, Primary and Alternate seats; Research, Alternate seat; Community-at-Large Mann County, Alternate seat... occupied by members representing research, conservation, maritime activity, fishing, education, Mann...

  18. 12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV Center booth and reserved seating areas. Stairway above booth leads to turret on roof. Camera pointed SW. (May 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  19. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins.

  20. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  1. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  2. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  3. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  4. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire § 177.870 Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. (a) Vehicles transporting passengers and property... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or...

  5. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  6. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  7. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  8. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  9. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  10. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  11. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  12. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  13. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  14. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  15. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  16. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  17. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  18. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  19. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  20. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  1. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  2. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  3. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  4. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  5. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  6. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  7. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  8. Classroom Seating Choice and Teacher Perceptions of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John A.; Suite, Amy

    1981-01-01

    The impact of seat position on teachers' initial judgments of students was investigated. Students sitting forward in the classroom were regarded more favorably than those at the rear. Results indicated a significant effect for seating and a three-way interaction between chosen seat, sex, and grade. (Author/GK)

  9. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  10. The Medical Case for Seat Belts on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Arthur

    1985-01-01

    A group is actively supporting legislation to require seat belts on only newly manufactured school buses. However, misinformation is being circulated to oppose the installation of seat belts in school buses. If the industry continues to block the installation of seat belts, punitive legislation may be passed. (MLF)

  11. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  12. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  13. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  14. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  15. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  16. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  17. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  18. Uterine rupture. A seat belt hazard.

    PubMed

    van Enk, A; van Zwam, W

    1994-05-01

    A case is described of a uterine rupture resulting from a car accident occurring in a woman who was wearing a seat belt as generally recommended. The rupture was initially not recognised and only became apparent after attempts to induce labor which led to expulsion of the fetus into the abdominal cavity.

  19. Preliminary floor, seat, and dummy data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    According to preliminary examination of the data, out of 179 data channels that were onboard the aircraft in support of the seat experiments, there is data from 168. There was somewhat more severe environment imposed in the structure of the obstacles than by the ground impact. Therefore, both ground impact and obstacle impact are of interest for crashworthiness experiments. Most of the data channels that were studied are fairly consistent with the physical evidence: they show acceleration levels that are reasonable, and in many cases these integrate out to a reasonable velocity change. Finally, from observation thus far, the ground impact did not fail or significantly damage any seat. Nor did any of the energy absorbers in the modified seats extend. The accelerations do not appear high enough and/or energetic enough to cause this to happen. At this time, the onboard films have not been studied; only some videotape have been viewed. Some of the seats were so badly damaged by the fire that any failures which might have occurred were obscured. A close examination of the onboard films using a stop-action projector will allow a more thorough evaluation.

  20. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  1. Injuries to Seat Occupants of Light Airplanes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    PI-M *20 IBJIMIES TO SEAT OCCUPMuTS OF LiiUiTNZEflziE(U) ’ IFEE. IVIATION MNINISTRATION WASNINGTON OC OFFICE OF WICLSSIFED VISTIOU MEDCINE E J...Parametric Statistics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY 1956. 27. Snyder R, Crashworthiness Investigation of General Aviation Accidents, Society

  2. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... possibility of injury and avoid trapping occupants. (c) Installation of seats must provide for ready escape... of not more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24 inches) in width. (2) An aisle of more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not...

  3. The Case for School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Salvatore J.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for seat belt installation on school buses and forced retirement of vehicles manufactured prior to 1977, when federal safety standards were upgraded to include compartmentalization features. Discredits a Transport Canada study for improper design and methodology used. Advises communities to examine research, consult experts, and visit…

  4. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P

    2004-01-01

    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  5. 78 FR 32363 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... propose to rescind an airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday...

  6. 77 FR 35888 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes. This...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  10. Child passenger safety: direction, selection, location, installation.

    PubMed

    Agran, Phyllis F; Hoffman, Benjamin

    2008-09-01

    The most significant risk factor for death and serious injury in a car crash is the failure to use a size-appropriate restraint system. Providing accurate car safety seat anticipatory guidance to families is the standard of care. Guiding families on the best car seat for best protection can be done with the four messages, direction, selection, location, and refer, if needed, to community resources for correct installation. Addressing special issues that impact use of a car seat on each and every ride, including challenging behaviors and obesity, will transfer to many other situations. Data support a new recommendation that children stay rear-facing in size-appropriate car seats until they reach the highest weight and height allowed for rear-facing by the manufacturer of the convertible seat. Premature graduation to the next seat type/size/position increases risk of injury. A driver who is distracted by a cell phone, food, or something else, becomes a risk factor for a car crash. State laws may lag behind best practices. Advocacy for stronger laws, better enforcement, and best practices at the local, state, and national levels is a critical role for the pediatric professional community.

  11. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  12. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  13. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  14. Exhaust System Experiments at NASA's AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the planned testing in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Lab (AAPL) in the coming 15 months. It was stressed in the presentation that these are plans that are subject to change due to changes in funding and/or programmatic direction. The first chart shows a simplified schedule of test entries with funding sponsor and dates for each. In subsequent charts are pages devoted to the Objectives and Issues with each test entry, along with a graphic intended to represent the test activity. The chart for each test entry also indicates sponsorship of the activity, and a contact person.!

  15. Future NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development. Finally, the presentation examines what type of non-traditional learning areas should be emphasized in student curriculum so that the engineering needs of the third decade of the 21st Century are met.

  16. Unsteady fluid and optical simulation of transonic aero-windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    The time-varying fluid and optical fields of several cavity configurations have been computed on overset mesh systems using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and geometric optics. Comparisons between numerical results and Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) flight data are made in two-dimensions for a quieted cavity geometry with two lip-blowing rates. In three-dimensions, two proposed aero-window locations for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) are discussed. The simulations indicate that convection of large shear layer structures across the aperture cause the blur circle diameter to be three times the diffraction-limited diameter in the near-infrared band.

  17. Fatigue Life Analysis of Turbine Disks Based on Load Spectra of Aero-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Feng; Lv, Zhiqiang; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Load spectra of aero-engines reflect the process of operating aircrafts as well as the changes of parameters of aircrafts. According to flight hours and speed cycle numbers of the aero-engines, the relationship between load spectra and the fatigue life of main components of the aero-engines is obtained. Based on distribution function and a generalized stress-strength interference model, the cumulative fatigue damage of aero-engines is then calculated. After applying the analysis of load spectra and the cumulative fatigue damage theory, the fatigue life of the first-stage turbine disks of the aero-engines is evaluated by using the S-N curve and Miner's rule in this paper.

  18. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  19. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.7 Passenger briefings. (a)...

  20. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...

