Science.gov

Sample records for aero-space plane nasp

  1. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tank, Ming H.

    1991-01-01

    A program to develop the technology for reusable airbreathing hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles is addressed. Information on the following topics is presented in viewgraph form: (1) the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program schedule; (2) the NASP program organization; (3) competitive strategy; (4) propulsion options; (5) wind tunnel data available for NASP; (6) ground track of envelope expansion; and (7) altitude vs. Mach number. A NASP/Space Shuttle comparison, NASP configuration matrix, and the propulsion concept of a high speed scramjet are also briefly addressed.

  2. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Six years ago, the Defense Science Board (DSB) initiated a review of the concept, technical basis, program content, and missions of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program. The report was completed in Sep. 1988, and the recommendations contributed to strengthening the technical efforts in the NASP program. Since then, substantial technological progress has been made in the technology development phase (Phase 2) of the program. Phase 2 of the program is currently scheduled to end in late Fiscal Year 1993, with a decision whether to proceed to the experimental flight vehicle phase (Phase 3) to be made at that time. This decision will be a very significant one for the Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In February of this year, the DSB was chartered to revisit the NASP program to assess the degree to which the many technical challenges of the program have been resolved, or are likely to be resolved by the end of Phase 2.

  3. National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the technology development management objectives thus far planned for the DOD/NASA National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The technology required by NASP will first be developed in ground-based facilities and then integrated during the design and construction of the X-30 experimental aircraft. Five airframe and three powerplant manufacturers are currently engaged in an 18-month effort encompassing design studies and tradeoff analyses. The first flight of the X-30 is scheduled for early 1993.

  4. Pressure and heat transfer investigation of a modified NASP baseline configuration at M = 6. [National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, David E.; Omar, M. Emmett

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative NASA Langley-Boeing investigation was conducted in the Langley eight-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to obtain hypersonic pressure and heat transfer data. In this investigation a large scale (1/20), modified version of the National Aero-Space Plane configuration known as the 'Government Baseline' was tested at a nominal Mach number of 6; at two Reynolds numbers (0.6 and 1.6 million per foot); and at angles of attack from about 0 to 15 deg. There were several purposes for the investigation: to provide a windward and leeward pressure and heat transfer data base for a realistic configuration for verification of computational methods, to provide these data for a large-scale model, and to provide these data for true temperature conditions because of concern about data from low temperature tunnels.

  5. The national aero-space plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is an extremely versatile and adaptable aircraft. It can be developed into an Orient Express that would dramatically improve trade with countries in Asia and elsewhere: a commuter transport to ferry men and materials to space, an advanced tactical fighter or bomber, and an unparalleled high altitude spy-plane to observe troubled spots all over the globe. Utilizing the technology developed by this pilot program, it will be possible to quickly and easily get to low Earth orbit, go halfway around the world in a fraction of the time it previously took, and lead the world in the development of advanced technology to improve our lives and the lives of many others.

  6. A Summary of the Slush Hydrogen Technology Program for the National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnelis, Nancy B.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Kudlac, Maureen T.; Moran, Matthew E.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1995-01-01

    Slush hydrogen, a mixture of solid and liquid hydrogen, offers advantages of higher density (16 percent) and higher heat capacity (18 percent) than normal boiling point hydrogen. The combination of increased density and heat capacity of slush hydrogen provided a potential to decrease the gross takeoff weight of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and therefore slush hydrogen was selected as the propellant. However, no large-scale data was available on the production, transfer and tank pressure control characteristics required to use slush hydrogen as a fuel. Extensive testing has been performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center K-Site and Small Scale Hydrogen Test Facility between 1990 and the present to provide a database for the use of slush hydrogen. This paper summarizes the results of this testing.

  7. NASP technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Charles

    1992-01-01

    It is the stated goal of this program, the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) program, to develop and then demonstrate the technologies for single-stage-to-orbit flight and hypersonic cruise with airbreathing primary propulsion and horizontal takeoff and landing. This presentation is concerned with technology transfer in the context of the NASP program.

  8. National Aero-Space Plane team selects design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandebo, Stanley W.

    1990-10-01

    The selection of a design configuration for the NASP currently favors a directionally stable lifting body that incorporates dual stabilizers, short wings, and a two-man, dorsal crew compartment. The X-30 is expected to be 150-200 ft long and to have a takeoff gross weight of 250,000-300,000 lb. Three to five scramjet engines and a single 50,000 to 70,000 lb thrust rocket integrated into the airframe are expected to power the vehicle. The rocket will provide the X-30 with the burst of energy it will require to obtain orbital velocity and also to maneuver the craft out of earth orbit. Continuing propulsion and technical advances that include materials, aerodynamics, and simulations areas are being developed by program researchers. One of the most important achievements has been the progress made in locating the boundary-layer transition point on the NASP; engine, airframe integration, and flight-test issues are being addressed in separate study programs.

  9. Futurepath: The Story of Research and Technology at NASA Lewis Research Center. Structures for Flight Propulsion, ARC Sprayed Monotape, National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The story of research and technology at NASA Lewis Research Center's Structures Division is presented. The job and designs of the Structures Division needed for flight propulsion is described including structural mechanics, structural dynamics, fatigue, and fracture. The video briefly explains why properties of metals used in structural mechanics need to be tested. Examples of tests and simulations used in structural dynamics (bodies in motion) are briefly described. Destructive and non-destructive fatigue/fracture analysis is also described. The arc sprayed monotape (a composite material) is explained, as are the programs in which monotape plays a roll. Finally, the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP or x-30) is introduced, including the material development and metal matrix as well as how NASP will reduce costs for NASA.

  10. Perspective on the National Aero-Space Plane Program instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Erbland, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A review of the requirement for, and development of, advanced measurement technology for the National Aerospace Plane program is presented. The objective is to discuss the technical need and the program commitment required to ensure that adequate and timely measurement capabilities are provided for ground and flight testing in the NASP program. The scope of the measurement problem is presented, the measurement process is described, how instrumentation technology development has been affected by NASP program evolution is examined, the national effort to define measurement requirements and assess the adequacy of current technology to support the NASP program is discussed, and the measurement requirements are summarized. The unique features of the NASP program that complicate the understanding of requirements and the development of viable solutions are illustrated.

  11. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  12. Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) technology development for application to the National Aerospace Plane (NASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, Richard L.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Richter, G. Paul

    1989-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program is giving us the opportunity to reach new unique answers in a number of engineering categories. The answers are considered enhancing technology or enabling technology. Airframe materials and densified propellants are examples of enabling technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center has the task of providing the technology data which will be used as the basis to decide if slush hydrogen (SLH2) will be the fuel of choice for the NASP. The objectives of this NASA Lewis program are: (1) to provide, where possible, verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems, and (2) to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. This program is a multiyear multimillion dollar effort. The present pursuit of the above listed objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. The NASA Lewis overall program plan is summarized. The initial implementation of the plan will be unfolded and the present level of efforts in each of the resource areas will be discussed. Results already in hand will be pointed out. A description of additionally planned near-term experimental and analytical work is described.

  13. Natural environment application for NASP-X-30 design and mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Brown, S. C.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Mission Analysis Program has recently been utilized in various National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) mission and operational planning scenarios. This paper focuses on presenting various atmospheric constraint statistics based on assumed NASP mission phases using established natural environment design, parametric, threshold values. Probabilities of no-go are calculated using atmospheric parameters such as temperature, humidity, density altitude, peak/steady-state winds, cloud cover/ceiling, thunderstorms, and precipitation. The program although developed to evaluate test or operational missions after flight constraints have been established, can provide valuable information in the design phase of the NASP X-30 program. Inputting the design values as flight constraints the Mission Analysis Program returns the probability of no-go, or launch delay, by hour by month. This output tells the X-30 program manager whether the design values are stringent enough to meet his required test flight schedules.

  14. Prediction of the ullage gas thermal stratification in a NASP vehicle propellant tank experimental simulation using FLOW-3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) project, the multi-dimensional effects of gravitational force, initial tank pressure, initial ullage temperature, and heat transfer rate on the 2-D temperature profiles were studied. FLOW-3D, a commercial finite difference fluid flow model, was used for the evaluation. These effects were examined on the basis of previous liquid hydrogen experimental data with gaseous hydrogen pressurant. FLOW-3D results were compared against an existing 1-D model. In addition, the effects of mesh size and convergence criteria on the analytical results were investigated. Suggestions for future modifications and uses of FLOW-3D for modeling of a NASP tank are also presented.

  15. Modelling and experimental verification of a water alleviation system for the NASP. [National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. James

    1992-01-01

    One possible low speed propulsion system for the National Aerospace Plane is a liquid air cycle engine (LACE). The LACE system uses the heat sink in the liquid hydrogen propellant to liquefy air in a heat exchanger which is then pumped up to high pressure and used as the oxidizer in a hydrogen liquid air rocket. The inlet airstream must be dehumidified or moisture could freeze on the cryogenic heat exchangers and block them. The main objective of this research has been to develop a computer simulation of the cold tube/antifreeze-spray water alleviation system and to verify the model with experimental data. An experimental facility has been built and humid air tests were conducted on a generic heat exchanger to obtain condensing data for code development. The paper describes the experimental setup, outlines the method of calculation used in the code, and presents comparisons of the calculations and measurements. Cause of discrepancies between the model and data are explained.

  16. Background, current status, and prognosis of the ongoing slush hydrogen technology development program for the NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Hardy, T. L.; Whalen, M. V.; Richter, G. P.; Tomsik, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Among the Hydrogen Projects at the NASA Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC), is the task of implementing and managing the Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) Technology Program for the United States' National AeroSpace Plane Joint Program Office (NASP JPO). The objectives of this NASA LeRC program are to provide verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems and to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. The pursuit of these objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. A summary of the NASA LeRC overall SLH2 program plan, is presented along with its implementation, the present level of effort in each of the program areas, some of the results already in hand, and the prognosis for the effort in the immediate future.

  17. CFD propels NASP propulsion progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Green, Michael J.

    1990-07-01

    The most complex aerothermodynamics encountered in the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) propulsion system are associated with the fuel-mixing and combustion-reaction flows of its combustor section; adequate CFD tools must be developed to model shock-wave systems, turbulent hydrogen/air mixing, flow separation, and combustion. Improvements to existing CFD codes have involved extension from two dimensions to three, as well as the addition of finite-rate hydrogen-air chemistry. A novel CFD code for the treatment of reacting flows throughout the NASP, designated GASP, uses the most advanced upwind-differencing technology.

  18. NASP aeroservothermoelasticity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Ricketts, Rodney H.; Noll, T. E.; Malone, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Some illustrative results obtained from work accomplished under the aerothermoelasticity work breakdown structure (WBS) element of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Technology Maturation Program (TMP) are presented and discussed. The objectives of the aerothermoelasticity element were to develop analytical methods applicable to aerospace plane type configurations, to conduct analytical studies to identify potential problems, to evaluate potential solutions to problems, and to provide an experimental data base to verify codes and analytical trends. Work accomplished in the three areas of experimental data base, unsteady aerodynamics, and integrated analysis methodology are described. Some of the specific topics discussed are: (1) transonic wind tunnel aeroelastic model tests of cantilever delta wing models, of an all-moveable delta-wing model, and of aileron buzz models; (2) unsteady aerodynamic theory correlation with experiment and theory improvements; and (3) integrated analysis methodology results for thermal effects on vibration, for thermal effects on flutter, and for improving aeroelastic performance by using active controls.

  19. NASP natural environment definitions for design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Orvel E.; Johnson, Dale L.; Smith, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Problems that emerged during the development of the natural environment definitions for the design of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) are discussed. The NASP program objectives are reviewed. It is found that some of the data needed to determine the environmental parameters for designing the aircraft are unavailable. It is suggested that this is due to a lack of technology for making the necessary measurements.

  20. Environmental study of the National Aerospace Plane. Final report, 1 December 1991-30 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.; Wierzbanowski, T.; Reda, H.; Duecker, G.T.

    1992-12-01

    The overall objective of the United States (US) National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) Program is to develop hypersonic technologies required for future military and Civilian aerospace plane systems to reduce payload cost to orbit and provide for flexible-responsive space operations. If successful, the NASP Program will be the stimulus for developing a whole new class of airbreathing hypersonic aircraft powered by clean-burning scramjet engines using liquid hydrogen as the primary fuel. As part of this development, the potential to cause environmental impacts from these type of vehicles must be considered and analyzed. This process has been initiated using the NASP Program's proposed X-30 flight research vehicle and flight test program as a basis for analysis. Environmental issues addressed include noise and sonic booms, stratospheric ozone depletion, public health and safety, hazardous materials/waste, air quality, biological and cultural resources, geology and soils, and water use. Although this study is not yet complete, preliminary analysis has determined that the X-30 vehicle and flight test program would have minimal environmental impact.

  1. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  4. Active cooling from the sixties to NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. Neale; Blosser, Max L.

    1994-01-01

    Vehicles, such as the X-15 or the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), traveling at hypersonic speeds through the earth's atmosphere experience aerodynamic heating. The heating can be severe enough that a thermal protection system is required to limit the temperature of the vehicle structure. Although several categories of thermal protection systems are mentioned briefly, the majority of the present paper describes convectively cooled structures for large areas. Convective cooling is a method of limiting structural temperatures by circulating a coolant through the vehicle structure. Efforts to develop convectively cooled structures during the past 30 years, from early engine structures which were intended to be tested on the X-15 to structural panels fabricated and tested under the NASP program, are described. Many of the lessons learned from these research efforts are presented.

  5. Active cooling from the sixties to NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. Neale; Blosser, Max L.

    1992-01-01

    Vehicles, such as the X-15 or National Aero-Space Plane, traveling at hypersonic speeds through the earth's atmosphere experience aerodynamic heating. The heating can be severe enough that a thermal protection system is required to limit the temperature of the vehicle structure. Although several categories of thermal protection systems are mentioned briefly, the majority of this paper describes convectively cooled structures for large areas. Convective cooling is a method of limiting structural temperatures by circulating a coolant through the vehicle structure. Efforts to develop convectively cooled structures during the past 30 years--from early engine structures, which were intended to be tested on the X-15, to structural--are described. Many of the lessons learned from these research efforts are presented.

  6. Lazarus and Benner to Lead NASP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deupree, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the National Association of School Psychologists's (NASP) recently concluded elections in which Philip Lazarus from Florida and Ronald Benner from Connecticut will now be part of the NASP Executive Council in July 2010 as president-elect and treasurer, respectively. NASP members voted at the highest levels in 6 years and…

  7. Reflections on School Psychology and NASP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Looking back over 40 years, much has changed and much has not changed in the field of school psychology and in the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). This article presents the author's opinions and recollections on school psychology and NASP which do not necessarily represent those of NASP or the many leaders with whom he has…

  8. The 1986 NASP Survey: Comparison of Practitioners, NASP Leadership, and University Faculty on Key Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.; And Others

    National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) practitioner members (N=600), all recent members of the NASP leadership (N=139), and college faculty (N=166) responded to surveys on a variety of topics and issues including current demographic information, NASP priorities, credentialing, job satisfaction, issues related to learning disabilities…

  9. Hypersonic airbreathing vehicle conceptual design (focus on aero-space plane)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The airbreathing single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle design environment is variable-rich, intricately networked and sensitivity intensive. As such, it represents a tremondous technology challenge. Creating a viable design will require sophisticated configuration/synthesis and the synergistic integration of advanced technologies across the discipline spectrum. In design exercises, reductions in the fuel weight-fraction requirements projected for an orbital vehicle concept can result from improvements in aerodynamics/controls, propulsion efficiencies and trajectory optimization; also, gains in the fuel weight-fraction achievable for such a concept can result from improvements in structural design, heat management techniques, and material properties. As these technology advances take place, closure on a viable vehicle design will be realizable.

  10. NASP Issues Guidance on Personnel Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Philip J.; Myers, Mary Alice; Skalski, Anastasia Kalamaros

    2012-01-01

    In November 2011, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) created the Personnel Assessment Task Force comprising national and state leaders with knowledge of effective personnel evaluation systems. Task force participants included school psychologist supervisors, university professors, NASP leadership, and staff. The primary…

  11. A Critical Appraisal of the NASP's First 25 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    1994-01-01

    Provides overview of organizational development of school psychology in the 1960s that proceeded the founding of the National Association of School Psychologist (NASP). Offers an account of NASP's subsequent growth, accomplishments, and shortcomings. Based on address given at the 1993 NASP meeting. (Author/JDM)

  12. Manned versus unmanned - The implications to NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Kasten, Terry D.

    1990-01-01

    The assessment of unmanned approaches to experimental aerospace vehicles in general and to the NASP program in particular is summarized. Technical requirements for NASP demonstration are presented and unmanned options for satisfying requirements are discussed. The X-30 sensitivities to technical requirements are described. A correlation of the NASP program to prior flight test programs, both manned and unmanned, is also presented. It is noted that subscale vehicles may reduce risk by as much as 18 percent for approximately $200 M. It is concluded that half-scale vehicles may reduce program risk by 60 percent, while reducing X-30 costs by 40 percent. Also, an unmanned X-30 will probably cost more than a manned X-30 due to costs associated with additional software development and ground support systems costs.

  13. NASP Practice Model: Examples from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The "Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services," also known as the NASP Practice Model, outlines 10 general domains of school psychological practices. This article is one in a series that highlights various domains within the Practice Model and, through an interview with practicing school psychologists,…

  14. The ascending trajectories performance and control to minimize the heat load for the transatmospheric aero-space planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, J.; Al-Garni, A.

    The goal of airbreathing transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) ascending trajectory performance and control definition is the minimization of heat loads/unit area near the stagnation point, modeling the vehicle as a point-variable mass with drag polar and variable thrust. Initially, the present effort proceeds analytically to define the aerodynamic and thrust controls required for TAV transfer from one specified state to another, while satisfying such equality constraints as constant dynamic pressure and constant rate-of-climb. Extensive numerical optimization algorithms are then applied. An illustrative numerical example is presented.

  15. Smith and Valley-Gray to Lead NASP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deupree, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 elections are complete and Amy Smith has been elected to lead NASP in 2012. Amy has a long history of serving her state and national professional organizations, most recently as NASP program manager for advocacy and before that as the Pennsylvania delegate and Northeast Region delegate representative. She served the Association of School…

  16. Central District Physical Education Teacher Education Program Coordinators' Perceptions Regarding the NASPE Initial Teacher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    To receive National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) accreditation, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs must meet the six NASPE standards (NASPE, 2009). The NASPE/NCATE regulations ensure PETE programs provide a curriculum aligned with NASPE.…

  17. NASP - Enabling new space launch options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froning, David; Gaubatz, William; Mathews, George

    1990-01-01

    Successful NASP developments in the United States are bringing about the possibility of effective, fully reusable vehicles for transport of people and cargo between earth and space. These developments include: extension of airbreathing propulsion to a much higher speed; densification of propellants for greater energy per unit volume of mass; structures with much greater strength-to-weight at high temperatures; computational advancements that enable more optimal design and integration of airframes, engines and controls; and advances in avionics, robotics, artificial intelligence and automation that enable accomplishment of earth-to-orbit (ETO) operations with much less manpower support and cost. This paper describes the relative magnitude of improvement that these developments may provide.

  18. A Mission Concept: Re-Entry Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System on-Mars (REARM-Mars)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davoodi, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Future missions to Mars that would need a sophisticated lander, hopper, or rover could benefit from the REARM Architecture. The mission concept REARM Architecture is designed to provide unprecedented capabilities for future Mars exploration missions, including human exploration and possible sample-return missions, as a reusable lander, ascend/descend vehicle, refuelable hopper, multiple-location sample-return collector, laboratory, and a cargo system for assets and humans. These could all be possible by adding just a single customized Re-Entry-Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System, called REARM-spacecraft, and a docking station at the Martian orbit, called REARM-dock. REARM could dramatically decrease the time and the expense required to launch new exploratory missions on Mars by making them less dependent on Earth and by reusing the assets already designed, built, and sent to Mars. REARM would introduce a new class of Mars exploration missions, which could explore much larger expanses of Mars in a much faster fashion and with much more sophisticated lab instruments. The proposed REARM architecture consists of the following subsystems: REARM-dock, REARM-spacecraft, sky-crane, secure-attached-compartment, sample-return container, agile rover, scalable orbital lab, and on-the-road robotic handymen.

  19. The trade-off characteristics of acoustic and pressure sensors for the NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, Martin; Bush, Chuck

    1992-01-01

    Results of a trade study for the development of pressure and acoustic sensors for use on the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) are summarized. Pressure sensors are needed to operate to 100 psia; acoustic sensors are needed that can give meaningful information about a 200 dB sound pressure level (SPL) environment. Both sensors will have to operate from a high temperature of 2000 F down to absolute zero. The main conclusions of the study are the following: (1) Diaphragm materials limit minimum size and maximum frequency response attainable. (2) No transduction is available to meet all the NASP requirements with existing technology. (3) Capacitive sensors are large relative to the requirement, have limited resolution and frequency response due to noise, and cable length is limited to approximately 20 feet. (4) Eddy current sensors are large relative to the requirement and have limited cable lengths. (5) Fiber optic sensors provide the possibility for a small sensor, even though present developments do not exhibit that characteristic. The need to use sapphire at high temperature complicates the design. Present high temperature research sensors suffer from poor resolution. A significant development effort will be required to realize the potential of fiber optics. (6) Short-term development seems to favor eddy current techniques with the penalty of larger size and reduced dynamic range for acoustic sensors. (7) Long-term development may favor fiber optics with the penalties of cost, schedule, and uncertainty.

  20. Selection of Assessments for the NASPE/NCATE Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Patty

    2006-01-01

    The new electronic submission format for NCATE accreditation requires colleges and universities to present six to eight assessments that demonstrate whether their teacher candidates meet NASPE's beginning teacher standards. Programs must submit a description of the assessment, the scoring rubric used to judge the assessment, and candidate…

  1. The NASPE/NCATE Program Report: From the Reviewers' Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert J.; Judd, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many components are necessary in order to successfully compile a NASPE/NCATE beginning teacher standards report, including a tremendous amount of hard work, time, and patience. It is also imperative that report compilers have sufficient institutional resources and a well-planned strategy for report-writing success. Typically, the faculty member…

  2. Rewarding Excellence in Physical Education--NASPE STARS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerst-Davis, Cam

    2006-01-01

    The NASPE STARS program is a national recognition program featuring three levels of excellence to recognize outstanding physical education programs in K-12 schools across America. The criteria for this award are based on the essential elements that are necessary for a quality physical education program, as defined by the published national…

  3. NASP and ISPA Response to the Japanese Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Bill; Cowan, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The authors have worked together with the NASP (National Association of School Psychologists) National Emergency Assistance Team (NEAT) for a decade to help coordinate communications around large-scale crisis response efforts. The massive earthquake and tsunami that devastated the northeastern part of Japan and the subsequent response represented…

  4. Crisis Prevention and Response: A Collection of NASP Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea S., Ed.; Carroll, Servio A., Ed.

    This collection of resources is a response to the unprecedented crises for school children, staff, and communities in 1997-1998. It is based on and is an expansion of the November 1998 issue of "Communique," a book of handouts, and other National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) publications. This packet contains the applied knowledge…

  5. The 1968 National Invitational Conference of School Psychologists: Is This the 41st Anniversary of NASP?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Tom

    2008-01-01

    With attention focused on NASP's 40th Anniversary and the coming Boston convention celebrations, some mention should be made of the organizational meeting that preceded NASP and laid the groundwork for its founding and first convention. Little has been written about the historic National Invitational Conference of School Psychologists, Thursday…

  6. Molecular evolution of NASP and conserved histone H3/H4 transport pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background NASP is an essential protein in mammals that functions in histone transport pathways and maintenance of a soluble reservoir of histones H3/H4. NASP has been studied exclusively in Opisthokonta lineages where some functional diversity has been reported. In humans, growing evidence implicates NASP miss-regulation in the development of a variety of cancers. Although a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis is lacking, NASP-family proteins that possess four TPR motifs are thought to be widely distributed across eukaryotes. Results We characterize the molecular evolution of NASP by systematically identifying putative NASP orthologs across diverse eukaryotic lineages ranging from excavata to those of the crown group. We detect extensive silent divergence at the nucleotide level suggesting the presence of strong purifying selection acting at the protein level. We also observe a selection bias for high frequencies of acidic residues which we hypothesize is a consequence of their critical function(s), further indicating the role of functional constraints operating on NASP evolution. Our data indicate that TPR1 and TPR4 constitute the most rapidly evolving functional units of NASP and may account for the functional diversity observed among well characterized family members. We also show that NASP paralogs in ray-finned fish have different genomic environments with clear differences in their GC content and have undergone significant changes at the protein level suggesting functional diversification. Conclusion We draw four main conclusions from this study. First, wide distribution of NASP throughout eukaryotes suggests that it was likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) possibly as an important innovation in the transport of H3/H4. Second, strong purifying selection operating at the protein level has influenced the nucleotide composition of NASP genes. Further, we show that selection has acted to maintain a high frequency of functionally relevant

  7. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter.

  9. AB109. Downregulation of tNASP inhibits proliferation through regulating cell cycle-related proteins and inactive ERK/MAPK signal pathway in renal cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianzheng; Wang, Hainan; Cheng, Gong; Wang, Shangqian; Deng, Yunfei; Song, Zhen; Xu, Aiming; Liu, Bianjiang; Wang, Zengjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nuclear auto-antigenic sperm protein (NASP), initially described as a highly auto-immunogenic testis and sperm-specific protein, is a histone chaperone that is proved to present in all dividing cells. NASP has two splice variants: testicular NASP (tNASP) and somatic form of NASP (sNASP). Only cancer, germ, transformed, and embryonic cells have a high level of expression of the tNASP. Up to now, little has been known about tNASP in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the present study, the molecular mechanism of tNASP in RCC was explored. Methods The expression level of tNASP in 16 paired human RCC specimens was determined. Downregulation of tNASP by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected in RCC cell lines. The effect of downregulation of tNASP by siRNA on cell colony formation and proliferation was examined by colony formation assay and CCK-8 assay, cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression of cyclin D1 and P21 were detected by Western blotting. ERK/MAPK signaling was also analyzed. Results tNASP has a relative high expression level in human RCC tissues. Via upregulation of P21 and downregulation of cyclinD1, silence of tNASP can inhibit cell proliferation, which induces cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, ERK signaling pathway is confirmed to mediate the regulation of cell cycle-related proteins caused by silence of tNASP. Conclusions Our research demonstrates that knockdown of tNASP effectively inhibits the proliferation and causes G1 phase arrest through ERK/MAPK signal pathway.

  10. Ideas Exchange: How Do You Use NASPE's Teacher Toolbox to Enhance Professional Activities with Students, Sport or Physical Education Lessons, Faculty Wellness Classes or Community Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Mary Ann; McNeill, Shane; Dieckman, Dale; Sissom, Mark; LoBianco, Judy; Lund, Jackie; Barney, David C.; Manson, Mara; Silva, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    NASPE's Teacher Toolbox is an instructional resource site which provides educators with a wide variety of teaching tools that focus on physical activity. This service is provided by NASPE to support instructional activities as well as promote quality programs. New monthly issues support NASPE's mission to enhance knowledge, improve professional…

  11. Results of the NASP Ames Integrated Mixing Hypersonic Engine (AIMHYE) Scramjet Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the test techniques and results from the National Aerospace Plane Government Work Package 53, the Ames Integrated Mixing Hypersonic Engine (AIMHYE) Scramjet Test program conducted in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Combustion Driven Shock Tunnel. This was a series of near full-scale scramjet combustor tests with the objective to obtain high speed combustor and nozzle data from an engine with injector configurations similar to the NASP E21 and E22a designs. The experimental test approach was to use a large combustor model (80-100% throat height) designed and fabricated for testing in the semi-free jet mode. The conditions tested were similar to the "blue book" conditions at Mach 12, 14, and 16. GWP 53 validated use of large, long test time impulse facilities, specifically the Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel, for high Mach number scramjet propulsion testing an integrated test rig (inlet, combustor, and nozzle). Discussion of key features of the test program will include: effects of the 2-D combustor inlet pressure profile; performance of large injectors' fueling system that included nozzlettes, base injection, and film cooling; and heat transfer measurements to the combustor. Significant instrumentation development and application efforts include the following: combustor force balance application for measurement of combustor drag for comparison with integrated point measurements of skin friction; nozzle metric strip for measuring thrust with comparison to integrated pressure measurements; and nonintrusive optical fiber-based diode laser absorption measurements of combustion products for determination of combustor performance. Direct measurements will be reported for specific test article configurations and compared with CFD solutions.

  12. NASPE Developed Informational Products and Applications. Article #4 in a 4-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisette, Jennifer L.; Placek, Judith H.; Avery, Marybell; Dyson, Ben; Fox, Connie; Franck, Marian; Graber, Kim; Rink, Judith; Zhu, Weimo

    2009-01-01

    This is the fourth and final article in the "PE Metrics" series that focuses on assessing the National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE) for Standard 1. The first article focused on assessment of student learning. The second described formative and summative assessments and provided considerations on how to implement assessment within…

  13. Problematic Students of NASP-Approved Programs: An Exploratory Study of Graduate Student Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Leasha D.; Stroebel, Sandra S.; Krieg, Fred Jay; Rubenstein, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an electronic exploratory survey of National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Student Representatives. The purpose of the survey was to gather information about the perspective of graduate students concerning problematic peers and their experiences with them in school psychology training programs.…

  14. Becoming PREPaREd in Canada: NASP Crisis Prevention and Intervention Curriculum International Debut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Allen

    2008-01-01

    New Brunswick is a small Maritime province in Canada bordering on Maine. With just 700,000 people, the population is clustered in small cities and towns. Nevertheless, tragedies happen here as they do elsewhere and there is a need to be prepared. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) had developed PREPaRE, a curriculum founded…

  15. Profiles of Excellence: NASPE Level 3 STARS Schools-Assumption Catholic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The NASPE STARS program is a national recognition program featuring three levels of excellence to recognize outstanding physical education programs in K-12 schools across America. The criteria for the award are based on the essential elements that are necessary for a quality physical education program, as defined by the published national…

  16. An overview of selected NASP aeroelastic studies at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, Charles V.; Soistmann, David L.; Parker, Ellen C.; Gibbons, Michael D.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    Following an initial discussion of the NASP flight environment, the results of recent aeroelastic testing of NASP-type highly swept delta-wing models in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) are summarized. Subsonic and transonic flutter characteristics of a variety of these models are described, and several analytical codes used to predict flutter of these models are evaluated. These codes generally provide good, but conservative predictions of subsonic and transonic flutter. Also, test results are presented on a nonlinear transonic phenomena known as aileron buzz which occurred in the wind tunnel on highly swept delta wings with full-span ailerons. An analytical procedure which assesses the effects of hypersonic heating on aeroelastic instabilities (aerothermoelasticity) is also described. This procedure accurately predicted flutter of a heated aluminum wing on which experimental data exists. Results are presented on the application of this method to calculate the flutter characteristics of a fine-element model of a generic NASP configuration. Finally, it is demonstrated analytically that active controls can be employed to improve the aeroelastic stability and ride quality of a generic NASP vehicle flying at hypersonic speeds.

  17. An Introduction to NCATE and NASPE/NCATE Beginning Teacher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This article places the NASPE/NCATE accreditation process into historical context and will help anyone facing the daunting task of completing an accreditation report. NCATE's paradigm shift in the 90's and its evolution towards performance-based standards and outcomes have strongly influenced what faculty in all disciplines expect of beginning…

  18. NASPE Sets the Standard: 35 Years of National Leadership in Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Lumpkin, Angela; Guedes, Claudia; Eguaoje, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With 17,000 members, NASPE is the largest of the five national associations of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) and comprises six Academy Committees (Biomechanics; Curriculum and Instruction; Exercise Physiology; Motor Development and Learning; Sport and Exercise Psychology; and Sport History,…

  19. The Scope & Sequence of Fitness Education for PreK-16 Programs: NASPE Fitness Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In May 2006, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Adolescent and School Health to improve the quality and quantity of physical education and physical activity programs across the United States. The cooperative agreement project…

  20. Writing the NASPE/NCATE Program Report: Process and Practical Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senne, Terry A.

    2006-01-01

    This article guides the reader through the actual, step-by-step process of preparing the web-based NASPE/NCATE program report. The following five sections are discussed in detail: (1) contextual information; (2) assessments and related data; (3) standards assessment chart; (4) evidence for meeting standards; and (5) use of assessment results to…

  1. NASP Testifies at U.S. Senate Hearing on Children and Disaster Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, Anastasia Kalamaros

    2010-01-01

    On December 10, 2009, Dr. Melissa Reeves, chair of the PREPaRE workgroup, presented oral and written testimony on behalf of NASP (National Association of School Psychologists) at a hearing of the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. This subcommittee is chaired by…

  2. Robots Would Couple And Uncouple Fluid And Electrical Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Castillo, Eduardo Lopez; Davis, Virgil; Ferguson, Bob; Reichle, Garland

    1992-01-01

    Robots make and break connections between umbilical plates and mating connectors on rockets about to be launched. Sensing and control systems include vision, force, and torque subsystems. Enhances safety by making it possible to couple and uncouple umbilical plates quickly, without exposing human technicians to hazards of leaking fuels and oxidizers. Significantly reduces time spent to manually connect umbilicals. Robots based on similar principles used in refueling of National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) and satellites and orbital transfer vehicles in space.

