Science.gov

Sample records for aero-space plane nasp

  1. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Six years ago, the Defense Science Board (DSB) initiated a review of the concept, technical basis, program content, and missions of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program. The report was completed in Sep. 1988, and the recommendations contributed to strengthening the technical efforts in the NASP program. Since then, substantial technological progress has been made in the technology development phase (Phase 2) of the program. Phase 2 of the program is currently scheduled to end in late Fiscal Year 1993, with a decision whether to proceed to the experimental flight vehicle phase (Phase 3) to be made at that time. This decision will be a very significant one for the Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In February of this year, the DSB was chartered to revisit the NASP program to assess the degree to which the many technical challenges of the program have been resolved, or are likely to be resolved by the end of Phase 2.

  2. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  3. A Summary of the Slush Hydrogen Technology Program for the National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnelis, Nancy B.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Kudlac, Maureen T.; Moran, Matthew E.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1995-01-01

    Slush hydrogen, a mixture of solid and liquid hydrogen, offers advantages of higher density (16 percent) and higher heat capacity (18 percent) than normal boiling point hydrogen. The combination of increased density and heat capacity of slush hydrogen provided a potential to decrease the gross takeoff weight of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and therefore slush hydrogen was selected as the propellant. However, no large-scale data was available on the production, transfer and tank pressure control characteristics required to use slush hydrogen as a fuel. Extensive testing has been performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center K-Site and Small Scale Hydrogen Test Facility between 1990 and the present to provide a database for the use of slush hydrogen. This paper summarizes the results of this testing.

  4. NASP technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Charles

    1992-01-01

    It is the stated goal of this program, the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) program, to develop and then demonstrate the technologies for single-stage-to-orbit flight and hypersonic cruise with airbreathing primary propulsion and horizontal takeoff and landing. This presentation is concerned with technology transfer in the context of the NASP program.

  5. National Aero-Space Plane: A Technology Development and Demonstration Program to Build the X-30.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    8217 s How Is the NASP Program’s Management Strategy 25 Designed to Reduce Technological, Programmatic, Management Structure and Financial Risks ? and...key technological developments, integration, and risks , (4) potential military, space, and commercial mission applications, (5) pro- gram management ...Page 21 GAO NSIAD-, 122 National Ae-Space Plane .t. Chapter 2 What Is the NASP Program’s Management Structure and Its Strategy to Reduce Risks ? The

  6. Perspective on the National Aero-Space Plane Program instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Erbland, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A review of the requirement for, and development of, advanced measurement technology for the National Aerospace Plane program is presented. The objective is to discuss the technical need and the program commitment required to ensure that adequate and timely measurement capabilities are provided for ground and flight testing in the NASP program. The scope of the measurement problem is presented, the measurement process is described, how instrumentation technology development has been affected by NASP program evolution is examined, the national effort to define measurement requirements and assess the adequacy of current technology to support the NASP program is discussed, and the measurement requirements are summarized. The unique features of the NASP program that complicate the understanding of requirements and the development of viable solutions are illustrated.

  7. The National Aero-Space Plane, the guidance and control engineer's dream or nightmare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Felix

    Major technical challenges associated with the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Program are discussed, including the ones viewed from a controls perspective. Design and engineering challenges encountered in the propulsion system, the structural material selection, and the computational fluid dynamic mechanisms to predict Mach 8+ regimes, are briefly discussed. Emphasis is put on those significant challenges in the guidance and control fields relating to vehicle management systems, integrated propulsion/flight control, optimal vehicle trajectory control, and challenges in the associated fields on instrumentation and information systems. An insight into the complexity of the problem is provided, and the importance of guidance and control in future NASP achievements is highlighted.

  8. Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) technology development for application to the National Aerospace Plane (NASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, Richard L.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Richter, G. Paul

    1989-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program is giving us the opportunity to reach new unique answers in a number of engineering categories. The answers are considered enhancing technology or enabling technology. Airframe materials and densified propellants are examples of enabling technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center has the task of providing the technology data which will be used as the basis to decide if slush hydrogen (SLH2) will be the fuel of choice for the NASP. The objectives of this NASA Lewis program are: (1) to provide, where possible, verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems, and (2) to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. This program is a multiyear multimillion dollar effort. The present pursuit of the above listed objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. The NASA Lewis overall program plan is summarized. The initial implementation of the plan will be unfolded and the present level of efforts in each of the resource areas will be discussed. Results already in hand will be pointed out. A description of additionally planned near-term experimental and analytical work is described.

  9. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  10. Prediction of the ullage gas thermal stratification in a NASP vehicle propellant tank experimental simulation using FLOW-3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) project, the multi-dimensional effects of gravitational force, initial tank pressure, initial ullage temperature, and heat transfer rate on the 2-D temperature profiles were studied. FLOW-3D, a commercial finite difference fluid flow model, was used for the evaluation. These effects were examined on the basis of previous liquid hydrogen experimental data with gaseous hydrogen pressurant. FLOW-3D results were compared against an existing 1-D model. In addition, the effects of mesh size and convergence criteria on the analytical results were investigated. Suggestions for future modifications and uses of FLOW-3D for modeling of a NASP tank are also presented.

  11. Value of NASP to this country: The return on investment from a national perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, Terry D.; Donofrio, Mark, 2lt

    The National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program has a wide range of technical challenges associated with it. In the process of finding solutions to these unknowns, NASP has enabled advancements across a broad scope of technologies. This state-of -the-art work is being performed by 5 major aerospace companies (General Dynamics, McDonnell-Douglas, Pratt & Whitney, Rockwell International, and Rocketdyne), over 500 subcontractors (including universities) and 15 major U.S. government research laboratories. This variety of affected technologies and large extent of interaction with national organizations are building an important foundation for U.S. technological preeminence in the international aerospace marketplace. The more concrete, longer-term benefits include both low cost, flexible access to space (i.e. Earth orbit) and possibilities for military and civil hypersonic aircraft. In addition, both long and shorter-term benefits will amount from the applications of these NASP developed technologies. Naturally, they will have an impact on the aerospace industry, but short-term benefits are also beginning to surface in other industries such as chemicals, energy, medicine, and automobiles.

  12. Modelling and experimental verification of a water alleviation system for the NASP. [National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. James

    1992-01-01

    One possible low speed propulsion system for the National Aerospace Plane is a liquid air cycle engine (LACE). The LACE system uses the heat sink in the liquid hydrogen propellant to liquefy air in a heat exchanger which is then pumped up to high pressure and used as the oxidizer in a hydrogen liquid air rocket. The inlet airstream must be dehumidified or moisture could freeze on the cryogenic heat exchangers and block them. The main objective of this research has been to develop a computer simulation of the cold tube/antifreeze-spray water alleviation system and to verify the model with experimental data. An experimental facility has been built and humid air tests were conducted on a generic heat exchanger to obtain condensing data for code development. The paper describes the experimental setup, outlines the method of calculation used in the code, and presents comparisons of the calculations and measurements. Cause of discrepancies between the model and data are explained.

  13. Background, current status, and prognosis of the ongoing slush hydrogen technology development program for the NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Hardy, T. L.; Whalen, M. V.; Richter, G. P.; Tomsik, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Among the Hydrogen Projects at the NASA Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC), is the task of implementing and managing the Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) Technology Program for the United States' National AeroSpace Plane Joint Program Office (NASP JPO). The objectives of this NASA LeRC program are to provide verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems and to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. The pursuit of these objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. A summary of the NASA LeRC overall SLH2 program plan, is presented along with its implementation, the present level of effort in each of the program areas, some of the results already in hand, and the prognosis for the effort in the immediate future.

  14. Supersonic dynamic stability characteristics of the test technique demonstrator NASP configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dress, David A.; Boyden, Richmond P.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1992-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) configuration were conducted in both test sections of the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The model used is a Langley designed blended body NASP configuration. Dynamic stability characteristics were measured on this configuration at Mach numbers of 2.0, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5. In addition to tests of the baseline configuration, component buildup tests were conducted. The test results show that the baseline configuration generally has positive damping about all three axes with only isolated exceptions. In addition, there was generally good agreement between the in-pulse dynamic parameters and the corresponding static data which were measured during another series of tests in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Also included are comparisons of the experimental damping parameters with results from the engineering predictive code APAS (Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System). These comparisons show good agreement at low angles of attack; however, the comparisons are generally not as good at the higher angles of attack.

  15. Performance of an aero-space plane propulsion nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, George; Bae, Yoon-Yeong

    1989-01-01

    An inviscid and viscous analysis is provided for an exposed half nozzle that is used with a scramjet for thrust generation. The analysis is based on the inviscid theory of a two-dimensional, minimum length nozzle with a curved inlet surface, where the flow may be sonic or supersonic. Inlet conditions are prescribed and the gas is assumed to be perfect. Viscous, and when appropriate inviscid, nondimensional parametric results are provided for the thrust, lift, heat transfer, pitching moment, and a variety of boundary-layer thicknesses. In addition to global results, wall distributions of pressure, heat transfer, etc., are provided. The analysis demonstrates that the nozzle produces a considerable lift force whose magnitude may exceed the thrust and a significant pitching moment. The thrust is quite sensitive to the inlet Mach number; it rapidly decreases as the inlet Mach number increases There is little loss in the thrust as the nozzle's downstream wall is truncated. The corresponding decrease in lift and the pitching moment is moderate.

  16. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Center for AeroSpace... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-70 Center for AeroSpace Information. As prescribed in 1835.070(a), insert...

  19. Active cooling from the sixties to NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. Neale; Blosser, Max L.

    1994-01-01

    Vehicles, such as the X-15 or the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), traveling at hypersonic speeds through the earth's atmosphere experience aerodynamic heating. The heating can be severe enough that a thermal protection system is required to limit the temperature of the vehicle structure. Although several categories of thermal protection systems are mentioned briefly, the majority of the present paper describes convectively cooled structures for large areas. Convective cooling is a method of limiting structural temperatures by circulating a coolant through the vehicle structure. Efforts to develop convectively cooled structures during the past 30 years, from early engine structures which were intended to be tested on the X-15 to structural panels fabricated and tested under the NASP program, are described. Many of the lessons learned from these research efforts are presented.

  20. Active cooling from the sixties to NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. Neale; Blosser, Max L.

    1992-01-01

    Vehicles, such as the X-15 or National Aero-Space Plane, traveling at hypersonic speeds through the earth's atmosphere experience aerodynamic heating. The heating can be severe enough that a thermal protection system is required to limit the temperature of the vehicle structure. Although several categories of thermal protection systems are mentioned briefly, the majority of this paper describes convectively cooled structures for large areas. Convective cooling is a method of limiting structural temperatures by circulating a coolant through the vehicle structure. Efforts to develop convectively cooled structures during the past 30 years--from early engine structures, which were intended to be tested on the X-15, to structural--are described. Many of the lessons learned from these research efforts are presented.