  1. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipment or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  2. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equipment or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  3. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equipment or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  4. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along pulpits... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  5. Human Interactive Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Self-Powered Smart Seat.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Selvarajan, Sophia; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2016-04-20

    A lightweight, flexible, cost-effective, and robust, single-electrode-based Smart Seat-Triboelectric Nanogenerator (SS-TENG) is introduced as a promising eco-friendly approach for harvesting energy from the living environment, for use in integrated self-powered systems. An effective method for harvesting biomechanical energy from human motion such as walking, running, and sitting, utilizing widely adaptable everyday contact materials (newspaper, denim, polyethylene covers, and bus cards) is demonstrated. The working mechanism of the SS-TENG is based on the generation and transfer of triboelectric charge carriers between the active layer and user-friendly contact materials. The performance of SS-TENG (52 V and 5.2 μA for a multiunit SS-TENG) is systematically studied and demonstrated in a range of applications including a self-powered passenger seat number indicator and a STOP-indicator using LEDs, using a simple logical circuit. Harvested energy is used as a direct power source to drive 60 blue and green commercially available LEDs and a monochrome LCD. This feasibility study confirms that triboelectric nanogenerators are a suitable technology for energy harvesting from human motion during transportation, which could be used to operate a variety of wireless devices, GPS systems, electronic devices, and other sensors during travel.

  6. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  7. AeroVironment technician checks a Helios solar cell panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A technician at AeroVironment's Design Development Center in Simi Valley, California, checks a panel of silicon solar cells for conductivity and voltage. The bi-facial cells, fabricated by SunPower, Inc., of Sunnyvale, California, are among 64,000 solar cells which have been installed on the Helios Prototype solar-powered aircraft to provide power to its 14 electric motors and operating systems. Developed by AeroVironment under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude aircraft which can perform atmospheric science missions and serve as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere. Target goals set by NASA for the giant 246-foot span flying wing include reaching and sustaining subsonic horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude in 2001, and sustained continuous flight for at least four days and nights above 50,000 feet altitude with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now under development in 2003.

  8. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  9. Spectral Behavior of Weakly Compressible Aero-Optical Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In classical theories of optical distortions by atmospheric turbulence, an appropriate and key assumption is that index-of-refraction variations are dominated by fluctuations in temperature and the effects of turbulent pressure fluctuations are negligible. This assumption is, however, not generally valid for aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent flow over an optical aperture, where both temperature and pressures fluctuations may contribute significantly to the index-of-refraction fluctuations. A general expression for weak fluctuations in refractive index is derived using the ideal gas law and Gladstone-Dale relation and applied to describe the spectral behavior of aero-optical distortions. Large-eddy simulations of weakly compressible, temporally evolving shear layers are then used to verify the theoretical results. Computational results support theoretical findings and confirm that if the log slope of the 1-D density spectrum in the inertial range is -mρ , the optical phase distortion spectral slope is given by - (mρ + 1) . The value of mρ is then shown to be dependent on the ratio of shear-layer free-stream densities and bounded by the spectral slopes of temperature and pressure fluctuations. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001 and Blue Waters Graduate Fellowship Program.

  10. Thermal comfort of aeroplane seats: influence of different seat materials and the use of laboratory test methods.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2003-07-01

    This study determined the influence of different cover and cushion materials on the thermal comfort of aeroplane seats. Different materials as well as ready made seats were investigated by the physiological laboratory test methods Skin Model and seat comfort tester. Additionally, seat trials with human test subjects were performed in a climatic chamber. Results show that a fabric cover produces a considerably higher sweat transport than leather. A three-dimensional knitted spacer fabric turns out to be the better cushion alternative in comparison to a moulded foam pad. Results from the physiological laboratory test methods nicely correspond to the seat trials with human test subjects.

  11. Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers for influenza A/H1N1 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early diagnosis and treatment. Passengers seated on the same row, two rows in front or behind a patient infectious for influenza, during a flight of ≥ 4 h were considered close contacts. This study evaluates the timeliness of flight-contact tracing (CT) as performed following national and international CT requests addressed to the Center of Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM), and implemented by the Municipal Health Services of Schiphol Airport. Methods Elapsed days between date of flight arrival and the date passenger lists became available (contact details identified - CI) was used as proxy for timeliness of CT. In a retrospective study, dates of flight arrival, onset of illness, laboratory diagnosis, CT request and identification of contacts details through passenger lists, following CT requests to the RIVM for flights landed at Schiphol Airport were collected and analyzed. Results 24 requests for CT were identified. Three of these were declined as over 4 days had elapsed since flight arrival. In 17 out of 21 requests, contact details were obtained within 7 days after arrival (81%). The average delay between arrival and CI was 3,9 days (range 2-7), mainly caused by delay in diagnosis of the index patient after arrival (2,6 days). In four flights (19%), contacts were not identified or only after > 7 days. CI involving Dutch airlines was faster than non-Dutch airlines (P < 0,05). Passenger locator cards did not improve timeliness of CI. In only three flights contact details were identified within 2 days after arrival. Conclusion CT for influenza A/H1N1 2009 among flight passengers was not successful for timely provision of prophylaxis. CT had little additional value for alerting passengers for disease symptoms, as this information already was provided

  12. Sudden unexpected infant deaths associated with car seats.

    PubMed

    Bamber, Andrew R; Pryce, Jeremy; Ashworth, Michael T; Sebire, Neil J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency, circumstances, demographics, and causes of death of infants dying while seated in car safety seats. A retrospective review of a pediatric autopsy database at a specialist center over a 16-year period was undertaken to identify any infant deaths (aged <1 year), in whom death occurred while seated in a car safety seat. Fourteen car seat-associated deaths were identified from a total of 1,465 coronial infant autopsies (0.96 %). Four involved infants were being appropriately transported in the car seat, all of whom had a medical underlying cause of death (one infection and three congenital heart disease). The majority (10 cases; 70 %) occurred while car seats were being inappropriately used, outside of the car, including as an alternative to a cot or high-chair. Five of these infants died of explained causes, but four deaths remained unexplained after autopsy, and in one no cause of death was available. There were no cases of previously healthy infants dying unexpectedly in a car seat when it was being used appropriately, and in this series there were no cases of traumatic death associated with car seats, either during road traffic accidents, or from falling or being suspended from a car seat. Infant deaths in car seats are rare. These data support the recommendation that car seats be used only for transport and not as alternatives for cots or high-chairs. More research is required to investigate the effect of travel in car seats on infants with underlying conditions. There appears to be no increased risk of unexpected deaths of healthy infants transported appropriately in car seats.