  3. The NASPE/BPEG generic pacemaker code for antibradyarrhythmia and adaptive-rate pacing and antitachyarrhythmia devices.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A D; Camm, A J; Fletcher, R D; Gold, R D; Rickards, A F; Smyth, N P; Spielman, S R; Sutton, R

    1987-07-01

    A new generic pacemaker code, derived from and compatible with the Revised ICHD Code, was proposed jointly by the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE) Mode Code Committee and the British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group (BPEG), and has been adopted by the NASPE Board of Trustees. It is abbreviated as the NBG (for "NASPE/BPEG Generic") Code, and was developed to permit extension of the generic-code concept to pacemakers whose escape rate is continuously controlled by monitoring some physiologic variable, rather than determined by fixed escape intervals measured from stimuli or sensed depolarizations, and to antitachyarrhythmia devices including cardioverters and defibrillators. The NASPE/BPEG Code incorporates an "R" in the fourth position to signify rate modulation (adaptive-rate pacing), and one of four letters in the fifth position to indicate the presence of antitachyarrhythmia-pacing capability or of cardioversion or defibrillation functions. PMID:2441363

  4. NASP-Computer Aided Design Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In the photograph, the contour lines indicate temperature at Mach 19 around a generic vehicle similar to the X-30. Because of high pressure and skin friction, the temperature is highest on the surface of the model. The vivid blue color indicates temperature 18 times hotter than the atmosphere, requiring active cooling from within the aircraft to control temperature on the planes surface. Pink color on the outer rings is much cooler than the blue near the body, but is still 2 times hotter than the environment in which the plane travels.

  5. Computational design aspects of a NASP nozzle/afterbody experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffin, Stephen M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Keener, Earl R.; Nagaraj, N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights the influence of computational methods on design of a wind tunnel experiment which generically models the nozzle/afterbody flow field of the proposed National Aerospace Plane. The rectangular slot nozzle plume flow field is computed using a three-dimensional, upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes solver. Freestream Mach numbers of 5.3, 7.3, and 10 are investigated. Two-dimensional parametric studies of various Mach numbers, pressure ratios, and ramp angles are used to help determine model loads and afterbody ramp angle and length. It was found that the center of pressure on the ramp occurs at nearly the same location for all ramp angles and test conditions computed. Also, to prevent air liquefaction, it is suggested that a helium-air mixture be used as the jet gas for the highest Mach number test case.

  6. Ascent performance feasibility of the national aerospace plane

    SciTech Connect

    Miele, A.; Lee, W.Y.; Wu, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    The national aerospace plane (NASP) is a proposed hypervelocity research vehicle which must take-off horizontally, achieve orbital speed, and then land horizontally. Its configuration is dominated by the powerplant, which includes the combination of turbojet engines for flight at subsonic speeds and low supersonic speeds, ramjet engines for flight at high supersonic speeds, scramjet engines for flight at hypersonic speeds, and rocket engines for flight at near-orbital speeds. Optimal trajectories are studied for a given NASP configuration, the so-called general hypersonic aerodynamics model example, under the assumption that the NASP is controlled via angle of attack and power setting. Three powerplant models are considered: (E1) and (E2) are turbojet, ramjet, scramjet combinations; (E3) is a turbojet, ramjet scramjet, rocket combination, with the rocket mode starting at M = 15. Realistic constraints are imposed on the peak dynamic pressure, peak heating rate, and peak tangential acceleration. Under this scenario, the time history of the controls is optimized simultaneously with the switch times from one engine mode to the next. The optimization criterion is the total mass of fuel required to achieve orbital speed. The optimization study employs the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm for optimal control problems.

  7. Best Practices of Effective Student-Teacher Supervision Based on NASPE Standards: The NASPE Standards for Beginning Teachers Can Help Mentor Teachers and College Supervisors Instill Good Practices in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozen, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs across the nation wish to comply with the 10 beginning teacher standards established by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE, 2003). To help further this compliance, this article gives examples of best practices for supervising student teachers using the standards as…

  8. In Light of the 2012 NASPE Symposium, to What Extent Should Physical Educators Incorporate Pop Culture in Their Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this "Issues" column, "The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance" provides responses to the question: "In Light of the 2012 NASPE Symposium, to What Extent Should Physical Educators Incorporate Pop Culture in Their Classes?" Responses this month come from an assistant professor who says that:…

  9. Slush hydrogen propellant production, transfer, and expulsion studies at the NASA K-Site Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1991-01-01

    Slush hydrogen is currently being considered as a fuel for the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) because it offers the potential for decreased vehicle size and weight. However, no large scale data was available on the production, transfer, and tank pressure control characteristics required to use the fuel for the NASP. Therefore, experiments were conducted at NASA-Lewis K-Site Facility to improve the slush hydrogen data base. Slush hydrogen was produced using the evaporative cooling, or freeze-thaw, technique in batches for approx. 800 gallons. This slush hydrogen was pressure transferred to a 5 ft diameter spherical test tank following production, and flow characteristics were measured during this transfer process. The slush hydrogen in the test tank was pressurized and expelled using a pressurized expulsion technique to obtain information on tank pressure control for the NASP. Results from the production, transfer, pressurization, and pressurized expulsion tests are described.

  10. Slush hydrogen propellant production, transfer, and expulsion studies at the NASA K-Site Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1991-01-01

    Slush hydrogen is currently being considered as a fuel for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) because it offers the potential for decreased vehicle size and weight. However, no large-scale data was available on the production, transfer, and tank pressure control characteristics required to use the fuel for the NASP. Therefore, experiments were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center K-Site Facility to improve the slush hydrogen database. Slush hydrogen was produced using the evaporative cooling, or freeze-thaw, technique in batches of about 800 gallons. This slush hydrogen was pressure transferred to a 5 ft diameter spherical test tank following production, and flow characteristics were measured during this transfer process. The slush hydrogen in the test tank was pressurized and expelled using a pressurized expulsion technique to obtain information on tank pressure control for the NASP. Results from the production, transfer, pressurization, and pressurized expulsion tests are described.

  11. Flight simulator for hypersonic vehicle and a study of NASP handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.; Park, Eui H.; Deeb, Joseph M.; Kim, Jung H.

    1992-01-01

    The research goal of the Human-Machine Systems Engineering Group was to study the existing handling quality studies in aircraft with sonic to supersonic speeds and power in order to understand information requirements needed for a hypersonic vehicle flight simulator. This goal falls within the NASA task statements: (1) develop flight simulator for hypersonic vehicle; (2) study NASP handling qualities; and (3) study effects of flexibility on handling qualities and on control system performance. Following the above statement of work, the group has developed three research strategies. These are: (1) to study existing handling quality studies and the associated aircraft and develop flight simulation data characterization; (2) to develop a profile for flight simulation data acquisition based on objective statement no. 1 above; and (3) to develop a simulator and an embedded expert system platform which can be used in handling quality experiments for hypersonic aircraft/flight simulation training.

  12. The histone chaperone sNASP binds a conserved peptide motif within the globular core of histone H3 through its TPR repeats

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew; Lercher, Lukas; Singh, Hari R.; Zinne, Daria; Timinszky, Gyula; Carlomagno, Teresa; Ladurner, Andreas G.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is a complex yet dynamic structure, which is regulated in part by the assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes. Key to this process is a group of proteins termed histone chaperones that guide the thermodynamic assembly of nucleosomes by interacting with soluble histones. Here we investigate the interaction between the histone chaperone sNASP and its histone H3 substrate. We find that sNASP binds with nanomolar affinity to a conserved heptapeptide motif in the globular domain of H3, close to the C-terminus. Through functional analysis of sNASP homologues we identified point mutations in surface residues within the TPR domain of sNASP that disrupt H3 peptide interaction, but do not completely disrupt binding to full length H3 in cells, suggesting that sNASP interacts with H3 through additional contacts. Furthermore, chemical shift perturbations from 1H-15N HSQC experiments show that H3 peptide binding maps to the helical groove formed by the stacked TPR motifs of sNASP. Our findings reveal a new mode of interaction between a TPR repeat domain and an evolutionarily conserved peptide motif found in canonical H3 and in all histone H3 variants, including CenpA and have implications for the mechanism of histone chaperoning within the cell. PMID:26673727

  13. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an efficient and robust trajectory optimization tool for the optimal ascent problem of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). This report is organized in the following order to summarize the complete work: Section two states the formulation and models of the trajectory optimization problem. An inverse dynamics approach to the problem is introduced in Section three. Optimal trajectories corresponding to various conditions and performance parameters are presented in Section four. A midcourse nonlinear feedback controller is developed in Section five. Section six demonstrates the performance of the inverse dynamics approach and midcourse controller during disturbances. Section seven discusses rocket assisted ascent which may be beneficial when orbital altitude is high. Finally, Section eight recommends areas of future research.

  14. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through vortex manipulation, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brooke C.; Suarez, Carlos J.; Porada, William M.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) is an emerging technology that has received widespread and concentrated attention by many researchers for application on fighter aircraft to enhance aerodynamic controllability at high angles of attack. This research explores potential application of FVC to a NASP-type configuration. The configuration investigated is characterized by a slender, circular cross-section forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. A man-in-the-loop, six-degress-of-freedom, high-fidelity simulation was developed that demonstrates the implementation and advantages of pneumatic forebody vortex control. Static wind tunnel tests were used as the basis for the aerodynamic characteristics modeled in the simulation. Dynamic free-to-roll wind tunnel tests were analyzed and the wing rock motion investigated. A non-linear model of the dynamic effects of the bare airframe and the forebody vortex control system were developed that closely represented the observed behavior. Multiple state-of-the-art digital flight control systems were developed that included different utilizations of pneumatic vortex control. These were evaluated through manned simulation. Design parameters for a pneumatic forebody vortex control system were based on data collected regarding the use of blowing and the mass flow required during realistic flight maneuvers.

  15. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through vortex manipulation. Volume 3: Wing rock experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Free-to-roll tests were conducted in water and wind tunnels in an effort to investigate the mechanisms of wing rock on a NASP-type vehicle. The configuration tested consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the water tunnel test, extensive flow visualization was performed and roll angle histories were obtained. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle, forces and moments, and limited forebody and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the experiments confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly slowed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetrices are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the fore body was demonstrated to be a potentially effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  16. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through Vortex manipulation. Volume 1: Static water tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Water tunnel tests were conducted on a NASP-type configuration to evaluate different pneumatic Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) methods. Flow visualization and yawing moment measurements were performed at angles of attack from 0 deg to 30 deg. The pneumatic techniques tested included jet and slot blowing. In general, blowing can be used efficiently to manipulate the forebody vortices at angles of attack greater than 20 deg. These vortices are naturally symmetric up to alpha = 25 deg and asymmetric between 25 deg and 30 deg angle of attack. Results indicate that tangential aft jet blowing is the most promising method for this configuration. Aft jet blowing produces a yawing moment towards the blowing side and the trends with blowing rate are well behaved. The size of the nozzle is not the dominant factor in the blowing process; the change in the blowing 'momentum,' i.e., the product of the mass flow rate and the velocity of the jet, appears to be the important parameter in the water tunnel (incompressible and unchoked flow at the nozzle exit). Forward jet blowing is very unpredictable and sensitive to mass flow rate changes. Slot blowing (with the exception of very low blowing rates) acts as a flow 'separator'; it promotes early separation on the blow side, producing a yawing moment toward the non-blowing side for the C(sub mu) range investigated.

  17. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this second phase research is to investigate the optimal ascent trajectory for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) from runway take-off to orbital insertion and address the unique problems associated with the hypersonic flight trajectory optimization. The trajectory optimization problem for an aerospace plane is a highly challenging problem because of the complexity involved. Previous work has been successful in obtaining sub-optimal trajectories by using energy-state approximation and time-scale decomposition techniques. But it is known that the energy-state approximation is not valid in certain portions of the trajectory. This research aims at employing full dynamics of the aerospace plane and emphasizing direct trajectory optimization methods. The major accomplishments of this research include the first-time development of an inverse dynamics approach in trajectory optimization which enables us to generate optimal trajectories for the aerospace plane efficiently and reliably, and general analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic trajectories that has wide application in trajectory optimization as well as in guidance and flight dynamics. Optimal trajectories in abort landing and ascent augmented with rocket propulsion and thrust vectoring control were also investigated. Motivated by this study, a new global trajectory optimization tool using continuous simulated annealing and a nonlinear predictive feedback guidance law have been under investigation and some promising results have been obtained, which may well lead to more significant development and application in the near future.

  18. Future technology aim of the National Aerospace Plane Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Technical areas where hypersonic technology programs outside NASP might offer assistance and participate in the NASP program are considered. These specific areas include airframe, technology opportunities for providing better performance and reduced weight, the NDV application of NASP technology, and engine propellant systems and subsystems.

  19. Experimental research of the aerodynamics of nozzles and plumes at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keener, Earl R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose was to experimentally characterize the flow field created by the interaction of a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream. Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5 Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center. The model design and test planning were performed in close cooperation with members of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) computational fluid dynamics (SFD) team, so that the measurements could be used in CFD code validation studies. Presented here is a description of the experiment, the extent of the measurements obtained, and the experimental results.

  20. Analysis of Exchanges between Novice and Cooperating Teachers during Internships Using the NCATE/NASPE Standards for Teacher Preparation in Physical Education as Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banville, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    To be recognized as an accredited program, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs in the country must abide by guidelines put forward by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), in collaboration with the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). The guidelines are divided into nine…

  1. Report of the NASPE Policy Conference on antibradycardia pacemaker follow-up: effectiveness, needs, and resources. North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A D; Irwin, M E; Parsonnet, V; Wilkoff, B L; Black, W R; Buckingham, T A; Maloney, J D; Reynolds, D D; Saksena, S; Singer, I

    1994-11-01

    On May 4-5, 1993, a policy conference was held in San Diego, California, under the sponsorship of the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE) to identify the fundamental goals of antibradycardia pacemaker follow-up, evaluate the effectiveness with which it achieves those goals, and formulate specific recommendations as to how it can be made more effective. The conference addressed clinical, administrative, and educational objectives, focusing on existing and potential resources for follow-up testing and the appropriate frequency of their application. The training of physicians and associated professionals engaged in follow-up also was addressed, as were regulatory and reimbursement issues. This report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the conference and subsequently approved by the NASPE Board of Trustees. PMID:7838779

  2. Report of the NASPE Policy Conference training requirements for permanent pacemaker selection, implantation, and follow-up. North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D L; Naccarelli, G V; Furman, S; Parsonnet, V

    1994-01-01

    NASPE proposes and supports the concept of a two-tracked training system in cardiac pacing. Track I training will properly train physicians for the prescription of pacemakers and the monitoring of pacemaker patients, and track II training will properly prepare physicians for the implantation of pacemakers. Regardless of specialty (cardiologist or surgeon) or training venue (cardiac pacing fellowship, cardiac electrophysiology and pacing fellowship, sabbatical or mentor sponsored training), it is recommended that these minimum standards be required for hospital credentialing. NASPE also supports the voluntary institution by training program directors of core pacing training in cardiovascular disease and cardiac electrophysiology fellowships. This core training does not in itself constitute proper track I or II training for physicians interested in adequately prescribing, monitoring, or implanting cardiac pacemakers. PMID:7511233

  3. Analysis of exchanges between novice and cooperating teachers during internships using the NCATE/NASPE Standards for Teacher Preparation in Physical Education as guidelines.

    PubMed

    Banville, Dominique

    2006-06-01

    To be recognized as an accredited program, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs in the country must abide by guidelines put forward by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), in collaboration with the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). The guidelines are divided into nine standards and identify a number of outcomes (NASPE, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the exchanges between novice teachers (NTs) and cooperating teachers (CTs), when using the NASPE Standards (1998) as a reference point, and determine if the focus of the exchanges differed over time and according to data source. Six pairs of CTs and their NT participated in the study. Data were collected through recorded conversations between NTs and their CT as well as NTs' logs. Data showed that the majority of conversations focused on planning and instruction (Standard 6) and management and motivation (Standard 4), while few related to diverse learners (Standard 3), growth and development (Standard 2), and communication (Standard 5). The small amount of information shared by CTs in some standards indicates a need for PETE programs to share the guidelines with CTs to make them aware of the importance of offering a variety of topics to interns, because CTs are the primary source of information during this crucial experience. PMID:16898277

  4. Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Application of unsteady aeroelastic analysis techniques on the national aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.; Spain, Charles V.; Soistmann, David L.; Noll, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    A presentation provided at the Fourth National Aerospace Plane Technology Symposium held in Monterey, California, in February 1988 is discussed. The objective is to provide current results of ongoing investigations to develop a methodology for predicting the aerothermoelastic characteristics of NASP-type (hypersonic) flight vehicles. Several existing subsonic and supersonic unsteady aerodynamic codes applicable to the hypersonic class of flight vehicles that are generally available to the aerospace industry are described. These codes were evaluated by comparing calculated results with measured wind-tunnel aeroelastic data. The agreement was quite good in the subsonic speed range but showed mixed agreement in the supersonic range. In addition, a future endeavor to extend the aeroelastic analysis capability to hypersonic speeds is outlined. An investigation to identify the critical parameters affecting the aeroelastic characteristics of a hypersonic vehicle, to define and understand the various flutter mechanisms, and to develop trends for the important parameters using a simplified finite element model of the vehicle is summarized. This study showed the value of performing inexpensive and timely aeroelastic wind-tunnel tests to expand the experimental data base required for code validation using simple to complex models that are representative of the NASP configurations and root boundary conditions are discussed.

  6. Experimental Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. Clayton; Capriotti, Diego P.; Guy, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Experimental supersonic combustion research related to hypersonic airbreathing propulsion has been actively underway at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the mid-1960's. This research involved experimental investigations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion in supersonic flows and numerous tests of scramjet engine flowpaths in LaRC test facilities simulating flight from Mach 4 to 8. Out of this research effort has come scramjet combustor design methodologies, ground test techniques, and data analysis procedures. These technologies have progressed steadily in support of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program and the current Hyper-X flight demonstration program. During NASP nearly 2500 tests of 15 scramjet engine models were conducted in LaRC facilities. In addition, research supporting the engine flowpath design investigated ways to enhance mixing, improve and apply nonintrusive diagnostics, and address facility operation. Tests of scramjet combustor operation at conditions simulating hypersonic flight at Mach numbers up to 17 also have been performed in an expansion tube pulse facility. This paper presents a review of the LaRC experimental supersonic combustion research efforts since the late 1980's, during the NASP program, and into the Hyper-X Program.

  7. NASPE expert consensus document: use of i.v. (conscious) sedation/analgesia by nonanesthesia personnel in patients undergoing arrhythmia specific diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Bubien, R S; Fisher, J D; Gentzel, J A; Murphy, E K; Irwin, M E; Shea, J B; Dick, M; Ching, E; Wilkoff, B L; Benditt, D G

    1998-02-01

    Use of IV (Conscious) Sedation/Analgesia by Nonanesthesia Personnel in Patients Undergoing Arrhythmia Specific Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Surgical Procedures. This article is intended to inform practitioners, payers, and other interested parties of the opinion of the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE) concerning evolving areas of clinical practice or technologies or both, that are widely available or are new to the practice community. Expert consensus documents are so designated because the evidence base and experience with the technology or clinical practice are not yet sufficiently well developed, or rigorously controlled trials are not yet available that would support a more definitive statement. This article has been endorsed by the American College of Cardiology, October 1997. PMID:9507538

  8. Slush hydrogen pressurized expulsion studies at the NASA K-Site Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Margaret V.; Hardy, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment test series of the slush hydrogen (SLH2) project at the NASA LeRC Plum Brook K-Site Facility was completed. This testing was done as part of the characterization and technology database development on slush hydrogen required for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) Program. The primary objective of these experiments was to investigate tank thermodynamic parameters during the pressurized expulsion of slush hydrogen. To accomplish this, maintenance of tank pressure control was investigated during pressurized expulsion of slush hydrogen using gaseous hydrogen and gaseous helium pressurant. In addition, expulsion tests were performed using gaseous helium for initial pressurization, then gaseous hydrogen during expulsion. These tests were conducted with and without mixing of the slush hydrogen. Results from the testing included an evaluation of tank pressure control, pressurant requirements, SLH2 density change, and system mass and energy balances.

  9. The joint DoD/NASA advanced launch system. Pathway to low-cost, highly operable space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Malcolm G.

    In response to changing needs, a major change in U.S. space transportation policy has occurred in the last few years. The joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Launch System program (ALS) intends to respond to this change in policy. The program, initiated in July 1987, completed Phase I at the end of August 1988 and is currently in Phase II. The ALS is cost optimized, rather than performance optimized, and will utilize advanced technology and innovative management and design approaches to achieve an ambitious congressionally mandated cost goal of $300/lb to low Earth orbit by the year 2005. The technological innovations will directly benefit other U.S. space transportation programs, such as the commercial programs and the National Aero Space Plane (NASP).

  10. Hot Fire Ignition Test with Densified Liquid Hydrogen using a RL10B-2 Cryogenic H2/O2 Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Nancy B.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1997-01-01

    Enhancements to propellants provide an opportunity to either increase performance of an existing vehicle, or reduce the size of a new vehicle. In the late 1980's the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) reopened the technology chapter on densified propellants, in particular hydrogen. Since that point in time the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been leading the way to provide critical research on the production and transfer of densified propellants. On October 4, 1996 NASA LeRC provided another key demonstration towards the advancement of densified propellants as a viable fuel. Successful ignition of an RL10B-2 engine was achieved with near triple point liquid hydrogen.

  11. Carbon-carbon composites: Emerging materials for hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.

    1989-01-01

    An emerging class of high temperature materials called carbon-carbon composites are being developed to help make advanced aerospace flight become a reality. Because of the high temperature strength and low density of carbon-carbon composites, aerospace engineers would like to use these materials in even more advanced applications. One application of considerable interest is as the structure of the aerospace vehicle itself rather than simply as a protective heat shield as on Space Shuttle. But suitable forms of these materials have yet to be developed. If this development can be successfully accomplished, advanced aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and other hypersonic vehicles will be closer to becoming a reality. A brief definition is given of C-C composites. Fabrication problems and oxidation protection concepts are examined. Applications of C-C composites in the Space Shuttle and in advanced hypersonic vehicles as well as other applications are briefly discussed.

  12. An Investigation of the Effect of Surface Impurities on the Adsorption Kinetics of Hydrogen Chemisorbed onto Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanabarger, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    The original goal of this program was to investigate the effect surface impurities have on the heterogeneous kinetic processes of those molecular species which produce gaseous hydrogen degradation of the mechanical properties of metallic structural materials. However, shortly after the initiation of the original program, the program's NASA Technical Monitor, Dr. Howard Nelson, requested that the effort supported by this Co-operative Agreement be redirected to study more pressing materials issues associated to the development of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The results of these efforts are outlined in this report. Detailed discussions of specific work, including experimental techniques and procedures, will be found in the publications listed with the subsection discussing that specific work as well and in Section 5. No inventions were generated or disclosed within this Agreement.

  13. Hypersonic Nozzle/Afterbody Experiment: Flow Visualization and Boundary Layer Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keener, Earl R.; Spaid, Frank W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to experimentally characterize the flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion-ramp-nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center in a cooperative experimental program involving Ames and the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The model design and test planning were performed in close cooperation with members of the Ames computational fluid dynamics (CFD) team for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program. This paper presents experimental results consisting of oil-flow and shadowgraph flow-visualization photographs, afterbody surface-pressure distributions, boundary-layer rake measurements, and Preston-tube skin-friction measurements.

  14. A NASP (N1/N2)-related protein, Sim3, binds CENP-A and is required for its deposition at fission yeast centromeres.

    PubMed

    Dunleavy, Elaine M; Pidoux, Alison L; Monet, Marie; Bonilla, Carolina; Richardson, William; Hamilton, Georgina L; Ekwall, Karl; McLaughlin, Paul J; Allshire, Robin C

    2007-12-28

    A defining feature of centromeres is the presence of the histone H3 variant CENP-A(Cnp1). It is not known how CENP-A(Cnp1) is specifically delivered to, and assembled into, centromeric chromatin. Through a screen for factors involved in kinetochore integrity in fission yeast, we identified Sim3. Sim3 is homologous to known histone binding proteins NASP(Human) and N1/N2(Xenopus) and aligns with Hif1(S. cerevisiae), defining the SHNi-TPR family. Sim3 is distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, yet it associates with CENP-A(Cnp1) and also binds H3. Cells defective in Sim3 function have reduced levels of CENP-A(Cnp1) at centromeres (and increased H3) and display chromosome segregation defects. Sim3 is required to allow newly synthesized CENP-A(Cnp1) to accumulate at centromeres in S and G2 phase-arrested cells in a replication-independent mechanism. We propose that one function of Sim3 is to act as an escort that hands off CENP-A(Cnp1) to chromatin assembly factors, allowing its incorporation into centromeric chromatin. PMID:18158900

  15. Simplifying pacemaker follow-up by the implementation of the NASPE standards on computer interface. North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Z M; Furman, S

    1986-11-01

    One of the basic limitations for the development and use of more sophisticated pacemakers is the difficulty to provide adequate instrumentation and methodology for the follow-up in the clinical environment. To address this problem, the NASPE (North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology) Computer Committee has developed an interface standard to allow communication with the pacemaker programmer through many computer systems. The document recommends the use of the RS 232/c (CCITT V.24) interface with baud rates variable from 300 to 19,200, 7 bit word, no parity and Xon/Xoff protocol. The actual message format consists of an SOH code, a function code describing the action to be taken, a variable code defining the parameter on which the action is to be taken, and the actual numerical data. The CHECKSUM is calculated by summing all the ASCII codes beginning after the SOH code and ending with the last byte preceding the checksum itself. The last seven bits so calculated are attached to the message, and a consecutive ETX code ends the communication. At the receiving end, the checksum is recalculated and compared to the value received. If the two match, the message is accepted. Using this format, compatible computer software and pacemaker programmers can be developed independently and function as a unit. The protocol is capable of real-time ECG transmission. PMID:2432546

  16. Shock-tunnel combustor testing for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed configurations for the next generation of transatmospheric vehicles will rely on air breathing propulsion systems during all or part of their mission. At flight Mach numbers greater than about 7 these engines will operate in the supersonic combustion ramjet mode (scramjet). Ground testing of these engine concepts above Mach 8 requires high pressure, high enthalpy facilities such as shock tunnels and expansion tubes. These impulse, or short duration facilities have test times on the order of a millisecond, requiring high speed instrumentation and data systems. One such facility ideally suited for scramjet testing is the NASA-Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel, which over the last two years has completed a series of tests for the NASP (National Aero-Space Plane) program at simulated flight Mach numbers ranging from 12-16. The focus of the experimental programs consisted of a series of classified tests involving a near-full scale hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor model in the semi-free jet method of engine testing whereby the compressed forebody flow ahead of the cowl inlet is reproduced (see appendix A). The AIMHYE-1 (Ames Integrated Modular Hypersonic Engine) test entry for the NASP program was completed in April 1993, while AIMHYE-2 was completed in May 1994. The test entries were regarded as successful, resulting in some of the first data of its kind on the performance of a near full scale scramjet engine at Mach 12-16. The data was distributed to NASP team members for use in design system verification and development. Due to the classified nature of the hardware and data, the data reports resulting from this work are classified and have been published as part of the NASP literature. However, an unclassified AIAA paper resulted from the work and has been included as appendix A. It contains an overview of the test program and a description of some of the important issues.

  17. Experiments with Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W

    1934-01-01

    A previous report discusses the experimental program of a systematic exploration of all questions connected with the planing problem as well as the first fundamental results of the investigation of a flat planing surface. The present report is limited to the conversion of the model test data to full scale.

  18. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  19. 2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  1. Combined Loads Test Fixture for Thermal-Structural Testing Aerospace Vehicle Panel Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Roger A.; Richards, W. Lance; DeAngelis, Michael V.

    2004-01-01

    A structural test requirement of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program has resulted in the design, fabrication, and implementation of a combined loads test fixture. Principal requirements for the fixture are testing a 4- by 4-ft hat-stiffened panel with combined axial (either tension or compression) and shear load at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 915 F, keeping the test panel stresses caused by the mechanical loads uniform, and thermal stresses caused by non-uniform panel temperatures minimized. The panel represents the side fuselage skin of an experimental aerospace vehicle, and was produced for the NASP program. A comprehensive mechanical loads test program using the new test fixture has been conducted on this panel from room temperature to 500 F. Measured data have been compared with finite-element analyses predictions, verifying that uniform load distributions were achieved by the fixture. The overall correlation of test data with analysis is excellent. The panel stress distributions and temperature distributions are very uniform and fulfill program requirements. This report provides details of an analytical and experimental validation of the combined loads test fixture. Because of its simple design, this unique test fixture can accommodate panels from a variety of aerospace vehicle designs.

  2. Beamlet focal plane diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

  3. The tail plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1923-01-01

    This report deals with the calculation of the equilibrium, statistical stability, and damping of the tail plane. The author has simplified the present theory of longitudinal stability for the particular purpose of obtaining one definite coefficient characteristics of the effect of the tail plane. This coefficient is obtained by substituting certain aerodynamic characteristics and some dimensions of the airplane in a comparatively simple mathematical expression. Care has been taken to confine all aerodynamical information necessary for the calculation of the coefficient to the well-known curves representing the qualities of the wing section. This is done by making use of the present results of modern aerodynamics. All formulas and relations necessary for the calculation are contained in the paper. They give in some cases only an approximation of the real values. An example of calculation is added in order to illustrate the application of the method. The coefficient indicates not only whether the effect of the tail plane is great enough, but also whether it is not too great. It appears that the designer has to avoid a certain critical length of the fuselage, which inevitably gives rise to periodical oscillations of the airplane. The discussion also shows the way and in what direction to carry out experimental work.

  4. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  5. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  6. Mosaic Focal Plane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, David L.; Horner, Scott D.; Aamodt, Earl K.

    2002-12-01

    Advances in systems engineering, applied sciences, and manufacturing technologies have enabled the development of large ground based and spaced based astronomical instruments having a large Field of View (FOV) to capture a large portion of the universe in a single image. A larger FOV can be accomplished using light weighted optical elements, improved support structures, and the development of mosaic Focal Plane Assemblies (mFPA). A mFPA designed for astronomy can use multiple Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) mounted onto a single camera baseplate integrated at the instrument plane of focus. Examples of current, or proposed, missions utilizing mFPA technology include FAME, GEST, Kepler, GAIA, LSST, and SNAP. The development of a mFPA mandates tighter control on the design trades, component development, CCD characterization, component integration, and performance verification testing. This paper addresses the capability Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company's (LMSSC) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed to perform CCD characterization, mFPA assembly and alignment, and mFPA system level testing.

  7. Mosaic Focal Plane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, D.; Horner, S.; Aamodt, E.

    Advances in manufacturing and applied sciences have enabled the development of large ground and spaced based astronomical instruments having a Field of View (FOV) large enough to capture a large portion of the universe in a single image. A large FOV can be accomplished using light weighted optics, improved structures, and the development of mosaic Focal Plane Assemblies (mFPAs). A mFPA comprises multiple Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) mounted onto a single baseplate integrated at the focus plane of the instrument. Examples of current, or proposed, missions utilizing mFPA technology include FAME, GEST, Kepler, GAIA, LSST, and SNAP. The development of a mFPA mandates tight control on the design trades of component development, CCD definition and characterization, component integration, and performance verification testing. This paper addresses the results of the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Advanced Technology Center (ATC) developed mFPA. The design trades and performance characterization are services provided by the LMSSC ATC but not detailed in this paper.

  8. The Three Planes of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the language sciences place together four different forms of mental activity on one plane of language, which results in confusion. This paper presents arguments from metaphysics, hermeneutics, and semiotics to demonstrate that there are actually three planes of language (a biologically-based information processing plane, a literal…

  9. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains how our weather occurs, and why Solar radiation is responsible. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  10. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  11. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  12. Plane Mercury librations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    theory of Mercury librations in longitude by using three characteristics of Mercury rotation determined in the paper [3]. Two from these parameters are values of angle of librations in longitude and angular velocity in moment of passage of perihelion of Mercury orbit on 17 April 2002: (^g)0 = 0007 ± 0001, (^?•? )0 = (2.10± 0.06)•? ars/d. Third parameter determined in [3] is a dynamical coefficient: K = (B -A)•(4Cm ) = (5.08± 0.30) × 10-5. B > A are principal moment of inertia, corresponding to equatorial axes of inertia; Cm is a polar moment of inertia of the mantle of Mercury. 1 Analytical theory of plane Mercury librations. This theory describes forced and free librations of Mercury in longitude in the frame of plane problem about resonant librations of Mercury considered or as non-spherical rigid body, or as system of rigid non-spherical mantle and liquid ellipsoidal core. Saving the main terms for the perturbations of angle of librations ^g and angular velocity ^? in both mentioned cases we will have formulae [6]: ^g = K(E sin M + E sin2M + E sin 3M + E sin4M + E sin5M ) 1 2 3 4 5+K0 sin(E šKM- - φ) (A)

  13. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NASA is obligated to search for or change the format of the information. A failure to furnish... contract. (c) Information regarding CASI and the services available can be obtained at the Internet...

  14. NASA-universities relationships in aero/space engineering: A review of NASA's program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    NASA is concerned about the health of aerospace engineering departments at U.S. universities. The number of advanced degrees in aerospace engineering has declined. There is concern that universities' facilities, research equipment, and instrumentation may be aging or outmoded and therefore affect the quality of research and education. NASA requested that the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) review NASA's support of universities and make recommendations to improve the program's effectiveness.

  15. Collaborative Software Development in Support of Fast Adaptive AeroSpace Tools (FAAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Park, Michael A.; Wood, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative software development approach is described. The software product is an adaptation of proven computational capabilities combined with new capabilities to form the Agency's next generation aerothermodynamic and aerodynamic analysis and design tools. To efficiently produce a cohesive, robust, and extensible software suite, the approach uses agile software development techniques; specifically, project retrospectives, the Scrum status meeting format, and a subset of Extreme Programming's coding practices are employed. Examples are provided which demonstrate the substantial benefits derived from employing these practices. Also included is a discussion of issues encountered when porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95 and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

  16. The solar system's invariable plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy

  17. Plane waves as tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  18. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  19. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  20. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. The Laplace Planes of Uranus and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite orbits close to an oblate planet precess about its equatorial plane, while distant satellites precess around the plane of the planet's heliocentric orbit. In between, satellites in nearly circular orbits precess about a warped intermediate surface called the Laplace 'plane.' Herein we derive general formulas for locating the Laplace plane. Because Uranus and Pluto have high obliquities, their Laplace planes are severely warped. We present maps of these Laplace planes, of interest in telescopic searches for new satellites. The Laplace plane of the Solar System as a whole is similarly distorted, but comets in the inner Oort cloud precess too slowly to sense the Laplace plane.