  1. Aerothermoelastic analysis of a NASP demonstrator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Zeiler, Thomas A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Spain, Charles V.; Engelund, Walter C.

    1993-01-01

    The proposed National Aerospace Plane (NASP) is designed to travel at speeds up to Mach 25. Because aerodynamic heating during high-speed flight through the atmosphere could destiffen a structure, significant couplings between the elastic and rigid body modes could result in lower flutter speeds and more pronounced aeroelastic response characteristics. These speeds will also generate thermal loads on the structure. The purpose of this research is to develop methodologies applicable to the NASP and to apply them to a representative model to determine its aerothermoelastic characteristics when subjected to these thermal loads. This paper describes an aerothermoelastic analysis of the generic hypersonic vehicle configuration. The steps involved in this analysis were: generating vehicle surface temperatures at the appropriate flight conditions; applying these temperatures to the vehicle's structure to predict changes in the stiffness resulting from material property degradation; predicting the vibration characteristics of the heated structure at the various temperature conditions; performing aerodynamic analyses; and conducting flutter analysis of the heated vehicle. Results of these analyses and conclusions representative of a NASP vehicle are provided in this paper.

  2. Reflections on School Psychology and NASP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Looking back over 40 years, much has changed and much has not changed in the field of school psychology and in the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). This article presents the author's opinions and recollections on school psychology and NASP which do not necessarily represent those of NASP or the many leaders with whom he has…

  3. Lazarus and Benner to Lead NASP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deupree, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the National Association of School Psychologists's (NASP) recently concluded elections in which Philip Lazarus from Florida and Ronald Benner from Connecticut will now be part of the NASP Executive Council in July 2010 as president-elect and treasurer, respectively. NASP members voted at the highest levels in 6 years and…

  4. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... avail itself of the services provided by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) (http://www.sti.nasa.gov) for the conduct of research or research and development required under this contract. CASI provides a variety of services and products as a NASA repository and database of...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.235-70 - Center for AeroSpace Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... avail itself of the services provided by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) (http://www.sti.nasa.gov) for the conduct of research or research and development required under this contract. CASI provides a variety of services and products as a NASA repository and database of...

  6. High temperature NASP engine seal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This video details research being conducted at the Lewis Research Center on high temperature engine seal design for the National Aerospace Plane. To maximize the speed, the jets on the NASP extract oxygen from the air rather than carry large liquid fuel tanks; this creates temperatures within the jet of over 5000 F. To prevent these potentially explosive gases from escaping, researchers are developing new technologies for use in the engine seals. Two examples explained are the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal. Computer simulations and laboratory footage are used to illustrate the workings of these seals. Benefits for other aerospace and industrial applications, as well as for the space shuttle, are explored.

  7. NASP and SDI Spearhead CFD Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program's purpose, as stated by the National Space Council, is to "develop and demonstrate hypersonic technologies with the ultimate goal of single stage to orbit." The council has also directed that "performance of the experimental flight vehicle will be constrained to the minimum necessary to meet the highest priority research, as opposed to operational objectives .... The program will be conducted in such a way as to minimize technical and cost uncertainty associated with the experimental vehicle." The purpose of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), as defined by President Bush, is "...protection from limited ballistic missile strikes, whatever their source." Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a vital role in both endeavors.

  8. The Process of Technology Transfer: A Case Study of the National Aero-Space Plane Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    develop theories and provide insight into an uncharted area of study ( Bryman , 1989:174). This research design, as noted by Kervin, involves the...often characterize qualitative research ( Bryman , 1989:173,178). A final advantage of the case study method is that it is used to develop hypotheses for...November 1992). Bryman , Alan. Research Methods and Organizational Studies. Winchester MA: Unwin Hyman Inc., 1989. Chapman, Richard L. "The Federal

  9. The Hypersonic Revolution. Volume 2. From Scramjet to the National Aero-Space Plane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    for thermal protection on the pods during high-crossrange missions. NASA did not implement this recommendation. 2 7 Ultimately, a "C-9" coating was... protection . The design of future vehicles should include the requirement that the vehicle not be sensitive to moisture , salt air, or rain impingement...Its structure would employ advanced materials and a simplified thermal protection system, and its avionics would be hardened against nuclear blast

  10. NASP guidance design for vehicle autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, E. A.; Li, I.; Nguyen, D. D.; Nguyen, P. L.

    1990-10-01

    Vehicle guidance for General Dynamics' NASP vehicle is planned to be self-contained onboard the vehicle, and independent of any ground support during the mission. It will include real-time onboard abort and ascent trajectory optimization capability. Although these features should be considered a natural outgrowth of research in guidance and trajectory optimization and advances in computation, facilitating full vehicle autonomy for NASP represents a significant advance relative to any flight-demonstrated guidance. Algorithms and processing requirements for autonomous NASP vehicle guidance are considered.

  11. High temperature NASP engine seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Melis, Matthew E.; Orletski, Dirk; Test, Mark G.

    1991-01-01

    Key to the development of advanced hypersonic engines such as those being considered for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) is the development and evaluation of high temperature, flexible seals that must seal the many feet of gaps between the articulating and stationary engine panels. Recent seal progress made at NASA-Lewis is reviewed in the areas of seal concept maturation, test rig development, and performance tests. A test fixture was built at NASA capable of subjecting candidate 3 ft long seals to engine simulated temperatures (up to 1500 F), pressures (up to 100 psi), and engine wall distortions (up to 0.15 in only 18 in span). Leakage performance test results at high temperatures are presented for an innovative high temperature, flexible ceramic wafer seal. Also described is a joint Pratt and Whitney/NASA planned test program to evaluate thermal performance of a braided rope seal under engine simulated heat flux rates (up to 400 Btu/sq ft s), and supersonic flow conditions. These conditions are produced by subjecting the seal specimen to hydrogen oxygen rocket exhaust that flows tangent to the specimen.

  12. ECLSS heat sink for the NASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Oanh N.; Heldmann, Michael J.; Fort, James H.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents the technology development, test program, and test results that validated a cryogenic heat exchanger/ejector system concept that uses supercritical hydrogen to cool the heat transport fluids without freezing the heat exchanger (HX) transport fluids. This concept consists of a shell-and-tube HX in combination with an innovative self-regulating recirculation loop to prevent the coolants from freezing. This is accomplished by use of an ejector in the recirculation loop to recirculate warm HX outlet hydrogen and mix it with the cold inlet hydrogen to keep the heat transfer surfaces above the freezing temperature of the coolant. The HX/ejector system was designed and fabricated by Hamilton Standard and was tested by Rockwell International with a variety of heat transport fluids. It provides accurate temperature control with minimum hardware and expendable weight. This HX/ejector system is a light-weight, reliable heat sink concept satisfying requirements for future hypersonic vehicles, such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  13. Manned versus unmanned - The implications to NASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Kasten, Terry D.

    1990-10-01

    The assessment of unmanned approaches to experimental aerospace vehicles in general and to the NASP program in particular is summarized. Technical requirements for NASP demonstration are presented and unmanned options for satisfying requirements are discussed. The X-30 sensitivities to technical requirements are described. A correlation of the NASP program to prior flight test programs, both manned and unmanned, is also presented. It is noted that subscale vehicles may reduce risk by as much as 18 percent for approximately $200 M. It is concluded that half-scale vehicles may reduce program risk by 60 percent, while reducing X-30 costs by 40 percent. Also, an unmanned X-30 will probably cost more than a manned X-30 due to costs associated with additional software development and ground support systems costs.

  14. NASP Practice Model: Examples from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The "Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services," also known as the NASP Practice Model, outlines 10 general domains of school psychological practices. This article is one in a series that highlights various domains within the Practice Model and, through an interview with practicing school psychologists,…

  15. Subsonic static and dynamic stability characteristics of the test technique demonstrator NASP configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, Richmond P.; Dress, David A.; Fox, Charles H., Jr.; Huffman, Jarrett K.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the procedure used for and the results obtained of wind-tunnel tests of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) configuration, which were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center High Speed Tunnel using a blended body NASP configuration designed by the research center. Static and dynamic stability characteristics were measured at Mach numbers 0.3, 0.6, and 0.8. In addition to tests of the baseline configuration, component buildup tests with a canard surface and with a body flap were carried out. Results demonstrated a positive static stability of the baseline configuration, except at the higher angles of attack at Mach 0.8. A good agreement was found between the inphase dynamic parameters and the corresponding static data.

  16. Central District Physical Education Teacher Education Program Coordinators' Perceptions Regarding the NASPE Initial Teacher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    To receive National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)/National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) accreditation, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs must meet the six NASPE standards (NASPE, 2009). The NASPE/NCATE regulations ensure PETE programs provide a curriculum aligned with NASPE.…

  17. A Mission Concept: Re-Entry Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System on-Mars (REARM-Mars)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davoodi, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Future missions to Mars that would need a sophisticated lander, hopper, or rover could benefit from the REARM Architecture. The mission concept REARM Architecture is designed to provide unprecedented capabilities for future Mars exploration missions, including human exploration and possible sample-return missions, as a reusable lander, ascend/descend vehicle, refuelable hopper, multiple-location sample-return collector, laboratory, and a cargo system for assets and humans. These could all be possible by adding just a single customized Re-Entry-Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System, called REARM-spacecraft, and a docking station at the Martian orbit, called REARM-dock. REARM could dramatically decrease the time and the expense required to launch new exploratory missions on Mars by making them less dependent on Earth and by reusing the assets already designed, built, and sent to Mars. REARM would introduce a new class of Mars exploration missions, which could explore much larger expanses of Mars in a much faster fashion and with much more sophisticated lab instruments. The proposed REARM architecture consists of the following subsystems: REARM-dock, REARM-spacecraft, sky-crane, secure-attached-compartment, sample-return container, agile rover, scalable orbital lab, and on-the-road robotic handymen.

  18. NASP and ISPA Response to the Japanese Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Bill; Cowan, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The authors have worked together with the NASP (National Association of School Psychologists) National Emergency Assistance Team (NEAT) for a decade to help coordinate communications around large-scale crisis response efforts. The massive earthquake and tsunami that devastated the northeastern part of Japan and the subsequent response represented…

  19. Crisis Prevention and Response: A Collection of NASP Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea S., Ed.; Carroll, Servio A., Ed.