  13. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    An adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension (AMSS) was analyzed for optimal protection of occupants from shock loads caused by the impact of a helicopter with the ground. The AMSS system consists of an adaptive linear stroke magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) integrated into the seat structure of a helicopter. The MRSA provides a large controllability yield force to accommodate a wide spectrum for shock mitigation. A multiple degrees-of-freedom nonlinear biodynamic model for a 50th percentile male occupant was integrated with the dynamics of MRSA and the governing equations of motion were investigated theoretically. The load-stroke profile of MRSA was optimized with the goal of minimizing the potential for injuries. The MRSA yield force and the shock absorber stroke limitations were the most crucial parameters for improved biodynamic response mitigation. An assessment of injuries based on established injury criteria for different body parts was carried out.

  14. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1976-01-01

    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  15. Distributed wireless sensor for smart car seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baz, A.; Smoker, Jason

    2009-03-01

    A distributed wireless sensor network is embedded inside car seats to enable the measurements of the weight of the occupants, location of their center of gravity, and spatial orientation of their bodies. Based on these measurements, intelligent decisions can be made to ensure their comfort and safety particularly in case of accidents. Appropriate activation of the inflatable bags according to the weight and position of the occupants will be critical to avoiding unnecessary and undesirable injuries.

  16. Semi-active magnetorheological seat suspensions for enhanced crashworthiness and vibration isolation of rotorcraft seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, Gregory J.

    This research focuses on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers for enhanced occupant protection during harsh vertical landings as well as isolation of the occupant from cockpit vibrations. The capabilities of the current state-of-the-art in helicopter crew seat energy absorption systems are highly limited because they cannot be optimally adapted to each individual crash scenario (i.e. variations in both occupant weight and crash load level). They also present an unnecessarily high risk of injury by not minimizing the load transmitted to the occupant during a crash. Additionally, current rotorcraft seats provide no means of isolating the occupant from harmful cockpit vibrations. The objective of this research was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of an MR-based suspension for rotorcraft seats. As such, this research began with an in-depth investigation into design feasibility. Three MR seat suspension design cases are investigated: (1) for only vibration isolation, (2) for adaptive occupant protection, and (3) for combined adaptive occupant protection and vibration isolation. It is shown that MR-based suspensions are feasible for each of these cases and the performance benefits and tradeoffs are discussed for each case. Next, to further illustrate the occupant protection benefits gained with an MR-based suspension, three control strategies were developed and performance metrics were compared. It was shown that MR dampers can be controlled such that they will automatically adapt to the crash load level as well as occupant weight. By using feedback of sensor signals, MR dampers were adjusted to utilize the full stroke capability of the seat suspension regardless crash level and occupant weight. The peak load transmitted to the occupant and the risk of spinal injury, therefore, was always minimized. Because this control significantly reduced or eliminated injury risk during less severe landings, it is a significant advance over the

  17. A coupled-adjoint method for high-fidelity aero-structural optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Joaquim Rafael Rost A.

    A new integrated aero-structural design method for aerospace vehicles is presented. The approach combines an aero-structural analysis solver, a coupled aero-structural adjoint solver, a geometry engine, and an efficient gradient-based optimization algorithm. The aero-structural solver ensures accurate solutions by using high-fidelity models for the aerodynamics, structures, and coupling procedure. The coupled aero-structural adjoint solver is used to calculate the sensitivities of aerodynamic and structural cost functions with respect to both aerodynamic shape and structural variables. The aero-structural adjoint sensitivities are compared with those given by the complex-step derivative approximation and finite differences. The proposed method is shown to be both accurate and efficient, exhibiting a significant cost advantage when the gradient of a small number of functions with respect to a large number of design variables is needed. The optimization of a supersonic business jet configuration demonstrates the usefulness and importance of computing aero-structural sensitivities using the coupled-adjoint method.

  18. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  19. Medical guidelines for space passengers--II.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B; Antuñano, Melchor J; Garber, Mitchell A; Hastings, John D; Illig, Petra A; Jordan, Jon L; Landry, Roger F; McMeekin, Robert R; Northrup, Susan E; Ruehle, Charles; Saenger, Arleen; Schneider, Victor S

    2002-11-01

    It now appears likely that commercial entities will carry paying passengers on suborbital spaceflights in this decade. The stresses of spaceflight, the effects of microgravity, and the limited capability for medical care onboard make it advisable to develop a system of medical clearance for such space tourists. The Aerospace Medical Association, therefore, organized a Space Passenger Task Force whose first report on medical guidelines was published in 2001. That report consisted of a list of conditions that would disqualify potential passengers for relatively long orbital flights. The Task Force reconvened in 2002 to focus on less stringent medical screening appropriate for short duration suborbital flights. It was assumed that such commercial flights would involve: 1) small spacecraft carrying 4-6 passengers; 2) a cabin maintained at sea-level "shirt-sleeve" condition; 3) maximum accelerations of 2.0-4.5 G; 4) about 30 min in microgravity. The Task Force addressed specific medical problems, including space motion sickness, pregnancy, and medical conditions involving the risk of sudden incapacitation. The Task Force concluded that a medical history should be taken from potential passengers with individualized follow-up that focuses on areas of concern.

  20. Contamination of passenger trains with Dermatophagoides (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mite antigen in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, K; Toyoda, Y; Konishi, E

    2000-01-01

    Passenger trains were surveyed for contamination with Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouesart) mites in Japan. A total of 492 dust samples were collected from upholstered seats in six commuter trains, one long-distance express train and three night trains in October, 1996 and January, April, and July, 1997. Mite antigen levels contained in fine dust fractions of these samples were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Most samples obtained from commuter trains showed relatively high mite antigen levels of > 10 microgm(-2) (corresponding to > 100 mites). Express and night trains showed lower antigen levels per square meter, but higher mite antigen levels per gram of fine dust than commuter trains, indicating relatively high mite antigen densities. Seasonal comparisons indicated that commuter trains showed the highest mean antigen level per square meter in winter (January), whereas the highest antigen level per gram of fine dust was observed in summer (July) in express and night trains.

  1. The Potential for Helicopter Passenger Service in Major Urban Areas. [cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Stortstrom, R. G.; Warner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    An interurban helicopter cost model having the capability of selecting an efficient helicopter network for a given city in terms of service and total operating costs was developed. This model which is based upon the relationship between total and direct operating costs and the number of block hours of helicopter operation is compiled in terms of a computer program which simulates the operation of an intracity helicopter fleet over a given network. When applied to specific urban areas, the model produces results in terms of a break-even air passenger market penetration rate, which is the percent of the air travelers in each of those areas that must patronize the helicopter network to make it break even commercially. A total of twenty major metropolitan areas are analyzed and are ranked initially according to cost per seat mile and then according to break-even penetration rate.