  2. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  3. Space-Plane Spreadsheet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Basic Hypersonic Data and Equations (HYPERDATA) spreadsheet computer program provides data gained from three analyses of performance of space plane. Equations used to perform analyses derived from Newton's second law of physics, derivation included. First analysis is parametric study of some basic factors affecting ability of space plane to reach orbit. Second includes calculation of thickness of spherical fuel tank. Third produces ratio between volume of fuel and total mass for each of various aircraft. HYPERDATA intended for use on Macintosh(R) series computers running Microsoft Excel 3.0.

  4. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  5. Optimization of starshades: focal plane versus pupil plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamary, R.; Aime, C.

    2014-09-01

    We search for the best possible transmission for an external occulter coronagraph that is dedicated to the direct observation of terrestrial exoplanets. We show that better observation conditions are obtained when the flux in the focal plane is minimized in the zone in which the exoplanet is observed, instead of for the total flux received by the telescope. We describe the transmission of the occulter as a sum of basis functions. For each element of the basis, we numerically computed the Fresnel diffraction at the aperture of the telescope and the complex amplitude at its focus. The basis functions are circular disks that are linearly apodized over a few centimeters (truncated cones). We complemented the numerical calculation of the Fresnel diffraction for these functions by a comparison with pure circular disks (cylinder) for which an analytical expression, based on a decomposition in Lommel series, is available. The technique of deriving the optimal transmission for a given spectral bandwidth is a classical regularized quadratic minimization of intensities, but linear optimizations can be used as well. Minimizing the integrated intensity on the aperture of the telescope or for selected regions of the focal plane leads to slightly different transmissions for the occulter. For the focal plane optimization, the resulting residual intensity is concentrated behind the geometrical image of the occulter, in a blind region for the observation of an exoplanet, and the level of background residual starlight becomes very low outside this image. Finally, we provide a tolerance analysis for the alignment of the occulter to the telescope, which also favors the focal plane optimization. This means that telescope offsets of a few decimeters do not strongly reduce the efficiency of the occulter.

  6. Plane Wave and Coulomb Asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, P. G.; Crothers, D. S. F.

    2004-01-01

    A simple plane wave solution of the Schrödinger Helmholtz equation is a quantum eigenfunction obeying both energy and linear momentum correspondence principles. Inclusion of the outgoing wave with scattering amplitude f obeys unitarity and the optical theorem. By closely considering the standard asymptotic development of the plane wave, we show that there is a problem with angular momentum when we consider forward scattering at the point of closest approach and at large impact parameter given semiclassically by (l + 1/2)/k where l is the azimuthal quantum number and may be large (J Leech et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 257901 (2002)). The problem is resolved via non-uniform, non-standard analysis involving the Heaviside step function, unifying classical, semiclassical and quantum mechanics, and the treatment is extended to the case of pure Coulomb scattering.

  7. Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

    2008-03-18

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  8. Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Lockheed Martin has been an active participant in NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) programs over the past several years. SLI, part of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), was restructured in November of 2002 to focus the overall theme of safer, more afford-able space transportation along two paths - the Orbital Space Plane Program and the Next Generation Launch Technology programs. The Orbital Space Plane Program has the goal of providing rescue capability from the International Space Station by 2008 and transfer capability for crew (and limited cargo) by 2012. The Next Generation Launch Technology program is combining research and development efforts from the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2GRLV) program with cutting-edge, advanced space transportation programs (previously designated 3rd Generation) into one program aimed at enabling safe, reliable, cost-effective reusable launch systems by the middle of the next decade. Lockheed Martin is one of three prime contractors working to bring Orbital Space Plane system concepts to a system definition level of maturity by December of 2003. This paper and presentation will update the international community on the progress of the' OSP program, from an industry perspective, and provide insights into Lockheed Martin's role in enabling the vision of a safer, more affordable means of taking people to and from space.

  9. Symmetry in finite phase plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, J.

    2010-03-01

    The known symmetries in one-dimensional systems are inversion and translations. These symmetries persist in finite phase plane, but a novel symmetry arises in view of the discrete nature of the coordinate xi and the momentum pi : xi and pi can undergo permutations. Thus, if xi assumes M discrete values, i = 0, 1,2,..., M - 1, a permutation will change the order of the set x0,x1,..., xM-1 into a new ordered set. Such a symmetry element does not exist for a continuous x-coordinate in an infinite phase plane. Thus, in a finite phase plane, translations can be replaced by permutations. This is also true for the inversion operator. The new permutation symmetry has been used for the construction of conjugate representations and for the splitting of the M-dimensional vector space into independent subspaces. This splitting is exhaustive in the sense that if M = iMi with Mi being prime numbers, the M-dimensional space splits into M1,M2,...Mn-dimensional independent subspaces. It is shown that following this splitting one can design new potentials with appropriate constants of motion. A related problem is the Weyl-Heisenberg group in the M-dimensional space which turns into a direct product of its subgroups in the Mi-dimensional subspaces. As an example we consider the case of M = 8.

  10. Surface compositional variations of Mo-47Re alloy as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoekje, S. J.; Outlaw, R. A.; Sankaran, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium alloys are candidate materials for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) as well as for other applications in generic hypersonics. These materials are expected to be subjected to high-temperature (above 1200 C) casual hydrogen (below 50 torr), which could potentially degrade the material strength. Since the uptake of hydrogen may be controlled by the contaminant surface barriers, a study of Mo-47Re was conducted to examine the variations in surface composition as a function of temperature from 25 C to 1000 C. Pure molybdenum and rhenium were also examined and the results compared with those for the alloy. The analytical techniques employed were Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, and x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The native surface was rich in metallic oxides that disappeared at elevated temperatures. As the temperature increased, the carbon and oxygen disappeared by 800 C and the surface was subsequently populated by the segregation of silicon, presumably from the grain boundaries. The alloy readily chemisorbed oxygen, which disappeared with heating. The disappearance temperature progressively increased for successive dosings. When the alloy was exposed to 800 torr of hydrogen at 900 C for 1 hour, no hydrogen interaction was observed.

  11. STARS: An Integrated, Multidisciplinary, Finite-Element, Structural, Fluids, Aeroelastic, and Aeroservoelastic Analysis Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, finite element-based, highly graphics-oriented, linear and nonlinear analysis capability that includes such disciplines as structures, heat transfer, linear aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, and controls engineering has been achieved by integrating several new modules in the original STARS (STructural Analysis RoutineS) computer program. Each individual analysis module is general-purpose in nature and is effectively integrated to yield aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic solutions of complex engineering problems. Examples of advanced NASA Dryden Flight Research Center projects analyzed by the code in recent years include the X-29A, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle/Thrust Vectoring Control System, B-52/Pegasus Generic Hypersonics, National AeroSpace Plane (NASP), SR-71/Hypersonic Launch Vehicle, and High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) projects. Extensive graphics capabilities exist for convenient model development and postprocessing of analysis results. The program is written in modular form in standard FORTRAN language to run on a variety of computers, such as the IBM RISC/6000, SGI, DEC, Cray, and personal computer; associated graphics codes use OpenGL and IBM/graPHIGS language for color depiction. This program is available from COSMIC, the NASA agency for distribution of computer programs.

  12. Turbulence compressibility corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1994-01-01

    The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.

  13. Cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 turbo-ramjet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. C.; Petley, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 cruise aircraft, using non-cryogenic fuel is presented. Catalytic endothermic reaction of petroleum fuel is used as the heat sink for engine cooling. A secondary closed-loop coolant circuit removes heat from the engine and transfers this heat to the catalytic reactor. Insulation on the engine flow path surfaces reduces the cooling requirements. A high temperature insulation system, which is capable of a surface temperature of 4,000 F, is used for the combustor and nozzle. A complete closed-loop cooling system design is shown in detail. Main features of this system include a fuel preheater, a catalytic fuel reactor, and engine wall cooling panels. A silicone-based liquid polymer, designed for extended use at 750 F, is used as the coolant. The preheater and reactor design are based on the results of recent experimental work. The cooling panels are designed using a thermal fluid analysis computer program, which was originally developed for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). Major components are analyzed structurally as well as thermally and weights are presented.

  14. Hypersonic Propulsion at Pratt and Whitney: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazmar, Richard R.

    2002-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney (P&W) is developing the technology for hypersonic components and engines. A supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) database was developed during the National Aero Space Plane (NASP) program using hydrogen fueled propulsion systems for space access vehicles and serves as a point of departure for the current emphasis on hydrocarbon scramjets. The Air Force Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) Office has put programs in place to develop the technologies necessary to demonstrate the operability, performance and structural durability of a liquid hydrocarbon fueled scramjet system that operates from Mach 4 to 8. Fuel-cooled superalloys and lightweight structures are being developed to improve thermal protection and durability and to reduce propulsion system weight. The application of scramjet engine technology as part of combined cycle propulsion systems is also being pursued under NASA and U.S. Air Force sponsorship. The combination of scramjet power and solid rocket booster acceleration is applicable to hypersonic cruise missiles. Scramjets that use gas turbines for low speed acceleration and scramjets using rocket power for low speed acceleration are being studied for application to reusable launch systems and hypersonic cruise vehicles. P&W's recent activities and future plans for hypersonic propulsion will be described.

  15. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  16. Rewritable photochromic focal plane masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Emilio; Bertarelli, Chiara; Bianco, Andrea; Bortoletto, Fabio; Conconi, Paolo; Crimi, Giuseppe; Gallazzi, Maria C.; Giro, Enrico; Lucotti, Andrea; Pernechele, Claudio; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2003-02-01

    The application of organic photochromic materials in astronomy is opening new possibilities which we are investigating in order to design innovative devices for future instrumentation. The photochromic property of transparent/opaque transition (although in a limited wavelength range) and the changes in intrinsic refractive index have led our studies to application in astronomic spectrographs, both as focal plane mask (for MOS application) and as dispersive elements (volume phase holographic gratings, VPHG), respectively. In both cases the possibility to write and erase devices with suitable irradiation has revealed a new perspective for non-disposable and fully customizable items for spectroscopy. Pursuing this goal we have synthesized a series of novel photochromic materials belonging to the diarylethenes. They fulfill the requirements of thermal stability and fatigue resistance necessary to build functional devices. Prototypes of high contrast focal plane mask working in the H-alpha spectral region have been manufactured and characterized both in laboratory and with the AFOSC camera at Asiago telescope (1.8 m). A custom writing robot (ARATRO) which, taking imaging frames and with the aid of interactive mask design software and ad hoc control electronics, is able to write MOS masks, has been constructed. The design of the MOS masks allow the fitting in the AFOSC slit wheel. The overall set-up is ready for the sky tests.

  17. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  18. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements. PMID:22034331

  19. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  20. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.

  1. The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, P. W.; Hoare, M. G.; Longmore, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Davis, C. J.; Adamson, A.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; de Grijs, R.; Smith, M.; Gosling, A.; Mitchison, S.; Gáspár, A.; Coe, M.; Tamura, M.; Parker, Q.; Irwin, M.; Hambly, N.; Bryant, J.; Collins, R. S.; Cross, N.; Evans, D. W.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Hodgkin, S.; Lewis, J.; Read, M.; Riello, M.; Sutorius, E. T. W.; Lawrence, A.; Drew, J. E.; Dye, S.; Thompson, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) is one of the five near-infrared Public Legacy Surveys that are being undertaken by the UKIDSS consortium, using the Wide Field Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. It is surveying 1868 deg2 of the northern and equatorial Galactic plane at Galactic latitudes -5° < b < 5° in the J, H and K filters and a ~200-deg2 area of the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus molecular cloud complex in these three filters and the 2.12 μm (1-0) H2 filter. It will provide data on ~2 × 109 sources. Here we describe the properties of the data set and provide a user's guide for its exploitation. We also present brief Demonstration Science results from DR2 and from the Science Verification programme. These results illustrate how GPS data will frequently be combined with data taken in other wavebands to produce scientific results. The Demonstration Science comprises six studies. (1) A GPS-Spitzer-GLIMPSE cross-match for the star formation region G28.983-0.603 to identify YSOs. This increases the number of YSOs identified by a factor of 10 compared to GLIMPSE alone. (2) A wide-field study of the M17 nebula, in which an extinction map of the field is presented and the effect of source confusion on luminosity functions in different subregions is noted. (3) H2 emission in the ρ Ophiuchi dark cloud. All the molecular jets are traced back to a single active clump containing only a few protostars, which suggests that the duration of strong jet activity and associated rapid accretion in low-mass protostars is brief. (4) X-ray sources in the nuclear bulge. The GPS data distinguishes local main-sequence counterparts with soft X-ray spectra from nuclear bulge giant counterparts with hard X-ray spectra. (5) External galaxies in the zone of avoidance. The galaxies are clearly distinguished from stars in fields at longitudes l > 90°. (6) IPHAS-GPS optical-infrared spectrophotometric typing. The (i' - J) versus (J - H) diagram is used to distinguish A-F type

  2. Out-of-plane properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes three areas of research which were performed to characterize out-of-plane properties of composite materials. In the first investigation, a series of tests was run to characterize the through-the-thickness tensile strength for a variety of composites that included 2D braids, 2D and 3D weaves, and prepreg tapes. A new test method based on a curved beam was evaluated. Failures were significantly different between the 2D materials and the 3D weaves. The 2D materials delaminated between layers due to out-of-plane tensile stresses while the 3D weaves failed due to the formation of radial cracks between the surface plies caused by high circumferential stresses along the inner radius. The strength of the 2D textile composites did not increase relative to the tapes. Final failure in the 3D weaves was caused by a circumferential crack similar to the 2D materials and occurred at a lower bending moment than in other materials. The early failures in the 3D weaves were caused by radial crack formation rather than a low through-the-thickness strength. The second investigation focused on the development of a standard impact test method to measure impact damage resistance. The only impact tests that currently exist are compression after impact (CAI) tests which incorporate elements of both damage resistance and damage tolerance. A new impact test method is under development which uses a quasi-static indentation (QSI) test to directly measure damage resistance. Damage resistance is quantified in terms of the contact force to produce a unit of damage where a metric for damage may be area in C-scan, depth of residual dent , penetration, damage growth, etc. A final draft of an impact standard that uses a QSI test method will be presented to the ASTM Impact Task Group on impact. In the third investigation, the impact damage resistance behavior of a variety of textile materials was studied using the QSI test method. In this study, the force where large damage

  3. Duel-Plane Optical Disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsky, B. E.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Acquiring better drop-size distributions of rainfall will improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. In order to fully capture the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, a robust, calibration free, low-cost instrument that provides an accurate drop-size distribution is required. Therefore, The University of Iowa Lidar Group has developed and built a new duel-plane optical disdrometer that meets these criteria. Two sheets of laser light, vertically spaced by 1 cm are produced by two 670nm laser beams passing through a collecting lens and culminating lens, respectively. The two sheets of laser light then pass through a convex lens located 20 cm from the lasers that focuses the light on a photo detector. A computer reads in and stores the voltages at 10 kHz. The velocity, diameter, shape and drop-size distribution of raindrops are extracted from the voltage measurements. Rainfall data collected in Iowa City, IA tested our disdrometer's robustness and accuracy of providing drop-size distributions. Our distrometer is advantageous because it is simple, low-cost, and requires no calibration.

  4. Reflections on the Hyperbolic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2013-12-01

    The most general solution to the Einstein equations in 4 = 3 + 1 dimensions in the asymptotic limit close to the cosmological singularity under the BKL (Belinskii-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) hypothesis can be visualized by the behavior of a billiard ball in a triangular domain on the Upper Poincaré Half Plane (UPHP). The billiard system (named "big billiard") can be schematized by dividing the successions of trajectories according to Poincaré return map on the sides of the billiard table, according to the paradigms implemented by the BKL investigation and by the CB-LKSKS (Chernoff-Barrow-Lifshitz-Khalatnikov-Sinai-Khanin-Shchur) one. Different maps are obtained, according to different symmetry-quotienting mechanisms used to analyze the dynamics. In the inhomogeneous case, new structures have been uncovered, such that, in this framework, the billiard table (named "small billiard") consists of 1/6 of the previous one. The connections between the symmetry-quotienting mechanisms are further investigated on the UPHP. The relation between the complete billiard and the small billiard are also further explained according to the role of Weyl reflections. The quantum properties of the system are sketched as well, and the physical interpretation of the wave function is further developed. In particular, a physical interpretation for the symmetry-quotienting maps is proposed.

  5. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  6. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  7. Collinearity-preserving functions between Desarguesian planes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, David S.; Vogt, Andrew

    1980-01-01

    Using concepts from valuation theory, we obtain a characterization of all collinearity-preserving functions from one affine or projective Desarguesian plane into another. The case in which the planes are projective and the range contains a quadrangle has been treated previously in the literature. Our results permit one or both planes to be affine and include cases in which the range contains a triangle but no quadrangle. A key theorem is that, with the exception of certain embeddings defined on planes of order 2 and 3, every collinearity-preserving function from one affine Desarguesian plane into another can be extended to a collinearity-preserving function between enveloping projective planes. PMID:16592845

  8. Hypersonic flows as related to the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussoy, Marvin; Huang, George; Menter, Florian

    1995-01-01

    The object of Cooperative Agreement NCC2-452 was to identify, develop, and document reliable turbulence models for incorporation into CFD codes, which would then subsequently be incorporated into numerical design procedures for the NASP and any other hypersonic vehicles. In a two-pronged effort, consisting of an experimental and a theoretical approach, several key features of flows over complex vehicles were identified, and test bodies were designed which were composed of simple geometric shapes over which these flow features were measured. The experiments were conducted in the 3.5' Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, at nominal Mach numbers from 7 to 8.3 and Re/m from 4.9 x 10(exp 6) to 5.8 x 10(exp 6). Boundary layers approaching the interaction region were 2.5 to 3.7 cm thick. Surface and flow field measurements were conducted, and the initial boundary conditions were experimentally documented.

  9. Sagittal plane biomechanics. American Diabetes Association.

    PubMed

    Dananberg, H J

    2000-01-01

    During walking, the center of body mass must pass from behind the weightbearing foot to in front of it. For this to take place, the foot must function as a sagittal plane pivot. Because the range required for this motion is approximately five times as great as both frontal and transverse plane motion, its evaluation should become an essential part of a podiatric biomechanical assessment. Lack of proper sagittal plane motion and its sequelae are described. PMID:10659532

  10. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  11. Recent developments in surgical skin planing.

    PubMed

    AYRES, S; WILSON, J W; LUIKART, R

    1958-02-01

    In surgical skin planing steel wire brushes have been largely replaced by the less hazardous diamond chip burs or "fraises" and serrated steel wheels. In addition to acne pits and wrinkling, multiple actinic (senile) keratoses are an important indication for planing. Planing provides a nonscarring method for the treatment of existing keratoses, as well as a prophylaxis against skin cancer by replacing the sun-damaged, precancerous epidermis with new epidermal cells derived from the cutaneous adnexa (pilosebaceous and sweat gland units). There are clinical landmarks indicating the depth of planing which can serve as a guide to the operator and can be correlated with microscopic findings. The results of experiments on the comparative effects of refrigerants on animal and human skin indicate that human facial skin can tolerate considerable freezing with ethyl chloride or dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon 114) but that mixtures containing large proportions of the much colder dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) may be undesirable. Refreezing an area of the skin in order to perform a more adequate planing is not considered hazardous.THE REGENERATION OF THE SKIN FOLLOWING PLANING HAS THREE COMPONENTS: Epidermal, adnexal and dermal. The cells of the epidermis and the adnexa are equipotential. A knowledge of the anatomy of the acne pit enables the operator to decide which pits can be benefited by planing and which should be excised before planing. The successful treatment of acne pits of the face by planing in patients having keloids elsewhere on the body is reported. PMID:13500217

  12. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

  13. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  14. A simulation of the effects of the National Aerospace Plane testing on the stratosphere using a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Douglas, Anne R.; Brueske, Kurt F.

    1992-01-01

    A 2D photochemical model has been utilized to investigate the influence of testing of the NASP on the stratosphere. Effluents of H2, H2O, NO, NO2, OH, H, and O from the experimental vehicles are predicted to slightly disturb the stratosphere. The European Sanger spacecraft possible influence on the stratosphere has been simulated and is predicted to also be minor.

  15. Quality Physical Education. NASPE Resource Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    A quality physical education program provides learning opportunities, appropriate instruction, meaningful and challenging content, and student and program assessment. In addition, a quality physical education improves mental alertness, academic performance, and readiness and enthusiasm for learning in the nation's youth. This brief provides a list…

  16. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  17. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  18. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  19. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  20. A Potential Treatment for Post-Flight Orthostatic Intolerance in Aero-Space Crews: Autogenic-Feedback Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.

    1994-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic Orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using in operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 450 head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight Orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  1. A Program of Research and Education to Advance the Design, Synthesis, and Optimization of Aero-Space System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in December 1999, the program has provided support for a total of 11 Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, of these, 6 have completed their MS degree program. The program has generated 3 MS theses and a total of 4 publications/presentations.

  2. NASA 20th Century Explorer . . . Into the Sea of Space. A Guide to Careers in Aero-Space Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet lists career opportunities in aerospace technology announced by the Boards of the U. S. Civil Service for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Information given includes (1) the work of the NASA, (2) technical and administrative specialties in aerospace technology, (3) educational and experience requirements, and…

  3. Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for imaging from the slant plane data collected by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over the full rotation or a partial segment of a circular flight path. A Fourier analysis for the Green's function of the imaging system is provided. This analysis is the basis of an inversion for slant plane circular SAR data. The reconstruction algorithm and resolution for this SAR system are outlined. It is shown that the slant plane circular SAR, unlike the slant plane linear SAR, has the capability to extract three-dimensional imaging information of a target scene. The merits of the algorithm are demonstrated via a simulated target whose ultra wideband foliage penetrating (FOPEN) or ground penetrating (GPEN) ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar signature varies with the radar's aspect angle. PMID:18285213

  4. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  5. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications. PMID:25076447

  6. Implementation strategy of wafer-plane and aerial-plane inspection for advanced mask manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Sun; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Cho, HanKu; Huang, William; Miller, John; Inderhees, Gregg; Pinto, Becky; Hur, Jiuk; Park, Kihun; Han, Jay

    2009-04-01

    Inspection of aggressive Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) designs, improvement of usable sensitivity, and reduction of cost of ownership are the three major challenges for today's mask inspection methodologies. In this paper we will discuss using aerial-plane inspection and wafer-plane inspection as novel approaches to address these challenges for advanced reticles. Wafer-plane inspection (WPI) and aerial-plane inspection (API) are two lithographic inspection modes. This suite of new inspection modes is based on high resolution reflected and transmitted light images in the reticle plane. These images together with scanner parameters are used to generate the aerial plane image using either vector or scalar models. Then information about the resist is applied to complete construction of the wafer plane image. API reports defects based on intensity differences between test and reference images at the aerial plane, whereas WPI applies a resist model to the aerial image to enhance discrimination between printable and non-printable defects at the wafer plane. The combination of WPI and API along with the industry standard Reticle Plane Inspection (RPI) is designed to handle complex OPC features, improve usable sensitivity and reduce the cost of ownership. This paper will explore the application of aerial-plane and wafer-plane die-to-die inspections on advanced reticles. Inspection sensitivity, inspectability, and comparison with Aerial Imaging Measurement System (AIMSTM[1]) or wafer-print-line will be analyzed. Most importantly, the implementation strategy of a combination of WPI and API along with RPI leading-edge mask manufacturing will be discussed.

  7. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  8. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  10. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  11. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  12. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  13. Plane gravitational waves in real connection variables

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterleitner, Franz; Major, Seth

    2011-02-15

    We investigate using plane-fronted gravitational wave space-times as model systems to study loop quantization techniques and dispersion relations. In this classical analysis we start with planar symmetric space-times in the real connection formulation. We reduce via Dirac constraint analysis to a final form with one canonical pair and one constraint, equivalent to the metric and Einstein equations of plane-fronted-with-parallel-rays waves. Because of the symmetries and use of special coordinates, general covariance is broken. However, this allows us to simply express the constraints of the consistent system. A recursive construction of Dirac brackets results in nonlocal brackets, analogous to those of self-dual fields, for the triad variables. Not surprisingly, this classical analysis produces no evidence for dispersion, i.e. a variable propagation speed of gravitational plane-fronted-with-parallel-rays waves.

  14. Out of plane analysis for composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, P. C.; Saff, C. R.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Mahler, M. A.; Kan, Han Pin; Kautz, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Simple two dimensional analysis techniques were developed to aid in the design of strong joints for integrally stiffened/bonded composite structures subjected to out of plane loads. It was found that most out of plane failures were due to induced stresses arising from rapid changes in load path direction or geometry, induced stresses due to changes in geometry caused by buckling, or direct stresses produced by fuel pressure or bearing loads. While the analysis techniques were developed to address a great variety of out of plane loading conditions, they were primarily derived to address the conditions described above. The methods were developed and verified using existing element test data. The methods were demonstrated using the data from a test failure of a high strain wingbox that was designed, built, and tested under a previous program. Subsequently, a set of design guidelines were assembled to assist in the design of safe, strong integral composite structures using the analysis techniques developed.

  15. Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, A. T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin-friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving-ground-planes are evaluated using test information from three different wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These data include test information from the VSTOL tunnel which is presented for the first time. The three methods evaluated were: (1) relative integral parameter method, (2) relative power law method, and (3) modified law of the wall method. Methods (1) and (2) can be used to predict moving-ground-plane shape factors with an expected accuracy of + or - 10%. They may also be used to predict moving-ground-plane displacement and momentum thicknesses with lower expected accuracy. This decrease in accuracy can be traced to the failure of approximations upon which these methods are based to prove universal when compared with VSTOL tunnel test results.

  16. Improvements in in-plane electrophoretic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzen, Alex

    2011-03-01

    Electronic paper is now developing fast into an accepted alternative for paper. Its applications nowadays seem focused on books, documents and newspapers. Development of credible color implementations of electrophoretic displays has been initiated, focusing on multi-layer in-plane electrophoresis, but the difficulties associated with these systems (particle drift, aperture, accuracy) were so far not solved. Electro-osmotic principles lead to openings towards multi-layer color displays as well as fast switching, high reflectance grayscale displays. Drift, aperture and accuracy can be brought to the level necessary to create in-plane switching electro-osmotic displays without the need for encapsulation

  17. Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

    1981-02-01

    Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.

  18. Horizons and plane waves: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-11-06

    We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.

  19. Note: A novel integrated microforce measurement system for plane-plane contact research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Rostoucher, D.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation of plane-plane contact force has become a big issue in micro-/nano research, for example in microassembly. However with the lack of effective experimental equipments, the research on plane-plane contact has been limited to theoretical formulations or virtual simulation. In this paper, a microforce sensor and precision parallel robot integrated system is proposed for the microforce measurement of plane-plane contact. In the proposed system, the two objects are fixed on the parallel robot end-platform and the microforce sensor probe tip, respectively, and the high precision robot system is employed to provide six degree-of-freedom motions between both objects. So it is convenient for the microforce measurement between the planar objects with different orientations. As a significant application, the proposed system is utilized for measurements of pull-off force between planar objects, in which the validation of the system is demonstrated in practice. The proposed microforce measurement system is generic, which can be extended to a variety of microforce measurements in plane-plane contact.

  20. Plane Smoothers for Multiblock Grids: Computational Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llorente, Ignacio M.; Diskin, Boris; Melson, N. Duane

    1999-01-01

    Standard multigrid methods are not well suited for problems with anisotropic discrete operators, which can occur, for example, on grids that are stretched in order to resolve a boundary layer. One of the most efficient approaches to yield robust methods is the combination of standard coarsening with alternating-direction plane relaxation in the three dimensions. However, this approach may be difficult to implement in codes with multiblock structured grids because there may be no natural definition of global lines or planes. This inherent obstacle limits the range of an implicit smoother to only the portion of the computational domain in the current block. This report studies in detail, both numerically and analytically, the behavior of blockwise plane smoothers in order to provide guidance to engineers who use block-structured grids. The results obtained so far show alternating-direction plane smoothers to be very robust, even on multiblock grids. In common computational fluid dynamics multiblock simulations, where the number of subdomains crossed by the line of a strong anisotropy is low (up to four), textbook multigrid convergence rates can be obtained with a small overlap of cells between neighboring blocks.

  1. Some Reflections on Plane Mirrors and Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galili, Igal; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the following questions based on the assumption that students' personal experiences and prior beliefs about plane mirrors can promote interesting discussions: (1) How mirror images are formed? (2) Why doesn't paper behave like a mirror? (3) Does a mirror left-right reverse objects? and (4) Why are corner images of two perpendicular…

  2. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Hands-On Discovery of Mirror Planes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.

    2001-01-01

    In the study of chemical applications of group theory, some students find it difficult to identify the symmetry elements in a simple geometrical figure or molecular model. Suggests that pattern blocks and mirrors can identify mirror planes in geometrical figures to help students construct, develop, and explain concepts of symmetry elements. (ASK)

  4. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  5. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  6. Spatial Reasoning and Polya's Five Planes Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Sean P.; Diaz, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Middle and High school students of the twenty-first century possess surprising powers of spatial reasoning. They are assisted by technologies not available to earlier generations. Both of these assertions are demonstrated by students who are challenged with George Polya's classic Five Planes Problem. (Contains 5 figures.)

  7. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  8. Wafer plane inspection evaluated for photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Emily; Badger, Karen; Lawliss, Mark; Kodera, Yutaka; Azpiroz, Jaione Tirapu; Pang, Song; Zhang, Hongqin; Eugenieva, Eugenia; Clifford, Chris; Goonesekera, Arosha; Tian, Yibin

    2008-10-01

    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is a novel approach to inspection, developed to enable high inspectability on fragmented mask features at the optimal defect sensitivity. It builds on well-established high resolution inspection capabilities to complement existing manufacturing methods. The production of defect-free photomasks is practical today only because of informed decisions on the impact of defects identified. The defect size, location and its measured printing impact can dictate that a mask is perfectly good for lithographic purposes. This inspection - verification - repair loop is timeconsuming and is predicated on the fact that detectable photomask defects do not always resolve or matter on wafer. This paper will introduce and evaluate an alternative approach that moves the mask inspection to the wafer plane. WPI uses a high NA inspection of the mask to construct a physical mask model. This mask model is used to create the mask image in the wafer plane. Finally, a threshold model is applied to enhance sensitivity to printing defects. WPI essentially eliminates the non-printing inspection stops and relaxes some of the pattern restrictions currently placed on incoming photomask designs. This paper outlines the WPI technology and explores its application to patterns and substrates representative of 32nm designs. The implications of deploying Wafer Plane Inspection will be discussed.

  9. Electrostatic Image Problems with Plane Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terras, Riho; Swanson, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Considers the electrostatic problem of a point charge in a domain bounded by conducting planes. Lists all such domains for which a solution by images exists, describes the image charge arrays in familiar crystallographic terms, and gives an illustrative example. (Author/GS)

  10. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  11. Deep-Plane Lipoabdominoplasty in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jun-Young; Hong, Yoon Gi; Sim, Hyung Bo; Sun, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a new surgical technique by combining traditional abdominoplasty with liposuction. This combination of operations permits simpler and more accurate management of various abdominal deformities. In lipoabdominoplasty, the combination of techniques is of paramount concern. Herein, we introduce a new combination of liposuction and abdominoplasty using deep-plane flap sliding to maximize the benefits of both techniques. Methods Deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty was performed in 143 patients between January 2007 and May 2014. We applied extensive liposuction on the entire abdomen followed by a sliding flap through the deep plane after repairing the diastasis recti. The abdominal wound closure was completed with repair of Scarpa's fascia. Results The average amount of liposuction aspirate was 1,400 mL (700–3,100 mL), and the size of the average excised skin ellipse was 21.78×12.81 cm (from 15×10 to 25×15 cm). There were no major complications such as deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. We encountered 22 cases of minor complications: one wound infection, one case of skin necrosis, two cases of undercorrection, nine hypertrophic scars, and nine seromas. These complications were solved by conservative management or simple revision. Conclusions The use of deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty can correct abdominal deformities more effectively and with fewer complications than traditional abdominoplasty. PMID:27462568

  12. Microscale out-of-plane anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A microscale out-of-plane thermal sensor. A resistive heater is suspended over a substrate by supports raised with respect to the substrate to provide a clearance underneath the resistive heater for fluid flow. A preferred fabrication process for the thermal sensor uses surface micromachining and a three-dimensional assembly to raise the supports and lift the resistive heater over the substrate.

  13. Selective plane illumination microscopy on a chip.

    PubMed

    Paiè, Petra; Bragheri, Francesca; Bassi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto

    2016-04-26

    Selective plane illumination microscopy can image biological samples at a high spatiotemporal resolution. Complex sample preparation and system alignment normally limit the throughput of the method. Using femtosecond laser micromachining, we created an integrated optofluidic device that allows obtaining continuous flow imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction and high-throughput analysis of large multicellular spheroids at a subcellular resolution. PMID:27030116

  14. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  15. Large Format Multicolor QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) multicolor focal plane array (FPA) cameras are essential for many DoD and NASA applications including Earth and planetary remote sensing. In this paper we summarize our recent development of large format multicolor QWIP FPA that cover MWIR and LWIR bands.