    This collection of resources is a response to the unprecedented crises for school children, staff, and communities in 1997-1998. It is based on and is an expansion of the November 1998 issue of "Communique," a book of handouts, and other National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) publications. This packet contains the applied…

  20. The NASPE/NCATE Program Report: From the Reviewers' Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert J.; Judd, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many components are necessary in order to successfully compile a NASPE/NCATE beginning teacher standards report, including a tremendous amount of hard work, time, and patience. It is also imperative that report compilers have sufficient institutional resources and a well-planned strategy for report-writing success. Typically, the faculty member…

  1. The human histone chaperone sNASP interacts with linker and core histones through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanyu; Ge, Zhongqi; Walsh, Scott T R; Parthun, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Somatic nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (sNASP) is a human homolog of the N1/N2 family of histone chaperones. sNASP contains the domain structure characteristic of this family, which includes a large acidic patch flanked by several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs. sNASP possesses a unique binding specificity in that it forms specific complexes with both histone H1 and histones H3/H4. Based on the binding affinities of sNASP variants to histones H1, H3.3, H4 and H3.3/H4 complexes, sNASP uses distinct structural domains to interact with linker and core histones. For example, one of the acidic patches of sNASP was essential for linker histone binding but not for core histone interactions. The fourth TPR of sNASP played a critical role in interactions with histone H3/H4 complexes, but did not influence histone H1 binding. Finally, analysis of cellular proteins demonstrated that sNASP existed in distinct complexes that contained either linker or core histones.

  2. Molecular evolution of NASP and conserved histone H3/H4 transport pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background NASP is an essential protein in mammals that functions in histone transport pathways and maintenance of a soluble reservoir of histones H3/H4. NASP has been studied exclusively in Opisthokonta lineages where some functional diversity has been reported. In humans, growing evidence implicates NASP miss-regulation in the development of a variety of cancers. Although a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis is lacking, NASP-family proteins that possess four TPR motifs are thought to be widely distributed across eukaryotes. Results We characterize the molecular evolution of NASP by systematically identifying putative NASP orthologs across diverse eukaryotic lineages ranging from excavata to those of the crown group. We detect extensive silent divergence at the nucleotide level suggesting the presence of strong purifying selection acting at the protein level. We also observe a selection bias for high frequencies of acidic residues which we hypothesize is a consequence of their critical function(s), further indicating the role of functional constraints operating on NASP evolution. Our data indicate that TPR1 and TPR4 constitute the most rapidly evolving functional units of NASP and may account for the functional diversity observed among well characterized family members. We also show that NASP paralogs in ray-finned fish have different genomic environments with clear differences in their GC content and have undergone significant changes at the protein level suggesting functional diversification. Conclusion We draw four main conclusions from this study. First, wide distribution of NASP throughout eukaryotes suggests that it was likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) possibly as an important innovation in the transport of H3/H4. Second, strong purifying selection operating at the protein level has influenced the nucleotide composition of NASP genes. Further, we show that selection has acted to maintain a high frequency of functionally relevant

  3. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter.

  5. Ideas Exchange: How Do You Use NASPE's Teacher Toolbox to Enhance Professional Activities with Students, Sport or Physical Education Lessons, Faculty Wellness Classes or Community Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Mary Ann; McNeill, Shane; Dieckman, Dale; Sissom, Mark; LoBianco, Judy; Lund, Jackie; Barney, David C.; Manson, Mara; Silva, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    NASPE's Teacher Toolbox is an instructional resource site which provides educators with a wide variety of teaching tools that focus on physical activity. This service is provided by NASPE to support instructional activities as well as promote quality programs. New monthly issues support NASPE's mission to enhance knowledge, improve professional…

  6. Results of the NASP Ames Integrated Mixing Hypersonic Engine (AIMHYE) Scramjet Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the test techniques and results from the National Aerospace Plane Government Work Package 53, the Ames Integrated Mixing Hypersonic Engine (AIMHYE) Scramjet Test program conducted in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Combustion Driven Shock Tunnel. This was a series of near full-scale scramjet combustor tests with the objective to obtain high speed combustor and nozzle data from an engine with injector configurations similar to the NASP E21 and E22a designs. The experimental test approach was to use a large combustor model (80-100% throat height) designed and fabricated for testing in the semi-free jet mode. The conditions tested were similar to the "blue book" conditions at Mach 12, 14, and 16. GWP 53 validated use of large, long test time impulse facilities, specifically the Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel, for high Mach number scramjet propulsion testing an integrated test rig (inlet, combustor, and nozzle). Discussion of key features of the test program will include: effects of the 2-D combustor inlet pressure profile; performance of large injectors' fueling system that included nozzlettes, base injection, and film cooling; and heat transfer measurements to the combustor. Significant instrumentation development and application efforts include the following: combustor force balance application for measurement of combustor drag for comparison with integrated point measurements of skin friction; nozzle metric strip for measuring thrust with comparison to integrated pressure measurements; and nonintrusive optical fiber-based diode laser absorption measurements of combustion products for determination of combustor performance. Direct measurements will be reported for specific test article configurations and compared with CFD solutions.

  7. Becoming PREPaREd in Canada: NASP Crisis Prevention and Intervention Curriculum International Debut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Allen

    2008-01-01

    New Brunswick is a small Maritime province in Canada bordering on Maine. With just 700,000 people, the population is clustered in small cities and towns. Nevertheless, tragedies happen here as they do elsewhere and there is a need to be prepared. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) had developed PREPaRE, a curriculum founded…

  8. The Scope & Sequence of Fitness Education for PreK-16 Programs: NASPE Fitness Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In May 2006, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Adolescent and School Health to improve the quality and quantity of physical education and physical activity programs across the United States. The cooperative agreement project…

  9. NASPE Sets the Standard: 35 Years of National Leadership in Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Lumpkin, Angela; Guedes, Claudia; Eguaoje, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With 17,000 members, NASPE is the largest of the five national associations of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) and comprises six Academy Committees (Biomechanics; Curriculum and Instruction; Exercise Physiology; Motor Development and Learning; Sport and Exercise Psychology; and Sport History,…

  10. NASPE Developed Informational Products and Applications. Article #4 in a 4-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisette, Jennifer L.; Placek, Judith H.; Avery, Marybell; Dyson, Ben; Fox, Connie; Franck, Marian; Graber, Kim; Rink, Judith; Zhu, Weimo

    2009-01-01

    This is the fourth and final article in the "PE Metrics" series that focuses on assessing the National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE) for Standard 1. The first article focused on assessment of student learning. The second described formative and summative assessments and provided considerations on how to implement assessment within…

  11. An overview of selected NASP aeroelastic studies at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, Charles V.; Soistmann, David L.; Parker, Ellen C.; Gibbons, Michael D.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    Following an initial discussion of the NASP flight environment, the results of recent aeroelastic testing of NASP-type highly swept delta-wing models in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) are summarized. Subsonic and transonic flutter characteristics of a variety of these models are described, and several analytical codes used to predict flutter of these models are evaluated. These codes generally provide good, but conservative predictions of subsonic and transonic flutter. Also, test results are presented on a nonlinear transonic phenomena known as aileron buzz which occurred in the wind tunnel on highly swept delta wings with full-span ailerons. An analytical procedure which assesses the effects of hypersonic heating on aeroelastic instabilities (aerothermoelasticity) is also described. This procedure accurately predicted flutter of a heated aluminum wing on which experimental data exists. Results are presented on the application of this method to calculate the flutter characteristics of a fine-element model of a generic NASP configuration. Finally, it is demonstrated analytically that active controls can be employed to improve the aeroelastic stability and ride quality of a generic NASP vehicle flying at hypersonic speeds.

  12. Expression of tNASP in Prostate Cancer: Opportunities for a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Cancer : Opportunities for a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker Development PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Oleg M. Alekseev CONTRACTING...Expression of tNASP in Prostate Cancer : Opportunities for a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Expression of tNASP in Prostate Cancer : Opportunities for a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker Development 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0361

  13. sNASP and ASF1A function through both competitive and compatible modes of histone binding

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew; Koide, Akiko; Goodman, Jay S.; Colling, Meaghan E.; Zinne, Daria; Koide, Shohei; Ladurner, Andreas G.

    2017-01-01

    Histone chaperones are proteins that interact with histones to regulate the thermodynamic process of nucleosome assembly. sNASP and ASF1 are conserved histone chaperones that interact with histones H3 and H4 and are found in a multi-chaperoning complex in vivo. Previously we identified a short peptide motif within H3 that binds to the TPR domain of sNASP with nanomolar affinity. Interestingly, this peptide motif is sequestered within the known ASF1–H3–H4 interface, raising the question of how these two proteins are found in complex together with histones when they share the same binding site. Here, we show that sNASP contains at least two additional histone interaction sites that, unlike the TPR–H3 peptide interaction, are compatible with ASF1A binding. These surfaces allow ASF1A to form a quaternary complex with both sNASP and H3–H4. Furthermore, we demonstrate that sNASP makes a specific complex with H3 on its own in vitro, but not with H4, suggesting that it could work upstream of ASF1A. Further, we show that sNASP and ASF1A are capable of folding an H3–H4 dimer in vitro under native conditions. These findings reveal a network of binding events that may promote the entry of histones H3 and H4 into the nucleosome assembly pathway. PMID:28123037

  14. Robots Would Couple And Uncouple Fluid And Electrical Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Castillo, Eduardo Lopez; Davis, Virgil; Ferguson, Bob; Reichle, Garland

    1992-01-01

    Robots make and break connections between umbilical plates and mating connectors on rockets about to be launched. Sensing and control systems include vision, force, and torque subsystems. Enhances safety by making it possible to couple and uncouple umbilical plates quickly, without exposing human technicians to hazards of leaking fuels and oxidizers. Significantly reduces time spent to manually connect umbilicals. Robots based on similar principles used in refueling of National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) and satellites and orbital transfer vehicles in space.

  15. MicroRNA-29a inhibited epididymal epithelial cell proliferation by targeting nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (NASP).

    PubMed

    Ma, Wubin; Xie, Shengsong; Ni, Minjie; Huang, Xingxu; Hu, Shuanggang; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Aihua; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Yonglian

    2012-03-23

    Cell proliferation often decreases gradually during postnatal development of some organs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Epididymis, playing important roles in sperm maturation, is a typical organ of this type, which displays a decreased proliferation during postnatal development and even ceased at the adult stage. Here, epididymis was employed as a model to explore the underlying mechanisms. We profiled the microRNA and mRNA expression of newborn (1 day) and adult (90 day) rat epididymis by microarray analysis, and found that the level of miR-29a was dramatically up-regulated during postnatal development of rat epididymis. Subsequent investigations demonstrated that overexpression of miR-29a inhibited the proliferation of epididymal epithelial cells in vitro. The nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (NASP), a novel target of miR-29a, was significantly down-regulated during postnatal development of rat epididymis. Further analysis showed that silence of NASP mimicked the anti-proliferation effect of miR-29a, whereas overexpression of this protein attenuated the effect of miR-29a. As in rat epididymis, miR-29a was up-regulated and Nasp was down-regulated during postnatal development of mouse epididymis, heart, liver, and lung. Moreover, miR-29a can also inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells by targeting Nasp. Thus, an increase of miR-29a, and hence decrease of Nasp, may contribute to inhibit cell proliferation during postnatal organ development.