  2. Miga Aero Actuator and 2D Machined Mechanical Binary Latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gummin, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators provide the highest force-to-weight ratio of any known actuator. They can be designed for a wide variety of form factors from flat, thin packages, to form-matching packages for existing actuators. SMA actuators can be operated many thousands of times, so that ground testing is possible. Actuation speed can be accurately controlled from milliseconds to position and hold, and even electronic velocity-profile control is possible. SMA actuators provide a high degree of operational flexibility, and are truly smart actuators capable of being accurately controlled by onboard microprocessors across a wide range of voltages. The Miga Aero actuator is a SMA actuator designed specifically for spaceflight applications. Providing 13 mm of stroke with either 20- or 40-N output force in two different models, the Aero actuator is made from low-outgassing PEEK (polyether ether ketone) plastic, stainless steel, and nickel-titanium SMA wires. The modular actuator weighs less than 28 grams. The dorsal output attachment allows the Aero to be used in either PUSH or PULL modes by inverting the mounting orientation. The SPA1 actuator utilizes commercially available SMA actuator wire to provide 3/8-in. (approx. =.1 cm) of stroke at a force of over 28 lb (approx. = .125 N). The force is provided by a unique packaging of the single SMA wire that provides the output force of four SMA wires mechanically in parallel. The output load is shared by allowing the SMA wire to slip around the output attachment end to adjust or balance the load, preventing any individual wire segment from experiencing high loads during actuation. A built-in end limit switch prevents overheating of the SMA element following actuation when used in conjunction with the Miga Analog Driver [a simple MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) switching circuit]. A simple 2D machined mechanical binary latch has been developed to complement the capabilities of SMA wire

  3. Child passenger safety laws in the United States, 1978-2010: policy diffusion in the absence of strong federal intervention.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Yung; Anderson, Evan; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the diffusion of U.S. state child passenger safety laws, analyzing over-time changes and inter-state differences in all identifiable features of laws that plausibly influence crash-related morbidity and mortality. The observed trend shows many states' continuing efforts to update their laws to be consistent with latest motor vehicle safety recommendations, with each state modifying their laws on average 6 times over the 30-year period. However, there has been a considerable time lag in knowledge diffusion and policy adoption. Even though empirical evidence supporting the protective effect of child restraint devices was available in the early 1970s, laws requiring their use were not adopted by all 50 states until 1986. For laws requiring minors to be seated in rear seats, the first state law adoption did not occur until two decades after the evidence became publicly available. As of 2010, only 12 states explicitly required the use of booster seats, 9 for infant seats and 6 for toddler seats. There is also great variation among states in defining the child population to be covered by the laws, the vehicle operators subject to compliance, and the penalties resulting from non-compliance. Some states cover only up to 4-year-olds while others cover children up to age 17. As of 2010, states have as many as 14 exemptions, such as those for non-residents, non-parents, commercial vehicles, large vehicles, or vehicles without seatbelts. Factors such as the complexity of the state of the science, the changing nature of guidelines (from age to height/weight-related criteria), and the absence of coordinated federal actions are potential explanations for the observed patterns. The resulting uneven policy landscape among states suggests a strong need for improved communication among state legislators, public health researchers, advocates and concerned citizen groups to promote more efficient and effective policymaking.

  4. Child Passenger Safety Laws in the United States, 1978–2010: Policy Diffusion in the Absence of Strong Federal Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jin Yung; Anderson, Evan; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the diffusion of U.S. state child passenger safety laws, analyzing over-time changes and inter-state differences in all identifiable features of laws that plausibly influence crash-related morbidity and mortality. The observed trend shows many states’ continuing efforts to update their laws to be consistent with latest motor vehicle safety recommendations, with each state modifying their laws on average 6 times over the 30-year period. However, there has been a considerable time lag in knowledge diffusion and policy adoption. Even though empirical evidence supporting the protective effect of child restraint devices was available in the early 1970s, laws requiring their use were not adopted by all 50 states until 1986. For laws requiring minors to be seated in rear seats, the first state law adoption did not occur until two decades after the evidence became publicly available. As of 2010, only 12 states explicitly required the use of booster seats, 9 for infant seats and 6 for toddler seats. There is also great variation among states in defining the child population to be covered by the laws, the vehicle operators subject to compliance, and the penalties resulting from non-compliance. Some states cover only up to 4-year-olds while others cover children up to age 17. As of 2010, states have as many as 14 exemptions, such as those for non-residents, non-parents, commercial vehicles, large vehicles, or vehicles without seatbelts. Factors such as the complexity of the state of the science, the changing nature of guidelines (from age to height/weight-related criteria), and the absence of coordinated federal actions are potential explanations for the observed patterns. The resulting uneven policy landscape among states suggests a strong need for improved communication among state legislators, public health researchers, advocates and concerned citizen groups to promote more efficient and effective policymaking. PMID:24444836

  5. Overview of NASA Glenn Aero/Mobile Communication Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David; Hoder, Doug; Wilkins, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    The Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) has been involved with several other NASA field centers on various networking and RF communications demonstrations and experiments since 1998. These collaborative experiments investigated communications technologies new to aviation, such as wideband Ku satcom, L-band narrowband satcom, and IP (Internet Protocol), using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components These technologies can be used to distribute weather and hazard data, air traffic management and airline fleet management information, and passenger cabin Internet service.

  6. Overview of NASA Glenn Aero/Mobile Communications Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David; Hoder, Doug; Wilkins, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    The Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) has been involved with several other NASA field centers on various networking and RF communications demonstrations and experiments since 1998. These collaborative experiments investigated communications technologies new to aviation, such as wideband Ku satcom, L-band narrowband satcom, and IP (Internet Protocol), using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components These technologies can be used to distribute weather and hazard data, air traffic management and airline fleet management information, and passenger cabin Internet service.

  7. The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation is a flexible turbofan engine simulation environment that provides the user a platform to develop advanced control algorithms. It is capable of testing the performance of control designs on a validated and verified generic engine model. In addition, it is able to generate state-space linear models of the engine model to aid in controller design. The engine model used in MAPSS is a generic high-pressure ratio, dual-spool, lowbypass, military-type, variable cycle turbofan engine with a digital controller. MAPSS is controlled by a graphical user interface (GUI) and this guide explains how to use it to take advantage of the capabilities of MAPSS.