  16. Varied line spacing plane holographic grating recorded by using uniform line spacing plane gratings.

    PubMed

    Qing, Ling; Gang, Wu; Bin, Liu; Qiuping, Wang

    2006-07-20

    Uniform line spacing plane gratings are introduced into a recording system to generate aspherical wavefronts for recording varied line spacing plane holographic gratings. Analytical expressions of groove parameters are derived to the fourth order. A ray-tracing validation algorithm is provided based on Fermat's principle and a local search method. The recording parameters are optimized to record a varied line spacing plane holographic grating with the aid of derived analytical expressions. A design example demonstrates the exactness of the analytical expressions and the superiority of recording optics with auxiliary gratings. PMID:16826244

  17. In-plane vibrations of a rectangular plate: Plane wave expansion modelling and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola-Lucas, A.; Franco-Villafañe, J. A.; Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2015-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results for in-plane vibrations of a uniform rectangular plate with free boundary conditions are obtained. The experimental setup uses electromagnetic-acoustic transducers and a vector network analyzer. The theoretical calculations were obtained using the plane wave expansion method applied to the in-plane thin plate vibration theory. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent for the lower 95 modes covering a very wide frequency range from DC to 20 kHz. Some measured normal-mode wave amplitudes were compared with the theoretical predictions; very good agreement was observed. The excellent agreement of the classical theory of in-plane vibrations confirms its reliability up to very high frequencies

  18. Polar flexoelectric in-plane and out-of-plane switching in bent core nematic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

    2016-07-01

    Polar electro-optic response, arising from the coupling between an applied in-plane and out-of-plane dc electric field, respectively, and the flexoelectric polarization of bent core nematic liquid crystal mixtures with hybrid alignment is studied in conventional sandwich cells with homeotropic anchoring at one of the cell substrates and planar at the other. Such a hybrid alignment, however, results in a splay/bend elastic deformation of the nematic giving rise of a flexoelectric polarization. It was found that a pronounced polar electro-optic response, both in-plane and out of plane, took place in the bent core nematic mixtures at very low voltages due to the high flexoelectric polarization in these mixtures, compared with the one observed in calamitic liquid crystals.

  19. The iPTF Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Prince, Thomas A.; Miller, Adam; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kupfer, Thomas; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank J.; Oded Ofek, Eran; Shupe, David L.; Surace, Jason A.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory has conducted a survey of the Northern Galactic Plane. The major science goals of the survey include mapping variable stars throughout the Galaxy; discovering outbursting sources such as Cataclysmic Variables, FU Ori outbursts, and M-dwarf flares; and identifying rare types of compact binaries. Through 2015 the survey has obtained an average of 60 epochs in R-band in the spatial region 0 < l < 150 degrees, |b| < 20 degrees, with greatest coverage in the |b| < 5 degree region.I will describe the performance of the survey and present initial results, with a focus on variability-based identification of X-ray sources. The Zwicky Transient Facility, to begin in 2017, will include an extensive public variability survey of the Galactic Plane.

  20. Teal Amber Visible Focal Plane Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Charles R.; Burczewski, Ron

    1981-12-01

    Deep-space surveillance missions have imposed severe demands on existing technology and simulated the search for new, advanced technology developments to provide higher performance. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored Teal Amber as a visible charge-coupled device (CCD) and associated focal plane signal processing technology development and demonstration program. This paper describes this large-scale, staring-array-sensor concept. The current state of art in the resulting visibled CCD imagers is specified, along with the focal plane signal processor implementation in low power-weight-volume large-scale integrated (LSI) circuitry. Performance requirements and analytic predictions are compared to demonstration system results from an electro-optical test site in White Sands, New Mexico.

  1. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  2. Intraoperative tracking of aortic valve plane.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D L H; Garreau, M; Auffret, V; Le Breton, H; Verhoye, J P; Haigron, P

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose a new method based on the Tracking-Learning-Detection approach, applied to the aortic valve calcifications in order to determine the position of the aortic valve plane in intra-operative TAVI images. This main contribution concerns the improvement of object detection by updating the recursive tracker in which all features are tracked jointly. The approach has been evaluated on four patient databases, providing an absolute mean displacement error less than 10 pixels (≈2mm). Its suitability for the TAVI procedure has been analyzed. PMID:24110703

  3. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  4. The crack problem for a nonhomogeneous plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    The plane elasticity problem for a nonhomogeneous medium containing a crack is considered. It is assumed that the Poisson's ratio of the medium is constant and the Young's modulus E varies exponentially with the coordinate parallel to the crack. First the half plane problem is formulated and the solution is given for arbitrary tractions along the boundary. Then the integral equation for the crack problem is derived. It is shown that the integral equation having the derivative of the crack surface displacement as the density function has a simple Cauchy type kernel. Hence, its solution and the stresses around the crack tips have the conventional square root singularity. The solution is given for various loading conditions. The results show that the effect of the Poisson's ratio and consequently that of the thickness constraint on the stress intensity factors are rather negligible.

  5. Crack problem for a nonhomogeneous plane

    SciTech Connect

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-09-01

    This study considers the plane elasticity problem for a nonhomogeneous medium containing a crack. It is assumed that the Poisson's ratio of the medium is constant and the Young's modulus E varies exponentially with the coordinate parallel to the crack. First the half plane problem is formulated and the solution is given for arbitrary tractions along the boundary. Then, the integral equation for the crack problem is derived. It is shown that the integral equation having the derivative of the crack surface displacement as the density function has a simple Cauchy-type kernel. Hence, its solution and the stresses around the crack tips have the conventional square-root singularity. The solution is given for various loading conditions. The results show that the effect of the Poisson's ratio and consequently that of the thickness constraint on the stress intensity factors are rather negligible. 14 references.

  6. The crack problem for a nonhomogeneous plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The plane elasticity problem for a nonhomogeneous medium containing a crack is considered. It is assumed that the Poisson's ratio of the medium is constant and the Young's modulus E varies exponentially with the coordinate parallel to the crack. First the half plane problem is formulated and the solution is given for arbitrary tractions along the boundary. Then the integral equation for the crack problem is derived. It is shown that the integral equation having the derivative of the crack surface displacement as the density function has a simple Cauchy type kernel. Hence, its solution and the stresses around the crack tips have the conventional square root singularity. The solution is given for various loading conditions. The results show that the effect of the Poisson's ratio and consequently that of the thickness constraint on the stress intensity factors are rather negligible.

  7. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  8. Wafer plane inspection for advanced reticle defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Rajesh; Ghadiali, Firoz; Kim, Jun; Huang, Tracy; Pang, Song

    2008-05-01

    Readiness of new mask defect inspection technology is one of the key enablers for insertion & transition of the next generation technology from development into production. High volume production in mask shops and wafer fabs demands a reticle inspection system with superior sensitivity complemented by a low false defect rate to ensure fast turnaround of reticle repair and defect disposition (W. Chou et al 2007). Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is a novel approach to mask defect inspection, complementing the high resolution inspection capabilities of the TeraScanHR defect inspection system. WPI is accomplished by using the high resolution mask images to construct a physical mask model (D. Pettibone et al 1999). This mask model is then used to create the mask image in the wafer aerial plane. A threshold model is applied to enhance the inspectability of printing defects. WPI can eliminate the mask restrictions imposed on OPC solutions by inspection tool limitations in the past. Historically, minimum image restrictions were required to avoid nuisance inspection stops and/or subsequent loss of sensitivity to defects. WPI has the potential to eliminate these limitations by moving the mask defect inspections to the wafer plane. This paper outlines Wafer Plane Inspection technology, and explores the application of this technology to advanced reticle inspection. A total of twelve representative critical layers were inspected using WPI die-to-die mode. The results from scanning these advanced reticles have shown that applying WPI with a pixel size of 90nm (WPI P90) captures all the defects of interest (DOI) with low false defect detection rates. In validating CD predictions, the delta CDs from WPI are compared against Aerial Imaging Measurement System (AIMS), where a good correlation is established between WPI and AIMSTM.

  9. The Fisher Shannon information plane for atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, J. B.; Sen, K. D.; Nagy, Á.

    2008-03-01

    The Fisher-Shannon information product and plane for atoms are presented analytically assuming Thomas-Fermi-Gáspár statistical model. A comparison with the Hartree-Fock densities reveals that the atomic shell structure is inadequately expressed information theoretically in the statistical model. The shape complexity measure of Lopez et al. is found to have a better large Z dependence than the one obtained from non-relativistic Hartree-Fock densities.

  10. Similitude in hydrodynamic tests involving planing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruson, M F

    1936-01-01

    The problems of using models in planing tests are addressed. If one passes from the model to a hull of linear dimensions n times greater, the speeds are connected by the law of mechanical similitude. The normal forces given by the hydrodynamic equations (perfect fluid) also follow the law of dynamic similitude (Reech's method) and are multiplied by n(exp 3). A series of tests were performed and the actual results were compared to theoretical results.

  11. In-plane and out-of-plane motions of the human tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2016-01-01

    Computer-controlled digital holographic techniques are developed and used to measure shape and four-dimensional nano-scale displacements of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric human ears in response to tonal sounds. The combination of these measurements (shape and sound-induced motions) allows the calculation of the out-of-plane (perpendicular to the surface) and in-plane (tangential) motion components at over 1,000,000 points on the TM surface with a high-degree of accuracy and sensitivity. A general conclusion is that the in-plane motion components are 10-20 dB smaller than the out-of-plane motions. These conditions are most often compromised with higher-frequency sound stimuli where the overall displacements are smaller, or the spatial density of holographic fringes is higher, both of which increase the uncertainty of the measurements. The results are consistent with the TM acting as a Kirchhoff-Love's thin shell dominated by out-of-plane motion with little in-plane motion, at least with stimulus frequencies up to 8 kHz. PMID:26827009

  12. Infrared fiber optic focal plane dispersers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Far infrared transmissive fiber optics as a component in the design of integrated far infrared focal plane array utilization is discussed. A tightly packed bundle of fibers is placed at the focal plane, where an array of infrared detectors would normally reside, and then fanned out in two or three dimensions to individual detectors. Subsequently, the detectors are multiplexed by cryogenic electronics for relay of the data. A second possible application is frequency up-conversion (v sub 1 + v sub 2 = v sub 3), which takes advantage of the nonlinear optical index of refraction of certain infrared transmissive materials in fiber form. Again, a fiber bundle is utilized as above, but now a laser of frequency v sub 1 is mixed with the incoming radiation of frequency v sub 1 within the nonlinear fiber material. The sum, v sub 2 is then detected by near infrared or visible detectors which are more sensitive than those available at v sub 2. Due to the geometrical size limitations of detectors such as photomultipliers, the focal plane dispersal technique is advantageous for imaging up-conversion.

  13. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J L; Hackel, R P; Lungershausen, A W

    2003-08-03

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed.

  14. On the Road Map of Vogel's Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben L.

    2016-01-01

    We define "population" of Vogel's plane as points for which universal character of adjoint representation is regular in the finite plane of its argument. It is shown that they are given exactly by all solutions of seven Diophantine equations of third order on three variables. We find all their solutions: classical series of simple Lie algebras (including an "odd symplectic" one), {D_{2,1,λ}} superalgebra, the line of sl(2) algebras, and a number of isolated solutions, including exceptional simple Lie algebras. One of these Diophantine equations, namely {knm=4k+4n+2m+12,} contains all simple Lie algebras, except so{(2N+1).} Among isolated solutions are, besides exceptional simple Lie algebras, so called {e_{71/2}} algebra and also two other similar unidentified objects with positive dimensions. In addition, there are 47 isolated solutions in "unphysical semiplane" with negative dimensions. Isolated solutions mainly belong to the few lines in Vogel plane, including some rows of Freudenthal magic square. Universal dimension formulae have an integer values on all these solutions at least for first three symmetric powers of adjoint representation.

  15. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  16. Hamiltonian maps in the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.M.; Percival, I.C.

    1981-01-01

    Following Arnol'd's proof of the KAM theorem, an analogy with the vertical pendulum, and some general arguments concerning maps in the complex plane, detailed calculations are presented and illustrated graphically for the standard map at the golden mean frequency. The functional dependence of the coordinate q on the canonical angle variable theta is analytically continued into the complex theta-plane, where natural boundaries are found at constant absolute values of Im theta. The boundaries represent the appearance of chaotic motion in the complex plane. Two independent numerical methods based on Fourier analysis in the angle variable were used, one based on a variation-annihilation method and the other on a double expansion. The results were further checked by direct solution of the complex equations of motion. The numerically simpler, but intrinsically complex, semipendulum and semistandard map are also studied. We conjecture that natural boundaries appear in the analogous analytic continuation of the invariant tori or KAM surfaces of general nonintegrable systems.

  17. The fundamental plane correlations for globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the parameter space whose axes include a radius (core, or half-light), a surface brightness (central, or average within the half-light radius), and the central projected velocity dispersion, globular clusters lie on a two-dimensional surface (a plane, if the logarithmic quantities are used). This is analogous to the 'fundamental plane' of elliptical galaxies. The implied bivariate correlations are the best now known for globular clusters. The derived scaling laws for the core properties imply that cluster cores are fully virialized, homologous systems, with a constant (M/L) ratio. The corresponding scaling laws on the half-light scale are differrent, but are nearly identical to those derived from the 'fundamental plane' of ellipticals. This may be due to the range of cluster concentrations, which are correlated with other parameters. A similar explanation for elliptical galaxies may be viable. These correlations provide new empirical constraints for models of globular cluster formation and evolution, and may also be usable as rough distance-indicator relations for globular clusters.

  18. Plane wave facing technique for ultrasonic elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mingu; Shim, Hwan; Cheon, Byeong Geun; Jung, Yunsub

    2014-03-01

    A shear wave generation technique which exploits multiple plane waves facing with each other toward their center line is introduced. On this line, ultrasonic waves interfere constructively resulting two planar shear waves that propagate to the opposite directions parallel to the transducer instead of oblique wave from multiple point focused pushes due to the temporal inconsistency of the pushes. One advantage of the plane wave facing technique over an unfocused push beam is that it generates much larger shear waves because it actively takes advantage of constructive interference between waves and, moreover, a larger number of elements can be used without diffusing the beam pattern. Field II simulated intensity maps of the push beams using the proposed method are presented with those of multiple point focusing and unfocusing techniques for comparison. In the simulation, two plane waves are considered for the simplicity, and the number of elements, apodization, and steering angles for facing are varied as parameters. Also, elasticity images of CIRS 049A phantom are presented using the proposed technique with comb-shaped push beams, i.e. multiple push beams are used simultaneously at different locations. L7-4 transducer is used for the simulation and elasticity imaging.

  19. Palladium-chromium static strain gages for high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1992-01-01

    An electrical resistance strain gage that can provide accurate static strain measurement to a temperature of 1500 F or above is being developed both in fine wire and thin film forms. The gage is designed to be temperature compensated on any substrate material. It has a dual element: the gage element is a special alloy, palladium-13wt percent chromium (PdCr), and the compensator element is platinum (Pt). Earlier results of a PdCr based wire gage indicated that the apparent strain of this gage can be minimized and the repeatability of the apparent strain can be improved by prestabilizing the gage on the substrate for a long period of time. However, this kind of prestabilization is not practical in many applications and therefore the development of a wire gage which is prestabilized before installation on the substrate is desirable. This paper will present our recent progress in the development of a prestabilized wire gage which can provide meaningful strain data for the first thermal cycle. A weldable PdCr gage is also being developed for field testing where conventional flame-spraying installation can not be applied. This weldable gage is narrower than a previously reported gage, thereby allowing the gage to be more resistant to buckling under compressive loads. Some preliminary results of a prestabilized wire gage flame-sprayed directly on IN100, an engine material, and a weldable gage spot-welded on IN100 and SCS-6/(beta)21-S Titanium Matrix Composite (TMC), a National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) structure material, will be reported. Progress on the development of a weldable thin film gage will also be addressed. The measurement technique and procedures and the lead wire effect will be discussed.

  20. Development of a 3-D upwind PNS code for chemically reacting hypersonic flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannehill, J. C.; Wadawadigi, G.

    1992-01-01

    Two new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) codes were developed to compute the three-dimensional, viscous, chemically reacting flow of air around hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The first code (TONIC) solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a fully coupled manner using an implicit, approximately-factored, central-difference algorithm. This code was upgraded to include shock fitting and the capability of computing the flow around complex body shapes. The revised TONIC code was validated by computing the chemically-reacting (M(sub infinity) = 25.3) flow around a 10 deg half-angle cone at various angles of attack and the Ames All-Body model at 0 deg angle of attack. The results of these calculations were in good agreement with the results from the UPS code. One of the major drawbacks of the TONIC code is that the central-differencing of fluxes across interior flowfield discontinuities tends to introduce errors into the solution in the form of local flow property oscillations. The second code (UPS), originally developed for a perfect gas, has been extended to permit either perfect gas, equilibrium air, or nonequilibrium air computations. The code solves the PNS equations using a finite-volume, upwind TVD method based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver that was modified to account for real gas effects. The dissipation term associated with this algorithm is sufficiently adaptive to flow conditions that, even when attempting to capture very strong shock waves, no additional smoothing is required. For nonequilibrium calculations, the code solves the fluid dynamic and species continuity equations in a loosely-coupled manner. This code was used to calculate the hypersonic, laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at various angles of attack. In addition, the flow around the McDonnel Douglas generic option blended-wing-body was computed and comparisons were made between the perfect gas, equilibrium air, and the

  1. A US History of Airbreathing/Rocket Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion for Powering Future Aerospace Transports, with a Look Ahead to the Year 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1999-01-01

    A technohistorical and forward-planning overview of U.S. developments in combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion for advanced aerospace vehicle applications is presented. Such system approaches fall into one of two categories: (1) Combination propulsion systems (separate, non-interacting engines installed), and (2) Combined-Cycle systems. The latter, and main subject, comprises a large family of closely integrated engine types, made up of both airbreathing and rocket derived subsystem hardware. A single vehicle-integrated, multimode engine results, one capable of operating efficiently over a very wide speed and altitude range, atmospherically and in space. While numerous combination propulsion systems have reached operational flight service, combined-cycle propulsion development, initiated ca. 1960, remains at the subscale ground-test engine level of development. However, going beyond combination systems, combined-cycle propulsion potentially offers a compelling set of new and unique capabilities. These capabilities are seen as enabling ones for the evolution of Spaceliner class aerospace transportation systems. The following combined-cycle hypersonic engine developments are reviewed: (1) RENE (rocket engine nozzle ejector), (2) Cryojet and LACE, (3) Ejector Ramjet and its derivatives, (4) the seminal NASA NAS7-377 study, (5) Air Force/Marquardt Hypersonic Ramjet, (6) Air Force/Lockheed-Marquardt Incremental Scramjet flight-test project, (7) NASA/Garrett Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE), (8) National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), (9) all past projects; and such current and planned efforts as (10) the NASA ASTP-ART RBCC project, (11) joint CIAM/NASA DNSCRAM flight test,(12) Hyper-X, (13) Trailblazer,( 14) W-Vehicle and (15) Spaceliner 100. Forward planning programmatic incentives, and the estimated timing for an operational Spaceliner powered by combined-cycle engines are discussed.

  2. A computationally efficient particle-simulation method suited to vector-computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in a National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and various Aero-assisted Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTVs) presents the need for a greater understanding of high-speed rarefied flight conditions. Particle simulation techniques such as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are well suited to such problems, but the high cost of computation limits the application of the methods to two-dimensional or very simple three-dimensional problems. This research re-examines the algorithmic structure of existing particle simulation methods and re-structures them to allow efficient implementation on vector-oriented supercomputers. A brief overview of the DSMC method and the Cray-2 vector computer architecture are provided, and the elements of the DSMC method that inhibit substantial vectorization are identified. One such element is the collision selection algorithm. A complete reformulation of underlying kinetic theory shows that this may be efficiently vectorized for general gas mixtures. The mechanics of collisions are vectorizable in the DSMC method, but several optimizations are suggested that greatly enhance performance. Also this thesis proposes a new mechanism for the exchange of energy between vibration and other energy modes. The developed scheme makes use of quantized vibrational states and is used in place of the Borgnakke-Larsen model. Finally, a simplified representation of physical space and boundary conditions is utilized to further reduce the computational cost of the developed method. Comparison to solutions obtained from the DSMC method for the relaxation of internal energy modes in a homogeneous gas, as well as single and multiple specie shock wave profiles, are presented. Additionally, a large scale simulation of the flow about the proposed Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is included as an example of the new computational capability of the developed particle simulation method.

  3. EASI - EQUILIBRIUM AIR SHOCK INTERFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    New research on hypersonic vehicles, such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), has raised concerns about the effects of shock-wave interference on various structural components of the craft. State-of-the-art aerothermal analysis software is inadequate to predict local flow and heat flux in areas of extremely high heat transfer, such as the surface impingement of an Edney-type supersonic jet. EASI revives and updates older computational methods for calculating inviscid flow field and maximum heating from shock wave interference. The program expands these methods to solve problems involving the six shock-wave interference patterns on a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge with an equilibrium chemically reacting gas mixture (representing, for example, the scramjet cowl of the NASP). The inclusion of gas chemistry allows for a more accurate prediction of the maximum pressure and heating loads by accounting for the effects of high temperature on the air mixture. Caloric imperfections and specie dissociation of high-temperature air cause shock-wave angles, flow deflection angles, and thermodynamic properties to differ from those calculated by a calorically perfect gas model. EASI contains pressure- and temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties to determine heating rates, and uses either a calorically perfect air model or an 11-specie, 7-reaction reacting air model at equilibrium with temperatures up to 15,000 K for the inviscid flowfield calculations. EASI solves the flow field and the associated maximum surface pressure and heat flux for the six common types of shock wave interference. Depending on the type of interference, the program solves for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction, expansion-fan/boundary-layer interaction, attaching shear layer or supersonic jet impingement. Heat flux predictions require a knowledge (from experimental data or relevant calculations) of a pertinent length scale of the interaction. Output files contain flow

  4. Symmetrically converging plane thermonuclear burn waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2013-10-01

    Five variants of a one-dimensional problem on synchronous bilateral action of two identical drivers on opposite surfaces of a plane layer of DT fuel with the normal or five times greater initial density, where the solution includes two thermonuclear burn waves propagating to meet one another at the symmetry plane, are simulated. A laser pulse with total absorption of energy at the critical density (in two variants) and a proton bunch that provides for a nearly isochoric heating (in three variants) are considered as drivers. A wide-range equation of state for the fuel, electron and ion heat conduction, self-radiation of plasma and plasma heating by α-particles are taken into account. In spite of different ways of ignition, various models of α-particle heat, whether the burn wave remains slow or transforms into the detonation wave, and regardless of way of such a transformation, the final value of the burn-up factor depends essentially on the only parameter Hρ0, where H is the half-thickness of the layer and ρ0 is the initial fuel density. This factor is about 0.35 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 0.7 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. The expansion stage of the flow (after reflecting the burn or detonation wave from the symmetry plane) gives the main contribution in forming the final values of the burn-up factor and the gain at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and increases them approximately two times at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the proton driver, the final value of the gain is about 200 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 2000 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the laser driver, the above values are four times less in conformity with the difference between the driver energies.

  5. Wafer plane inspection with soft resist thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Carl; Shi, Rui-fang; Wihl, Mark; Xiong, Yalin; Pang, Song

    2008-10-01

    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is an inspection mode on the KLA-Tencor TeraScaTM platform that uses the high signalto- noise ratio images from the high numerical aperture microscope, and then models the entire lithographic process to enable defect detection on the wafer plane[1]. This technology meets the needs of some advanced mask manufacturers to identify the lithographically-significant defects while ignoring the other non-lithographically-significant defects. WPI accomplishes this goal by performing defect detection based on a modeled image of how the mask features would actually print in the photoresist. There are several advantages to this approach: (1) the high fidelity of the images provide a sensitivity advantage over competing approaches; (2) the ability to perform defect detection on the wafer plane allows one to only see those defects that have a printing impact on the wafer; (3) the use of modeling on the lithographic portion of the flow enables unprecedented flexibility to support arbitrary illumination profiles, process-window inspection in unit time, and combination modes to find both printing and non-printing defects. WPI is proving to be a valuable addition to the KLA-Tencor detection algorithm suite. The modeling portion of WPI uses a single resist threshold as the final step in the processing. This has been shown to be adequate on several advanced customer layers, but is not ideal for all layers. Actual resist chemistry has complicated processes including acid and base-diffusion and quench that are not consistently well-modeled with a single resist threshold. We have considered the use of an advanced resist model for WPI, but rejected it because the burdensome requirements for the calibration of the model were not practical for reticle inspection. This paper describes an alternative approach that allows for a "soft" resist threshold to be applied that provides a more robust solution for the most challenging processes. This approach is just

  6. Colostomy with Transversus Abdominis Plane Block.

    PubMed

    Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar; Demirhan, Abdullah; Şit, Mustafa; Kurt, Adem Deniz; Bilgi, Murat; Koçoğlu, Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is one of the abdominal field block. The TAP block is used for both anaesthetic management and post-operative pain therapy in lower abdominal surgery. TAP block is a procedure in which local anaesthetic agents are applied to the anatomic neurofacial space between the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis muscle. TAP block is a good method for post-operative pain control as well as allows for short operations involving the abdominal area. In this article, a case of colostomy under TAP block is presented. PMID:27366540

  7. Electrically assisted drop sliding on inclined planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Mannetje, D. J. C. M.; Murade, C. U.; van den Ende, D.; Mugele, F.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that electrowetting using alternating current (ac) voltage can be used to overcome pinning of small drops due to omnipresent heterogeneities on solid surfaces. By balancing contact angle hysteresis with gravity on inclined planes, we find that the critical electrowetting number for mobilizing drops is consistent with the voltage-dependent reduction in contact angle hysteresis in ac electrowetting. Moreover, the terminal velocity of sliding drops under ac electrowetting is found to increase linearly with the electrowetting number. Based on this effect, we present a prototype of a wiper-free windscreen.

  8. Brane webs and O5-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafrir, Gabi

    2016-03-01

    We explore the properties of five-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories living on 5-brane webs in orientifold 5-plane backgrounds. This allows constructing quiver gauge theories with alternating USp(2 N) and SO(N) gauge groups with fundamental matter, and thus leads to the existence of new 5 d fixed point theories. The web description can be further used to study non-perturbative phenomena such as enhancement of symmetry and duality. We further suggest that one can use these systems to engineer 5 d SO group with spinor matter. We present evidence for this claim.

  9. The quasar mass-luminosity plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Charles Louis

    2010-11-01

    This thesis investigates the quasar mass-luminosity plane, as a new tool to explore the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity over time. Previous techniques used quasar luminosity function and mass functions, which are one-dimensional projections of the mass-luminosity plane. The M --- L plane contains information that cannot be seen in these projections. We use 62,185 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR5 sample to develop several new constraints on quasar accretion. Black hole masses, based on the widths of their Hbeta, Mg II, and C IV lines and adjacent continuum luminosities, were used assuming using standard virial mass estimate scaling laws. In each redshift interval over the range 0.2 < z < 4.0, low-mass quasars reach at their Eddington luminosity, but high-mass quasars fall short, even by a factor of ten or more at 0.2 < z < 0.6. We examine several potential sources of measurement uncertainty or bias and show that none of them can account for this effect. We also show the statistical uncertainty in virial mass estimation to have an upper bound of ˜ 0.2 dex, smaller than the 0.4 dex previously reported. The maximum mass of quasars at each redshift is sharp and evolving. High-mass black holes turn off their luminous accretion at higher redshift than lower-mass black holes. Further, turnoff for quasars at any given mass is synchronized to within 0.7--3 Gyr, tighter than would be expected given the dynamics of their host galaxies. We find potential signatures of the quasar turnoff mechanism, including a dearth of high-mass quasars at low Eddington ratio, low CIV/MgII emission line ratio, and a red spectral tilt. Finally, we use these new constraints to analyze models for the evolution of individual quasars over time. We find a restricted family of tracks that lie within the M --- L plane at all redshifts, suggesting that a single, constant feedback mechanism between all supermassive black holes and their host galaxies might apply

  10. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  11. Black Plane Solutions and Localized Gravitational Energy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the issue of gravitational energy localization for static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, and Møller prescriptions, to the metric representing this category of solutions and determine the energy distribution for each. We find that the three prescriptions offer identical energy distributions, suggesting their utility for this type of model. PMID:27347499

  12. 10. LOWER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, INCLINE PLANE TRCK LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOWER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, INCLINE PLANE TRCK LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND LOWER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  18. 5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT, FILL CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. 6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MIDSLOPE VICINITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MID-SLOPE VICINITY, CUT CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. 2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE IS A WHEEL BORING MACHINE USED DURING THE TIME THIS AREA WAS A WHEEL SHOP. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. Plane wave scattering by a thick lossy dielectric half-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, K.; Aoki, K.

    A solution is obtained for the scattering of a plane wave by a lossy, thick, dielectric half-plane, with a view to applications for calculating the TV electromagnetic wave scattering by a tall building made of concrete. The problem is analytically framed in terms of the incident and scattered electric fields, assuming the polarization in each case to be invariant. Boundary conditions are defined within which Fourier components of the scattered field are calculated. The far-fields were analyzed employing the saddle-point method. Numerical examples for 100 MHz broadcasts are presented, demonstrating a good agreement in the illuminated region between calculations for a lossy dielectric and a perfectly conducting half plane.

  4. Characterization of the KATRIN Focal Plane Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, Laura; Leber, Michelle; Myers, Allan; Tolich, Kazumi; Vandevender, Brent; Wall, Brandon

    2008-10-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment designed to measure directly the electron neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. In the experiment, electrons from tritium decay of a gaseous source are magnetically guided through analyzing solenoidal retarding electrostatic spectrometers and detected via a focal plane detector. The focal plane detector is a 90mm diameter, 500 micron thick monolithic silicon pin-diode array with 148 pixels. The diode contacts have a titanium nitride overlayer and are connected to preamplifiers via an array of spring-loaded pogo pins. This novel connection scheme minimizes backgrounds from radioactive materials near the detector, facilitates characterization and replacement of the detector wafer, but requires a unique mounting design. The force of the pins strains the silicon, possibly altering the detector properties and performance. Results on the mechanical, thermal and electrical performance of a prototype detector under stress from pogo pin readouts will be presented.

  5. A jumping cylinder on an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. W.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Marquina, V.

    2012-09-01

    The problem of a cylinder of mass m and radius r, with its centre of mass out of the cylinder’s axis, rolling on an inclined plane that makes an angle α with respect to the horizontal, is analysed. The equation of motion is partially solved to obtain the site where the cylinder loses contact with the inclined plane (jumps). Several simplifications are made: the analysed system consists of an homogeneous disc with a one-dimensional straight line mass parallel to the disc axis at a distance y < r of the centre of the cylinder. To compare our results with experimental data, we use a styrofoam cylinder to which a long brass rod is embedded parallel to the disc axis at a distance y < r from it, so the centre of mass lies at a distance d from the centre of the cylinder. Then the disc rolls without slipping on a long wooden ramp inclined at 15°, 30° and 45° with respect to the horizontal. To determine the jumping site, the movements are recorded with a high-speed video camera (Casio EX ZR100) at 240 and 480 frames per second. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  6. Plane wave imaging using phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno

    2014-02-01

    Phased arrays are often used for rapid inspections. Phased arrays can be used to synthesize different wave fronts. For imaging, focused wave fronts are frequently used. In order to build an image, the phased array has to be fired multiple times at the same location. Alternatively, different data acquisition configurations can be designed in combination with an imaging algorithm. The objective of this paper is to use the minimal amount of data required to construct an image. If a plane wave is synthesized, the region of interest is illuminated completely. For plane wave synthesis, all elements in the phase array are fired. This ensures a good signal to noise ratio. Imaging can be performed efficiently with a mapping algorithm in the wavenumber domain. The algorithm involves only two Fourier transforms and can therefore be extremely fast. The obtained resolution is comparable to conventional imaging algorithms. This work investigates the potential and limitations of this mapping algorithm on simulated data. With this approach, frame rates of more than 1 kHz can be achieved.

  7. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  8. Waveguide Metacouplers for In-Plane Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-06-01

    The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of the vectorial nature of light and a crucial parameter in a wide range of remote sensing applications. Nevertheless, the SOP is rather cumbersome to probe experimentally, as conventional detectors respond only to the intensity of the light, hence losing the phase information between orthogonal vector components. In this work, we propose a type of polarimeter that is compact and well suited for in-plane optical circuitry while allowing for immediate determination of the SOP through simultaneous retrieval of the associated Stokes parameters. The polarimeter is based on plasmonic phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces that facilitate normal incident light to launch in-plane photonic-waveguide modes propagating in six predefined directions with the coupling efficiencies providing a direct measure of the incident SOP. The functionality and accuracy of the polarimeter, which essentially is an all-polarization-sensitive waveguide metacoupler, is confirmed through full-wave simulations at the operation wavelength of 1.55 μ m .

  9. Short Wavelength Infrared Hybrid Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D...; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D...; Rode, J. P.

    1983-11-01

    Short wavelength (λc = 2.5 μm) 32 x 32 HgCdTe focal plane arrays have been fabricated for use in an Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) developed by the Jet Propulsion Labora-tory for NASA. An Imaging Spectrometer provides simultaneous imaging of several spectral bands for applications in the sensing and monitoring of earth resources. The detector material is HgCdTe grown on CdTe substrates using liquid phase epitaxy. Planar processing is used to make photovoltaic detectors on 68 um centers. The detector array is mated to a silicon charge coupled device multiplexer to make hybrid focal plane arrays. Results show high performance detectors with a mean RoA = 9.6 x 107 Ω --cm2 and IleakAge (-100 mV) = 0.037 pA at 120K and near zero background. The yield and uniformity are high. The ratio of the standard deviation of the dc responsivity to the mean is 3% for 98.5% of the pixels. The D1.0 = 1.3 x 1012 cm - âœ"fiz/W at a background of 1013 ph/cm2-s and 120K which is close to the background limited (BLIP) D* of 1.9 x 1012 cm- âœ"Hz/W.

  10. Drag reduction at a plane wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective is to determine by analytical means how drag on a plane wall may be modified favorably using a minimal amount of flow information - preferably only information at the wall. What quantities should be measured? How should that information be assimilated in order to arrive at effective control? As a prototypical problem, incompressible, viscous flow, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, past a plane wall at which the no-slip condition was modified was considered. The streamwise and spanwise velocity components are required to be zero, but the normal component is to be specified according to some control law. The challenge is to choose the wall-normal velocity component based on flow conditions at the wall so that the mean drag is as small as possible. There can be no net mass flux through the wall, and the total available control energy is constrained. A turbulent flow is highly unsteady and has detailed spatial structure. The mean drag on the wall is the integral over the wall of the local shear forces exerted by the fluid, which is then averaged in time; it is a 'macroscopic' property of the flow. It is not obvious how unsteady boundary control is to be applied in order to modify the mean flow most effectively, especially in view of the non- self-adjoint nature of the governing equations. An approximate analytical solution to the suboptimal scheme is pursued.