  16. NASP: an accurate, rapid method for the identification of SNPs in WGS datasets that supports flexible input and output formats

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Jason; Schupp, James M.; Gillece, John D.; Aziz, Maliha; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Drees, Kevin P.; Hicks, Nathan D.; Williamson, Charles Hall Davis; Hepp, Crystal M.; Smith, David Earl; Roe, Chandler; Engelthaler, David M.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of bacterial isolates has become standard practice in many laboratories. Applications for WGS analysis include phylogeography and molecular epidemiology, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the unit of evolution. NASP was developed as a reproducible method that scales well with the hundreds to thousands of WGS data typically used in comparative genomics applications. In this study, we demonstrate how NASP compares with other tools in the analysis of two real bacterial genomics datasets and one simulated dataset. Our results demonstrate that NASP produces similar, and often better, results in comparison with other pipelines, but is much more flexible in terms of data input types, job management systems, diversity of supported tools and output formats. We also demonstrate differences in results based on the choice of the reference genome and choice of inferring phylogenies from concatenated SNPs or alignments including monomorphic positions. NASP represents a source-available, version-controlled, unit-tested method and can be obtained from tgennorth.github.io/NASP. PMID:28348869

  17. Computational design aspects of a NASP nozzle/afterbody experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffin, Stephen M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Keener, Earl R.; Nagaraj, N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights the influence of computational methods on design of a wind tunnel experiment which generically models the nozzle/afterbody flow field of the proposed National Aerospace Plane. The rectangular slot nozzle plume flow field is computed using a three-dimensional, upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes solver. Freestream Mach numbers of 5.3, 7.3, and 10 are investigated. Two-dimensional parametric studies of various Mach numbers, pressure ratios, and ramp angles are used to help determine model loads and afterbody ramp angle and length. It was found that the center of pressure on the ramp occurs at nearly the same location for all ramp angles and test conditions computed. Also, to prevent air liquefaction, it is suggested that a helium-air mixture be used as the jet gas for the highest Mach number test case.

  18. A flutter investigation of all-moveable NASP-like wings at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, Charles V.; Zeiler, Thomas A.; Bullock, Ellen P.; Hodge, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    Six alternative all-moving wing configurations applicable to the NASP hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicle have undergone aeroelasticity testing in NASA-Langley's Mach-20-capable Helium Tunnel that yielded data for such parametric variations as airfoil profile and wing planform, wing-pivot flexure stiffness, and mass imbalance. While all wings fluttered at dynamic pressures lower than predicted by second-order piston-theory aerodynamics, this was of limited amplitude, suggesting nonlinear external-flow behavior. Slab airfoils were more stable than diamond-shaped ones; blunt leading edges enhance stability relative to sharp ones, and stiffer pivolts extert a stabilizing influence.

  19. Ascent performance feasibility of the national aerospace plane

    SciTech Connect

    Miele, A.; Lee, W.Y.; Wu, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    The national aerospace plane (NASP) is a proposed hypervelocity research vehicle which must take-off horizontally, achieve orbital speed, and then land horizontally. Its configuration is dominated by the powerplant, which includes the combination of turbojet engines for flight at subsonic speeds and low supersonic speeds, ramjet engines for flight at high supersonic speeds, scramjet engines for flight at hypersonic speeds, and rocket engines for flight at near-orbital speeds. Optimal trajectories are studied for a given NASP configuration, the so-called general hypersonic aerodynamics model example, under the assumption that the NASP is controlled via angle of attack and power setting. Three powerplant models are considered: (E1) and (E2) are turbojet, ramjet, scramjet combinations; (E3) is a turbojet, ramjet scramjet, rocket combination, with the rocket mode starting at M = 15. Realistic constraints are imposed on the peak dynamic pressure, peak heating rate, and peak tangential acceleration. Under this scenario, the time history of the controls is optimized simultaneously with the switch times from one engine mode to the next. The optimization criterion is the total mass of fuel required to achieve orbital speed. The optimization study employs the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm for optimal control problems.

  20. In Light of the 2012 NASPE Symposium, to What Extent Should Physical Educators Incorporate Pop Culture in Their Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this "Issues" column, "The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance" provides responses to the question: "In Light of the 2012 NASPE Symposium, to What Extent Should Physical Educators Incorporate Pop Culture in Their Classes?" Responses this month come from an assistant professor who says that:…

  1. Slush hydrogen propellant production, transfer, and expulsion studies at the NASA K-Site Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1991-01-01

    Slush hydrogen is currently being considered as a fuel for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) because it offers the potential for decreased vehicle size and weight. However, no large-scale data was available on the production, transfer, and tank pressure control characteristics required to use the fuel for the NASP. Therefore, experiments were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center K-Site Facility to improve the slush hydrogen database. Slush hydrogen was produced using the evaporative cooling, or freeze-thaw, technique in batches of about 800 gallons. This slush hydrogen was pressure transferred to a 5 ft diameter spherical test tank following production, and flow characteristics were measured during this transfer process. The slush hydrogen in the test tank was pressurized and expelled using a pressurized expulsion technique to obtain information on tank pressure control for the NASP. Results from the production, transfer, pressurization, and pressurized expulsion tests are described.

  2. Slush hydrogen propellant production, transfer, and expulsion studies at the NASA K-Site Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1991-01-01

    Slush hydrogen is currently being considered as a fuel for the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) because it offers the potential for decreased vehicle size and weight. However, no large scale data was available on the production, transfer, and tank pressure control characteristics required to use the fuel for the NASP. Therefore, experiments were conducted at NASA-Lewis K-Site Facility to improve the slush hydrogen data base. Slush hydrogen was produced using the evaporative cooling, or freeze-thaw, technique in batches for approx. 800 gallons. This slush hydrogen was pressure transferred to a 5 ft diameter spherical test tank following production, and flow characteristics were measured during this transfer process. The slush hydrogen in the test tank was pressurized and expelled using a pressurized expulsion technique to obtain information on tank pressure control for the NASP. Results from the production, transfer, pressurization, and pressurized expulsion tests are described.

  3. The histone chaperone sNASP binds a conserved peptide motif within the globular core of histone H3 through its TPR repeats

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew; Lercher, Lukas; Singh, Hari R.; Zinne, Daria; Timinszky, Gyula; Carlomagno, Teresa; Ladurner, Andreas G.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is a complex yet dynamic structure, which is regulated in part by the assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes. Key to this process is a group of proteins termed histone chaperones that guide the thermodynamic assembly of nucleosomes by interacting with soluble histones. Here we investigate the interaction between the histone chaperone sNASP and its histone H3 substrate. We find that sNASP binds with nanomolar affinity to a conserved heptapeptide motif in the globular domain of H3, close to the C-terminus. Through functional analysis of sNASP homologues we identified point mutations in surface residues within the TPR domain of sNASP that disrupt H3 peptide interaction, but do not completely disrupt binding to full length H3 in cells, suggesting that sNASP interacts with H3 through additional contacts. Furthermore, chemical shift perturbations from 1H-15N HSQC experiments show that H3 peptide binding maps to the helical groove formed by the stacked TPR motifs of sNASP. Our findings reveal a new mode of interaction between a TPR repeat domain and an evolutionarily conserved peptide motif found in canonical H3 and in all histone H3 variants, including CenpA and have implications for the mechanism of histone chaperoning within the cell. PMID:26673727

  4. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through vortex manipulation, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brooke C.; Suarez, Carlos J.; Porada, William M.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) is an emerging technology that has received widespread and concentrated attention by many researchers for application on fighter aircraft to enhance aerodynamic controllability at high angles of attack. This research explores potential application of FVC to a NASP-type configuration. The configuration investigated is characterized by a slender, circular cross-section forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. A man-in-the-loop, six-degress-of-freedom, high-fidelity simulation was developed that demonstrates the implementation and advantages of pneumatic forebody vortex control. Static wind tunnel tests were used as the basis for the aerodynamic characteristics modeled in the simulation. Dynamic free-to-roll wind tunnel tests were analyzed and the wing rock motion investigated. A non-linear model of the dynamic effects of the bare airframe and the forebody vortex control system were developed that closely represented the observed behavior. Multiple state-of-the-art digital flight control systems were developed that included different utilizations of pneumatic vortex control. These were evaluated through manned simulation. Design parameters for a pneumatic forebody vortex control system were based on data collected regarding the use of blowing and the mass flow required during realistic flight maneuvers.

  5. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through vortex manipulation. Volume 3: Wing rock experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Free-to-roll tests were conducted in water and wind tunnels in an effort to investigate the mechanisms of wing rock on a NASP-type vehicle. The configuration tested consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the water tunnel test, extensive flow visualization was performed and roll angle histories were obtained. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle, forces and moments, and limited forebody and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the experiments confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly slowed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetrices are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the fore body was demonstrated to be a potentially effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  6. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through Vortex manipulation. Volume 1: Static water tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Water tunnel tests were conducted on a NASP-type configuration to evaluate different pneumatic Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) methods. Flow visualization and yawing moment measurements were performed at angles of attack from 0 deg to 30 deg. The pneumatic techniques tested included jet and slot blowing. In general, blowing can be used efficiently to manipulate the forebody vortices at angles of attack greater than 20 deg. These vortices are naturally symmetric up to alpha = 25 deg and asymmetric between 25 deg and 30 deg angle of attack. Results indicate that tangential aft jet blowing is the most promising method for this configuration. Aft jet blowing produces a yawing moment towards the blowing side and the trends with blowing rate are well behaved. The size of the nozzle is not the dominant factor in the blowing process; the change in the blowing 'momentum,' i.e., the product of the mass flow rate and the velocity of the jet, appears to be the important parameter in the water tunnel (incompressible and unchoked flow at the nozzle exit). Forward jet blowing is very unpredictable and sensitive to mass flow rate changes. Slot blowing (with the exception of very low blowing rates) acts as a flow 'separator'; it promotes early separation on the blow side, producing a yawing moment toward the non-blowing side for the C(sub mu) range investigated.

  7. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through Vortex manipulation. Volume 2: Static wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) was explored in this research program for potential application to a NASP-type configuration. Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate a number of jet blowing schemes. The configuration tested has a slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. Blowing jets were implemented on the leeward side of the forebody with small circular tubes tangential to the surface that could be directed aft, forward, or at angles in between. The effects of blowing are observed primarily in the yawing and rolling moments and are highly dependent on the jet configuration and the angle of attack. Results show that the baseline flow field, without blowing activated, is quite sensitive to the geometry differences of the various protruding jets, as well as being sensitive to the blowing, particularly in the angle of attack range where the forebody vortices are naturally asymmetric. The time lag of the flow field response to the initiation of blowing was also measured. The time response was very short, on the order of the time required for the flow disturbance to travel the distance from the nozzle to the specific airframe location of interest at the free stream velocity. Overall, results indicate that sizable yawing and rolling moments can be induced with modest blowing levels. However, direct application of this technique on a very slender forebody would require thorough wind tunnel testing to optimize the jet location and configuration.