  8. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  9. Recognizing and treating toilet-seat contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Sugathan, Paramoo; Cohen, Bernard A

    2010-02-01

    Toilet-seat contact dermatitis is a common condition around the world and is reemerging in the United States. It can be easily recognized and treated. However, few practitioners consider this diagnosis, which results in a delay in treatment and often exacerbation of the skin eruption. In the past, exposure to wooden toilet seats and associated varnish, lacquers, and paints led to the development of an allergic contact dermatitis on the buttocks and posterior thighs. In recent years, most public facilities have changed to plastic seats, resulting in a change in the clinical presentation of toilet-seat dermatitis. We present 5 cases of toilet-seat dermatitis in children from the United States and India and review the history, presentation, and clinical course of the disease. Our findings suggest that toilet-seat dermatitis is more common than previously recognized and should be considered in any child with a dermatitis that involves the buttocks and posterior thighs.

  10. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  11. 5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... belt bears upon the seat frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft...

  16. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., other than the webbing or straps, involved in transferring seat belt loads to the vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure... frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft of the rearmost belt...

  17. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... belt bears upon the seat frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft...

  18. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... the seat structure, shall be aft of the rearmost belt contact point on the seat frame with the seat...

  19. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  20. Technical Note: Simulation of detailed aerosol chemistry on the global scale using MECCA-AERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, A.; Sander, R.; Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-06-01

    We present the MESSy submodel MECCA-AERO, which simulates both aerosol and gas phase chemistry within one comprehensive mechanism. Including the aerosol phase into the chemistry mechanism increases the stiffness of the resulting set of differential equations. The numerical aspects of the approach followed in MECCA-AERO are presented. MECCA-AERO requires input of an aerosol dynamical/microphysical model to provide the aerosol size and particle number information of the modes/bins for which the chemistry is explicitly calculated. Additional precautions are required to avoid the double counting of processes, especially for sulphate in the aerosol dynamical and the chemistry model. This coupling is explained in detail. To illustrate the capabilities of the new aerosol submodel, examples for species usually treated in aerosol dynamical models are shown. The aerosol chemistry as provided by MECCA-AERO is very sumptuous and not readily applicable for long-term simulations, though it provides a reference to evaluate simplified approaches.

  1. Technical Note: simulation of detailed aerosol chemistry on the global scale using MECCA-AERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, A.; Sander, R.; Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-03-01

    We present the MESSy submodel MECCA-AERO, which simulates both aerosol and gas phase chemistry with the same mechanism. Including the aerosol phase into the chemistry mechanism increases the stiffness of the resulting set of differential equations. The numerical aspects of the approach followed in MECCA-AERO are presented. MECCA-AERO requires input of an aerosol dynamical/microphysical model to provide the aerosol size and particle number information of the modes/bins for which the chemistry is explicitly calculated. Additional precautions are required to avoid the double counting of processes, especially for sulphate in the aerosol dynamical and the chemistry model. This coupling is explained in detail. To illustrate the capabilities of the new aerosol submodel, examples for species usually treated in aerosol dynamical models are shown. The aerosol chemistry as provided by MECCA-AERO is very sumptuous and not readily applicable for long-term simulations, though it provides a reference to evaluate simplified approaches.

  2. [Flight nurses' comprehension about their role in the multiprofesional team of aero-medical transport].

    PubMed

    Scuissiato, Dayane Reinhardt; Boffi, Letícia Valois; da Rocha, Roseline da Rocha; Montezeli, Juliana Helena; Bordin, Michelle Taverna; Peres, Aida Maris

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive qualitative research which aimed at identifying the flight nurses' comprehension by about their role in the aero-medical multiprofesional team. A semi-structured interview was carried out with eight flight nurses from Curitiba-PR, from June to August 2009. The speeches were analyzed by the content analysis, from which three categories emerged. The first describes the responsibilities of the flight nurses as managers of the aero-medical mission, planning for before, during and after the transport, what includes the aircraft check-list and knowledge of the patient's case. The second category deals with aspects of these professionals as care providers to the aero-transferred patient. The third describes communication and team-work as fundamental requirements for flight nurses. It was concluded that the nurse in aero-medical team mixes management and caring in his/her professional practice by the use of specific competences.

  3. Cushion system for multi-use child safety seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  4. Cushion System for Multi-Use Child Safety Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  5. ES2 neck injury assessment reference values for lateral loading in side facing seats.

    PubMed

    Philippens, M; Wismans, J; Forbes, P A; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Soltis, S J

    2009-11-01

    Injury assessment reference values (IARV) predicting neck injuries are currently not available for side facing seated aircraft passengers in crash conditions. The aircraft impact scenario results in inertial loading of the head and neck, a condition known to be inherently different from common automotive side impact conditions as crash pulse and seating configurations are different. The objective of this study is to develop these IARV for the European Side Impact Dummy-2 (ES-2) previously selected by the US-FAA as the most suitable ATD for evaluating side facing aircraft seats. The development of the IARV is an extended analysis of previously published PMHS neck loads by identifying the most likely injury scenarios, comparing head-neck kinematics and neck loads of the ES2 versus PMHS, and development of injury risk curves for the ES2. The ES2 showed a similar kinematic response as the PMHS, particularly during the loading phase. The ES2 exhibited a stiffer response than the PMHS in the thoracic region, resulting in a faster rebound and smaller excursions in the vertical direction. Neck loads were consistent with results from previous authors and served as the basis for the ES2 neck injury risk curve developed here. Regression analysis of the previously published PMHS neck loads indicated that the tension force at the occipital condyles was the only neck load component with a significant correlation (Pearson r2 = 0.9158) to AIS3+ classified injuries. Tension force in the ES2 upper neck showed a weaker but still significant correlation with injury severity (r2 = 0.72) and is proposed to be used as an IARV with a tolerance of 2094 N for 50% AIS3+ risk. Although the prime focus of this study is on loading conditions typical in an aircraft crash environment, it is expected that the proposed IARV's can be used as an extension of typical automotive conditions, particularly for military vehicles and public transport applications where side facing upright seating

  6. Teen Drivers’ Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise L.; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers’ fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. Method A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Findings Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. Conclusions The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle. PMID:27346920

  7. Design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croyle, Scott; Delarosa, Jose; George, Daren; Hinkle, Cathy; Karas, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Future space shuttle missions presented by NASA might require the shuttle to rendezvous with the Russian space station Mir for the purpose of transporting astronauts back to earth. Due to the atrophied state of these astronauts, a special seating system must be designed for their transportation. The main functions of this seating system are to support and restrain the astronauts during normal reentry flight and to dampen some of the loading that might occur in a crash situation. Through research, the design team developed many concept variants for these functional requirements. By evaluating each variant, the concepts were eliminated until the four most attractive designs remained. The team used a decision matrix to determine the best concept to carry through embodiment. This concept involved using struts for support during reentry flight and a spring damper/shock absorber system to dampen crash landing loads. The embodiment design process consisted of defining the layout of each of the main functional components, specifically, the seat structure and the strut structure. Through the use of MCS/pal two, the design was refined until it could handle all required loads and dampen to the forces specified. The auxiliary function carriers were then considered. Following the design of these components, the complete final layout could be determined. It is concluded that the final design meets all specifications outlined in the conceptual design. The main advantages of this design are its low weight, simplicity, and large amount of function sharing between different components. The disassembly of this design could potentially present a problem because of time and size constraints involved. Overall, this design meets or exceeds all functional requirements.