  11. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  12. Comments on a military transatmospheric aerospace plane

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a military transatmospheric aerospace plane candidate involves the selection of the mission(s), operating environment, operational concept, payload definition, specific design choices, and a close look at the technology base. A broad range of missions and concepts were reviewed prior to the selection of the mission and concepts presented in this paper. The mission selected was CONUS based global strike. The flight profile selected was a boost-glide-skip unrefuled global range trajectory. Two concepts were selected. The first was a rocket-powered design and the second was a combined air-breathing and rocket powered design. The rocket-powered configuration is a high lift-to-drag ratio modified lifting body. The rocket engine is an advanced dual fuel linear aero-spike. The air-breathing powered configuration is a modified waverider configuration. The engine for the air-breather is a rocket based combined cycle engine. Performance and technology readiness comparisons are presented for the two concepts. The paper closes with a discussion of lessons learned about military transatmospheric aerospace planes over the past twenty years. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Growth of non-polar a-plane AlN on r-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Masafumi; Hirayama, Hideki

    2016-05-01

    Growth of non-polar AlN is crucial to the realization of polarization-free light-emitting diodes in deep UV range. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth condition for obtaining a flat a-plane AlN on r-plane sapphire. A thin AlN layer grown at lower temperature played an important role in protecting the sapphire surface. Both high temperature and low V/III ratio were necessary in terms of enhanced adatom diffusion, leading to the formation of a flat AlN buffer.

  14. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  15. 63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO PASS OVER THE SUMMIT (THE HUMP OF LAND AT THE TOP OF PLANE TO HOLD BACK THE WATER AT THAT LEVEL), THE BOATS HAVE SEEN HINGED AND TWO CRADLES ARE USED TO CARRY THE BOAT UP THE PLANE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  16. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  17. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

  18. Out-of-plane librations of spinning tethered satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Joshua R.; Hall, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the out-of-plane librations of a tethered satellite system that is nominally rotating in the orbit plane. To isolate the librational dynamics, the system is modeled as two point masses connected by a rigid rod with the system mass center constrained to an unperturbed circular orbit. For small out-of-plane librations, the in-plane motion is unaffected by the out-of-plane librations and a solution for the in-plane motion is determined in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. This solution is used in the linearized equation for the out-of-plane librations, resulting in a Hill's equation. Floquet theory is used to analyze the Hill's equation, and we show that the out-of-plane librations are unstable for certain ranges of in-plane spin rate. For relatively high in-plane spin rates, the out-of-plane librations are stable, and the Hill's equation can be approximated by a Mathieu's equation. Approximate solutions to the Mathieu's equation are determined, and we analyze the dominant characteristics of the out-of-plane librations for high in-plane spin rates. The results obtained from the analysis of the linearized equations of motion are compared to numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations of motion, as well as numerical simulations of a more realistic system model that accounts for tether flexibility. The instabilities discovered from the linear analysis are present in both the nonlinear system and the more realistic system model. The approximate solutions for the out-of-plane librations compare well to the nonlinear system for relatively high in-plane rotation rates, and also capture the significant qualitative behavior of the flexible system.

  19. Eta Carinae: Orientation of The Orbital Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Ivarsson, S.; Corcoran, M. F.; Verner, E.; Hillier, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence continues to build that Eta Carinae is a massive binary system with a hidden hot companion in a highly elliptical orbit. We present imaging and spectroscopic evidence that provide clues to the orientation of the orbital plane. The circumstellar ejecta, known as the Homunculus and Little Homunculus, are hourglass-shaped structures, one encapsulated within the other, tilted at about 45 degrees from the sky plane. A disk region lies between the bipolar lobes. Based upon their velocities and proper motions, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, very bright emission clumps 0.1 to 0.3" Northwest from Eta Carinae, lie in the disk. UV flux from the hot companion, Eta Car B, photoexcites the Weigelt blobs. Other clumps form a complete chain around the star, but are not significantly photoexcited. The strontium filament, a 'neutral' emission structure, lies in the same general direction as the Weigelt blobs and exhibits peculiar properties indicative that much mid-UV, but no hydrogen-ionizing radiation impinges on this structure. It is shielded by singly-ionized iron. P Cygni absorptions in Fe I I lines, seen directly in line of sight from Eta Carinae, are absent in the stellar light scattered by the Weigelt blobs. Rather than a strong absorption extending to -600 km/s, a low velocity absorption feature extends from -40 to -150 km/s. No absorbing Fe II exists between Eta Carinae and Weigelt D, but the outer reaches of the wind are intercepted in line of sight from Weigelt D to the observer. This indicates that the UV radiation is constrained by the dominating wind of Eta Car A to a small cavity carved out by the weaker wind of Eta Car B. Since the high excitation nebular lines are seen in the Weigelt blobs at most phases, the cavity, and hence the major axis of the highly elliptical orbit, must lie in the general direction of the Weigelt blobs. The evidence is compelling that the orbital major axis of Eta Carinae is projected at -45 degrees position angle on the sky. Moreover

  20. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position

  1. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases

  2. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  3. Polarization of almost-plane waves.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, C J

    2000-02-01

    The general polarization behavior of almost-plane waves, in which the electric field varies slowly over a circular pupil, is considered, on the basis of an axial Hertz potential treatment and expansion in Zernike polynomials. The resultant modes of a circular aperture are compared with the well-known waveguide (or optical fiber) modes and Gaussian beam modes. The wave can be decomposed into partial waves of electric and magnetic types. The modes for a square pupil are also considered. The particular application of the effect on polarization of focusing the waves is discussed. Another application discussed is the Fresnel reflection from a dielectric interface, it being shown that the Fresnel reflection alters the relative strength of the electric and magnetic components. PMID:10680636

  4. Optics in a nonlinear gravitational plane wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Abraham I.

    2015-09-01

    Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here in general relativity, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. At least for freely falling sources and observers, it is shown that the commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory can be generically overshadowed by nonlinear effects; even for very weak gravitational waves, higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.

  5. Coincidence lattices in the hyperbolic plane.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Andrade, M A; Aragón-González, G; Aragón, J L; Gómez-Rodríguez, A

    2011-01-01

    The problem of coincidences of lattices in the space R(p,q), with p + q = 2, is analyzed using Clifford algebra. We show that, as in R(n), any coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of at most two reflections by vectors of the lattice. Bases and coincidence indices are constructed explicitly for several interesting lattices. Our procedure is metric-independent and, in particular, the hyperbolic plane is obtained when p = q = 1. Additionally, we provide a proof of the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem for R(p,q), with p + q = 2, that includes an algorithm to decompose an orthogonal transformation into a product of reflections. PMID:21173471

  6. Measurements of turbulent inclined plane dual jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. S.; Lin, Y. F.; Sheu, M. J.

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of mean velocities, flow direction, velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stress were made with a split film probe of hot wire anemometer to investigate the interactions created by two air jets issuing from two identical plane inclined nozzles. The reverse flow was detected by using the split film probe and observed by flow visualization. Experimental results with an inclined angle of 9° are presented in the paper. Some experimental results with an inclined angle of 27° are presented to investigate the effect of inclination on the flow field. Mean velocities approach self-preservation in both the converging region and the combining region. Velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stress approach self-preservation in the combining region only. The spreads of jet and the square of the decay of maximum mean velocity increase linearly as the distance from the nozzle exit increases.

  7. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E; Oppeneer, Peter M; Schneider, Claus M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  8. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations. PMID:27176375

  9. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  10. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  11. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  12. Short wavelength infrared hybrid focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D.; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D.; Rode, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The employment of area focal plane arrays (FPA) has made it possible to obtain second generation infrared imaging systems with high resolution and sensitivity. The Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region (1-2.5 microns) is of importance for imaging objects at high temperature and under conditions of reflected sunlight. The present investigation is concerned with electrooptical characterization results for 32 x 32 SWIR detector arrays and FPAs which are suitable for use in a prototype imaging spectrometer. The employed detector material is Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te grown by liquid phase epitaxy on a CdTe transparent substrate. Attention is given to details of processing, the design of the detector array, the multiplexer, the fabrication of the hybrid FPA, and aspects of performance.

  13. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Madison

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have demonstrated that many species of microorganisms reflect aspecularly from a solid surface -- due to steric and hydrodynamic interactions with the wall, their outgoing angle is fixed and independent of the angle of incidence. Motivated by these results, we discuss theory and computation of the ``aspecular billiard'', a modification of the classical billiard in which the outgoing angle is constant. We restrict our attention to closed plane curves, focusing on three canonical examples: the ellipse, the Bunimovich stadium, and the Sinai billiard. These systems can have a rich array of orbits, and the Lyapunov exponent is shown to be dependent on the billiard geometry and the outgoing angle. We apply these results to the design of tunable passive sorting mechanisms.

  14. Traffic noise and the hyperbolic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, G.W. Warnick, C.M.

    2010-04-15

    We consider the problem of sound propagation in a wind. We note that the rays, as in the absence of a wind, are given by Fermat's principle and show how to map them to the trajectories of a charged particle moving in a magnetic field on a curved space. For the specific case of sound propagating in a stratified atmosphere with a small wind speed, we show that the corresponding particle moves in a constant magnetic field on the hyperbolic plane. In this way, we give a simple 'straightedge and compass' method to estimate the intensity of sound upwind and downwind. We construct Mach envelopes for moving sources. Finally, we relate the problem to that of finding null geodesics in a squashed anti-de Sitter spacetime and discuss the SO(3,1)xR symmetry of the problem from this point of view.

  15. Infrared focal plane array crosstalk measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Khoa V.; Kauffman, Christopher L.; Derzko, Zenon I.

    1992-07-01

    Crosstalk between two neighboring elements in a focal plane array (FPA) occurs when signal incident on one element in the array is seen on another. This undesired effect can occur due to both the electrical and optical properties of the FPA. An effort is underway at the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electro-Optics Directorate to develop a capability to measure crosstalk on both mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared FPAs. A single detector in an array is illuminated using a laser source coupled with a beam expander, collimating lens, and focusing lens. The relative response of that detector to that of its neighboring detectors is measured to calculate crosstalk. The various components of the test station, the methodology for implementing the crosstalk measurement, and a model of the laser spot size are discussed.

  16. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

    These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

    [Top] -

    This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

    [Center] -

    This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of

  17. The effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.; Burdette, E.G.; Porter, M.L.

    1993-08-25

    In order to address the effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry infills, two full-scale (24 feet tall by 28 feet long) structural clay tile infills and one frame-only (no infilling) were constructed and tested. The infilled frame, consisting of two wide flange columns surrounded by masonry plasters and an eccentric wide flange purlin, was identical to many of the infills located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The masonry infill was approximately 12.5 inches thick and was composed of individual four- and eight-inch hollow clay tile (HCT) units. One of the infill panels was tested out-of-plane by four quasi-static actuators -- two on each column. The test structure was deflected out-of-plane equally at all four actuator locations in order to simulate the computed deflection path of the top and bottom chords of a roof truss framing into the columns at these locations. Prior to the infill testing, a bare frame was loaded similarly in order to determine the behavior and stiffness contribution of the frame only. Following the out-of-plane test of the infilled panel, the structure was loaded in-plane to failure in order to ascertain residual strength. A second, identical infilled frame was then constructed and tested in-plane to failure. In this way, in-plane behavior with and without prior out-of-plane damage could be established and compared. For both out-of-plane and in-plane testing, reversed-cyclic quasi-static loading was used in order to obtain full tension/compression hystereses. Also, natural frequencies of the first infilled panel were determined before and after the out-of-plane testing. This paper describes the test series and discusses the conclusions pertinent to the effect of out-of-plane cracking on in-plane stiffness and behavior.

  18. ECLAIRs detection plane: current state of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, K.; Pons, R.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Mercier, K.; Mandrou, P.; Marty, W.; Nasser, G.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2014-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in near real time in the 4-150 keV energy band. The design of ECLAIRs has been mainly driven by the objective of achieving a low-energy threshold of 4 keV, unprecedented for this type of instrument. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe semiconductor detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3 organized on elementary hybrid matrices of 4x8 detectors. The detectors will be polarized from -300V to -500V and operated at -20°C to reduce both the leakage current and the polarization effect induced by the Schottky contact. The remarkable low-energy threshold homogeneity required for the detection plane has been achieved thanks to: i) an extensive characterization and selection of the detectors, ii) the development of a specific low-noise 32-channel ASIC, iii) the realization of an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic (holding 32 CdTe detectors with their high voltage grid), associated to an HTCC ceramic (housing the ASIC chip within an hermetic enclosure). In this paper, we start describing a complete hybrid matrix, and then the manufacturing of a first set of 50 matrices (representing 1600 detectors, i.e. a quarter of ECLAIRs detector's array). We show how this manufacturing allowed to validate the different technologies used for this hybridization, as well as the industrialization processes. During this phase, we systematically measured the leakage current on Detector Ceramics after an outgassing, and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) for each of the 32 channels on ASIC Ceramics, in order to optimize the coupling of the two ceramics. Finally, we performed on each hybrid module, spectral measurements at -20°C in our vacuum chamber, using several calibrated radioactive sources (241Am and 55Fe), to check the performance homogeneity of the 50 modules. The results demonstrated that the 32-detector hybrid matrices

  19. Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller (TUFPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Matsumoto, Daigo; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Katsuno, Yuka; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Asai, Ken'ichiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2003-03-01

    TUFPAC (Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller) is an array control system originally designed for flexible control and efficient data acquisition of 2048 x 2048 HgCdTe (HAWAII-2) array. A personal computer operated by Linux OS controls mosaic HAWAII-2s with commercially available DSP boards installed on the PCI bus. Triggered by PC, DSP sends clock data to front-end electronics, which is isolated from the DSP board by photo-couplers. Front-end electronics supply powers, biases and clock signals to HAWAII2. Pixel data are read from four outputs of each HAWAII2 simultaneously by way of four channel preamps and ADCs. Pixel data converted to 16 bit digital data are stored in the frame memory on the DSP board. Data are processed in the memory when necessary. PC receives the frame data and stores it in the hard disk of PC in FITS format. A set of the DSP board and front-end electronics is responsible for controlling each HAWAII-2. One PC can operate eight mosaic arrays at most. TUFPAC is applicable to the control of CCDs with minor changes of front-end electronics.

  20. Cryogenic current-in-plane tunneling apparatus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicolas; Drechsler, Ute; Despont, Michel; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2008-12-01

    We have designed and fabricated a cryogenic variable-temperature current-in-plane tunneling apparatus to measure the magnetoresistive properties of unpatterned magnetic tunnel junction wafers as a function of temperature. The wafer is mounted on the cold finger of a liquid helium continuous flow cryostat. The temperature can be continuously varied between 7 and 330 K. We describe the design and fabrication of the micromachined silicon probe head that comprises a comb of 20 measuring and 4 leveling probes. The measuring probes are typically 0.7 microm wide and 1.2 microm thick, with lengths of 10, 7, and 4 microm, and a pitch that varies from 1.5 to 30 microm. The leveling probes are used in conjunction with a tilt stage to adjust the parallelism between the comb and the sample wafer during the approach of the probe head. The probe head is mounted on a nonmagnetic x-y stage, which can access a 22x22 mm(2) area with a repeatability of approximately 1 microm. The first measurements taken at room and cryogenic temperatures are shown. PMID:19123574

  1. Focal Plane Arrays and Electronics for WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterjohn, Stacy; Hogue, H.; Mattson, R.; Dawson, L.; Bojorquez, A.; Muzilla, M.

    2009-01-01

    DRS provided the four channel focal plane array system for the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) payload. The two shorter wavelength bands, centered near 3.2 and 4.5 µm, employed 1024x1024 HAWAII 1RG Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) FPAs obtained from Teledyne Imaging Systems, Inc. The two longer wavelength bands, centered near 12 and 24 µm, utilized 1024x1024 arsenic doped silicon (Si:As) Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) FPAs, which were developed for the program by DRS. DRS packaged the 4 FPAs into similar custom cryogenic modules, each with its own flexible cryogenic ribbon cable to route FPA image output signals from within the WISE cryogenic telescope assembly through the cryostat walls. DRS also designed the cables and a common flight electronics box (FEB) to operate all 4 FPAs to provide their multiplexed digital image data streams to subsequent on-payload data processing and downlink systems. Fully functional, non-flight versions of the cabling and FEB were built to operate the FPAs during payload integration. The FPA system was delivered to the WISE payload integrator Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) in late 2007, and it is currently being integrated in to the WISE payload.

  2. SOI diode uncooled infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, Masafumi; Ueno, Masashi; Takeda, Munehisa; Seto, Toshiki

    2006-02-01

    An uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) is a MEMS device that integrates an array of tiny thermal infrared detector pixels. An SOI diode uncooled IR FPA is a type that uses freestanding single-crystal diodes as temperature sensors and has various advantages over the other MEMS-based uncooled IR FPAs. Since the first demonstration of an SOI diode uncooled IR FPA in 1999, the pixel structure has been improved by developing sophisticated MEMS processes. The most advanced pixel has a three-level structure that has an independent metal reflector for interference infrared absorption between the temperature sensor (bottom level) and the infrared-absorbing thin metal film (top level). This structure makes it possible to design pixels with lower thermal conductance by allocating more area for thermal isolation without reducing infrared absorption. The new MEMS process for the three-level structure includes a XeF II dry bulk silicon etching process and a double organic sacrificial layer surface micromachining process. Employing advanced MEMS technology, we have developed a 640 x 480-element SOI diode uncooled IR FPA with 25-μm square pixels. The noise equivalent temperature difference of the FPA is 40 mK with f/1.0 optics. This result clearly demonstrates the great potential of the SOI diode uncooled IR FPA for high-end applications. In this paper, we explain the advances and state-of-the-art technology of the SOI diode uncooled IR FPA.

  3. Compact radio sources in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Garwood, Robert; Dickey, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary results of a search for infrared counterparts to compact continuum radio sources found within 0.5 deg of the Galactic plane are presented. Out of 75 positions searched, nine very red sources, each with a probability of less than 0.01 of being a random field star, were found. Most of the nine sources are characterized by deep silicate absorption features at 10 microns and a red energy distribution that continues to rise beyond 25 microns. Six of the sources are best explained as late O or early B stars exciting a compact H II region. The radio emission is close to that expected for the rate of emission of ionizing photons for a normal main-sequence star. Although these H II regions are compact, they are not sufficiently dusty in the immediate environment of the star to significantly reduce the ionizing flux. Three of the sources show considerably more emission than expected for a main-sequence star, indicating they are either hotter than a main-sequence star with the same luminosity or the radio emision is nonthermal and coming from a more exotic object.

  4. Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancofiore, L.; Gallaire, F.

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163-185 (2007)], 10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171-195 (2006)], 10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs.

  5. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  6. Galactic diffuse gamma rays from galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateyama, N.; Nishimura, J.

    2001-08-01

    The dominant part of the diffuse gamma rays from the Galactic plane, with energy greater than 1TeV, has been thought as due to the inverse Compton scattering of the interstellar photons with the high-energy cosmic electrons. In these energy regions, the diffuse gamma-ray observation gives us unique infor-mation on the energy spectrum of the high-energy electrons in the interstellar space, since we cannot observe those electrons directly. This provides us information on the cosmicray source, production mechanism and propagation in the Galaxy. We discuss the implication of our results by comparing with the work of Porter and Protheroe, and also compare with the data observed by the most recent extensive air showers. It is also pointed out that the patchy structure of gammaray distribution will appear at high-energy side, if we observe the distribution with a higher angular resolution of a few arc degrees. This patchy structure will become clear beyond 10TeV of IC gamma rays, where the number of contributing sources of parent decrease and the diffusion distance of the electrons become smaller.

  7. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow is reported. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time-evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction-blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  8. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained from a numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow are described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving periodic suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  9. A Cool Tool for Deicing Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Nicknamed the "ice zapper," the Electro Expulsive Separation System (EESS) is an aircraft ice removal system that "pulverizes ice and removes layers of ice as thin as frost or as thick as an inch of glaze," according to the principle inventor of the technology. Patented by NASA's Ames Research Center, the EESS consists of layers of conductors encased in materials that are bonded directly to the airframe structure. When ice accumulates on the aircraft, an electric current is sent through the conductors, causing them to pulse. Even though the conductors move less than a twenty-thousandth of an inch in just a millisecond, the movement is sufficient to pulverize the ice. It is this highly accelerated motion that shatters the ice into particles the size of table salt; too small to be harmful to the aircraft. When compared with other systems in use, such as thermal deicers and pneumatic boots, the ice zapper does very well. Thermal deicers are fairly common, although they use an enormous amount of energy and present the possibility of ice refreezing. Pneumatic boots are not always effective because they require an inflation device that is unable to work until a quarter inch of ice has accumulated. With both systems, the ice that is loosened may still be large enough to cause problems for the plane once dislodged.

  10. Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes

    PubMed Central

    Biancofiore, L.; Gallaire, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163–185 (2007)]10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)]10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171–195 (2006)]10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs. PMID:22865998

  11. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  12. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  13. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@sissa.it E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2014-07-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  14. Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.

    2011-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

  15. Digital-pixel focal plane array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew G.; Baker, Justin; Colonero, Curtis; Costa, Joe; Gardner, Tom; Kelly, Mike; Schultz, Ken; Tyrrell, Brian; Wey, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing Digital-pixel Focal Plane Array (DFPA) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). To date, four 256 × 256 30 μm pitch DFPA designs with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been fabricated using IBM 90 nm CMOS processes. The DFPA ROICs are compatible with a wide range of detector materials and cutoff wavelengths; HgCdTe, QWIP, and InGaAs photo-detectors with cutoff wavelengths ranging from 1.6 to 14.5 μm have been hybridized to the same digital-pixel readout. The digital-pixel readout architecture offers high dynamic range, A/C or D/C coupled integration, and on-chip image processing with low power orthogonal transfer operations. The newest ROIC designs support two-color operation with a single Indium bump connection. Development and characterization of the two-color DFPA designs is presented along with applications for this new digital readout technology.

  16. Quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Leibscher, Monika; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2009-07-15

    A semianalytical approach to the quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum is developed, based on Mathieu functions which appear as stationary wave functions. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for pendular analogs of coherent and squeezed states of a harmonic oscillator, induced by instantaneous changes of the periodic potential energy function. Coherent pendular states are discussed between the harmonic limit for small displacements and the inverted pendulum limit, while squeezed pendular states are shown to interpolate between vibrational and free rotational motion. In the latter case, full and fractional revivals as well as spatiotemporal structures in the time evolution of the probability densities (quantum carpets) are quantitatively analyzed. Corresponding expressions for the mean orientation are derived in terms of Mathieu functions in time. For periodic double well potentials, different revival schemes, and different quantum carpets are found for the even and odd initial states forming the ground tunneling doublet. Time evolution of the mean alignment allows the separation of states with different parity. Implications for external (rotational) and internal (torsional) motion of molecules induced by intense laser fields are discussed.

  17. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  18. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biringen, S.

    1984-02-01

    Results obtained from a numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow are described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving periodic suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  19. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biringen, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-12-01

    A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow is reported. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time-evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction-blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  20. Interactive visualizations of blowups of the plane.

    PubMed

    Schenzel, Peter; Stussak, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Blowups are an important technique in algebraic geometry that permit the smoothing of singular algebraic varieties. It is a challenge to visualize this process even in the case of blowups of points X in the affine plane AA(IR)(2). First results were obtained by Brodmann with the aid of the so-called toroidal blowup, a compact embedding of the blowup into affine 3-space. In fact, Brodmann provides a rational parametrization of the toroidal blowup, but its visualization fails in the neighborhood of X because the parametrization tends to indefinite terms of the form 0/0. Our approach is based on implicitization of the parametric form. By methods from commutative algebra we are able to reduce the implicitization to the computation of a single, fairly simple resultant. This provides an algebraic equation of the implicit surface of the toroidal blowup including the so-called exceptional fiber associated with X. Surprisingly, the degree of the equation grows only linearly with the degree of the parametrization. By applying additional clipping techniques to the implicit surface we are able to visualize the toroidal blowup as well as its deformations by several parameters interactively in real time using GPU-based ray casting techniques. The methods of the paper provide insights in the structure of blowups of points, even if the points are interactively moved or tend to degenerations. PMID:22802122

  1. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  2. Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes.

    PubMed

    Biancofiore, L; Gallaire, F

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163-185 (2007)]10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)]10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171-195 (2006)]10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs. PMID:22865998

  3. Characterization of Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide with Narrow Ground Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1997-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide with finite width ground planes is characterized through measurements, conformal mapping, and the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique for the purpose of determining the optimum ground plane width. The attenuation and effective permittivity of the lines are related to its geometry. It is found that the characteristics of the Finite Ground Coplanar line (FGC) are not dependent on the ground plane width if it is greater than twice the center conductor width, but less than lambda(sub d)/8. In addition, electromagnetic field plots are presented which show for the first time that electric fields in the plane of the substrate terminate on the outer edge of the ground plane, and that the magnitude of these fields is related to the ground plane width.

  4. On triangulations of the plane by pencils of conics. II

    SciTech Connect

    Lazareva, V B; Shelekhov, A M

    2013-06-30

    The present work continues our previous paper in which all possible triangulations of the plane using three pencils of circles were listed. In the present article we find all projectively distinct triangulations of the plane by pencils of conics that are obtained by projecting regular three-webs, cut out on a nondegenerate cubic surface by three pencils of planes, whose axes lie on this surface. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  5. Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, D. Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Erpenbeck, Eric A.

    2003-08-01

    Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60°) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10°, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

  6. Automatic determination of the imaging plane in lumbar MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Tsurumaki; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we describe a method for assisting radiological technologists in their routine work to automatically determine the imaging plane in lumbar MRI. The method is first to recognize the spinal cord and the intervertebral disk (ID) from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image, and then the imaging plane is automatically determined according to the recognition results. To determine the imaging plane, the spinal cord and the ID are automatically recognized from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image with a series of image processing techniques. The proposed method consists of three major steps. First, after removing the air and fat regions from the 3-plane localizer image by use of histogram analysis, the rachis region is specified with Sobel edge detection filter. Second, the spinal cord and the ID were respectively extracted from the specified rachis region making use of global thresholding and the line detection filter. Finally, the imaging plane is determined by finding the straight line between the spinal cord and the ID with the Hough transform. Image data of 10 healthy volunteers were used for investigation. To validate the usefulness of our proposed method, manual determination of the imaging plane was also conducted by five experienced radiological technologists. Our experimental results showed that the concordance rate between the manual setting and automatic determination reached to 90%. Moreover, a remarkable reduction in execution time for imaging-plane determination was also achieved.

  7. Plane wave gravitons, curvature singularities and string physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R. . Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1991-03-21

    This paper discusses bounded (compactifying) potentials arising from a conspiracy between plane wave graviton and dilaton condensates. So are string propagation and supersymmetry in spacetimes with curvature singularities.

  8. The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W.

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of AV ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg2 of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18° to 56° and b =-1° to +1°. Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 μm) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain "step-and-integrate" polarimetry over its full 10 × 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/σ P > 3); most of these have mH < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  9. Variable Radio Sources in the Galactic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Robert H.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.; Proctor, Deanne D.

    2010-07-01

    Using three epochs of Very Large Array observations of the Galactic plane in the first quadrant taken ~15 years apart, we have conducted a search for a population of variable Galactic radio emitters in the flux density range 1-100 mJy at 6 cm. We find 39 variable sources in a total survey area of 23.2 deg2. Correcting for various selection effects and for the extragalactic variable population of active galactic nuclei, we conclude there are ~1.6 deg-2 Galactic sources which vary by more than 50% on a time scale of years (or shorter). We show that these sources are much more highly variable than extragalactic objects; more than 50% show variability by a factor >2 compared to <10% for extragalactic objects in the same flux density range. We also show that the fraction of variable sources increases toward the Galactic center (another indication that this is a Galactic population), and that the spectral indices of many of these sources are flat or inverted. A small number of the variables are coincident with mid-IR sources and two are coincident with X-ray emitters, but most have no known counterparts at other wavelengths. Intriguingly, one lies at the center of a supernova remnant, while another appears to be a very compact planetary nebula; several are likely to represent activity associated with star formation regions. We discuss the possible source classes which could contribute to the variable cohort and follow-up observations which could clarify the nature of these sources.

  10. Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A.; Pavel, M.; Jameson, K.; Moreau, J.; Taylor, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey, GPIPS, has completed three full seasons of observations using the 1.8 m Perkins telescope outside Flagstaff, Arizona, and the Mimir instrument in its wide-field, imaging polarimetry mode. The region being surveyed for GPIPS spans galactic longitudes L=18-56 deg and -1 < B < +1 deg and covers the same region as GLIMPSE (Benjamin et al. 2003), the 13CO Galactic Ring Survey (Jackson et al. 2006), as well as 2MASS. GPIPS aims to measure background starlight polarization for stars as faint as 12th mag in H-band (1.6 um) over this entire 76 square degree zone via Mimir imaging polarimetry of 10x10 arcmin fields arrayed across over 3,200 overlapping 9x9 arcmin field centers. To date, some 1,200 fields have been observed, making GPIPS about 40% complete. Based on estimates from our pilot study, the expected number of stellar polarizations measured to date should be between 100,000 and 300,000 making GPIPS already one of the largest polarimetric data sets ever assembled. Fields that have been observed during the first three seasons were selected based on their potential for immediate scientific return, including all known star clusters in the region, all MAGPIS sources, all GLIMPSE bubbles, as well as several nearby large molecular clouds. This talk will review the survey characteristics, highlight magnetic field science enabled by GPIPS, and public access to this data set. GPIPS is partially supported by NSF grant AST-0607500.

  11. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  12. Plane symmetric metrics associated with semi-plane symmetric electromagnetic fields in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Canbin; Tian, Guihua

    1994-11-01

    Electromagnetic fields yielding plane symmetric metrics in higher-dimensional spacetimes are exhausted and classified. It is shown that these EM fields must fall into one of the following two cases: (i)F it =F iz =0,i=1,...,n; (ii)Ftz=0. We give the general solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations in higher dimensions corresponding to electromagnetic fields of case (ii) withF it =F iz , which covers all even-dimensional spacetimes as well as a subcase of odd-dimensional spacetimes.

  13. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  17. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    PubMed

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  18. 4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT TO CONEMAUGH RIVER AND AREA OF LOWER INCLINE - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. 3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View some what similar to that of NJ-30-2. Stone track bed is visible under cable system of NJ-30-2. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 10 West, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  20. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  1. 7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE AND EAST FACE OF CUT STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. Gaining Momentum: Re-Creating Galileo's Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

    1998-01-01

    Provides an excerpt of Galileo's description of his inclined plane experiment. Describes the replication of Galileo's inclined plane experiment by students at Rice University (Texas) using an Internet site called the Galileo Project; then describes the authors' replication of the Project. (AEF)

  3. A New Dynamics Cart on an Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorsson, Pall

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment to study the acceleration of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane. Demonstrates how multitiming and the study of the movement in both directions allows the determination of the component of gravitational force along an inclined plane without any assumptions about friction. (JRH)

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  5. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting I: Homotheties-Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, T.

    2006-01-01

    A previous note described how complex numbers can be used for elementary analytic geometry in the plane, describing lines, circles and their intersections using complex Cartesian equations. In the present note, a description of elementary plane transformations, namely homotheties and translations, their group structure and their operations on…

  6. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting III: Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This is the third part of a study of plane transformations described in a complex setting. After the study of homotheties, translations, rotations and reflections, we proceed now to the study of plane similarities, either direct or inverse. Their group theoretical properties are described, and their action on classical geometrical objects is…

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  8. Peptidoglycan architecture can specify division planes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Robert D; Ratcliffe, Emma C; Wheeler, Richard; Golestanian, Ramin; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Division in Staphylococci occurs equatorially and on specific sequentially orthogonal planes in three dimensions, resulting, after incomplete cell separation, in the 'bunch of grapes' cluster organization that defines the genus. The shape of Staphylococci is principally maintained by peptidoglycan. In this study, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy with vancomycin labelling to examine purified peptidoglycan architecture and its dynamics in Staphylococcus aureus and correlate these with the cell cycle. At the presumptive septum, cells were found to form a large belt of peptidoglycan in the division plane before the centripetal formation of the septal disc; this often had a 'piecrust' texture. After division, the structures remain as orthogonal ribs, encoding the location of past division planes in the cell wall. We propose that this epigenetic information is used to enable S. aureus to divide in sequentially orthogonal planes, explaining how a spherical organism can maintain division plane localization with fidelity over many generations. PMID:20975691

  9. The Uniform geometrical Theory of Diffraction for elastodynamics: Plane wave scattering from a half-plane.

    PubMed

    Djakou, Audrey Kamta; Darmon, Michel; Fradkin, Larissa; Potel, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Diffraction phenomena studied in electromagnetism, acoustics, and elastodynamics are often modeled using integrals, such as the well-known Sommerfeld integral. The far field asymptotic evaluation of such integrals obtained using the method of steepest descent leads to the classical Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). It is well known that the method of steepest descent is inapplicable when the integrand's stationary phase point coalesces with its pole, explaining why GTD fails in zones where edge diffracted waves interfere with incident or reflected waves. To overcome this drawback, the Uniform geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) has been developed previously in electromagnetism, based on a ray theory, which is particularly easy to implement. In this paper, UTD is developed for the canonical elastodynamic problem of the scattering of a plane wave by a half-plane. UTD is then compared to another uniform extension of GTD, the Uniform Asymptotic Theory (UAT) of diffraction, based on a more cumbersome ray theory. A good agreement between the two methods is obtained in the far field. PMID:26627800

  10. Real-world stereoscopic performance in multiple-focal-plane displays: How far apart should the image planes be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Simon J.; MacKenzie, Kevin J.; Ryan, Louise

    2012-03-01

    Conventional stereoscopic displays present conflicting stimuli to vergence and accommodation, causing fatigue, discomfort, and poor stereo depth perception. One promising solution is 'depth filtering', in which continuous variations in focal distance are simulated by distributing image intensity across multiple focal planes. The required image-plane spacing is a critical parameter, because there are constraints on the total number that can be used. Depth-filtered images have been shown to support continuous and reasonably accurate accommodation responses with 1.1 dioptre (D) image-plane spacings. However, retinal contrast is increasingly attenuated with increasing image-plane separation. Thus, while such stimuli may eliminate the vergence-accommodation conflict, they may also unacceptably degrade stereoscopic depth perception. Here we measured stereoacuity, and the time needed for stereoscopic fusion, for real targets and depth-filtered approximations to the same stimuli (image-plane spacings of 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 D). Stereo fusion time was reasonably consistent across conditions. Stereoacuity for depth-filtered stimuli was only slightly poorer than for real targets with 0.6 D image-plane separation, but deteriorated rapidly thereafter. Our results suggest that stereoscopic depth perception, not accommodation and vergence responses, is the limiting factor in determining acceptable image-plane spacing for depth-filtered images. We suggest that image-plane spacing should ideally not exceed ~0.6 D.