  8. Future technology aim of the National Aerospace Plane Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Technical areas where hypersonic technology programs outside NASP might offer assistance and participate in the NASP program are considered. These specific areas include airframe, technology opportunities for providing better performance and reduced weight, the NDV application of NASP technology, and engine propellant systems and subsystems.

  9. Experimental research of the aerodynamics of nozzles and plumes at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keener, Earl R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose was to experimentally characterize the flow field created by the interaction of a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream. Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5 Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center. The model design and test planning were performed in close cooperation with members of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) computational fluid dynamics (SFD) team, so that the measurements could be used in CFD code validation studies. Presented here is a description of the experiment, the extent of the measurements obtained, and the experimental results.

  10. Disk Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

  11. Analysis of exchanges between novice and cooperating teachers during internships using the NCATE/NASPE Standards for Teacher Preparation in Physical Education as guidelines.

    PubMed

    Banville, Dominique

    2006-06-01

    To be recognized as an accredited program, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs in the country must abide by guidelines put forward by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), in collaboration with the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). The guidelines are divided into nine standards and identify a number of outcomes (NASPE, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the exchanges between novice teachers (NTs) and cooperating teachers (CTs), when using the NASPE Standards (1998) as a reference point, and determine if the focus of the exchanges differed over time and according to data source. Six pairs of CTs and their NT participated in the study. Data were collected through recorded conversations between NTs and their CT as well as NTs' logs. Data showed that the majority of conversations focused on planning and instruction (Standard 6) and management and motivation (Standard 4), while few related to diverse learners (Standard 3), growth and development (Standard 2), and communication (Standard 5). The small amount of information shared by CTs in some standards indicates a need for PETE programs to share the guidelines with CTs to make them aware of the importance of offering a variety of topics to interns, because CTs are the primary source of information during this crucial experience.

  12. Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Slush hydrogen quantity gaging and mixing for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudland, R. S.; Kroenke, I. M.; Urbach, A. R.

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) design team has selected slush hydrogen as the fuel needed to power the high-speed ramjet-scramjet engines. Use of slush hydrogen rather than normal hydrogen provides significant improvements in density and cooling capacity for the aircraft. The loading of slush hydrogen in the NASP tank must be determined accurately to allow the vehicle size and weight to be kept to a minimum. A unique sensor developed at Ball to measure the slush density will be used in each region of the hydrogen tank to accurately determine the total mass of fuel loaded in the vehicle. The design, analysis, and test configuration for the mixing system is described in this paper. The mixing system is used to eliminate large-scale disturbances in the fluid produced by the large heat flux through the wall. The mixer also provides off-bottom suspension of the solids to create a more uniform slush mixture. The mixer design uses a pump to supply flow to an array of jets that produce mixing throughout the tank. Density sensors will be used in the test configuration to evaluate the mixing effectiveness.

  14. XCOR AeroSpace: Providing Low Cost Access to Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    the big thing, do a smaller thing – repeat until done – People are indivisible; squads are not • Minimum unit in WW2 bombing was 8-20 aircraft to get...Formation flight automatically keeps troops on-target and in formation unlike WW2 drops • Capsule Troopers – Disposable capsule for 2+ people and

  15. Experimental Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. Clayton; Capriotti, Diego P.; Guy, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Experimental supersonic combustion research related to hypersonic airbreathing propulsion has been actively underway at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the mid-1960's. This research involved experimental investigations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion in supersonic flows and numerous tests of scramjet engine flowpaths in LaRC test facilities simulating flight from Mach 4 to 8. Out of this research effort has come scramjet combustor design methodologies, ground test techniques, and data analysis procedures. These technologies have progressed steadily in support of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program and the current Hyper-X flight demonstration program. During NASP nearly 2500 tests of 15 scramjet engine models were conducted in LaRC facilities. In addition, research supporting the engine flowpath design investigated ways to enhance mixing, improve and apply nonintrusive diagnostics, and address facility operation. Tests of scramjet combustor operation at conditions simulating hypersonic flight at Mach numbers up to 17 also have been performed in an expansion tube pulse facility. This paper presents a review of the LaRC experimental supersonic combustion research efforts since the late 1980's, during the NASP program, and into the Hyper-X Program.

  16. Carbon-carbon composites: Emerging materials for hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.

    1989-01-01

    An emerging class of high temperature materials called carbon-carbon composites are being developed to help make advanced aerospace flight become a reality. Because of the high temperature strength and low density of carbon-carbon composites, aerospace engineers would like to use these materials in even more advanced applications. One application of considerable interest is as the structure of the aerospace vehicle itself rather than simply as a protective heat shield as on Space Shuttle. But suitable forms of these materials have yet to be developed. If this development can be successfully accomplished, advanced aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and other hypersonic vehicles will be closer to becoming a reality. A brief definition is given of C-C composites. Fabrication problems and oxidation protection concepts are examined. Applications of C-C composites in the Space Shuttle and in advanced hypersonic vehicles as well as other applications are briefly discussed.

  17. An Investigation of the Effect of Surface Impurities on the Adsorption Kinetics of Hydrogen Chemisorbed onto Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanabarger, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    The original goal of this program was to investigate the effect surface impurities have on the heterogeneous kinetic processes of those molecular species which produce gaseous hydrogen degradation of the mechanical properties of metallic structural materials. However, shortly after the initiation of the original program, the program's NASA Technical Monitor, Dr. Howard Nelson, requested that the effort supported by this Co-operative Agreement be redirected to study more pressing materials issues associated to the development of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The results of these efforts are outlined in this report. Detailed discussions of specific work, including experimental techniques and procedures, will be found in the publications listed with the subsection discussing that specific work as well and in Section 5. No inventions were generated or disclosed within this Agreement.

  18. Hot Fire Ignition Test with Densified Liquid Hydrogen using a RL10B-2 Cryogenic H2/O2 Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Nancy B.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1997-01-01

    Enhancements to propellants provide an opportunity to either increase performance of an existing vehicle, or reduce the size of a new vehicle. In the late 1980's the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) reopened the technology chapter on densified propellants, in particular hydrogen. Since that point in time the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been leading the way to provide critical research on the production and transfer of densified propellants. On October 4, 1996 NASA LeRC provided another key demonstration towards the advancement of densified propellants as a viable fuel. Successful ignition of an RL10B-2 engine was achieved with near triple point liquid hydrogen.

  19. Development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties associated with aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature within the structures which consequently necessitates the need for thermal property data. The initial goal of this research effort was to develop a methodology for the estimation of thermal properties of aerospace structural materials at room temperature and to develop a procedure to optimize the estimation process. The estimation procedure was implemented utilizing a general purpose finite element code. In addition, an optimization procedure was developed and implemented to determine critical experimental parameters to optimize the estimation procedure. Finally, preliminary experiments were conducted at the Aircraft Structures Branch (ASB) laboratory.

  20. Shock-tunnel combustor testing for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed configurations for the next generation of transatmospheric vehicles will rely on air breathing propulsion systems during all or part of their mission. At flight Mach numbers greater than about 7 these engines will operate in the supersonic combustion ramjet mode (scramjet). Ground testing of these engine concepts above Mach 8 requires high pressure, high enthalpy facilities such as shock tunnels and expansion tubes. These impulse, or short duration facilities have test times on the order of a millisecond, requiring high speed instrumentation and data systems. One such facility ideally suited for scramjet testing is the NASA-Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel, which over the last two years has completed a series of tests for the NASP (National Aero-Space Plane) program at simulated flight Mach numbers ranging from 12-16. The focus of the experimental programs consisted of a series of classified tests involving a near-full scale hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor model in the semi-free jet method of engine testing whereby the compressed forebody flow ahead of the cowl inlet is reproduced (see appendix A). The AIMHYE-1 (Ames Integrated Modular Hypersonic Engine) test entry for the NASP program was completed in April 1993, while AIMHYE-2 was completed in May 1994. The test entries were regarded as successful, resulting in some of the first data of its kind on the performance of a near full scale scramjet engine at Mach 12-16. The data was distributed to NASP team members for use in design system verification and development. Due to the classified nature of the hardware and data, the data reports resulting from this work are classified and have been published as part of the NASP literature. However, an unclassified AIAA paper resulted from the work and has been included as appendix A. It contains an overview of the test program and a description of some of the important issues.

  1. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  2. Axial Plane Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues. PMID:25434770

  3. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  4. Precise measurement of planeness.

    PubMed

    Schulz, G; Schwider, J

    1967-06-01

    Interference methods are reviewed-particularly those developed at the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin-with which the deviations of an optically flat surface from the ideal plane can be measured with a high degree of exactness. One aid to achieve this is the relative methods which measure the differences in planeness between two surfaces. These are then used in the absolute methods which determine the absolute planeness of a surface. This absolute determination can be effected in connection with a liquid surface, or (as done by the authors) only by suitable evaluation of relative measurements between unknown plates in various positional combinations. Experimentally, one uses two- or multiple-beam interference fringes of equal thickness(1) or of equal inclination. The fringes are observed visually, scanned, or photographed, and in part several wavelengths or curves of equal density (Aquidensiten) are employed. The survey also brings the following new methods: a relative method, where, with the aid of fringes of superposition, the fringe separation is subdivided equidistantly thus achieving an increase of measuring precision, and an absolute method which determines the deviations of a surface from ideal planeness along arbitrary central sections, without a liquid surface, from four relative interference photographs.

  5. Plane Jane(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an assignment that was used in an advanced drawing class in which the students created self-portraits, breaking up their images using planes and angles to suggest their bone structure. Explains that the students also had to include three realistic portions in their drawings. (CMK)

  6. Combined Loads Test Fixture for Thermal-Structural Testing Aerospace Vehicle Panel Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Roger A.; Richards, W. Lance; DeAngelis, Michael V.

    2004-01-01

    A structural test requirement of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program has resulted in the design, fabrication, and implementation of a combined loads test fixture. Principal requirements for the fixture are testing a 4- by 4-ft hat-stiffened panel with combined axial (either tension or compression) and shear load at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 915 F, keeping the test panel stresses caused by the mechanical loads uniform, and thermal stresses caused by non-uniform panel temperatures minimized. The panel represents the side fuselage skin of an experimental aerospace vehicle, and was produced for the NASP program. A comprehensive mechanical loads test program using the new test fixture has been conducted on this panel from room temperature to 500 F. Measured data have been compared with finite-element analyses predictions, verifying that uniform load distributions were achieved by the fixture. The overall correlation of test data with analysis is excellent. The panel stress distributions and temperature distributions are very uniform and fulfill program requirements. This report provides details of an analytical and experimental validation of the combined loads test fixture. Because of its simple design, this unique test fixture can accommodate panels from a variety of aerospace vehicle designs.