  8. Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Allen, Arrington E.

    2013-01-01

    A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was completed in 2012 following the major modifications to the facility that included replacement of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger. The calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT.

  9. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Intier Automotive Seatings of America... for automobiles. New information shows that some workers separated from employment at the subject firm had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the...

  10. A smartphone app to communicate child passenger safety: an application of theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Gielen, A C; McDonald, E M; Omaki, E; Shields, W; Case, J; Aitken, M

    2015-10-01

    Child passenger safety remains an important public health problem because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children, and the majority of children ride improperly restrained. Using a mobile app to communicate with parents about injury prevention offers promise but little information is available on how to create such a tool. The purpose of this article is to illustrate a theory-based approach to developing a tailored, smartphone app for communicating child passenger safety information to parents. The theoretical basis for the tailoring is the elaboration likelihood model, and we utilized the precaution adoption process model (PAPM) to reflect the stage-based nature of behavior change. We created assessment items (written at ≤6th grade reading level) to determine the child's proper type of car seat, the parent's PAPM stage and beliefs on selected constructs designed to facilitate stage movement according to the theory. A message library and template were created to provide a uniform structure for the tailored feedback. We demonstrate how messages derived in this way can be delivered through new m-health technology and conclude with recommendations for the utility of the methods used here for other m-health, patient education interventions.

  11. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... safety information. (e) On a vessel on a voyage of more than 24 hours duration, passengers shall...

  12. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning set... to the prohibition in this section is the transportation of passengers between ports in Puerto...

  13. 14 CFR 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger origin-destination survey. Sec... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... carriers) shall participate in a Passenger Origin-Destination (O & D) Survey covering domestic...

  14. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or other hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except...

  15. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  16. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  17. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for loading/unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including push-out windows; (3) Proper responses to such emergency situations as fires and unruly passengers; (4) Proper procedures at...

  18. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for loading/unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including push-out windows; (3) Proper responses to such emergency situations as fires and unruly passengers; (4) Proper procedures at...

  19. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  20. Older Driver and Passenger Collaboration for Wayfinding in Unfamiliar Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryden, Kelly Jane; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer; Lowndes, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Passenger collaboration offers a potential compensatory strategy to assist older drivers who have difficulty driving in unfamiliar areas (wayfinding). This article describes a survey of 194 healthy, community-dwelling older drivers and their regular passengers to investigate how passengers assist drivers, and to identify the characteristics of…

  1. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  2. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant issues the original...

  3. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  4. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  5. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  6. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  7. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  8. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a “Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet the requirements of this chapter...

  9. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  10. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  16. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  17. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  18. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  19. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  20. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  1. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  2. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner.... (b) The master of a vessel required to prepare a crew and passenger list by paragraph (a) of...

  3. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    complications resulting from those injuries. These findings, when combined with the analyses of the individual cases, point to a need for better driver and caregiver education and training on how to properly secure wheelchairs and position belt restraints on wheelchair-seated passengers. They also point to a need for improved restraint systems used by wheelchair-seated drivers, and a need for wheelchair designs that facilitate the proper use and positioning of vehicle-anchored belt restraints.

  4. Dynamic finite element model validation of an assembled aero-engine casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zi; Zang, Chaoping; Jiang, Yuying; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-09-01

    Structural dynamic model updating and validation of an aero-engine casing is critical to the design and development of an aircraft engine. It helps to identify the dynamic characteristics and reduce the response of the aero-engine. The modelling and parameter identification of joint are extremely difficult and important in structural dynamic analysis of the assembled aero-engine casing. In this paper, dynamic model validation technique was applied to update and validate the finite element model of an assembled aero-engine casing. First, modal test of individual casings and the assembled casing was performed by using the traditional acceleration sensors and a hammer. The modal frequencies and mode shapes were obtained by modal analysis tools. Second, the Inverse Eigen-sensitivity Method was used to correct frequency errors and MAC values of correlated mode pairs in the individual components to obtain validated models. Last, the bolt joints of two aero-engine casings were modelled by thin layer of shell elements. The material parameters or element properties of the thin-layer contact elements were updated to obtain reliable connection parameters. The results show that the errors of natural frequencies between the validated FE model of an assembled aero-engine casing and test data are within 7%, and the MAC values of main modes are above 70%, which can verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach.

  5. Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

  6. Human subject rear passenger symptom response to frontal car-to-car low-speed crash tests

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Arthur C.; Eldridge, T. Randall

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether healthy adult volunteers report symptoms following exposure to low-speed frontal crashes at low velocities. Methods Nineteen medically screened, healthy, informed, and willing volunteers (17 men, 2 women; mean age, 37 years) were exposed to low-speed frontal crashes. All volunteers were seated in the rear seat position of the bullet vehicle. Closing velocities ranged from 4.1 to 8.3 mph (mean, 6.7 mph). For the bullet vehicle, the delta V ranged from 1.4 to 3.9 mph with a mean of 2.8 mph. Results Eighty-eight percent of volunteers attributed symptoms of discomfort to their crash exposure. All reported symptoms were transient, and none required medical treatment. The mean duration was 1 day. Conclusions Even at relatively low speeds, there is no lower threshold below which it can be reasonably assumed that healthy and prepared volunteer rear seat passengers will not sustain some level of minor injury in a frontal collision. Although the reported mean delta V for injured persons in real-world frontal crashes has been reported to be as high as 8.1 mph, this does not offer any insight into the minimum threshold for such injuries among all at-risk vehicle occupants. PMID:22014902

  7. Coupled head neck torso and seat model for car seat optimization under rear-end impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Willinger, Rémy

    2008-06-01

    The development of new protective systems must be performed on tools reliable and representative of alive human. In an earlier study, a simplified but realistic modelling of the head-neck system under moderate rear impact was performed. In order to address this issue, an original lumped model of the human torso was developed and coupled to a car seat-head rest complex. The experimental modal analysis of the human torso in a seating position performed by Kitazaki in 1992 [Paper presented at the United Kingdom Meeting on Human Response to Vibration held at I.S.V.R. University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 28-30 September 1992.] was used in the present study for the identification of the mechanical parameters of a lumped human torso model. Despite its low complexity, this model was able to reproduce the five first experimental vibration modes and it was possible to validate it in terms of natural frequencies, damping ratio and mode shapes. In addition to the lumped approach, an external geometry of the human torso was implemented in order to provide a realistic coupling of the human body model to a finite element model of the car seat also developed in the present study. A parametric study was finally carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the torso behaviour and of the different parts of a car seat on the mechanical neck response under rear-end impact. The results of this study allow concluding that the torso behaviour has an important influence on the neck loading and therefore that the quality of a car seat depends on the human body substitute used. For instance, with the proposed torso model, a low-neck injury criterion (NIC) rearward value was obtained with low rigidity of the backrest foam and a stiff backrest net.