  11. The Warped Plane of the Classical Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Eugene; Choi, Hyomin

    2008-07-01

    By numerically integrating the orbits of the giant planets and of test particles over a period of four billion years, we follow the evolution of the location of the midplane of the Kuiper belt. The Classical Kuiper belt conforms to a warped sheet that precesses with a 1.9 Myr period. The present-day location of the Kuiper belt plane can be computed using linear secular perturbation theory: the local normal to the plane is given by the theory's forced inclination vector, which is specific to every semimajor axis. The Kuiper belt plane does not coincide with the invariable plane, but deviates from it by up to a few degrees in stable zones. For example, at a semimajor axis of 38 AU, the local Kuiper belt plane has an inclination of 1.9 degrees and a longitude of ascending node of 149.9 degrees when referred to the mean ecliptic and equinox of J2000. At a semimajor axis of 43 AU, the local plane has an inclination of 1.9 degrees and a nodal longitude of 78.3 degrees. Only at infinite semimajor axis does the Kuiper belt plane merge with the invariable plane, whose inclination is 1.6 degrees and nodal longitude is 107.7 degrees. A Classical Kuiper belt object keeps its inclination relative to the Kuiper belt plane nearly constant, even while the plane departs from the trajectory predicted by linear theory. The constancy of relative inclination reflects the undamped amplitude of free oscillation; that is, the homogeneous solution to the forced harmonic oscillator equation retains constant amplitude, even while the inhomogeneous solution cannot be written down accurately because the planetary forcing terms are chaotic. Current observations of Classical Kuiper belt objects are consistent with the plane being warped by the giant planets alone, but the sample size will need to increase by a few times before confirmation exceeds 3σ in confidence. In principle, differences between the theoretically expected plane and the observed plane could be used to infer as yet unseen

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Eric S.; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L.; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H.; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A.; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. Objectives: To compare an out-of-plane interscalene catheter technique to the in-plane technique in a randomized clinical trial. Patients and Methods: Eighty-four patients undergoing open shoulder surgery were randomized to either the in-plane or out-of-plane ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene technique. The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included pain ratings in the recovery room and at 48 hours, morphine consumption, the incidence of catheter dislodgments, procedure time, and block difficulty. Procedural data and all pain ratings were collected by blinded observers. Results: There were no differences in the primary outcome of median VAS pain rating at 24 hours between the out-of-plane and in-plane groups (1.50; IQR, [0 - 4.38] vs. 1.25; IQR, [0 - 3.75]; P = 0.57). There were also no differences, respectively, between out-of-plane and in-plane median PACU pain ratings (1.0; IQR, [0 - 3.5] vs. 0.25; IQR, [0 - 2.5]; P = 0.08) and median 48-hour pain ratings (1.25; IQR, [1.25 - 2.63] vs. 0.50; IQR, [0 - 1.88]; P = 0.30). There were no differences in any other secondary endpoint. Conclusions: Our out-of-plane technique did not provide superior analgesia to the in-plane technique. It did not increase the number of complications. Our technique is an acceptable alternative in situations where the in-plane technique is difficult to perform. PMID:26705526

  13. Analysis of Basal Plane Bending and Basal Plane Dislocations in 4H-SiC Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Noboru; Katsuno, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Tatsuo; Nakabayashi, Masashi; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Hirokatsu; Aigo, Takashi; Hirano, Hosei; Hoshino, Taizo; Ohashi, Wataru

    2009-06-01

    4H-SiC single crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method under different thermoelastic stress conditions, and the degree of basal plane bending in the crystals was characterized by the peak shift measurement of X-ray rocking curves. The results indicate that the degree of basal plane bending largely depends on the magnitude of the thermoelastic stresses imposed on the crystals during PVT growth. Quantitative analysis of basal plane bending revealed that the density of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) estimated from basal plane bending is much smaller than that obtained from defect-selective etching. It was also found that the BPD density is correlated with the threading screw dislocation (TSD) density in PVT-grown SiC crystals. These aspects of BPDs were discussed in terms of the BPD multiplication process triggered by the intersection of BPDs with a forest of TSDs extending along the c-axis.

  14. Two-Sided Coded Aperture Imaging Without a Detector Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel design for a two-sided, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager suitable for use in stand off detection of orphan radioactive sources. The design is an extension of an active-mask imager that would have three active planes of detector material, a central plane acting as the detector for two (active) coded-aperture mask planes, one on either side of the detector plane. In the new design the central plane is removed and the mask on the left (right) serves as the detector plane for the mask on the right (left). This design reduces the size, mass, complexity, and cost of the overall instrument. In addition, if one has fully position-sensitive detectors, then one can use the two planes as a classic Compton camera. This enhances the instrument's sensitivity at higher energies where the coded-aperture efficiency is decreased by mask penetration. A plausible design for the system is found and explored with Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Planes of satellite galaxies and the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Pomarède, Daniel; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Recent observational studies have demonstrated that the majority of satellite galaxies tend to orbit their hosts on highly flattened, vast, possibly corotating planes. Two nearly parallel planes of satellites have been confirmed around the M31 galaxy and around the Centaurus A galaxy, while the Milky Way also sports a plane of satellites. It has been argued that such an alignment of satellites on vast planes is unexpected in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model of cosmology if not even in contradiction to its generic predictions. Guided by ΛCDM numerical simulations, which suggest that satellites are channelled towards hosts along the axis of the slowest collapse as dictated by the ambient velocity shear tensor, we re-examine the planes of local satellites systems within the framework of the local shear tensor derived from the Cosmicflows-2 data set. The analysis reveals that the Local Group and Centaurus A reside in a filament stretched by the Virgo cluster and compressed by the expansion of the Local Void. Four out of five thin planes of satellite galaxies are indeed closely aligned with the axis of compression induced by the Local Void. Being the less massive system, the moderate misalignment of the Milky Way's satellite plane can likely be ascribed to its greater susceptibility to tidal torques, as suggested by numerical simulations. The alignment of satellite systems in the local Universe with the ambient shear field is thus in general agreement with predictions of the ΛCDM model.

  16. In-plane resolution characteristics for a positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Amano, M.; Hirose, Y.; Ida, H.; Miura, S.; Kanno, I.

    1989-02-01

    HEADTOME IV is a PET which consists of 96 detector units per ring. Each detector unit consists of eight 3mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals, a pair of light guides and a dual module photomultiplier tube (PMT), and uses pulse hight ratio logic to determine the crystal of interaction. In-plane resolution of 4.5 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) was obtained without any sampling motion such as wobble. The in-plane resolution of a PET which used discrete detector arrangement with sampling motion was determined by intrinsic crystal pair resolution. However the in-plane resolution without sampling motion is determined by detector center-to-center spacing because of incomplete linear sampling, and contain nonuniformity due to aliasing artifacts. In the case of the HEADTOME IV, the in-plane resolution is determined by not only the factors mentioned above (i.e. crystal pair resolution and center-to-center spacing) but also statistical fluctuations in calculating the position because the light output of BGO is not enough to perfectly separate each BGO. With these special configurations, the in-plane resolution of the HEADTOME IV may show different characteristics from those of the PET with discrete detector arrangement. In this paper, the authors investigated three in-plane resolution characteristics of the HEADTOME IV, i.e. resolution with distance from the center, variation of the in-plane resolution, effect of imbalance of gain.

  17. Thermophoretic Motion of a Sphere Parallel to an Insulated Plane.

    PubMed

    Chen

    2000-04-01

    An analytical study is presented for the thermophoresis of a sphere in a constant applied temperature gradient parallel to an adiabatic plane. The Knudsen number is assumed to be small so that the fluid flow can be described by a continuum model with a thermal creep and a hydrodynamic slip at the particle surface. A method of reflections is used to obtain the asymptotic formulas for the temperature and velocity fields in the quasisteady situation. The thermal insulated plane may be a solid wall (no-slip) and/or a free surface (perfect-slip). The boundary effect on the thermophoretic motion is found to be weaker than that on the axisymmetric thermophoresis of a sphere normal to a plane with constant temperature. In comparison with the motion driven by gravitational force, the interaction between the particle and the boundary is less significant under thermophoresis. Even so, the interaction between the plane and the particle can be very strong when the gap thickness approaches zero. For the thermophoretic motion of a particle parallel to a solid plane, the effect of the plane surface is to reduce the translational velocity of the particle. In the case of particle migration parallel to a free surface due to thermophoresis, the translating velocity of a particle can be either greater or smaller than that which would exist in the absence of the plane surface, depending on the relative thermal conductivity and the surface properties of the particle and its relative distance from the plane. Not only the translational velocity but also the rotational velocity of the thermophoretic sphere near the plane boundary is formulated analytically. The rotating direction of the particle is strongly dominated by its surface properties and the internal-to-external thermal conductivity. Besides the particle motion, the thickness of the thermophoretic boundary layer is evaluated by considering the thermophoretic mobility. Generally speaking, a free surface exerts less influence on the

  18. In-plane effects on segmented-mirror control.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Roberts, Lewis C; Shelton, J Chris; Chanan, Gary; Bonnet, Henri

    2012-04-20

    Extremely large optical telescopes are being designed with primary mirrors composed of hundreds of segments. The "out-of-plane" piston, tip, and tilt degrees of freedom of each segment are actively controlled using feedback from relative height measurements between neighboring segments. The "in-plane" segment translations and clocking (rotation) are not actively controlled; however, in-plane motions affect the active control problem in several important ways, and thus need to be considered. We extend earlier analyses by constructing the "full" interaction matrix that relates the height, gap, and shear motion at sensor locations to all six degrees of freedom of segment motion, and use this to consider three effects. First, in-plane segment clocking results in height discontinuities between neighboring segments that can lead to a global control system response. Second, knowledge of the in-plane motion is required both to compensate for this effect and to compensate for sensor installation errors, and thus, we next consider the estimation of in-plane motion and the associated noise propagation characteristics. In-plane motion can be accurately estimated using measurements of the gap between segments, but with one unobservable mode in which every segment clocks by an equal amount. Finally, we examine whether in-plane measurements (gap and/or shear) can be used to estimate out-of-plane segment motion; these measurements can improve the noise multiplier for the "focus-mode" of the segmented-mirror array, which involves pure dihedral angle changes between segments and is not observable with only height measurements. PMID:22534898

  19. Optical Diffraction in Close Proximity to Plane Apertures. II. Comparison of Half-Plane Diffraction Theories

    PubMed Central

    Mielenz, Klaus D.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy and physical significance of the classical Rayleigh-Sommerfeld and Kirchhoff diffraction integrals are assessed in the context of Sommerfeld’s rigorous theory of half-plane diffraction and Maxwell’s equations. It is shown that the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integrals are in satisfactory agreement with Sommerfeld’s theory in most of the positive near zone, except at sub-wavelength distances from the screen. On account of the bidirectional nature of diffraction by metallic screens the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integrals themselves cannot be used for irradiance calculations, but must first be resolved into their forward and reverse components and it is found that Kirchhoff’s integral is the appropriate measure of the forward irradiance. Because of the inadequate boundary conditions assumed in their derivation the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld and Kirchhoff integrals do not correctly describe the flow of energy through the aperture.

  20. Goldstone's Theorem on a Light-Like Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beane, Silas R.

    2015-09-01

    I review various aspects of chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking on null planes, including the interesting manner in which Goldstone's theorem is realized and the constraints that chiral symmetry imposes on the null-plane Hamiltonians. Specializing to QCD with N massless flavors, I show that there is an interesting limit in which the chiral constraints on the null-plane Hamiltonians can be solved to give the spin-flavor algebra SU(2 N), recovering a result originally found by Weinberg using different methods.

  1. Casimir force in a cylinder-plane configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Hayes, Michael; Middleman, Scott; Kim, Woo-Joong; Dalvit, Diego; Mazzitelli, Francisco; Onofrio, Roberto

    2006-05-01

    We have developed and tested an apparatus [1] to measure the Casimir force in a cylinder-plane configuration, which is a compromise between the parallel plane and sphere-plane configurations, with intermediate advantages. Preliminary calibrations with electrostatic forces show that the Casimir forces should be detectable in a range large enough to observe the expected thermal corrections. [1] M. Brown-Hayes, D.A.R. Dalvit, F.D. Mazzitelli, W.J. Kim, and R. Onofrio, Phys. Rev. A 72, 052102 (2005).

  2. Large molecular cloud in Lupus far from the Galactic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, L.A.; Thaddeus, P.; Bronfman, L.; Cohen, R.S.

    1987-03-01

    The detection of a large molecular cloud at a distance of more than 200 pc from the Galactic plane, situated above a prominent hole in the CO distribution in the plane, is reported. The cloud has a radial velocity of -41 km/s, much larger than is characteristic of most local, high-latitude gas. The cloud's displacement above the plane is the largest for any cloud yet detected. The mass of the cloud is about 100,000 solar masses, and its gravitational potential energy is about 7 x 10 to the 50th ergs. A single event may have created both the cloud and the nearby hole. 27 references.

  3. Vacuum plane waves: Cartan invariants and physical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, A.; McNutt, D.; Milson, R.

    2012-12-01

    As an application of the Cartan invariants obtained using the Karlhede algorithm, we study a simple subclass of the PP-wave spacetimes, the gravitational plane waves. We provide an invariant classification of these spacetimes and then study a few notable subcases: the linearly polarized plane waves, the weak-field circularly polarized waves, and another class of plane waves found by imposing conditions on the set of invariants. As we study these spacetimes we relate the invariant structure (i.e., Cartan scalars) to the physical description of these spacetimes using the geodesic deviation equations relative to timelike geodesic observers.

  4. Analysis of crack closure under plane strain conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, Norman A.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The phenomenon of plasticity-induced crack closure is associated with the development of residual material on the flanks of an advancing fatigue crack. While it is easy to see that this residual material can come from the side faces of a specimen under plane stress conditions, it is difficult to discover the origin of this extra volume of material on the crack flanks when it is assumed that plane deformations occur and plastic flow is incompressible. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure occurs in an elastic-perfectly plastic body under plane strain conditions.

  5. Analysis of crack closure under plane strain conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, N. A.; Newman, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomenon of plasticity-induced crack closure is associated with the development of residual material on the flanks of an advancing fatigue crack. While it is easy to see that this residual material can come from the side faces of a specimen under plane stress conditions, it is difficult to discover the origin of this extra volume of material on the crack flanks when it is assumed that plane deformations occur and plastic flow is incompressible. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure occurs in an elastic-perfectly plastic body under plane strain conditions.

  6. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  7. Two Planes of Satellites in the Centaurus A Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Libeskind, Noam I.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.

    2015-04-01

    Tip of the red giant branch measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based imaging have resulted in accurate distances to 29 galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A Group. All but 2 of the 29 galaxies lie in either of two thin planes roughly parallel with the supergalactic equator. The planes are only slightly tilted from the line of sight, leaving little ambiguity regarding the morphology of the structure. The planes have characteristic rms long axis dimensions of ∼300 kpc and short axis dimensions of ∼60 kpc, hence axial ratios ∼0.2, and are separated in the short axis direction by 303 kpc.

  8. Improved phase imaging from intensity measurements in multiple planes

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Marcos; Acosta, Eva

    2007-11-20

    Problems stemming from quantitative phase imaging from intensity measurements play a key role in many fields of physics. Techniques based on the transport of intensity equation require an estimate of the axial derivative of the intensity to invert the problem. Derivation formulas in two adjacent planes are commonly used to experimentally compute the derivative of the irradiance. Here we propose a formula that improves the estimate of the derivative by using a higher number of planes and taking the noisy nature of the measurements into account. We also establish an upper and lower limit for the estimate error and provide the distance between planes that optimizes the estimate of the derivative.

  9. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, G.D.

    1998-07-14

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

  10. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, Gary D.

    1998-01-01

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

  11. MWIR and LWIR Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Thang, J.; Mumolo, Jason; Tidrow, M.; LeVan, P. D.; Hill, C.

    2004-01-01

    A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array has been demonstrated with excellent imagery. MWIR focal plane has given noise equivalent differential temperature (NETD) of 19 mK at 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and LWIR focal plane has given NEDT of 13 mK at 70K operating temperature with same optical and background conditions as MWIR array. Both of these focal plane arrays have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures with the same optics and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss their performance in quantum efficiency, NETD, uniformity, and operability.

  12. DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-09-01

    We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.

  13. Casimir-Polder effect for a stack of conductive planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusnutdinov, Nail; Kashapov, Rashid; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-07-01

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between an atom and a multilayered system composed of infinitely thin planes is considered using the ζ -function regularization approach with zero-point energies summation. As a prototype material, each plane is represented by a graphene sheet, an atomically thin layer of carbon atoms organized in a hexagonal lattice, whose optical response is described by a constant conductivity or Drude-Lorentz model conductivity. Asymptotic expressions for various separations are derived and compared to numerical calculations. We distinguish between large atom-plane distance limit, where retardation effects are prominent, and small atom-plane distance limit, where the typical van der Waals coefficient is found to be dependent on the number of graphenes and characteristic separations. The calculated energies for different atoms and graphene conductivity models brings forward the basic science of the Casimir-Polder effect and suggests ways to manipulate this interaction experimentally.

  14. 7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. 8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. 2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  20. 4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  1. 1. Overview of Building 1015 (land plane hanger), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of Building 1015 (land plane hanger), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. 57. INTERIOR OF SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG. 2). PLANES IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. INTERIOR OF SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG. 2). PLANES IN FOREGROUND ARE VOUGHT-SIKOUSKY OSZU-1'S OF THE NEUTRALITY PATROL. USN PHOTO, FEBRUARY 27, 1941. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  3. Students as Researchers: An Inclined-Plane Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an inquiry activity in which students explore the variables that influence the amount of time it takes a ball to roll down an inclined plane. Relates features of the activity to recommendations in the NCTM Standards. (MKR)

  4. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    PubMed

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  5. Getting the Drop on Flight With the "X" Planes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson uses the online NASA CONNECT™™: Proportionality: The X-Plane Generation Educator Guide and the NASA aeronautics bookmark: Designing the 21st Century Aerospace Vehicle and Ring Wing Glid...

  6. 75 FR 30268 - Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 9, 2010 (75 FR 10694), and proposed to supersede AD 97-11-12, Amendment 39-10041 (62 FR 28997, May 29, 1997). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a...

  7. 75 FR 10694 - Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On July 11, 1997, we issued AD 97-11-12, Amendment 39-10041 (62 FR 28997, May 29... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic.... 106(g), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by removing Amendment 39-10041 (62...

  8. Magnetic field in the plane of a physical dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Grace, Alyssa L.; Hui, Kaleonui J.; Loving, Rebekah K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the magnetic field in the plane of a circular current-carrying loop. We both solve Biot–Savart’s equation numerically and perform measurements with high spatial resolution. The results extend our quantitative understanding of a physical magnetic dipole by providing an accurate and complete picture of the field in this plane, which complements existing analytical expressions valid at very small and large radius, near the loop axis, and for point dipoles.

  9. Numerical phase retrieval from beam intensity measurements in three planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruel, Laurent

    2003-05-01

    A system and method have been developed at CEA to retrieve phase information from multiple intensity measurements along a laser beam. The device has been patented. Commonly used devices for beam measurement provide phase and intensity information separately or with a rather poor resolution whereas the MIROMA method provides both at the same time, allowing direct use of the results in numerical models. Usual phase retrieval algorithms use two intensity measurements, typically the image plane and the focal plane (Gerschberg-Saxton algorithm) related by a Fourier transform, or the image plane and a lightly defocus plane (D.L. Misell). The principal drawback of such iterative algorithms is their inability to provide unambiguous convergence in all situations. The algorithms can stagnate on bad solutions and the error between measured and calculated intensities remains unacceptable. If three planes rather than two are used, the data redundancy created confers to the method good convergence capability and noise immunity. It provides an excellent agreement between intensity determined from the retrieved phase data set in the image plane and intensity measurements in any diffraction plane. The method employed for MIROMA is inspired from GS algorithm, replacing Fourier transforms by a beam-propagating kernel with gradient search accelerating techniques and special care for phase branch cuts. A fast one dimensional algorithm provides an initial guess for the iterative algorithm. Applications of the algorithm on synthetic data find out the best reconstruction planes that have to be chosen. Robustness and sensibility are evaluated. Results on collimated and distorted laser beams are presented.

  10. Planes of satellite galaxies: when exceptions are the rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cautun, Marius; Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Guo, Qi; Han, Jiaxin; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Sawala, Till; Wang, Wenting

    2015-10-01

    The detection of planar structures within the satellite systems of both the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) has been reported as being in stark contradiction to the predictions of the standard cosmological model (Λ cold dark matter - ΛCDM). Given the ambiguity in defining a planar configuration, it is unclear how to interpret the low incidence of the MW and M31 planes in ΛCDM. We investigate the prevalence of satellite planes around galactic mass haloes identified in high-resolution cosmological simulations. We find that planar structures are very common, and that ˜10 per cent of ΛCDM haloes have even more prominent planes than those present in the Local Group. While ubiquitous, the planes of satellite galaxies show a large diversity in their properties. This precludes using one or two systems as small-scale probes of cosmology, since a large sample of satellite systems is needed to obtain a good measure of the object-to-object variation. This very diversity has been misinterpreted as a discrepancy between the satellite planes observed in the Local Group and ΛCDM predictions. In fact, ˜10 per cent of ΛCDM galactic haloes have planes of satellites that are as infrequent as the MW and M31 planes. The look-elsewhere effect plays an important role in assessing the detection significance of satellite planes and accounting for it leads to overestimating the significance level by a factor of 30 and 100 for the MW and M31 systems, respectively.

  11. Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

  12. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-09-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)

  13. Bonded half planes containing an arbitrarily oriented crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Aksogan, O.

    1973-01-01

    The plane elastostatic problem for two bonded half planes containing an arbitrarily oriented crack in the neighborhood of the interface is considered. Using Mellin transforms, the problem is formulated as a system of singular integral equations. The equations are solved for various crack orientations, material combinations, and external loads. The numerical results given include the stress intensity factors, tHe strain energy release rates, and tHe probable cleavage angles giving the direction of crack propagation.

  14. Self-calibration of Antenna Errors Using Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, P. J.; Cornwell, T. J.

    The thery of focal-plane correlation is reviewed and applied to the problem of the self-calibration and self-correction of a radio telescope with errors in its reflecting surface. Curves are presented which allow the estimation of focal-plane array size and integration time needed for telescopes with varying amounts of error. It is suggested that the technique may have application to the problem of the construction of large telescopes in space.

  15. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  16. An out of plane experiment with the SOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, D. J.

    1992-12-01

    As part of a series of talks devoted to out of plane physics with the SOS, we take advantage of this new capability to expand upon on an earlier, rejected proposal. The purpose of this is twofold: to give a didactic example of how to plan an out of plane measurement with the SOS, and to breath some life into a potentially exciting physics program is Hall C.

  17. Investigations into a potential laser-NASP transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Laser propelled flight/transport technology is surveyed. A detailed conceptual design is presented for an on-place Mercury-Lightcraft: other designs are briefly explored for larger, 15-place Executive Lightcraft, and 150 to 350 passenger Jumbo Lightcraft.

  18. Physical Educators' Perceptions of Their Use of NASPE Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Langley, Jennifer; Bishop, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of childhood obesity in the United States is approximately 17%. Because physical education can be a key intervention strategy against this epidemic, this study was conducted to determine physical educators' perceptions on their use of recommended national standards specifically focused on physical fitness and activity in their classroom.…

  19. Thermomechanical architecture of the VIS focal plane for Euclid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignac, Jérôme; Carty, Michaël.; Tourette, Thierry; Bachet, Damien; Berthé, Michel; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Amiaux, Jérôme; Fontignie, Jean; Horeau, Benoît; Renaud, Diana; Pottinger, Sabrina; Denniston, James; Winter, Berend; Guttridge, Phillip; Cole, Richard; Cropper, Mark; Niemi, Sami; Coker, John; Hunt, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    One of the main challenges for current and near future space experiments is the increase of focal plane complexity in terms of amount of pixels. In the frame work of the ESA Euclid mission to be launched in 2020, the Euclid Consortium is developing an extremely large and stable focal plane for the VIS instrument. CEA has developed the thermomechanical architecture of that Focal Plane taking into account all the very stringent performance and mission related requirements. The VIS Focal Plane Assembly integrates 36 CCDs (operated at 150K) connected to their front end electronics (operated at 280K) as to obtain one of the largest focal plane (˜0.6 billion pixels) ever built for space application after the GAIA one. The CCDs are CCD273 type specially designed and provided by the e2v company under ESA contract, front end electronics is studied and provided by MSSL. In this paper we first recall the specific requirements that have driven the overall architecture of the VIS-FPA and especially the solutions proposed to cope with the scientific needs of an extremely stable focal plane, both mechanically and thermally. The mechanical structure based on SiC material used for the cold sub assembly supporting the CCDs is detailed. We describe also the modular architecture concept that we have selected taking into account AIT-AIV and programmatic constraints.

  20. Simplified ground plane invisibility cloak by multilayer dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun; Yu, Zhenzhong; Jiang, Tian; Zhao, Junming

    2010-11-22

    Most implementations of the ground plane invisibility cloak are based on the isotropic design through the quasi-conformal transformation. However recent theoretical analysis predicts the unavoidable lateral shift of the scattering fields associated with these cloaks making them detectable. In this paper, we propose an alternative method to design the ground plane invisibility clock with electromagnetic beam modulation blocks through simple coordinate transformation discussed in our previous work. The ground plane cloak obtained with the rigorous transformation optics possesses moderate anisotropic distributions of material parameters, but results in no lateral shift of the scattering fields. To realize the design, a possible scheme is suggested by discretizing the ground plane cloak to several homogeneous sub-blocks. These sub-blocks can be realized with multilayer isotropic dielectrics with alignment angles that are determined by the effective medium theory. Thus the non-magnetic ground plane invisibility cloak can be constructed by several multilayered normal dielectrics aligned in different angles. The performance of the proposed cloak and its practical implementation is validated by full-wave electromagnetic simulations with both near field distributions and far field scattering patterns under different EM wave incident angles. The proposed cloak is composed of normal dielectric multilayers, thus can leads to easy experimental demonstration of non-magnetic ground plane cloak in the frequency range from microwave to optical. PMID:21164794

  1. Electron transport properties in m-plane and c-plane AlN/GaN heterostructures with interface roughness and anisotropic in-plane strain scatterings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongnum, Anusit; Pinsook, Udomsilp

    2015-03-01

    Anisotropic transport properties of a two-dimensional electron gas in nonpolar m-plane AlN/GaN heterostructures with the interface roughness coupled anisotropic in-plane strain scattering were investigated theoretically using a path-integral framework. The scattering potential was composed of the interface roughness and the effective field from the electron charge and the net piezoelectric polarization. We showed that the anisotropic biaxial strains generate only the net piezoelectric polarization along the [0 0 0 1]-direction and cause anisotropy in electron mobility with a magnitude lower than the ≤ft[11\\bar{2}0\\right] -direction. We also showed that the anisotropy in electron mobility reduced with increasing electron density. Moreover, the anisotropic electron mobility disappeared when the anisotropic in-plane strain scattering was removed, and the relation for pure interface roughness scattering was reestablished. This formulation with existing roughness parameters gave a good description for the experimental results of polar c-plane AlN/GaN heterostructures.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane displacements using pseudo-Wigner-Hough transform.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    A new method based on pseudo-Wigner-Hough transform is proposed for the simultaneous measurement of the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements using digital holographic moiré. Multiple interference phases corresponding to the in-plane and out-of-plane displacement components are retrieved from a single moiré fringe pattern. The segmentation of the interference field allows us to approximate it with a multicomponent linear frequency modulated signal. The proposed method accurately and simultaneously estimates all the phase parameters of the signal components without the use of any signal separation techniques. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method and its robustness against the variations in object beam intensity. PMID:24718239

  3. Nonlinear coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane motion about a stationary point in geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiring, B. R.

    1981-01-01

    The range of validity of the solutions in the vicinity of the libration points include significant out-of-plane oscillations by the satellite. The stability of inclined geosynchronous satellites is studied.

  4. Rigorous formulation for electromagnetic plane-wave scattering from a general-shaped groove in a perfectly conducting plane: comment.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A

    2008-05-01

    We show that the problem of scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by a general-shaped groove engraved on a perfectly conducting plane, which was recently studied by Basha et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 1647 (2007)], was solved 11 years ago using the same formulation. This method was further extended to deal with a finite number of grooves and also with complex apertures including several nonlossy and lossy dielectrics, as well as real metals. PMID:18451923

  5. Uniform stress fields inside multiple inclusions in an elastic infinite plane under plane deformation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ming; Gao, Cun-Fa; Ru, C. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple elastic inclusions with uniform internal stress fields in an infinite elastic matrix are constructed under given uniform remote in-plane loadings. The method is based on the sufficient and necessary condition imposed on the boundary value of a holomorphic function that guarantees the existence of the holomorphic function in a multiply connected region. The unknown shape of each of the multiple inclusions is characterized by a conformal mapping. This work focuses on a major large class of multiple inclusions characterized by a simple condition that covers and is much beyond the known related results reported in previous works. Extensive examples of multiple inclusions with or without geometrical symmetry are shown. Our results showed that the inclusion shapes obtained for the uniformity of internal stress fields are independent of the remote loading only when all of the multiple inclusions have the same shear modulus as that of the matrix. Moreover, specific conditions are derived on remote loading, elastic constants of the inclusions and uniform internal stress fields, which guarantee the existence of multiple symmetric inclusions or multiple rotationally symmetrical inclusions with uniform internal stress fields.

  6. The MSX Galactic Plane Survey : A Cinematic Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, S. D.; Egan, M. P.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kuchar, T. A.; Carey, S. J.

    1999-12-01

    The Galactic Plane Survey by the SPIRIT III telescope aboard the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) imaged the entire Galactic plane for |b| < 5 degrees in five mid-infrared passbands between 4 and 26 μ m. The resolution of the survey is 18 arcseconds and the sensitivity is comparable to or better than previous mid-infrared surveys. The MSX Galactic plane survey is the highest resolution full survey of the plane in the mid-infrared. In anticipation of the upcoming public release of the data, we present an overview of the results of this survey in the form of a three-color movie of the plane. The three colors correspond to MSX band A (6.8 - 10.8 μ m = blue), the sum of MSX bands C and D (11.1 - 16.9 μ m = green) and band E (18.2 - 25.1 μ m = red). Visible in the movie are numerous rings, filaments and shells due to star forming regions, supernova remants, circumstellar shells and planetary nebula. Also distinguishable are patches which are dark in the mid-infrared. These objects are now known to be large, cold molecular cores. The entire plane is pervaded by diffuse emission in Band A most likely due to cationic PAHs. Changes in dust properties and excitation are evident in the color variations color in the movie. In addition to being a unique dataset, this data will undoubtably be useful in interpretating ISO investigations in the plane and for preparing future observations with SIRTF and SOFIA.

  7. Off-plane x-ray reflection grating fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Thomas J.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Schultz, Ted B.

    2015-09-01

    Off-plane X-ray diffraction gratings with precision groove profiles at the submicron scale will be used in next generation X-ray spectrometers. Such gratings will be used on a current NASA suborbital rocket mission, the Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), and have application for future grating missions. The fabrication of these gratings does not come without challenges. High performance off-plane gratings must be fabricated with precise radial grating patterns, optically at surfaces, and specific facet angles. Such gratings can be made using a series of common micro-fabrication techniques. The resulting process is highly customizable, making it useful for a variety of different mission architectures. In this paper, we detail the fabrication method used to produce high performance off-plane gratings and report the results of a preliminary qualification test of a grating fabricated in this manner. The grating was tested in the off-plane `Littrow' configuration, for which the grating is most efficient for a given diffraction order, and found to achieve 42% relative efficiency in the blaze order with respect to all diffracted light.

  8. Development and evolution of the helicoidal plane of dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Smith, B H

    1986-01-01

    The helicoidal plane of dental occlusion is a composite feature involving axial inclination of teeth and effects of dental attrition. Recent studies disagree on its distribution and significance in hominoid primates. The distribution, development, and functional basis of the helicoidal plane are investigated here, based on quantitative analysis of dental morphology and attrition in 667 human and 60 chimpanzee dentitions. Helicoidal planes are nearly universal in the human and chimpanzee dentitions studied. Increasing axial inclination of molars from M1 to M3 is primarily responsible for the helicoidal plane, although attrition acts to increase its expression. In hominoids, increased molar axial tilt appears to be associated with facial shortening and dental reduction. Population and species comparisons suggest a functional relationship with cranial structure. Progressive axial tilt of molars producing a helicoidal plane is found consistently in mammals with cheek teeth positioned partly under the cranium, as in hominids, pongids, some cebids, macropodids, ursids, and sciurids. Facial shortening is an important trend in hominid evolution and axial inclination of molars might be expected to show progressive change from Australopithecus afarensis to recent Homo sapiens. PMID:3080898

  9. Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

  10. Optimal aeroassisted return from high earth orbit with plane change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinh, Nguyen X.; Hanson, John M.