  7. Third Generation RLV Structural Seal Development Programs at NASA GRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2002-10-01

    NASA GRC's work on high temperature structural seal development began in the late 1980's and early 1990's under the NASP (National Aero-Space Plane) project. Bruce Steinetz led the in-house propulsion system seal development program and oversaw industry efforts for propulsion system and airframe seal development for this vehicle. a propulsion system seal location in the NASP engine is shown. The seals were located along the edge of a movable panel in the engine to seal the gap between the panel and adjacent engine sidewalls. More recently, we worked with Rocketdyne on high temperature seals for the linear aerospike engine ramps. In applications such as the former X-33 program, multiple aerospike engine modules would be installed side by side on the vehicle. Seals are required in between adjacent engine modules along the edges and base of the engines. The seals have to withstand the extreme temperatures produced byt he thrusters at the top of the ramps while accommodating large deflections between adjacent ramps. We came up with several promising seal concepts for this application and shared them with Rocketdyne.

  8. The methane-acetylene cycle Aerospace Plane - A promising candidate for earth to orbit transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Zubrin, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The methane-acetylene cycle Aerosapce Plane (MACASP) concept is proposed and its theoretical feasibility is shown. In this concept, methane fuel stored on-board the aircraft is run out within the wing leading edge in pipes at temperatures up to 1400 K. In the presence of catalyst, the heat provided by wing drag is used to drive the highly endothermic chemical reaction 2CH4 yields 3H2 + C2H2. The products of this reaction, hydrogen and acetylene, are then fed into a combustion chamber and burned in air. On the NASP, terminal acceleration to orbit beyond the critical Mach number of the scramjet can be enabled by rocket operation using a small on-board supply of LOx. The advantages of this concept are that the two highly energetic but difficult-to-store fuels can be used without on-board storage. It is shown that the MACASP concept offers significant promise for economical earth-to-orbit transportation. 5 refs.

  9. Parameter Plane Design Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Th usr a toente aninteer a thca sms b esta 1 Fp-ocsing 2. Enter P1 values, lwgt, ldig - > 9 Table I give us proper values. Table 1. PARAMETER TABLE...necessary and identify by block number) In this thesis a control systems analysis package is developed using parameter plane methods. It is an interactive...designer is able to choose values of the parameters which provide a good compromise between cost and dynamic behavior. 20 Distribution Availability of

  10. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  11. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  12. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  13. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  14. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  15. Aerospace Plane Technology, Research and Development Efforts in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-25

    developed by 2005. The official also said that Saenger II development would follow between 2015 and 2020. A Federal Ministry for Research and Technology...degrees Fahrenheit. NASP’S first flight is scheduled for 1997, which is still ahead of HOTOL’S first planned flight in 2000 and Saenger II’s in 2015 ...completing the project by 2015 . The milestones do not include scramjet technology, which, according to Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation officials

  16. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris removal and flame augmentation additives in scramjets for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a brief description of the USRA-sponsored design project at the University of Arizona. Approximately eighty-percent of this effort was spent pursuing a novel engineering concept for the in-situ processing of orbital debris utilizing resources available in low Earth orbit (LEO); the other twenty-percent was devoted to discovering innovative additives for the anchoring of supersonic combustion zones that find direct use in the Aerospace Plane that is expected to use scramjets. The seriousness of the orbital debris problem is briefly described. Available 'solutions' are outlined from the literature. The engineering design is briefly mentioned, with an emphasis on the positive aspects of the space environment that should be used in an economical approach. The aspects of operating in microgravity, vacuum, and in utilizing solar energy are mentioned. A quantitative computer animation was developed to provide design data. Three specific dead spacecraft were identified for an initial cleanup mission. The design concept, which includes a solar processor, remote arm manipulators, and the gradual processing of the debris, is also described. This is followed by a description of hardware construction. Operation and actual processing of simulated debris parts (aluminum, for now) are demonstrated in the NASP task, construction of the new design for measuring the radiation from the key free radicals (as enhanced by the additives) is described. Immediate (1988) and long-range (through 1992) future plans are shown to clearly indicate the full engineering design strategy in the light of the national space program thrusts.

  17. NASA-universities relationships in aero/space engineering: A review of NASA's program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    NASA is concerned about the health of aerospace engineering departments at U.S. universities. The number of advanced degrees in aerospace engineering has declined. There is concern that universities' facilities, research equipment, and instrumentation may be aging or outmoded and therefore affect the quality of research and education. NASA requested that the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) review NASA's support of universities and make recommendations to improve the program's effectiveness.

  18. Collaborative Software Development in Support of Fast Adaptive AeroSpace Tools (FAAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Park, Michael A.; Wood, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative software development approach is described. The software product is an adaptation of proven computational capabilities combined with new capabilities to form the Agency's next generation aerothermodynamic and aerodynamic analysis and design tools. To efficiently produce a cohesive, robust, and extensible software suite, the approach uses agile software development techniques; specifically, project retrospectives, the Scrum status meeting format, and a subset of Extreme Programming's coding practices are employed. Examples are provided which demonstrate the substantial benefits derived from employing these practices. Also included is a discussion of issues encountered when porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95 and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

  19. The Laplace Planes of Uranus and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite orbits close to an oblate planet precess about its equatorial plane, while distant satellites precess around the plane of the planet's heliocentric orbit. In between, satellites in nearly circular orbits precess about a warped intermediate surface called the Laplace 'plane.' Herein we derive general formulas for locating the Laplace plane. Because Uranus and Pluto have high obliquities, their Laplace planes are severely warped. We present maps of these Laplace planes, of interest in telescopic searches for new satellites. The Laplace plane of the Solar System as a whole is similarly distorted, but comets in the inner Oort cloud precess too slowly to sense the Laplace plane.

  20. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  1. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  2. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Space-Plane Spreadsheet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Basic Hypersonic Data and Equations (HYPERDATA) spreadsheet computer program provides data gained from three analyses of performance of space plane. Equations used to perform analyses derived from Newton's second law of physics, derivation included. First analysis is parametric study of some basic factors affecting ability of space plane to reach orbit. Second includes calculation of thickness of spherical fuel tank. Third produces ratio between volume of fuel and total mass for each of various aircraft. HYPERDATA intended for use on Macintosh(R) series computers running Microsoft Excel 3.0.

  4. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  5. Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

    2008-03-18

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  6. SETI in the Ecliptic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Kilston, S.; Shostak, S.

    2008-05-01

    The strong advantages of SETI searches in the ecliptic plane have been pointed out by Kilston, Shostak, and Henry (2008). In our poster we show one possible history of civilizations in the galaxy, from birth, through galactic colonization, up to death - and even beyond. Should this scenario be correct, the pattern suggests that the best hope for success in SETI is exploration of the possibility that there are a few extremely ancient but non-colonizing civilizations; civilizations that, aeons ago, detected the existence of Earth (oxygen, and hence life) and of its Moon (stabilizing Earth's rotation) via observations of transits of the Sun (hence, ecliptic, which is stable over millions of years [Laskar et al. 2004]), and have been beaming voluminous information in our direction ever since, in their faint hope (now realized) that a technological "receiving” species would appear. To maintain such a targeted broadcast would be extremely cheap for an advanced civilization. A search of a swath centered on our ecliptic plane should easily find such civilizations, if they exist. We hope to carry out such a search, using the Allen Telescope Array. http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/poster.SETI.pdf References: Kilston, Steven; Shostak, Seth; & Henry, Richard Conn; "Who's Looking at You, Kid?: SETI Advantages near the Ecliptic Plane," AbSciCon 2008, April 14-17, Santa Clara, CA.; Laskar, J., et al., A&A 428, 261, 2004 This work was supported by Maryland Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Point-to-plane and plane-to-plane electrostatic charge injection atomization for insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghazi

    An electrostatic charge injection atomizer was fabricated and used to introduce and study the electrostatic charge injection atomization methods for highly viscous vegetable oils and high conductivity low viscosity aviation fuel, JP8. The total, spray and leakage currents and spray breakup characteristics for these liquids were investigated and compared with Diesel fuel data. Jet breakup and spray atomization mechanism showed differences for vegetable oils and lower viscosity hydrocarbon fuels. For vegetable oils, a bending/spinning instability phenomenon was observed similar to the phenomenon found in liquid jets of high viscosity polymer solutions. The spray tip lengths and cone angles were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated with the appropriate empirical formulas. The different stages of the breakup mechanisms for such oils, as a function of specific charges and flow rates, were discussed. In order to make this method of atomization more suitable for practical use in high flow rate applications, a blunt face electrode (plane-to-plane) was used as the charge emitter in place of a single pointed electrode (point-to-plane). This allowed the use of a multi-orifice emitter that maintained a specific charge with the flow rate increase which could not be achieved with the needle electrode. The effect of the nozzle geometry, liquid physical properties and applied bulk flow on the spray charge, total charge, maximum critical spray specific charge and electrical efficiency compared with the needle point-to-plane atomizer results was presented. Our investigation revealed that the electrical efficiency of the atomizer is dominated by the charge forced convection rate rather than charge transport by ion motilities and liquid motion by the electric field. As a result of the electric coulomb forces between the electrified jets, the multi-orifice atomizer provided a unique means of dispersing the fuel in a hollow cone with wide angles making the new

  8. Orbital Space Plane Cost Credibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2003-01-01

    NASA's largest new start development program is the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. The program is currently in the formulation stage. One of the critical issues to be resolved, prior to initiating full-scale development, is establishing cost credibility of NASA s budget estimates for development, production, and operations of the OSP. This paper will discuss the processes, tools, and methodologies that NASA, along with its industry partners, are implementing to assure cost credibility for the OSP program. Results of benchmarking of current tools and the development of new cost estimating capabilities and approaches will be discussed.

  9. Augmented-plane-wave forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, José M.; Williams, Arthur R.

    1990-11-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of a calculational method of electronic-structure theory. The method combines the power (tractable basis-set size) and flexibility (transition and first-row elements) of the augmented-plane-wave method with the computational efficiency of the Car-Parrinello method of molecular dynamics and total-energy minimization. Equilibrium geometry and vibrational frequencies in agreement with experiment are presented for Si, to demonstrate agreement with existing methods and for Cu, N2, and H2O to demonstrate the broader applicability of the approach.