  8. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines Correction In proposed rule document 2013-14367, appearing on pages 38102- 38159 in the issue...

  9. Techniques for Forecasting Air Passenger Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques of forecasting the air passenger traffic are outlined. These techniques can be broadly classified into four categories: judgmental, time-series analysis, market analysis and analytical. The differences between these methods exist, in part, due to the degree of formalization of the forecasting procedure. Emphasis is placed on describing the analytical method.

  10. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated height growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in height that occurs in microgravity. The increase in height due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk 2.3.1.1) and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated height increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated height.

  11. Body mass as a determinant of seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Bolton, A; Wade, G

    1989-04-01

    Prevention of death and injury from motor vehicle accidents depends in part on seat belt use. Understanding the determinants of seat belt use is important for developing strategies to increase seat belt use. The cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported seat belt use was analyzed using data from 3,140 Health Risk Appraisals completed by Tennessee residents during 1986. Persons in the lowest quintile BMI (less than or equal to 21.8 kg/m2) stated they use seat belts 63% (SD = 38%) of the time compared to persons in the highest BMI quintile (greater than or equal to 29.0 kg/m2) who reported using seat belts 50% (SD = 38%) of the time. BMI remained associated with seat belt use after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, cigarette use, alcohol use, drug use, urban/rural residence, state area of residence, miles driven per year, self-reported physical activity, and satisfaction with life. For a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, seat belt use declined -0.73% (95% CI = -1.01, -0.46), and the relative odds of not being a frequent seat belt user increased 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05). BMI was the third variable selected in a step-wise multiple linear regression after education and race. The BMI/seat belt association, if causal, has implications for (1) targeting of education programs to likely nonusers by traffic safety agencies; (2) targeting health promotion messages to likely nonusers by primary care providers; and (3) design of automobile seats and restraint devices.

  12. Simulation of the interaction between driver and seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoming; Ren, Jindong; Sang, Chunlei; Li, Lemeng

    2013-11-01

    Test is one of methods to acquire human-seat pressure distribution in driving, with the deficiency of being uneasy to obtain the stress information of soft tissue inside human body and the sheer force of interface between human and seat, which can be obtained by simulation. But current simulation method focuses mainly on calculation itself other than combining it with posture prediction and cab packaging parameters, which cause it difficult to acquire accurate pressure calculation results without accurate posture of human body, and make it almost meaningless to design optimization. Therefore, a human body geometric model with posture change capability is built and linked up with Cascade Prediction Model(CPM), which takes cab packaging parameters as inputs. A detailed finite element model of driver human body is constructed and used to conduct the driver-seat interaction simulation between human body and seat. Good accordance of pressure distribution is observed between simulation and test, which validates the simulation. In addition to the distribution pattern, curves on key sections are used to analyze the pressure and shear stress on the seat surface, as well as soft tissue stress inside human body. The simulation shows that the maximum stress of buttocks locates under the ischial tuberosity, and the maximum stress of trunk occurs near the scapula posterior and the lower waist. These are the places where fatigue usually occurs. The maximum pressure of seat appears at the driver-seat contact area corresponding to the driver's maximum skin tissue stress. In order to guide the seat design and cab packaging and study the influence of posture to pressure distribution, finite element models for different levels of cab packaging parameters are created by using CPM. The pressure distributions are calculated and their tendencies varying with cab packaging parameters are obtained. The method presented provides a new way to accurately simulate the interaction between driver

  13. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the FRA and Amtrak jointly drafted performance metrics and standards for intercity passenger rail service... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in...

  14. Study: ED providers could be doing more to prevent injuries, deaths related to improperly restrained child passengers.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Researchers from the University of Michigan's CS Mott Children's Hospital in Ann Arbor, MI, report that both general and pediatric-trained emergency providers are missing opportunities to get critical information about the proper use of child restraints out to the families of children when they are brought to the ED following motor vehicle crashes. In a survey sent to a random sample of 1200 emergency physicians across the country, fewer than one-half of the responding physicians indicated that the parents of a 2-year-old being discharged from their ED following a motor vehicle crash would be supplied with discharge instructions that include advice about the proper use of car seats. The study notes that 20% of 1 to 3-year-olds and about one-half of 4 to 7-year-olds are typically not restrained in the recommended restraint for their age. Child passenger injuries in crashes are the leading cause of death for children who are older than age 3 years in the United States, and they are the second leading cause of death among children aged 1 to 4. Researchers recommend that resources on child passenger safety be highlighted in discharge instructions, and that emergency providers tap into their own experiences when speaking with families about the importance of properly restraining child passengers.

  15. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  16. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  17. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.308 Seating in assembly areas. (a) Existing facilities. (1) To the extent that it is readily achievable, a public accommodation... members or other companions. (2) If removal of seats is not readily achievable, a public...

  18. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lbs, school buses, police vehicles as defined in S7 of Standard...) Number of designated seating positions. The formula for calculating the number of designated seating... Accommodation” (incorporated by reference, see section 571.5) with the legs and leg weights removed, or...

  1. Classroom Seating Preference and Level of Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sara; And Others

    A study was done to examine the relation between classroom seating preference and level of self-esteem, in particular the influence of gender on self-esteem and seating preferences among community college students. The study administered a 16-item questionnaire to 231 students (104 women and 127 men) enrolled in sections of an Introductory…

  2. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  3. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  4. Hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinjie; Guo, Konghui; Lv, Jiming; Yang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Scissor seat suspension has been applied widely to attenuate the cab vibrations of commercial vehicles, while its design generally needs a trade-off between the seat acceleration and suspension travel, which creates a typical optimisation issue. A complexity for this issue is that the optimal dynamics parameters are not easy to approach solutions fast and unequivocally. Hence, the hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure is proposed, providing a top-down methodology with the globally optimal and fast convergent solutions to compromise these design contradictions. In details, a characteristic-oriented non-parametric dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension is formulated firstly via databases, describing its vertical dynamics accurately. Then, the ideal vertical stiffness-damping characteristic is cascaded via the characteristic-oriented model, and the structure parameters are optimised in accordance with a structure-oriented multi-body dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension. Eventually, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility factor, suspension travel and the CPU time for solving are evaluated. The results show the seat suspension performance and convergent speed of the globally optimal solutions are improved well. Hence, the proposed hierarchical optimisation methodology regarding characteristic and structure of the scissor seat suspension is promising for its virtual development.