    This paper gives a complete analysis of the problem of aeroassisted return from a high Earth orbit to a low Earth orbit with plane change. A discussion of pure propulsive maneuver leads to the necessary change for improvement of the fuel consumption by inserting in the middle of the trajectory an atmospheric phase to obtain all or part of the required plane change. The variational problem is reduced to a parametric optimization problem by using the known results in optimal impulsive transfer and solving the atmospheric turning problem for storage and use in the optimization process. The coupling effect between space maneuver and atmospheric maneuver is discussed. Depending on the values of the plane change i, the ratios of the radii, n = r 1/r 2 between the orbits and a = r 2/R between the low orbit and the atmosphere, and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio E∗ of the vehicle, the optimal maneuver can be pure propulsive or aeroassisted. For aeroassisted maneuver, the optimal mode can be parabolic, which requires only drag capability of the vehicle, or elliptic. In the elliptic mode, it can be by one-impulse for deorbit and one or two-impulse in postatmospheric flight, or by two-impulse for deorbit with only one impulse for final circularization. It is shown that whenever an impulse is applied, a plane change is made. The necessary conditions for the optimal split of the plane changes are derived and mechanized in a program routine for obtaining the solution.

  11. Measurements of planing forces and cavity shapes on cylindrical afterbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellum, Aren; Belden, Jesse; Beal, David; Huyer, Stephen; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, Dana

    2015-11-01

    Supercavitation is a drag reduction technique by which an underwater body is enclosed over a significant portion of its length in a bubble of gas. Hydrodynamic forces act on the body only through contact with the nose and a planing section at the rear. Models of the planing forces typically assume that the body is placed into a cavity which is unchanged by the presence of the body, and the present study was designed to test the validity of this assumption. Measurements were taken of the planing forces for five afterbody lengths over a range of angles concurrently with photographs showing the size and shape of the cavity produced. These observations reveal that the cavity form and growth rate are significantly affected by both the length and angle of attack of the body; the length of the cavity shrinks at the same angle of attack as the body length is reduced past a critical threshold, suggesting a hydrodynamic interaction between the afterbody trailing edge and the cavity. Additionally, the planing forces demonstrate a non-monotonic dependence on attack angle that is not readily explained by existing models, specifically a ``lift crisis'' for short bodies in which the planing lift goes to zero over a range from -1 to -3 degrees.

  12. Polarization and amplitude attributes of reflected plane and spherical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinjun; Baird, Graham; Blair, Dane

    1998-03-01

    The characteristics of a reflected spherical wave at a free surface are investigated by numerical methods; in particular, the polarization angles and amplitude coefficients of a reflected spherical wave are studied. The classical case of the reflection of a plane P wave from a free surface is revisited in order to establish our terminology, and the classical results are recast in a way which is more suited for the study undertaken. The polarization angle of a plane P wave, for a given angle of incidence, is shown to be 90° minus twice the angle of reflection of the reflected S wave. For a Poisson's ratio less than 1/3, there is a non-normal incident angle for which both amplification coefficients are 2 precisely; for this incident angle the direction of the particle motion at the free surface is also the direction of the incident wave. For a wave emanating from a spherical source, the polarization angle, for all angles of incidence, is always less than, or equal to, the polarization angle of a plane P wave. The vector amplification coefficient of a spherical wave, for all angles of incidence, is always greater than the vector amplification coefficient of a plane P wave. As expected, the results for a spherical wave approach the results for a plane P wave in the far field. Furthermore, there was a good agreement between the theoretical modelling and the numerical modelling using the dynamic finite element method (DFEM).

  13. The Evolution of Plane Wakes Subjected to Irrotational Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, M. R.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Three direct numerical simulations of time-evolving turbulent plane wakes developing in the presence of various irrotational plane strains have been generated. A pseudospectral numerical method with up to 26 million modes is used to solve the equations in a reference frame moving with the irrotational strain. The initial condition for each simulation is taken from a previous turbulent self-similar plane wake direct numerical simulation at a velocity deficit Reynolds number, Re, of about 2000. Three different plane strains (of the same magnitude) are imposed. In the first two simulations the strain is in a plane normal to the streamwise wake direction (the two cases having strain of opposite sign); in the third the wake is compressed in the streamwise direction and stretched in the inhomogeneous cross-stream direction. The two flows that are stretched in the cross-stream direction experience an exponential increase of Re; flow visualization indicates many small-scale vortices with little or no organized large-scale structure. In the flow that is compressed in the cross-stream direction Re decays exponentially and the layer appears to be relaminarizing. The evolution of several turbulence statistics in each of these flows is examined.

  14. Materials, devices, techniques, and applications for Z-plane focal plane array technology II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 12, 13, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John C.

    1990-11-01

    Various papers on materials, devices, techniques, and applications for X-plane focal plane array technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: application of Z-plane technology to the remote sensing of the earth from GEO, applications of smart neuromorphic focal planes, image-processing of Z-plane technology, neural network Z-plane implementation with very high interconnection rates, using a small IR surveillance satellite for tactical applications, establishing requirements for homing applications, Z-plane technology. Also discussed are: on-array spike suppression signal processing, algorithms for on-focal-plane gamma circumvention and time-delay integration, current HYMOSS Z-technology, packaging of electrons for on- and off-FPA signal processing, space/performance qualification of tape automated bonded devices, automation in tape automated bonding, high-speed/high-volume radiometric testing of Z-technology focal planes, 128-layer HYMOSS-module fabrication issues, automation of IRFPA production processes.

  15. WISE focal plane module lessons learned in light of success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterjohn, S.; Hogue, H.; Muzilla, M.; Rector, S.; Mattson, R.

    2010-08-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, under contract to the Space Dynamics Laboratory of Utah State University, provided the focal plane detector system for NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The focal plane detector system consists of two mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane module assemblies (FPMAs), two arsenic doped silicon (Si:As) Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) FPMAs, electronics to drive the FPMAs and report digital data from them, and the cryogenic and ambient temperature cabling that connect the FPMAs and electronics. The WISE Satellite was launched in late 2009 and has been a very rewarding success. In light of the recent success on orbit, there were many challenges and hurdles the DRS team had to overcome in order to guarantee the ultimate success of the instrument. This report highlights a few of the challenges that the team overcame in hopes that the information can be made available to the astronomy community for future use.

  16. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  17. Fracture Analysis in a Functionally Graded Magnetoelectroelastic Plane by BIEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoynov, Y. D.

    2011-11-01

    A functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic (MEE) plane with a finite crack is considered. The crack is impermeable and subjected to anti-plane mechanical and in-plane electric and magnetic load. The fundamental solutions of the coupled system of the governing equations are derived in a closed form by the Radon transform. They are implemented in a non-hypersingular traction boundary integral equation method (BIEM). A program code in Fortran, based on the BIEM, is created. Comparison with the results obtained by a different method is presented. The numerical examples show the dependence of the stress intensity factor (SIF) on the normalized frequency for different magnitude of the material inhomogeneity. Results for a non-straight crack are also given.

  18. Scattering by a groove in an impedance plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindiganavale, Sunil; Volakis, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional scattering from a narrow groove in an impedance plane is presented. The groove is represented by a impedance surface and the problem reduces to that of scattering from an impedance strip in an otherwise uniform impedance plane. On the basis of this model, appropriate integral equations are constructed using a form of the impedance plane Green's functions involving rapidly convergent integrals. The integral equations are solved by introducing a single basis representation of the equivalent current on the narrow impedance insert. Both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations are treated. The resulting solution is validated by comparison with results from the standard boundary integral method (BIM) and a high frequency solution. It is found that the presented solution for narrow impedance inserts can be used in conjunction with the high frequency solution for the characterization of impedance inserts of any given width.

  19. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-08-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

  20. Vortex shedding from square plates perpendicular to a ground plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, J. H.; Matty, R. R.; Barton, G. H.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental results for the vortex shedding frequency behind square plates placed normal to a uniform flow over a ground plane are presented. The Texas Tech University low-speed wind tunnel was operated in an open-jet configuration for these tests, and the Strouhal number for the square plate was obtained as a function of distance above the ground plane and Reynolds number. The data show a tendency for the Strouhal number to decrease with Reynolds number, to increase with increasing distance away from the ground plane for h/L less than 0.25, and to decrease slightly for h/L greater than 0.25. A Strouhal number of 0.126 was found at a Reynolds number of about 40,000, and results are in good agreement with those of Calvert (1967) for a large value of h.

  1. Arrayed Ultrasonic Transducers on Arc Surface for Plane Wave Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Soon; Kim, Jung-Ho; Kim, Moo-Joon; Ha, Kang-Lyeol; Yamada, Akira

    2004-05-01

    In ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT), it is necessary to synthesize a plane wave using waves emitted from sound sources arranged in the interior surface of a cylinder. In order to transmit a plane wave into a cylindrical surface, an ultrasonic transducer which has many vibrating elements with piezoelectric transverse effect arrayed on an arc surface is proposed. To achieve a wide beam width, the elements should have a small radiation area with a much narrow width. The measured electroacoustic efficiency for the elements was approximately 40% and the beam width defined by -3 dB level from the maximum was as wide as 120 deg. It was confirmed that plane wave synthesis is possible using the proposed transducer array.

  2. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-04-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3} , including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

  3. Skyrmions in thin films with easy-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousden, Mark; Albert, Maximilian; Beg, Marijan; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Carey, Rebecca; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Wang, Weiwei; Hovorka, Ondrej; Marrows, Christopher H.; Fangohr, Hans

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that chiral skyrmionic magnetization configurations can be found as the minimum energy state in B20 thin film materials with easy-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy with an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the film plane. Our observations contradict results from prior analytical work, but are compatible with recent experimental investigations. The size of the observed skyrmions increase with the easy-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We use a full micromagnetic model including demagnetization and a three-dimensional geometry to find local energy minimum (metastable) magnetization configurations using numerical damped time integration. We explore the phase space of the system and start simulations from a variety of initial magnetization configurations to present a systematic overview of anisotropy and magnetic field parameters for which skyrmions are metastable and global energy minimum (stable) states.

  4. Plane symmetric thin-shell wormholes: Solutions and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-08-15

    Using the cut-and-paste procedure, we construct static and dynamic, plane symmetric wormholes by surgically grafting together two spacetimes of plane symmetric vacuum solutions with a negative cosmological constant. These plane symmetric wormholes can be interpreted as domain walls connecting different universes, having planar topology, and upon compactification of one or two coordinates, cylindrical topology or toroidal topology, respectively. A stability analysis is carried out for the dynamic case by taking into account specific equations of state, and a linearized stability analysis around static solutions is also explored. It is found that thin-shell wormholes made of a dark energy fluid or of a cosmological constant fluid are stable, while thin-shell wormholes made of phantom energy are unstable.

  5. Testing and Evaluation of PHENIX Reaction Plane Detector Photomultiplier Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nicholas; Richardson, Eric; Mignerey, Alice

    2006-10-01

    The PHENIX Reaction Plane Detector (RxnP) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is designed to determine the reaction plane in heavy ion collisions. Currently the reaction plane is determined using the Beam Beam Counters. However, the RxnP will increase the resolution by nearly a factor of two over the currently achievable levels. This detector's location in the central region of PHENIX will expose it to a magnetic field of approximately 1 Tesla. The curvature of the field lines makes it necessary to understand the relationship between the angle of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the magnetic field and the PMTs' output. Results of bench-top tests of the PMTs in similar magnetic fields and their impact on the final design will be presented.

  6. CLAES focal plane array. [Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, A. E.; Sterritt, L. W.; Kumer, J. B.; Callary, P. C.; Nielsen, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer for the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite uses solid-state focal plane arrays to detect emission from the earth's atmosphere over the IR wavelength range 3.5 to 13 microns. This paper discusses the design of the focal plane detector assembly and compares calculated performance with measurements. Measurements were made of focal plane noise and responsivity as functions of frequency (2 to 500 Hz) and temperature (12 to 19 K), pixel-to-pixel and across-array crosstalk, and linearity over a dynamic range of 100,000. The measurements demonstrate that the arrays satisfy the science requirements, and that, in general, there is reasonable agreement between the measurements and the analytical model.

  7. Nanoindentation on the doubler plane of KDP single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoguang, Guo; Xiaoji, Zhang; Xianzhao, Tang; Dongming, Guo; Hang, Gao; Xiaoji, Teng

    2013-03-01

    The nanohardness is from 1.44 to 2.61 GPa, the Vickers hardness is from 127 to 252 Vickers, and elastic modulus is from 52 to 123 GPa by the nanoindentation experiments on the doubler plane of KDP crystal. An indentation size effect is observed on the doubler plane in the test as the nanohardness and elastic modulus decreases with the increase of the maximum load. Slippage is identified as the major mode of plastic deformation, and pop-in events are attributed to the initiation of slippage. And the variation of unloading curve end is the result of stick effects between the indenter and the contact surface. The depth of the elastic deformation, which is between 40 and 75 nm, is responsible for the elastic deformation. The doubler plane of KDP crystal has anisotropy, and the relative anisotropy of nanohardness is 8.2% and the relative anisotropy of elastic modulus is 8.0%.

  8. Glide planes symmetry in the organization of some sulfide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S. V.; Magarill, S. A.; Pervukhina, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    The role of glide planes in the organization of structures is shown based on a crystallographic analysis of the monoclinic structures of TlAs3S5 and Tl2(As,Sb)3S13 sulfides. In the first structure, cations and anions form systems (with identical geometries) of two face-centered sublattices, linked by the c plane, with the effect of unified "two-dimensional" (2D) ordering. The second structure, exhibiting signs of order-disorder (OD) type, is interpreted as a superposition of two noncentrosymmetric components with independent cation and anion sublattices, which, however, also form a regular 2D order due to the n plane. The stabilizing role of Tl cations in the geometry of cation matrices is indicated.

  9. Difference in linear polarization of biaxially strained I nxG a1 -xN alloys on nonpolar a -plane and m -plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Cui, Ying; Griffiths, James T.; Fu, Wai Y.; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg; Humphreys, Colin J.; Oliver, Rachel A.

    2015-12-01

    I nxG a1 -xN structures epitaxially grown on a -plane or m -plane GaN exhibit in-plane optical polarization. Linear elasticity theory treats the two planes equivalently and is hence unable to explain the experimentally observed higher degree of linear polarization for m -plane than a -plane I nxG a1 -xN . Using density functional theory, we study the response of I nxG a1 -xN random alloys to finite biaxial strains on both nonpolar planes. The calculated m -plane I nxG a1 -xN valence band splitting is larger than that of the a plane, due to a greater degree of structural relaxation in a -plane I nxG a1 -xN . We provide a parametrization of the valence band splitting of I nxG a1 -xN strained to a -plane and m -plane GaN for In compositions between 0 and 0.5, which agrees with experimental measurements and qualitatively explains the experimentally observed difference between a -plane and m -plane polarization.

  10. Laplace Plane Modifications Arising from Solar Radiation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical effects of solar radiation pressure (SRP) in the solar system have been rigorously studied since the early 1900s. This non-gravitational perturbation plays a significant role in the evolution of dust particles in circumplanetary orbits, as well as in the orbital motion about asteroids and comets. For gravitationally dominated orbits, SRP is negligible and the resulting motion is largely governed by the oblateness of the primary and the attraction of the Sun. The interplay between these gravitational perturbations gives rise to three mutually perpendicular planes of equilibrium for circular satellite orbits. The classical Laplace plane lies between the equatorial and orbital planes of the primary, and is the mean reference plane about whose axis the pole of a satellite's orbit precesses. From a previously derived solution for the secular motion of an orbiter about a small body in a SRP dominated environment, we find that SRP acting alone will cause an initially circular orbit to precess around the pole of the primary's heliocentric orbital plane. When the gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations act in concert, the resulting equilibrium planes turn out to be qualitatively different, in some cases, from those obtained without considering the radiation pressure. The warping of the surfaces swept out by the modified equilibria as the semi-major axis varies depends critically on the cross-sectional area of the body exposed. These results, together with an adiabatic invariance argument on Poynting-Robertson drag, provide a natural qualitative explanation for the initial albedo dichotomy of Saturn's moon, Iapetus.

  11. Transaxillary dual-plane augmentation mammaplasty: experience with 98 breasts.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jie; Mu, Dali; Mu, Lanhua

    2009-11-01

    The dual plane technique is a popular procedure for breast augmentation. However, traditional dual-plane augmentation mammaplasty usually requires incisions through the areola or inframammary crease, which produces a scar on the breast. Therefore, women may not favour this technique, especially Chinese women who are genetically susceptible to hyperplastic scars. In our institution, endoscopic transaxillary dual-plane augmentation mammaplasty was performed in patients under general anaesthesia. Incisions (4 cm long) were designed to overlap the natural creases of the skin bilaterally behind the mid-transaxillary frontline. The space behind the pectoralis major muscle was separated conventionally. Assisted by a 10mm/30 degrees endoscope, part of the ectopectoralis was excised. Through the transaxillary incision, the rough-surfaced silicone gel breast prosthesis was implanted. The volume varied from 185 to 315 g, and a routine indwelling drainage tube was inserted. From March 2006 to May 2007, we performed 49 cases of augmentation mammaplasty applying endoscopic-assisted dual-plane technique. At 6- to 12-month follow up, the surgical outcomes were satisfactory. There were no complications, such as capsular contracture, bleeding, scar hyperplasia, or infection. We believe that the dual-plane augmentation mammaplasty can be performed via transaxillary incision using an endoscope. Since the surgical incision is far from the front of the breast with this method, no scarring of the breast develops. Furthermore, the adoption of the dual-plane technique provides superior form to the anatomical prosthesis in the breast, alleviates postoperative pain, and improves suppleness of the postoperative breast. PMID:18838324

  12. Laplace plane modifications arising from solar radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical effects of solar radiation pressure (SRP) in the solar system have been rigorously studied since the early 1900s. This non-gravitational perturbation plays a significant role in the evolution of dust particles in circumplanetary orbits, as well as in the orbital motion about asteroids and comets. For gravitationally dominated orbits, SRP is negligible and the resulting motion is largely governed by the oblateness of the primary and the attraction of the Sun. The interplay between these gravitational perturbations gives rise to three mutually perpendicular planes of equilibrium for circular satellite orbits. The classical Laplace plane lies between the equatorial and orbital planes of the primary, and is the mean reference plane about whose axis the pole of a satellite's orbit precesses. From a previously derived solution for the secular motion of an orbiter about a small body in a SRP dominated environment, we find that SRP acting alone will cause an initially circular orbit to precess around the pole of the primary's heliocentric orbital plane. When the gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations act in concert, the resulting equilibrium planes turn out to be qualitatively different, in some cases, from those obtained without considering the radiation pressure. The warping of the surfaces swept out by the modified equilibria as the semi-major axis varies depends critically on the cross-sectional area of the body exposed. These results, together with an adiabatic invariance argument on Poynting-Robertson drag, provide a natural qualitative explanation for the initial albedo dichotomy of Saturn's moon, Iapetus.

  13. Uncooled infrared sensors with digital focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Charles A.; Butler, Neal R.; Blackwell, Richard; Murphy, Robert; Breen, Thomas

    1996-06-01

    Loral Infrared & Imaging Systems is developing low cost, high performance, uncooled infrared imaging products for both military and commercial applications. These products are based on the microbolometer technology, a silicon micromachined sensor which combines the wafer level silicon processing with a device structure capable of yielding excellent infrared imaging performance. Here, we report on the development of an uncooled sensor, the LTC500, which incorporates an all digital focal plane array and has a measured NETD of less than 70 mK. The focal plane array and the electronics within the LTC500 have been designed as an integrated unit to meet a broad range of end user applications by providing features such as nonuniformity correction, autogain and level, NTSC video, and digital outputs. The 327 X 245 element focal plane array has a 46.25 micrometers pixel pitch and an on focal plane array 14 bit to analog to digital converter (ADC). The ADC has a measured instantaneous dynamic range of more than 76 dB at a 6.1 MHz output data rate and 60 Hz frame rate. The focal plane array consumes less than 500 mW of power, of which less than 250 mW is used in the ADC. An additional 36 dB of digital coarse offset correction in front of the ADC on the focal plane array results in a total electronic dynamic range of 112 dB. The MRT of the LTC500 camera has been measured at less 0.2 C at f(subscript o).

  14. Navigating solid medical images by pencils of sectioning planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Athey, Brian D.; Green, William D. K.; Wetzel, Arthur W.

    2000-10-01

    Beyond their involvement in ordinary surface rendering, the boundaries of organs in medical images have differential properties that make them quite useful for quantitative understanding. In particular, their geometry affords a framework for navigating the original solid, representing its R3 contents quite flexibility as multiple pseudovolumes R2 x T, where T is ar eal-valued parameter standing for screen time. A navigation is a smoothly parameterized series of image sections characterized by normal direction, centerpoint, scale and orientation. Such filmstrips represent a radical generalization of conventional medical image dynamics. The lances encountered in these navigations can be represented by constructs from classic differential geometry. Sequences of plane sections can be formalized as continuous pencils of planes, sets of cardinality (infinity) 1 that are sometimes explicitly characterized by a real-value parameter and sometimes defined implicitly as the intersection (curve of common elements) of a pair of bundles of (infinity) 2 planes. An example of the first type of navigation is the pencil of planes through the tangent line at one point of a curve; of the second type, the cone of planes through a point tangent to a surface. The further enhancements of centering, orienting, and rescaling in the medical context are intended to leave landmark points or boundary intersections invariant on the screen. Edgewarp, a publicly available software package, allows free play with pencils of planes like these as they section one single enormous medical data resource, the Visible Human data sets from the National Library of Medicine. This paper argues the relative merits of such visualizations over conventional surface-rendered flybys for understanding and communication of associated anatomical knowledge.

  15. Megapixel Multi-band QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Rafo, S. B.; Hill, C.; Mumolo, J.; Thang, J.; Tidrow, M.; LeVan, P. D.

    2004-01-01

    A mid-wavelength 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QW) focal plane array has been demonstrated with excellent imagery. Noise equivalent differential temperature (NETD) of 19 mK was achieved at 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background. This focal plane array has shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K operating temperature with the same optics and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss its performance in quantum efficiency, NETD, uniformity, and operability.

  16. Periodic orbits near onset of chaos in plane Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Kreilos, Tobias; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    We track the secondary bifurcations of coherent states in plane Couette flow and show that they undergo a periodic doubling cascade that ends with a crisis bifurcation. We introduce a symbolic dynamics for the orbits and show that the ones that exist fall into the universal sequence described by Metropolis, Stein and Stein for unimodal maps. The periodic orbits cover much of the turbulent dynamics in that their temporal evolution overlaps with turbulent motions when projected onto a plane spanned by energy production and dissipation. PMID:23278091

  17. Comparing viewer and array mental rotations in different planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, M.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Participants imagined rotating either themselves or an array of objects that surrounded them. Their task was to report on the egocentric position of an item in the array following the imagined rotation. The dependent measures were response latency and number of errors committed. Past research has shown that self-rotation is easier than array rotation. However, we found that imagined egocentric rotations were as difficult to imagine as rotations of the environment when people performed imagined rotations in the midsagittal or coronal plane. The advantages of imagined self-rotations are specific to mental rotations performed in the transverse plane.

  18. Interfacial Refraction Through Curved and Plane-Layered Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, A.B.

    2001-07-17

    Two laser beam tracing codes, AXIAL and CYLINDER, have been written to determine a laser beam path through plane and cylindrical interfaces. For cylindrical interfaces, an equation set was derived which describes the path of the laser beam. For plane interfaces, it was not possible to derive a single equation set. Instead, it was necessary to divide the domain up into small elements or regions. The laser beam path was then determined by calculating the path of the laser beam through each region. AXIAL and CYLINDER can be used to determine where an LDA should be positioned so that velocity measurements can be made at a specified point.

  19. Exploring plane-symmetric solutions in f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    The modified theories of gravity, especially the f( R) gravity, have attracted much attention in the last decade. This paper is devoted to exploring plane-symmetric solutions in the context of metric f( R) gravity. We extend the work on static plane-symmetric vacuum solutions in f( R) gravity already available in the literature [1, 2]. The modified field equations are solved using the assumptions of both constant and nonconstant scalar curvature. Some well-known solutions are recovered with power-law and logarithmic forms of f( R) models.

  20. Percutaneous sagittal plane closing wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-02-01

    Osteotomy of the first metatarsal in the sagittal plane is useful in correction of numerous deformity of the foot. Plantarflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal can be used to treat hallux rigidus, hallux limitus, forefoot varus in flatfoot deformity and iatrogenic metatarsus primus elevates. Dorsiflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal is an important component in surgical correction of pes cavus. It is also indicated in recalcitrant diabetic neuropathic ulcers at the first metatarsal head. We described a minimally invasive technique of sagittal plane corrective osteotomy of the first metatarsal, which can be either a plantarflexion or dorsiflexion one. PMID:23412315

  1. Interfacial contribution to thickness dependent in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokaç, M.; Wang, M.; Jaiswal, S.; Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Atkinson, D.; Hindmarch, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in cobalt films with overlayers having designed electrically interface transparency. With an electrically opaque cobalt/overlayer interface, the AMR ratio is shown to vary in inverse proportion to the cobalt film thickness; an indication that in-plane AMR is a consequence of anisotropic scattering with both volume and interfacial contributions. The interface scattering anisotropy opposes the volume scattering contribution, causing the AMR ratio to diminish as the cobalt film thickness is reduced. An intrinsic interface effect explains the significantly reduced AMR ratio in ultra-thin films.

  2. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  3. emission from stars and dust in the Galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Annual Average Maps at 3.5, 25, 100, and 240 Aum. Galactic coordinate Mollweide projection maps of the entire sky at four wavelengths showing emission from stars and dust in the Galactic plane (horizontal feature) and light scattered and emitted by dust in the solar system (S-shape).

  4. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  5. Theory of rigid-plane phonon modes in layered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, K. H.; Verberck, B.

    2012-03-01

    The lattice dynamics of low-frequency rigid-plane modes in metallic (graphene multilayers, GML) and in insulating (hexagonal boron-nitride multilayers, BNML) layered crystals is investigated. The frequencies of shearing and compression (stretching) modes depend on the layer number N and are presented in the form of fan diagrams. The results for GML and BNML are very similar. In both cases, only the interactions (van der Waals and Coulomb) between nearest-neighbor planes are effective, while the interactions between more distant planes are screened. A comparison with recent Raman scattering results on low-frequency shear modes in GML [Tan , Nat. Mater., in press, doi:10.1038/nmat3245, (2012)] is made. Relations with the low-lying rigid-plane phonon dispersions in the bulk materials are established. Master curves, which connect the fan diagram frequencies for any given N, are derived. Static and dynamic thermal correlation functions for rigid-layer shear and compression modes are calculated. The results might be of use for the interpretation of friction force experiments on multilayer crystals.

  6. Reduction of stray light in in-plane grating spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Penchina, C M

    1967-06-01

    The stray light in a commercial Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer has been investigated at wavelength readings between 1800 A and 5000 A. A simple method is described which eliminates that part of the stray light caused by multiple dispersions. This same method should also decrease stray light in other in-plane grating spectrometers with reflecting optics. PMID:20062118

  7. Modelling the landing of a plane in a calculus lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, José A.

    2012-10-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics.

  8. Determining Plane Mirror Image Distance from Eye Charts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a method to convince students that the image produced by a plane mirror is actually behind the mirror. Uses observations that the letters of an eye chart posted on a mirror are twice the size of the images of letters of an eye chart they are holding. Provides two reproducible eye charts. (MDH)

  9. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  10. Exact Nonlinear Internal Equatorial Waves in the f-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2016-07-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations for internal geophysical water waves propagating westward above the thermocline in the f-plane approximation near the equator. Moreover, the mass transport velocity induced by this internal equatorial wave is eastward and a westward current occurs in the transition zone between the great depth where the water is still and the thermocline.

  11. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  12. Specimen housing unit for cinemicrographic studies in the vertical plane.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, J R; Tynan, C I; Boykin, E H

    1976-01-01

    A compact housing unit for low-power (X6 to X50) cinemicrographic studies of microbial specimens in the vertical plane is described. This unit was used successfully to record the development of a "halo" of cells around subsurface colonies of Escherichia coli. Images PMID:788640

  13. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  14. Optical Link For Readout From Focal-Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Larsson, Anders G.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Outputs of photodetectors modulate beam of light. Proposed optical link carries analog readout signals from photodetectors in focal-plane array to external signal-processing circuitry. Insensitive to electromagnetic interference at suboptical frequencies, and imposes smaller heat load on cryogenic apparatus because it does not include high-power electronic amplifier or laser transmitter within cold chamber.

  15. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  16. Inclined Planes and Motion Detectors: A Study of Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students work in cooperative groups and roll balls down inclined planes, collect data with the help of an electronic motion detector, and represent data with a graphing calculator to explore concepts such as mass, gravity, velocity, and acceleration. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/ASK)

  17. 40. CONSTRUCTION OF GALLERY NO. 3, SHOWING INCLINED PLANE USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. CONSTRUCTION OF GALLERY NO. 3, SHOWING INCLINED PLANE USED TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS, ALSO SPOIL FROM TUNNEL INTERIOR. POWDER HOUSE AND TOOL SHED VISIBLE TO RIGHT OF BASE INCLINE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Tunnel, Two miles east of Zion Canyon Scenic Drive, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  18. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  19. 85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ARE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE CABLE LEAVING THE POWER HOUSE. THIS CABLE IS ATTATCHED TO A DRUM ON THE INSIDE THE POWER HOUSE WHICH IS TURNED BY MEANS OF A WATER POWERED TURBINE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  20. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  1. NASA's New Orbital Space Plane: A Bridge to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Engler, Leah M.; Fisher, Mark F.; Dumbacher, Dan L.; Boswell, Barry E.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing a new spacecraft system called the Orbital Space Plane (OSP). The OSP will be launched on an expendable launch vehicle and serve to augment the shuttle in support of the International Space Station by transporting astronauts to and from the International Space Station and by providing a crew rescue system.

  2. Grace and Courtesy across the Planes of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludick, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Pat Ludick's commentary on grace and courtesy is established by a philosophical orientation to development: Grace is oriented to the life of the interior that is consciousness and being, and courtesy moves outward to daily living where civility reflects on success with human interactions. Pat's projected grace and courtesy across the planes is…

  3. Simulation study of plane motion of air cushion vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Qin; Shi, Xiao-Cheng; Shi, Yi-Long; Bian, Xin-Qian

    2003-12-01

    This research is on horizontal plane motion equations of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and its simulation. To investigate this, a lot of simulation study including ACV’s voyage and turning performance has been done. It was found that the voyage simulation results were accorded with ACV own characteristic and turning simulation results were accorded with USA ACV’s movement characteristic basically.

  4. Technological developments of the OGRE focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutt, James H.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Rogers, Thomas; Murray, Neil; Holland, Andrew; Weatherill, Daniel; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David; Farn, David

    2015-09-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer sub-orbital rocket payload designed as a technology development platform for three low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) components. The incident photons will be focused using a light-weight, high resolution, single-crystal silicon optic. They are then dispersed conically according to wavelength by an array of off-plane gratings before being detected in a focal plane camera comprised of four Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EM-CCDs). While CCDs have been extensively used in space applications; EM-CCDs are seldom used in this environment and even more rarely for X-ray photon counting applications, making them a potential technology risk for larger scale X-ray observatories. This paper will discuss the reasons behind choosing EM-CCDs for the focal plane detector and the developments that have been recently made in the prototype camera electronics and thermal control system.

  5. Making Robot Planes Useful for Scientific Investigation of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennison, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph slides presentation reviews the program to use unmanned aerial vehicles to gather information to study the Earth, the changes to the climate, and to protect the Earth. Several robot planes are shown, and cooperative programs with other agencies of the U.S. Government are highlighted. Including one with the United States Forest Service, that is planned to assist in locating fires

  6. Fluctuation-induced in-plane magnetoconductivity in bilayered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ramallo, M.V.; Mosqueira, J.; Vidal, F.; Pomar, A.

    1996-11-01

    In this paper the authors summarize some of their theoretical results for the paraconductivity and for the fluctuation-induced in-plane magnetoconductivity in the weak magnetic field limit of layered superconductors with several interlayer separations. Also, they briefly discuss the existing experimental data obtained in untwinned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} crystals.

  7. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues: Part II: In-Plane Biaxial Experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alan D; Einstein, Daniel R; Sacks, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  8. On the modified Westergaard equations for certain plane crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftis, J.; Liebowitz, H.

    1972-01-01

    An error in Westergaard's equation for a certain class of plane crack problems, originally pointed out by Sih, is briefly discussed. The source of the difficulty is traced to an oversight in an earlier work by MacGregor, upon whose work Westergaard based his equations. Several examples of interest illustrating the consequences of the necessary correction to these equations are given.

  9. Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, R.A.; Tipler, F.J.

    1984-04-15

    We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.

  10. Simple partitions of a hyperbolic plane of positive curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Romakina, Lyudmila N

    2012-09-30

    We construct special monohedral isotropic partitions with symmetries of the hyperbolic plane H of positive curvature with a simple 4-contour as a cell. An analogue of mosaic in these partitions called a tiling is introduced. Also we consider some fractal tilings. The existence of band tilings in each homological series with code (m, n) is proved. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  11. Colliding gravitational plane waves with noncollinear polarization. I

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, F.J.; Garcia D., A.; Hauser, I.

    1987-09-01

    An Ehlers transformation on the Ernst potential for the Nutku--Halil solution (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1379 (1977)) provides a new solution of the Einstein field equations describing colliding gravitational plane waves with noncollinear polarization, the first of an infinite sequence of solutions that can be generated using techniques described in this paper.

  12. Comment on ''Collision of plane gravitational waves without singularities''

    SciTech Connect

    Nutku, Y.