  10. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  11. STARS: An Integrated, Multidisciplinary, Finite-Element, Structural, Fluids, Aeroelastic, and Aeroservoelastic Analysis Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, finite element-based, highly graphics-oriented, linear and nonlinear analysis capability that includes such disciplines as structures, heat transfer, linear aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, and controls engineering has been achieved by integrating several new modules in the original STARS (STructural Analysis RoutineS) computer program. Each individual analysis module is general-purpose in nature and is effectively integrated to yield aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic solutions of complex engineering problems. Examples of advanced NASA Dryden Flight Research Center projects analyzed by the code in recent years include the X-29A, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle/Thrust Vectoring Control System, B-52/Pegasus Generic Hypersonics, National AeroSpace Plane (NASP), SR-71/Hypersonic Launch Vehicle, and High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) projects. Extensive graphics capabilities exist for convenient model development and postprocessing of analysis results. The program is written in modular form in standard FORTRAN language to run on a variety of computers, such as the IBM RISC/6000, SGI, DEC, Cray, and personal computer; associated graphics codes use OpenGL and IBM/graPHIGS language for color depiction. This program is available from COSMIC, the NASA agency for distribution of computer programs.

  12. Surface compositional variations of Mo-47Re alloy as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoekje, S. J.; Outlaw, R. A.; Sankaran, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium alloys are candidate materials for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) as well as for other applications in generic hypersonics. These materials are expected to be subjected to high-temperature (above 1200 C) casual hydrogen (below 50 torr), which could potentially degrade the material strength. Since the uptake of hydrogen may be controlled by the contaminant surface barriers, a study of Mo-47Re was conducted to examine the variations in surface composition as a function of temperature from 25 C to 1000 C. Pure molybdenum and rhenium were also examined and the results compared with those for the alloy. The analytical techniques employed were Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, and x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The native surface was rich in metallic oxides that disappeared at elevated temperatures. As the temperature increased, the carbon and oxygen disappeared by 800 C and the surface was subsequently populated by the segregation of silicon, presumably from the grain boundaries. The alloy readily chemisorbed oxygen, which disappeared with heating. The disappearance temperature progressively increased for successive dosings. When the alloy was exposed to 800 torr of hydrogen at 900 C for 1 hour, no hydrogen interaction was observed.

  13. Cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 turbo-ramjet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. C.; Petley, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 cruise aircraft, using non-cryogenic fuel is presented. Catalytic endothermic reaction of petroleum fuel is used as the heat sink for engine cooling. A secondary closed-loop coolant circuit removes heat from the engine and transfers this heat to the catalytic reactor. Insulation on the engine flow path surfaces reduces the cooling requirements. A high temperature insulation system, which is capable of a surface temperature of 4,000 F, is used for the combustor and nozzle. A complete closed-loop cooling system design is shown in detail. Main features of this system include a fuel preheater, a catalytic fuel reactor, and engine wall cooling panels. A silicone-based liquid polymer, designed for extended use at 750 F, is used as the coolant. The preheater and reactor design are based on the results of recent experimental work. The cooling panels are designed using a thermal fluid analysis computer program, which was originally developed for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). Major components are analyzed structurally as well as thermally and weights are presented.

  14. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  15. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  16. Singularities from colliding plane gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1980-12-01

    A simple geometrical argument is given which shows that a collision between two plane gravitational waves must result in singularities. The argument suggests that these singularities are a peculiar feature of plane waves, because singularities are also a consequence of a collision between self-gravitating plane waves of other fields with arbitrarily small energy density.

  17. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP)

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors and the upper lip. Conclusion: FAOP can complement an existing and established orthodontic treatment plan, facilitating the visualization of functional and aesthetic demands by giving a greater focus on the position of incisors in the relationship established among the incisors, molars and the upper lip stomion. PMID:27653271

  18. Thermodynamics of black plane solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Jardim, Deborah F.; Houndjo, Stéphane J. M.; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2013-11-01

    We obtain a new phantom black plane solution in D of the Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled with a cosmological constant. We analyse their basic properties, as well as its causal structure, and obtain the extensive and intensive thermodynamic variables, as well as the specific heat and the first law. Through the specific heat and the so-called geometric methods, we analyse in detail their thermodynamic properties, the extreme and phase transition limits, as well as the local and global stabilities of the system. The normal case is shown with an extreme limit and the phantom one with a phase transition only for null mass, which is physically inaccessible. The systems present local and global stabilities for certain values of the entropy density with respect to the electric charge, for the canonical and grand canonical ensembles.

  19. Smov Baseline Focal Plane Check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    This test will be executed during the period after the servicing mission and before the extension of the COSTAR assembly. Its purpose is to verify that the FOS, HRS, and FOC focal planes have not been altered by the activities performed by Story and the Astronauts during the servicing mission. A large unknown deviation in aperture position would severly impact subsequent COSTAR alignment activities. If this test reveals a deviation, we may be able to compensate for any offsets prior to the complex and delicate COSTAR alignment calibrations. This enhanced version of the Heptathlon is designed to verify course alignments and measure relative aperture positions to within a few arcsecs. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: ***This test uses pre-servicing parameters for HRS, FOS, and FOC and the Cycle 4 parameters for WFPC2.*** ***This test requires special alignment and special guide stars.** ***This test requires special commanding for telemetry setups.**

  20. Snakes Out of the Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Andrew; Young, Bruce A.; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    We develop a new computational model of elastic rods, taking into account shear and full rotational dynamics, as well as friction, adhesion, and collision. This model is used to study the movement of snakes in different environments. By applying different muscular activation patterns to the snake, we observe many different patterns of motion, from planar undulation to sudden strikes. Many of the most interesting behaviors involve the snake rising out of the horizontal plane in the vertical direction. Such behaviors include a sand snake sidewinding over the hot desert sand and a cobra rearing up into a defensive striking position. Experimental videos of live snakes are analyzed and compared with computational results. We identify and explain a new form of movement previously unobserved: ``collateral locomotion.''

  1. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.

  2. Tilted planes in 3D image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Staples, Nancy J.; Malloy, Brian F.; Cantrell, Ken; Chhatriwala, Murtuza

    1998-03-01

    Reliable 3D wholebody scanners which output digitized 3D images of a complete human body are now commercially available. This paper describes a software package, called 3DM, being developed by researchers at Clemson University and which manipulates and extracts measurements from such images. The focus of this paper is on tilted planes, a 3DM tool which allows a user to define a plane through a scanned image, tilt it in any direction, and effectively define three disjoint regions on the image: the points on the plane and the points on either side of the plane. With tilted planes, the user can accurately take measurements required in applications such as apparel manufacturing. The user can manually segment the body rather precisely. Tilted planes assist the user in analyzing the form of the body and classifying the body in terms of body shape. Finally, titled planes allow the user to eliminate extraneous and unwanted points often generated by a 3D scanner. This paper describes the user interface for tilted planes, the equations defining the plane as the user moves it through the scanned image, an overview of the algorithms, and the interaction of the tilted plane feature with other tools in 3DM.

  3. Out-of-plane properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, W.C.; Portanova, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper summarizes three areas of research which were performed to characterize out-of-plane properties of composite materials. In the first investigation, a series of tests was run to characterize the through-the-thickness tensile strength for a variety of composites that included 2D braids, 2D and 3D weaves, and prepreg tapes. A new test method based on a curved beam was evaluated. Failures were significantly different between the 2D materials and the 3D weaves. The 2D materials delaminated between layers due to out-of-plane tensile stresses while the 3D weaves failed due to the formation of radial cracks between the surface plies caused by high circumferential stresses along the inner radius. The strength of the 2D textile composites did not increase relative to the tapes. Final failure in the 3D weaves was caused by a circumferential crack similar to the 2D materials and occurred at a lower bending moment than in other materials. The early failures in the 3D weaves were caused by radial crack formation rather than a low through-the-thickness strength. The second investigation focused on the development of a standard impact test method to measure impact damage resistance. The only impact tests that currently exist are compression after impact (CAI) tests which incorporate elements of both damage resistance and damage tolerance. A new impact test method is under development which uses a quasi-static indentation (QSI) test to directly measure damage resistance. Damage resistance is quantified in terms of the contact force to produce a unit of damage where a metric for damage may be area in C-scan, depth of residual dent, penetration, damage growth, etc. A final draft of an impact standard that uses a QSI test method will be presented to the ASTM Impact Task Group on impact. In the third investigation, the impact damage resistance behavior of a variety of textile materials was studied using the QSI test method.

  4. The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, P. W.; Hoare, M. G.; Longmore, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Davis, C. J.; Adamson, A.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; de Grijs, R.; Smith, M.; Gosling, A.; Mitchison, S.; Gáspár, A.; Coe, M.; Tamura, M.; Parker, Q.; Irwin, M.; Hambly, N.; Bryant, J.; Collins, R. S.; Cross, N.; Evans, D. W.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Hodgkin, S.; Lewis, J.; Read, M.; Riello, M.; Sutorius, E. T. W.; Lawrence, A.; Drew, J. E.; Dye, S.; Thompson, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) is one of the five near-infrared Public Legacy Surveys that are being undertaken by the UKIDSS consortium, using the Wide Field Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. It is surveying 1868 deg2 of the northern and equatorial Galactic plane at Galactic latitudes -5° < b < 5° in the J, H and K filters and a ~200-deg2 area of the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus molecular cloud complex in these three filters and the 2.12 μm (1-0) H2 filter. It will provide data on ~2 × 109 sources. Here we describe the properties of the data set and provide a user's guide for its exploitation. We also present brief Demonstration Science results from DR2 and from the Science Verification programme. These results illustrate how GPS data will frequently be combined with data taken in other wavebands to produce scientific results. The Demonstration Science comprises six studies. (1) A GPS-Spitzer-GLIMPSE cross-match for the star formation region G28.983-0.603 to identify YSOs. This increases the number of YSOs identified by a factor of 10 compared to GLIMPSE alone. (2) A wide-field study of the M17 nebula, in which an extinction map of the field is presented and the effect of source confusion on luminosity functions in different subregions is noted. (3) H2 emission in the ρ Ophiuchi dark cloud. All the molecular jets are traced back to a single active clump containing only a few protostars, which suggests that the duration of strong jet activity and associated rapid accretion in low-mass protostars is brief. (4) X-ray sources in the nuclear bulge. The GPS data distinguishes local main-sequence counterparts with soft X-ray spectra from nuclear bulge giant counterparts with hard X-ray spectra. (5) External galaxies in the zone of avoidance. The galaxies are clearly distinguished from stars in fields at longitudes l > 90°. (6) IPHAS-GPS optical-infrared spectrophotometric typing. The (i' - J) versus (J - H) diagram is used to distinguish A-F type