  5. Persistent allergic contact dermatitis to plastic toilet seats.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Sara; Adams, David R; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to various components of toilet seats is being recognized and reported with increasing frequency. This report details the case of an young girl who was found to be allergic to plastic found in both a toilet seat and a school chair. It highlights particular problems with patch testing young children and the difficulty in confirming allergy to plastics.

  6. Prioritizing Safety with Seat Belts: The Unanswered Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    Reviews conflicting federal and state developments (including liability lawsuits) involving seat belt installation on school buses. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board differ on this issue, and several states are considering seat belt legislation or crashworthiness studies. Hints are…

  7. Research Says "No" to School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineland, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents factual data on research in school bus safety that shows that seat belts in school buses may actually be detrimental to students. Includes data from surveys and research tests and sources for additional information on seat belts in school buses. (MD)

  8. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  9. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.; Minkel, Jean; McCue, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the scoring system for the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT), obtain and appraise internal and external structure evidence, and assess the validity of the SMSCT. The SMSCT purpose is to provide a method for testing knowledge of seating and mobility prescription. A sample of 106 therapists…

  10. Differential effects of seating arrangements on disruptive behavior of fifth grade students during independent seatwork.

    PubMed

    Bicard, David F; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students chose their seats. The results are discussed in relation to choice and the matching law.

  11. AeroCOM Biomass Burning Emissions Experiment-Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M. M.; Chin, M.; Kahn, R. A.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is one of the major sources of optically and chemically potent carbonaceous aerosols, gaseous aerosol precursors, and volatile organic compounds. It is, therefore, important to represent these emissions as accurately as possible in the global and regional models. To correctly simulate BB emissions from a fire, the model needs two key inputs: emission source strength for the fire and the emission injection height. Based on pilot studies of injection height by M. Val Martin et al. (2010, 2012), and of source strength by M. Petrenko et al. (2012), we proposed an AeroCom-coordinated multi-model BB experiment. The core objectives of the experiment are: To inter-compare and quantify the accuracy and diversity of the AeroCom model simulated BB AOD using a common emissions inventory. To propose a region-by-region emission correction scheme based on the comparisons of model output with satellite snapshots of smoke-plume optical depth from the MODIS and MISR instruments. This will allow us to bring the widely used GFED v3 emissions inventory to the levels needed to improve model-observation comparisons. To test smoke injection height-emission intensity relationships used in global models against MISR multi-angle smoke-plume-height retrievals. With the first stage of the BB experiment focused on the source strength, this talk will provide an update on development and testing the method of using satellite-measured aerosol optical depth snapshots to constrain BB aerosol emissions in the global models. The global datasets of fire-and-smoke events, observed by MISR and MODIS during 2006, 2007 and 2008, to be used for model-satellite comparisons, will also be described. These events were selected according to a number of criteria to be suitable for model-observation comparison at the scales of global model resolution. In addition, we will showcase preliminary results of model inter-comparisons within the BB experiment, outline plans for future output analysis

  12. A pilot evaluation of two G-seat cueing schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of two contrasting G-seat cueing schemes. The G-seat, an aircraft simulation subsystem, creates aircraft acceleration cues via seat contour changes. Of the two cueing schemes tested, one was designed to create skin pressure cues and the other was designed to create body position cues. Each cueing scheme was tested and evaluated subjectively by five pilots regarding its ability to cue the appropriate accelerations in each of four simple maneuvers: a pullout, a pushover, an S-turn maneuver, and a thrusting maneuver. A divergence of pilot opinion occurred, revealing that the perception and acceptance of G-seat stimuli is a highly individualistic phenomena. The creation of one acceptable G-seat cueing scheme was, therefore, deemed to be quite difficult.

  13. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  14. The car seat: a challenge too far for preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Pilley, E; McGuire, W

    2005-11-01

    Physiological monitoring studies have shown that some preterm infants who are otherwise ready for hospital discharge experience episodes of oxygen desaturation, apnoea, or bradycardia when seated in standard car safety seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all preterm infants are assessed for cardiorespiratory stability in their car seat before discharge: the "car seat challenge". This screening test has been incorporated into discharge assessments in most neonatal units in North America and is being increasingly used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The evidence base for the use of the car seat challenge in discharge assessment, the possible implications for infants, their families, and health services of adopting the practice, and the issues that may be resolved with further research are discussed.

  15. Promoting the use of seat belts. Wessex Positive Health Team.

    PubMed

    1980-11-29

    A six-month study into the effect of a substantial programme of integrated health education promoting the use of seat belts showed no major change in the rates for occupants of front seats, which remained around 35%. Though there were increases of up to 5% in the rates for wearing seat belts immediately after the multimedia campaigns which achieved high penetration, only those among women drivers were sustained. Of the methods used to disseminate information, television had the greatest impact on the community, followed by press reports and radio broadcasts. It is concluded that health education alone is insufficient to increase significantly the use of car seat belts. Britain should follow its European partners and pass legislation requiring front seat occupants to wear belts. As the recent experience in Australia shows, the benefits will be considerable in terms of reducing mortality, morbidity, and consequential expenditure.

  16. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'.

  17. 75 FR 36062 - Availability of Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National... seeking applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary... August 2, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower...

  18. The Effects of Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement on Seat Belt Use by Tavern Patrons: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Van Houten, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Nighttime seat belt use by patrons of 10 taverns in two Canadian cities increased following an intervention consisting of police enforcement and the use of signs and posters. Separate observations of daytime seat belt use noted an increase in one city and maintenance at a high level in the other. (JW)

  19. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  20. Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Lavelle, Thomas; Litt, Jonathan; Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) software package is a nonlinear dynamic simulation of a 40,000-pound (approximately equals 178-kN) thrust class commercial turbofan engine, written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model has been tuned to capture the behavior of flight test data, and is capable of running at any point in the flight envelope [up to 40,000 ft (approximately equals 12,200 m) and Mach 0.8]. In addition to the open-loop engine, the simulation includes a controller whose architecture is representative of that found in industry. C-MAPSS40k fills the need for an easy-to-use, realistic, transient simulation of a medium-size commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller. It is a detailed component level model (CLM) written in the industry-standard graphical MATLAB/Simulink environment to allow for easy modification and portability. At the time of this reporting, no other such model exists in the public domain.