    1981-08-15

    An incorrect paper was published by B. J. Stoyanov carrying the title above. Here we shall point out a coordinate transformation whereby ''the new exact solution'' of his paper is recognized as a Kasner universe. Further, we shall show that Stoyanov's interpretation of the Kasner solution as colliding plane gravitational waves runs into the difficulty that the Einstein field equations are not satisfied everywhere.

  13. Colliding gravitational plane waves with noncollinear polarization. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Frederick J.; García D., Alberto; Hauser, Isidore

    1987-09-01

    An Ehlers transformation on the Ernst potential for the Nutku-Halil solution [Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1379 (1977)] provides a new solution of the Einstein field equations describing colliding gravitational plane waves with noncollinear polarization, the first of an infinite sequence of solutions that can be generated using techniques described in this paper.

  14. Edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes in electroanalysis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Banks, Craig E; Compton, Richard G

    2005-11-01

    The recent development, behavior and scope of edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes in electroanalysis are overviewed. Similarities to, and advantages, over multi-walled CNT modified electrodes are noted and the wide scope of applications, ranging through gas sensing, stripping voltammetry and biosensing, illustrated. PMID:16317891

  15. Tie-In Orbits for the Focal Plane Stability Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz-Reed, Linda

    1991-07-01

    This proposal is part of the TTSC request entitled, "Distortion Calibration in FGS 1 and FGS 2, FGS-to-FGS Alignment Calibration". This portion is listed separately due to the time critical nature of one of the orbits. OFAD in FGS 3 which will be performed in December 1992 together with the Mini OFAD's in FGS's 1 and 2 which will be performed in January 1993 will provide a new set of FGS calibration parameters. One of the objectives of the STScI Focal Plane Stability test is to monitor changes to these parameters by repeatedly observing targets in the cluster M35. Since the cluster is near the ecliptic, only two vehicle orientations are needed, the "fall" and the "spring" pointings (see attached pickles plots). Since the Mini OFAD targets are not necessarily the same targets used in the Focal Plane Stability Test, tie in orbits using the Focal Plane Stability targets are needed shortly before and after the Mini OFAD activities. In addition, the Focal Plane Stability Test may not be

  16. A Simple Chaotic Flow with a Plane of Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Sajad; Sprott, J. C.; Molaie, Malihe

    2016-06-01

    Using a systematic computer search, a simple four-dimensional chaotic flow was found that has the unusual feature of having a plane of equilibria. Such a system belongs to a newly introduced category of chaotic systems with hidden attractors that are important and potentially problematic in engineering applications.

  17. Automatic location of microscopic focal planes for computerized stereology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elozory, Daniel T.; Bonam, Om Pavithra; Kramer, Kurt; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mangual, Osvaldo; Mouton, Peter R.

    2011-03-01

    When applying design-based stereology to biological tissue, there are two primary applications for an auto-focusing function in the software of computerized stereology system. The system must first locate the in-focus optical planes at the upper and lower surfaces of stained tissue sections, thus identifying the top and bottom as well as the thickness of the tissue. Second, the system must find the start and end along the Z-axis of stained objects within a Z-stack of images through tissue sections. In contrast to traditional autofocus algorithms that seek a global maximum or peak on the focus curve, the goal of this study was to find the two "knees" of the focus curve that represent the "just out-of-focus" focal planes. The upper surface of the tissue section is defined as the image just before focus is detected moving down the Z-stack. Continuing down, the lower surface is defined as the first image of the last set of adjacent images where focus is no longer detected. The performance of seven focus algorithms in locating the top and bottom focal planes of tissue sections was analyzed by comparing each algorithm on 34 Z-stacks including a total of 828 images. The Thresholded Absolute Gradient algorithm outperformed all others, correctly identifying the top or bottom focal plane within an average of 1 μm on the training data as well as the test data.

  18. Testing of focal plane arrays at the AEDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Randy A.; Mead, Kimberly D.; Smith, Robert W.

    1992-07-01

    A facility was developed at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to provide complete radiometric characterization of focal plane arrays (FPAs). The highly versatile facility provides the capability to test single detectors, detector arrays, and hybrid FPAs. The primary component of the AEDC test facility is the Focal Plane Characterization Chamber (FPCC). The FPCC provides a cryogenic, low-background environment for the test focal plane. Focal plane testing in the FPCC includes flood source testing, during which the array is uniformly irradiated with IR radiation, and spot source testing, during which the target radiation is focused onto a single pixel or group of pixels. During flood source testing, performance parameters such as power consumption, responsivity, noise equivalent input, dynamic range, radiometric stability, recovery time, and array uniformity can be assessed. Crosstalk is evaluated during spot source testing. Spectral response testing is performed in a spectral response test station using a three-grating monochromator. Because the chamber can accommodate several types of testing in a single test installation, a high throughput rate and good economy of operation are possible.

  19. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazalis, B.; Desquines, J.; Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T.; Bernaudat, C.

    2016-04-01

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO® specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod.

  20. Solar UV geometric conversion factors: horizontal plane to cylinder model.

    PubMed

    Pope, Stanley J; Godar, Dianne E

    2010-01-01

    Most solar UV measurements are relative to the horizontal plane. However, problems arise when one uses those UV measurements to perform risk or benefit assessments because they do not yield the actual doses people get while they are outdoors. To better estimate the UV doses people actually get while outdoors, scientists need geometric conversion factors (GCF) that change horizontal plane irradiances to average irradiances on the human body. Here we describe a simple geometric method that changes unweighted, erythemally weighted and previtamin D(3)-weighted UV irradiances on the horizontal plane to full cylinder and semicylinder irradiances. Scientists can use the full cylinder model to represent the complete human body, while they can use the semicylinder model to represent the face, shoulders, tops of hands and feet. We present daily, monthly and seasonally calculated averages of the GCF for these cylinder models every 5 degrees from 20 to 70 degrees N so that scientists can now get realistic UV doses for people who are outdoors doing a variety of different activities. The GCF show that people actually get less than half their annual erythemally weighted, and consequently half their previtamin D(3)-weighted, UV doses relative to the horizontal plane. Thus, scientists can now perform realistic UV risk and benefit assessments. PMID:20059727

  1. Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181

  2. Determining the pivotal plane of fluid lipid membranes in simulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Deserno, Markus

    2015-10-28

    Each leaflet of a curved lipid membrane contains a surface at which the area strain vanishes, the so-called pivotal plane. Its distance z0 from the bilayer's midplane arises in numerous contexts, for instance the connection between monolayer and bilayer moduli, stress-profile moments, or area-difference elasticity theories. Here, we propose two precise methods for determining the location of the pivotal plane in computer simulations, both of which rely on monitoring the lipid imbalance across a curved bilayer. The first method considers the ratio of lipid number between the two leaflets of cylindrical or spherical vesicles; it hence requires lipid flip-flop for equilibration. The second method looks at the leaflet difference across local sections cut out from a buckled membrane; this observable equilibrates even in the absence of flip-flop. We apply our methods to two different coarse-grained lipid models, the generic three-bead solvent-free Cooke model and a ten-bead representation of dimyristoylphosphocholine with the explicit solvent MARTINI model. The Cooke model is amenable to both methods and gives results that agree at the percent level. Using it, we also show that the pivotal plane moves outward as lipid curvature becomes more positive. The MARTINI model can only be analyzed with the buckling method; the obtained value z0 = 0.850(11) nm lies about 0.4 nm inwards of the glycerol backbone and is hence unexpectedly small. We attribute this to limitations of the coarse-grained description, suggesting that the location of the pivotal plane might be a good indicator for how well lipid models capture the microscopic origins of curvature elasticity. Finally, we also show that the pivotal plane position itself moves as the membrane is bent. The leading correction is linear in curvature, dependent on the Poisson ratio, and can matter when analyzing experimental results obtained from highly curved inverse hexagonal phases. PMID:26520500

  3. Determining the pivotal plane of fluid lipid membranes in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Deserno, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Each leaflet of a curved lipid membrane contains a surface at which the area strain vanishes, the so-called pivotal plane. Its distance z0 from the bilayer's midplane arises in numerous contexts, for instance the connection between monolayer and bilayer moduli, stress-profile moments, or area-difference elasticity theories. Here, we propose two precise methods for determining the location of the pivotal plane in computer simulations, both of which rely on monitoring the lipid imbalance across a curved bilayer. The first method considers the ratio of lipid number between the two leaflets of cylindrical or spherical vesicles; it hence requires lipid flip-flop for equilibration. The second method looks at the leaflet difference across local sections cut out from a buckled membrane; this observable equilibrates even in the absence of flip-flop. We apply our methods to two different coarse-grained lipid models, the generic three-bead solvent-free Cooke model and a ten-bead representation of dimyristoylphosphocholine with the explicit solvent MARTINI model. The Cooke model is amenable to both methods and gives results that agree at the percent level. Using it, we also show that the pivotal plane moves outward as lipid curvature becomes more positive. The MARTINI model can only be analyzed with the buckling method; the obtained value z0 = 0.850(11) nm lies about 0.4 nm inwards of the glycerol backbone and is hence unexpectedly small. We attribute this to limitations of the coarse-grained description, suggesting that the location of the pivotal plane might be a good indicator for how well lipid models capture the microscopic origins of curvature elasticity. Finally, we also show that the pivotal plane position itself moves as the membrane is bent. The leading correction is linear in curvature, dependent on the Poisson ratio, and can matter when analyzing experimental results obtained from highly curved inverse hexagonal phases.

  4. Ultrafast vascular strain compounding using plane wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H G; Saris, A E C M; Vaka, N R; Nillesen, M M; de Korte, C L

    2014-03-01

    Deformations of the atherosclerotic vascular wall induced by the pulsating blood can be estimated using ultrasound strain imaging. Because these deformations indirectly provide information on mechanical plaque composition, strain imaging is a promising technique for differentiating between stable and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This paper first explains 1-D radial strain estimation as applied intravascularly in coronary arteries. Next, recent methods for noninvasive vascular strain estimation in a transverse imaging plane are discussed. Finally, a compounding technique that our group recently developed is explained. This technique combines motion estimates of subsequently acquired focused ultrasound images obtained at various insonification angles. However, because the artery moves and deforms during the multi-angle acquisition, errors are introduced when compounding. Recent advances in computational power have enabled plane wave ultrasound acquisition, which allows 100 times faster image acquisition and thus might resolve the motion artifacts. In this paper the performance of strain imaging using plane wave compounding is investigated using simulations of an artery with a vulnerable plaque and experimental data of a two-layered vessel phantom. The results show that plane wave compounding outperforms 0° focused strain imaging. For the simulations, the root mean squared error reduced by 66% and 50% for radial and circumferential strain, respectively. For the experiments, the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR(e) and CNR(e)) increased with 2.1 dB and 3.7 dB radially, and 5.6 dB and 16.2dB circumferentially. Because of the high frame rate, the plane wave compounding technique can even be further optimized and extended to 3D in future. PMID:24484646

  5. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging I Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs) has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exo-planetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as ADI and SDI. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy.

  6. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging. I. Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes.

    PubMed

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs), has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as angular differential imaging and spectral differential imaging. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy. PMID:27140784

  7. Numerical Study of the Location of the Microwave Imaging Reflectometer Object Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatenko, Maxim; Mase, Atsushi; Bruskin, Leonid; Kogi, Yuichiro; Hojo, Hitoshi

    This paper is devoted to numerical study of the location of the imaging optics object plane. The simulation shows that in the case of the plane plasma cutoff, the object plane is located at the virtual cutoff position defined by E. Mazzucato [Nuclear Fusion 45, 203 (2001)], while in the case of cylindrical plasma, the object plane is shifted toward the cutoff position.

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of m-plane and c-plane InN nanowires on Si (100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Subrina; Han, Lu; Zhao, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of indium nitride (InN) nanowires (NWs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is studied. InN NWs were synthesized via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism using high purity indium foil and ammonia as the source materials, and nitrogen as carrier gas. The mixture of nonpolar m-plane oriented and polar c-plane oriented tapered InN NWs is observed grown on top of Si (100) substrate. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the tips of the NWs are primarily consisted of Au and the rest of the NWs are consisted of indium (In) and nitrogen (N). High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) revealed that the InN NWs have both triangular and hexagonal cross sections. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) diffraction pattern showed that the NWs are high quality single crystals having wurtzite crystal structure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed the growth directions of the InN NWs with triangular cross section are along <10-10> nonpolar m-plane orientation and the InN NWs with hexagonal cross section are along <0001> polar c-plane orientation.

  9. The Principle and Applications of Multi-Plane Separation for Balancing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.; Sheen, G.-J.; Tang, P.-H.

    1997-11-01

    Two-plane separation is a conventional technique of balancing machines for rigid rotors such that each sensor measures the separated effects of equivalent imbalances in two planes. However, some complex rigid rotors such as multicylinder crankshafts need to be balanced by multi-plane correction for reducing mass concentration at two planes. This study verifies the principle of plane separation by using an exact-point influence coefficient approach. From the analysis a generalized algorithm of multiplane separation can be developed. Thus, an unlimited technique of plane separation is provided to improve balancing machines for complex rotors which have several planes in need of correction.

  10. Analysis of Relative Parallelism Between Hamular-Incisive-Papilla Plane and Campers Plane in Edentulous Subjects: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Tambake, Deepti; Shetty, Shilpa; Satish Babu, C L; Fulari, Sangamesh G

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the parallelism between hamular-incisive-papilla plane (HIP) and the Campers plane. And to determine which part of the posterior reference of the tragus i.e., the superior, middle or the inferior of the Camper's plane is parallel to HIP using digital lateral cephalograms. Fifty edentulous subjects with well formed ridges were selected for the study. The master casts were obtained using the standard selective pressure impression procedure. On the deepest point of the hamular notches and the centre of the incisive papilla stainless steel spherical bearings were glued to the cast at the marked points. The study templates were fabricated with autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The subjects were prepared for the lateral cephalograms. Stainless steel spherical bearings were adhered to the superior, middle, inferior points of the tragus of the ear and inferior border of the ala of the nose using surgical adhesive tape. The subjects with study templates were subjected to lateral cephalograms. Cephalometric tracings were done using Autocad 2010 software. Lines were drawn connecting the incisive papilla and hamular notch and the stainless steel spherical bearings placed on the superior, middle and inferior points on the tragus and the ala of the nose i.e., the Campers line S, Campers line M, Campers line I. The angles between the three Camper's line and the HIP were measured and recorded. Higher mean angulation was recorded in Campers line S -HIP (8.03) followed by Campers line M-HIP (4.60). Campers line I-HIP recorded the least angulation (3.80). The HIP is parallel to the Camper's plane. The Camper's plane formed with the posterior reference point as inferior point of the tragus is relatively parallel to the HIP. PMID:26199503

  11. The water rise in front of a model planing hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, P. R.

    1994-06-01

    It is known that the water “splashes-up” or rises above the undisturbed surface immediately in front of a planing surface. This rise is greatest in front of a flat planing plate and a number of attempts have been made to reduce the experimental measurements of this phenomenon to some kind of order. Since it was first independently proposed by both Schnitzer and Smiley in 1952, all attempts to correlate the flat plate splash-up have started with the assumption that splash is only a function of the immersed length of the plate and is independent of trim angle at least below about 20°. In part, this was because the three early studies which compared this hypothesis with experimental data omitted those portions of the data which did not support the hypothesis. The present paper concludes that this forty year old hypothesis is fallacious and that the water rise in front of any prismatic planing surface is best approximated by 348_2004_Article_BF02412809_TeX2GIFE1.gif d/{sqrt {bl }} = ksin ^2 {mathbf{tau }} where d is the vertical water rise at the water/keel intersection; b is the beam; l is the submerged length of the keel; τ is the trim angle; k: is a constant determined from experiment, approximated by, k = 2 e -2.5 β , where β is the deadrise angle in radians. It might be thought that this is a slight contribution, of little practical import, but for one thing. Starting in the 1950's most towing tank experimenters in the United States abandoned the difficult measurement of model draft and obtained only the “actually wetted length” from underwater photographs. But theoretical planing force calculations require a knowledge of the relationship between a hull and the undisturbed water plane. Thus if modern experimental data is to be compared with theory, it is necessary to estimate what the undefined splash-up or water rise was during each experiment, in order to estimate the model's true position in space. The paper concludes by criticizing the format of

  12. Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Alex

    2015-09-16

    The Aquantis 2.5 MW Ocean Current Generation Device technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) is a derivation of wind power generating technology (a means of harnessing a slow moving fluid) adapted to the ocean environment. The Aquantis Project provides an opportunity for accelerated technological development and early commercialization, since it involves the joining of two mature disciplines: ocean engineering and wind turbine design. The Aquantis Current Plane (C-Plane) technology is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from a current flow. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced, continuous, base-load, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  13. The aerospace plane design challenge - Credible computational fluid dynamics results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish the credibility of CFD results utilized in aerospace plane design, the following topics are discussed: CFD validation in relation to 'measureable' fluid dynamics (MFD) validation, credibility requirements, responsibility for credibility, and a guide for establishing credibility. What is of paramount concern for fluid dynamic design is not CFD code validation but qualification of CFD unknowns so that their magnitude is greatly reduced and that these uncertainties are employed for designing with margin. The designers must be trained to properly use CFD if they are to produce good designs. In approximately 70 percent of the flight envelopes of SSTO aerospace planes with supersonic combustion, CFD will be necessary to determine dynamics performance and specifications.

  14. Analytical alignment tolerances for off-plane reflection grating spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allured, Ryan; McEntaffer, Randall T.

    2013-12-01

    Future NASA X-ray Observatories will shed light on a variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. Off-plane reflection gratings can be used to provide high throughput and spectral resolution in the 0.3-1.5 keV band, allowing for unprecedented diagnostics of energetic astrophysical processes. A grating spectrometer consists of multiple aligned gratings intersecting the converging beam of a Wolter-I telescope. Each grating will be aligned such that the diffracted spectra overlap at the focal plane. Misalignments will degrade both spectral resolution and effective area. In this paper we present an analytical formulation of alignment tolerances that define grating orientations in all six degrees of freedom. We verify our analytical results with raytrace simulations to fully explore the alignment parameter space. We also investigate the effect of misalignments on diffraction efficiency.

  15. Neutrino fluxes from the Galactic plane and the ANTARES limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The existence of cosmic neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Though this measurement is consistent with an isotropic neutrino flux, a sub-dominant galactic component coming from extended regions such as the Galactic Plane cannot be excluded. The ANTARES detector, located in the Mediterranean Sea, is currently the largest and longest operated under-water neutrino telescope; its effective area and good exposure to the Southern Sky allow to constrain an enhanced muon neutrino emission from extended sources such as the Galactic Plane. ANTARES data from 2007 to 2013 have been analysed and upper limits on the neutrino production from the central region of our galaxy have been set.

  16. Motion of an inclined cylinder on an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-09-01

    We consider in this paper the motion of an inclined cylinder on an inclined plane. At low inclined plane angles, the cylinder rolls without slipping across the incline, in a direction perpendicular to its long axis. At steeper angles, long cylinders follow a straight line path in a direction that veers away from the low angle path. Short cylinders follow a curved path. These effects are described in terms of a transition from rolling to sliding as the incline angle is increased. The results help to explain why a vehicle normally turns in the direction that the wheels are pointing and why a vehicle can veer away from that direction on a slippery surface.

  17. Numerical method to digital photoelasticity using plane polariscope.

    PubMed

    Júnior, P A A Magalhães; Vieira, F G; Magalhães, C A; Ribeiro, J S; Rios, I G

    2016-06-13

    This research aims to find a new way to get the intensity equations for the phase-shifting model in digital photoelasticity. The procedure is based on the rotation of the analyzer itself. From the intensity equations, the isoclinic and isochromatic equations parameters are deduced by applying a new numerical technique. This approach can be done to calculate how many images allow the resolution of the polariscope. Each image indicates the stress forces in the object. In this study the plane polariscope was used. The amount of images will determinate the number of errors and uncertainties of the study, due to the observation that the veracity of the equations increases considerably with a large amout of images. Several analyses are performed with different amounts of photographic images. The results showed the possibility to measure stress forces with high precision using plane polariscopes. PMID:27410283

  18. Focal Plane Phase Masks for PIAA: Design and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, K.; Conway, J.; Belikov, R.; Guyon, O.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is a coronagraph architecture for the direct detection of extrasolar planets, which can achieve close to the theoretical performance limit of any direct detection system. The primary components of a PIAACMC system are the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) optics and the complex phase-shifting focal plane mask. PIAA optics have been produced and demonstrated with high coronagraph performance. In this paper, we describe the design process for the phase-shifting focal plane mask, and strategies for smoothing the mask profile. We describe the mask manufacturing process and show manufacturing results. Errors in the fabricated mask profile degrade the system performance, but we can recover performance by refining the manufacturing process and implementing wavefront control.

  19. Surface path lines in plane stokes flow driven by capillarity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, R.W.

    1993-05-03

    Consider the free creeping viscous plane flow in a region, bounded by a simple smooth closed curve and driven solely by surface tension. The shape evolution may in principle, and often in practice, be described by a time-dependent mapping z = {Omega}({zeta},t) of the unit circle, conformal on {vert_bar}{zeta}{vert_bar} {le} 1. It is shown that the path lines of fluid elements at the surface are determined by a first-order ordinary differential equation involving {Omega}({zeta},t), together with an initial condition. Typically, this must be integrated numerically. Velocities are not needed. The analogous theory for maps from the half-plane Im {zeta} {ge} 0 is presented. Surface path lines of a collapsing elliptic hole, in two reference frames, are calculated.

  20. Stability characteristics of a conical aerospace plane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Luckring, James M.; Covell, Peter F.; Phillips, W. Pelham; Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Data on stability characteristics of a conical aerospace plane concept were collected for a number of model geometry variations and test conditions, using several NASA-Langley wind tunnels spanning Mach range 0.1-6. The baseline configuration of this plane concept incorporated a 5-deg cone forebody, a 75.96-deg delta wing, a 16-deg leading-edge sweep deployable canard, and a centerline vertical tail. The key results pertinent to stability considerations about all three axes of the model are presented together with data on the effect of the canard on pitch stability, the effect of vertical tail on lateral-directional stability, and the effect of forebody geometry on yaw asymmetries. The experimental stability data are compared with the results from an engineering predictive code.

  1. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  2. 3D fluorescence anisotropy imaging using selective plane illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hedde, Per Niklas; Ranjit, Suman; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-08-24

    Fluorescence anisotropy imaging is a popular method to visualize changes in organization and conformation of biomolecules within cells and tissues. In such an experiment, depolarization effects resulting from differences in orientation, proximity and rotational mobility of fluorescently labeled molecules are probed with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence anisotropy is typically imaged using laser scanning and epifluorescence-based approaches. Unfortunately, those techniques are limited in either axial resolution, image acquisition speed, or by photobleaching. In the last decade, however, selective plane illumination microscopy has emerged as the preferred choice for three-dimensional time lapse imaging combining axial sectioning capability with fast, camera-based image acquisition, and minimal light exposure. We demonstrate how selective plane illumination microscopy can be utilized for three-dimensional fluorescence anisotropy imaging of live cells. We further examined the formation of focal adhesions by three-dimensional time lapse anisotropy imaging of CHO-K1 cells expressing an EGFP-paxillin fusion protein. PMID:26368202

  3. Shearing flows of frictionless spheres over bumpy planes: slip velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzi, Diego; Vescovi, Dalila

    2016-05-01

    Boundary conditions for the slip velocity of inelastic, frictionless spheres interacting with bumpy walls are derived via discrete element method simulations of Couette granular flows. The bumpiness is created by gluing spheres identical to those flowing in a regular hexagonal array to a flat plane. Depending on the particle inelasticity and bumpiness, the characteristics of the flow range from simple shearing to plug flow. At low bumpiness—small distance between the wall-particles—the ratio of particle shear stress to pressure is a non-linear function of the slip velocity and presents a maximum. At high bumpiness, the bumpy plane behaves as a flat, frictional surface and the stress ratio saturates to a constant value for large slip velocity.

  4. In-plane displacement measurement using optical vortex phase shifting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haibin; Wang, Xinghai; Sun, Ping

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we propose a new method for in-plane displacement measurement by application of phase shifting based on an optical vortex. The phase shifts are obtained by displaying computer-generated fork holograms on the screen of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM). Furthermore, the vortex beam that is generated by the LC-SLM can be used as a reference light in the experiment. Eight speckle patterns with phase-shift increments of 0, π/2, π, and 3π/2 were captured by a CCD camera before and after the deformation. The displacement of the deformed object was obtained by unwrapping. Experimental results demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method for in-plane displacement measurement. PMID:27463914

  5. Turbulent plane Couette flow subject to strong system rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Knut H.; Andersson, Helge I.

    1997-09-01

    System rotation is known to substantially affect the mean flow pattern as well as the turbulence structure in rotating channel flows. In a numerical study of plane Couette flow rotating slowly about an axis aligned with the mean vorticity, Bech & Andersson (1996a) found that the turbulence level was damped in the presence of anticyclonic system rotation, in spite of the occurrence of longitudinal counter-rotating roll cells. Moreover, the turbulence anisotropy was practically unaffected by the weak rotation, for which the rotation number Ro, defined as the ratio of twice the imposed angular vorticity [Omega] to the shear rate of the corresponding laminar flow, was ±0.01. The aim of the present paper is to explore the effects of stronger anticyclonic system rotation on directly simulated turbulent plane Couette flow. Turbulence statistics like energy, enstrophy and Taylor lengthscales, both componental and directional, were computed from the statistically steady flow fields and supplemented by structural information obtained by conditional sampling.

  6. Two-color quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundas, Jason; Patnaude, Kelly; Dennis, Richard; Burrows, Douglas; Cook, Robert; Reisinger, Axel; Sundaram, Mani; Benson, Robert; Woolaway, James; Schlesselmann, John; Petronio, Susan

    2006-05-01

    QmagiQ LLC, has recently completed building and testing high operability two-color Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The 320 x 256 format dual-band FPAs feature 40-micron pixels of spatially registered QWIP detectors based on III-V materials. The vertically stacked detectors in this specific midwave/longwave (MW/LW) design are tuned to absorb in the respective 4-5 and 8-9 micron spectral ranges. The ISC0006 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) developed by FLIR Systems Inc. and used in these FPAs features direct injection (DI) input circuitry for high charge storage with each unit cell containing dual integration capacitors, allowing simultaneous scene sampling and readout for the two distinct wavelength bands. Initial FPAs feature pixel operabilities better than 99%. Focal plane array test results and sample images will be presented.

  7. Concircular vector fields for plane-symmetric static spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmad Tawfik; Khan, Suhail

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate concircular vector fields (CVFs) of static plane symmetric four-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Ten conformal Killing equations and their general form of conformal Killing vector fields (CKVFs) are derived along with their conformal factor. These CKVFs are then placed into the conformal Ricci collineation equations to obtain the final form of CVFs. The existence of concircular symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. It is shown that plane-symmetric static spacetimes admit four, six, seven or fifteen-dimensional concircular vector fields. Analysis of our results are also given in the light of some established results in the literature.

  8. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  9. Inhomogeneous plane wave and the most energetic complex ray.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, M; Poncelet, O

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a study on the wave surfaces of anisotropic solids. In addition to the classical and real rays, which are defined by the normal to the slowness surfaces, it is obtained complex rays, which are associated to specific inhomogeneous plane waves. Referring to the complex Christoffel's equation and to the Fermat's principle, an intrinsic equation can be associated to these complex rays. Limiting the study to principal planes and plotting the associated complex wave surfaces, it can be shown that four energetic rays always exist in any directions for both quasi-isotropic and anisotropic media (even beyond the cusp). Consequently, it is always possible to define four closed wave surfaces (real or not). PMID:12159950

  10. 3D fluorescence anisotropy imaging using selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hedde, Per Niklas; Ranjit, Suman; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence anisotropy imaging is a popular method to visualize changes in organization and conformation of biomolecules within cells and tissues. In such an experiment, depolarization effects resulting from differences in orientation, proximity and rotational mobility of fluorescently labeled molecules are probed with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence anisotropy is typically imaged using laser scanning and epifluorescence-based approaches. Unfortunately, those techniques are limited in either axial resolution, image acquisition speed, or by photobleaching. In the last decade, however, selective plane illumination microscopy has emerged as the preferred choice for three-dimensional time lapse imaging combining axial sectioning capability with fast, camera-based image acquisition, and minimal light exposure. We demonstrate how selective plane illumination microscopy can be utilized for three-dimensional fluorescence anisotropy imaging of live cells. We further examined the formation of focal adhesions by three-dimensional time lapse anisotropy imaging of CHO-K1 cells expressing an EGFP-paxillin fusion protein. PMID:26368202

  11. Resolution improvements in integral microscopy with Fourier plane recording.

    PubMed

    Llavador, A; Sola-Pikabea, J; Saavedra, G; Javidi, B; Martínez-Corral, M

    2016-09-01

    Integral microscopes (IMic) have been recently developed in order to capture the spatial and the angular information of 3D microscopic samples with a single exposure. Computational post-processing of this information permits to carry out a 3D reconstruction of the sample. By applying conventional algorithms, both depth and also view reconstructions are possible. However, the main drawback of IMic is that the resolution of the reconstructed images is low and axially heterogeneous. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of the IMic by placing the lens array not at the image plane, but at the pupil (or Fourier) plane of the microscope objective. With this novel system, the spatial resolution is increased by factor 1.4, and the depth of field is substantially enlarged. Our experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:27607682

  12. Worldline approach to helicity flip in plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilderton, Anton; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-04-01

    We apply worldline methods to the study of vacuum polarization effects in plane wave backgrounds, in both scalar and spinor QED. We calculate helicity-flip probabilities to one loop order and treated exactly in the background field, and provide a toolkit of methods for use in investigations of higher-order processes. We also discuss the connections between the worldline, S-matrix, and lightfront approaches to vacuum polarization effects.

  13. Back focal plane imaging spectroscopy of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Rebecca; Heerklotz, Lars; Kortenbruck, Nikolai; Cichos, Frank

    2012-08-01

    Back focal plane imaging spectroscopy is introduced to record angle resolved emission spectra of 3-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals. The auto-fluorescence of the colloids is used to quickly map the photonic band structure up to 72 % of the solid angle of a semisphere with the help of a high numerical aperture objective. Local excitation provides spatially resolved information on the photonic crystal's optical properties. The obtained fractional density of states allows direct conclusions on the crystal's stacking faults or defects.

  14. Angle amplifying optics using plane and ellipsoidal reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Alexander J.

    1977-01-01

    An optical system for providing a wide angle input beam into ellipsoidal laser fusion target illumination systems. The optical system comprises one or more pairs of centrally apertured plane and ellipsoidal mirrors disposed to accept the light input from a conventional lens of modest focal length and thickness, to increase the angular divergence thereof to a value equivalent to that of fast lenses, and to direct the light into the ellipsoidal target illumination system.

  15. Holography and entropy bounds in the plane wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Mints, Aleksey L.

    2006-06-15

    As a quantum theory of gravity, matrix theory should provide a realization of the holographic principle, in the sense that a holographic theory should contain one binary degree of freedom per Planck area. We present evidence that Bekenstein's entropy bound, which is related to area differences, is manifest in the plane wave matrix model. If holography is implemented in this way, we predict crossover behavior at strong coupling when the energy exceeds N{sup 2} in units of the mass scale.

  16. Smooth quality streaming with bit-plane labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Hong-Sheng; Wang, Jia-Shung

    2005-07-01

    Bit-plane coding techniques have been proposed as an efficient way to achieve the goal of fine granularity scalability (FGS). Both in image and video coding standards such as JPEG 2000 and MPEG-4, bit-plane coding techniques have been utilized to code a universal bit-stream for various bandwidth applications. With the bit-plane coding, a bit-stream can be truncated according to the available bandwidth. Hence, the video quality can be very sensitive to the network bandwidth variation especially while streaming a video over the Internet or a wireless link. For overall human perception, a consistent and smooth quality video is much better than to have high video quality in just a short period but with highly quality variation in general. We classify the quality variation into two categories: inter-frame and intraframe quality variation. The inter-frame quality variation may cause by the constant bit rate coded (CBR) base layer video or the network bandwidth variation, while the intra-frame quality variation causes mainly by the various motion types. For example, moving objects are usually more difficult to be encoded. This paper focuses on the inter-frame quality variation because quality variation is more significant between frames than within a frame. An enhancement layer labeling algorithm is proposed to reduce the inter-frame quality variation, and a dynamic bit-plane truncation scheme is utilized to maintain the smooth streaming video quality. The proposed algorithm has no overhead in the decoder, and the experimental results portray that our proposed algorithm can greatly eliminate the inter-frame quality variation.

  17. Modulation transfer function of QWIP and superlattice focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Rafol, S. B.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.; Liu, J. K.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Keo, S. A.; Mumolo, J. M.; Nguyen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Modulation transfer function (MTF) is the ability of an imaging system to faithfully image a given object. The MTF of an imaging system quantifies the ability of the system to resolve or transfer spatial frequencies. In this paper we will discuss the detail MTF measurements of a 1024 × 1024 pixel multi-band quantum well infrared photodetector and 320 × 256 pixel long-wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared focal plane arrays.

  18. Anti-Selfdual Connections on the Quantum Projective Plane: Monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Landi, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    We present several results on the geometry of the quantum projective plane. They include: explicit generators for the K-theory and the K-homology; a real calculus with a Hodge star operator; anti-selfdual connections on line bundles with explicit computation of the corresponding ‘classical’ characteristic classes (via Fredholm modules); complete diagonalization of gauged Laplacians on these line bundles; ‘quantum’ characteristic classes via equivariant K-theory and q-indices.

  19. Colliding gravitational plane waves with noncollinear polarization. II

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, F.J.; Garcia D., A.; Hauser, I.

    1987-12-01

    A simple criterion for colliding gravitational plane waves is developed. This colliding wave condition is preserved by a new realization of the Geroch group augmented by a Kramer--Neugebauer involution. A three-parameter generalization of a two-parameter family of solutions with noncollinear polarization discovered recently by Ferrari, Ibanez, and Bruni is presented, and two additional solutions are derived that demonstrate that much larger families are likely to be constructed in the near future.

  20. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2015-05-01

    High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.