  5. Out-of-plane properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes three areas of research which were performed to characterize out-of-plane properties of composite materials. In the first investigation, a series of tests was run to characterize the through-the-thickness tensile strength for a variety of composites that included 2D braids, 2D and 3D weaves, and prepreg tapes. A new test method based on a curved beam was evaluated. Failures were significantly different between the 2D materials and the 3D weaves. The 2D materials delaminated between layers due to out-of-plane tensile stresses while the 3D weaves failed due to the formation of radial cracks between the surface plies caused by high circumferential stresses along the inner radius. The strength of the 2D textile composites did not increase relative to the tapes. Final failure in the 3D weaves was caused by a circumferential crack similar to the 2D materials and occurred at a lower bending moment than in other materials. The early failures in the 3D weaves were caused by radial crack formation rather than a low through-the-thickness strength. The second investigation focused on the development of a standard impact test method to measure impact damage resistance. The only impact tests that currently exist are compression after impact (CAI) tests which incorporate elements of both damage resistance and damage tolerance. A new impact test method is under development which uses a quasi-static indentation (QSI) test to directly measure damage resistance. Damage resistance is quantified in terms of the contact force to produce a unit of damage where a metric for damage may be area in C-scan, depth of residual dent , penetration, damage growth, etc. A final draft of an impact standard that uses a QSI test method will be presented to the ASTM Impact Task Group on impact. In the third investigation, the impact damage resistance behavior of a variety of textile materials was studied using the QSI test method. In this study, the force where large damage

  6. Galactic plane gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tumer, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the SAS 2 data together with the COS B results shows that the distribution of galactic gamma-radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The radiation is primarily confined to a thin disc which exhibits offsets from b = 0 degrees similar to warping at radio frequencies. The principal distinction of the gamma-radiation is a stronger contrast in intensity between the region from 310 to 45 degrees in longitude and the regions away from the center that can be attributed to a variation in cosmic-ray density as a function of position in Galaxy. The diffuse galactic gamma-ray energy spectrum shows no significant variation in direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that for the galactic component of the gamma-radiation at high altitudes. The uniformity of the galactic gamma-ray spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of altitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma-ray sources at high altitudes indicate a diffuse origin for bulk of the galactic gamma-radiation rather than a collection of localized sources.

  7. Duel-Plane Optical Disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsky, B. E.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Acquiring better drop-size distributions of rainfall will improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. In order to fully capture the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, a robust, calibration free, low-cost instrument that provides an accurate drop-size distribution is required. Therefore, The University of Iowa Lidar Group has developed and built a new duel-plane optical disdrometer that meets these criteria. Two sheets of laser light, vertically spaced by 1 cm are produced by two 670nm laser beams passing through a collecting lens and culminating lens, respectively. The two sheets of laser light then pass through a convex lens located 20 cm from the lasers that focuses the light on a photo detector. A computer reads in and stores the voltages at 10 kHz. The velocity, diameter, shape and drop-size distribution of raindrops are extracted from the voltage measurements. Rainfall data collected in Iowa City, IA tested our disdrometer's robustness and accuracy of providing drop-size distributions. Our distrometer is advantageous because it is simple, low-cost, and requires no calibration.

  8. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  9. On plane submerged laminar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, Wilfried; Sanchez, Antonio L.

    2016-11-01

    We address the laminar flow generated when a developed stream of liquid of kinematic viscosity ν flowing along channel of width 2 h discharges into an open space bounded by two symmetric plane walls departing from the channel rim with an angle α 1 . Attention is focused on values of the jet volume flux 2 Q such that the associated Reynolds number Re = Qh / ν is of order unity. The formulation requires specification of the boundary conditions far from the channel exit. If the flow is driven by the volume flux, then the far-field solution corresponds to Jeffery-Hamel self-similar flow. However, as noted by Fraenkel (1962), such solutions exist only for α <129o in a limited range of Reynolds numbers 0 <=Re <=Rec (α) (e.g. Rec = 1 . 43 for α = π / 2). It is reasoned that an alternative solution, driven by a fraction of the momentum flux of the feed stream, may also exist for all values of Re and α, including a near-centerline Bickley jet, a surrounding Taylor potential flow driven by the jet entrainment, and a Falkner-Skan near-wall boundary layer. Numerical integrations of the Navier-Stokes equations are used to ascertain the existence of these different solutions.

  10. Overview of meteorological inputs to NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dziuk, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of meteorological systems for forecasting flight conditions is presented. The types of equipment used to gather the information used to prepare pilot briefings and in flight advisories is described. Possible improvements to the systems are classified as short term or long term.

  11. NASP - Waveriders in a hypersonic sky. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David

    1993-02-01

    A development status and technology readiness evaluation is presented for the X-30, in whose design aggressive use of CFD for investigation of hypersonic aerothermodynamics, and experimental searches for high specific strength refractory materials, have been of central importance. Manufacturing, handling, and assembly factors figure vitally in structural material selection for both airframe and propulsion system components. Attention is given to prospective propulsion cycles capable of efficient operation in several (acceleration, supersonic, hypersonic, exoatmospheric) regimes, such as the rocket/scramjet/ramjet/air-augmented system and the liquid air-cycle engine.

  12. Quality Physical Education. NASPE Resource Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    A quality physical education program provides learning opportunities, appropriate instruction, meaningful and challenging content, and student and program assessment. In addition, a quality physical education improves mental alertness, academic performance, and readiness and enthusiasm for learning in the nation's youth. This brief provides a list…

  13. Enabling technologies research and development structures. [for National Aerospace Plane Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr.; Murrow, Harold N.

    1989-01-01

    The technology-development areas of most critical importance to the definition of the NASP vehicle's airframe and integrated propulsion systems are discussed with a view to the progress made to date and the prospects for the expansion of a definitive NASP design data base on materials, structures, etc. It is necessary to achieve a very low structural-mass fraction, to withstand 6000 F radiation equilibrium fuselage nosecap temperatures, to manage an extensive active cooling network for both airframe and propulsion system capable of dissipating 10,000 BTU/sq ft-sec thermal fluxes, to maintain effective hot-gas sealing, and to manufacture high temperature effectiveness-retaining control surfaces. An account is given of successes thus far achieved.

  14. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  15. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

  16. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  17. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  18. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  19. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2016-07-12

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  20. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  1. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  2. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    PubMed

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p <0.05. There is correlation between TVP and NB line (NB) (0.8614), Frankfort mandibular incisor angle (FMIA) (0.8894), IMPA (0.6351), Apo line (Apo) (0.609), IMPACOM (0.8895) and McHorris angle (MH) (0.7769). ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the means for the 7 variables with 95% confidence level, P=0.0001. The multiple range test showed no significant difference among means: APoNB (0.88), IMPAMH (0.36), IMPANB (0.65), FMIAIMPACOM (0.01), FMIATVP (0.18), TVPIMPACOM (0.17). There was correlation among all reference planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination.

  3. Mosaic focal plane for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

  4. Geometric and analytic problems on bicomplex plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimiev, Stancho; Stoev, Peter; Stoilova, Stanislava

    2015-11-01

    Let us recall that the bicomplex plane is a complex ring of complex dimension 2. It consists of couples of the kind (z, w) = z + jw, where z and w are complex numbers and j is a symbol with the property j2 = -1. We note that the bicomplex plane admits singular points. The set of these singular points coincides with the cross-choped set of complex bisectrices (z, ±z), z is a complex. The main problem in the function theory on the bicomplex plane is to describe the interconnection between the same theory of the cross-choped subset and whole bicomplex plane. The first theory is of one complex variable and the second one is of two complex variables. Another problems are related with the comformal mappings and the movement of a partials of this subset on the whole one. Presented paper is a start studies in this direction.

  5. Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-11-24

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  6. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  7. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  8. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping.

    PubMed

    Kannas, Theodoros M; Kellis, Eleftherios; Amiridis, Ioannis G

    2011-12-01

    Kannas, TM, Kellis, E, and Amiridis, IG. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3334-3341, 2011-The need for the generation of higher joint power output during performance of dynamic activities led us to investigate the force-length relationship of the plantar flexors during consecutive stretch-shortening cycles of hopping. The hypothesis of this study was that hopping (consecutive jumps with the knee as straight as possible) on an inclined (15°) surface might lead to a better jumping performance compared with hopping on a plane surface (0°). Twelve active men performed 3 sets of 10 consecutive hops on both an incline and plane surface. Ground reaction forces; ankle and knee joint kinematics; electromyographic (EMG) activity from the medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA); and architectural data from the MG were recorded. The results showed that participants jumped significantly higher (p < 0.05) when hopping on an inclined surface (30.32 ± 8.18 cm) compared with hopping on a plane surface (27.52 ± 4.97 cm). No differences in temporal characteristics between the 2 types of jumps were observed. Incline hopping induced significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension at takeoff compared with plane hopping (p < 0.05). The fascicle length of the MG was greater at initial contact with the ground during incline hopping (p < 0.05). Moreover, the EMG activities of Sol and TA during the propulsion phase were significantly higher during incline compared with that during plane hopping (p < 0.05). It does not seem unreasonable to suggest that, if the aim of hopping plyometrics is to improve plantar flexor explosivity, incline hopping might be a more effective exercise than hopping on a plane surface.

  9. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  11. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  12. A Potential Treatment for Post-Flight Orthostatic Intolerance in Aero-Space Crews: Autogenic-Feedback Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.

    1994-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic Orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using in operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 450 head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight Orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  13. A Program of Research and Education to Advance the Design, Synthesis, and Optimization of Aero-Space System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in December 1999, the program has provided support for a total of 11 Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, of these, 6 have completed their MS degree program. The program has generated 3 MS theses and a total of 4 publications/presentations.

  14. The MSX Galactic Plane Survey Submillimeter Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, S.; Carey, S.; Egan, M. P.

    The MidCourse Space eXperiment (MSX) surveyed the Galactic plane within 5° latitude in four mid-infrared spectral bands. A set of full resolution (20'') 1.5^circ×1.5^circ images on 6'' pixel centers has been created in each spectral band by co-adding all the survey data. A lower (1.2') resolution atlas of 10^circ×10^circ images provide large-scale panoramas of the plane. A new class of objects has been identified in the images, infrared dark clouds, which are silhouetted against the mid-infrared background emission from the interstellar medium in the Galactic plane. The IRAS ISSA plates indicate that these clouds are dark out to 100 μm. Submillimeter emission traces the form of the dark cloud and reveals cores indicative of class 0 protostars.

  15. Out of plane analysis for composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, P. C.; Saff, C. R.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Mahler, M. A.; Kan, Han Pin; Kautz, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Simple two dimensional analysis techniques were developed to aid in the design of strong joints for integrally stiffened/bonded composite structures subjected to out of plane loads. It was found that most out of plane failures were due to induced stresses arising from rapid changes in load path direction or geometry, induced stresses due to changes in geometry caused by buckling, or direct stresses produced by fuel pressure or bearing loads. While the analysis techniques were developed to address a great variety of out of plane loading conditions, they were primarily derived to address the conditions described above. The methods were developed and verified using existing element test data. The methods were demonstrated using the data from a test failure of a high strain wingbox that was designed, built, and tested under a previous program. Subsequently, a set of design guidelines were assembled to assist in the design of safe, strong integral composite structures using the analysis techniques developed.

  16. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  17. Achromatic phase shifting focal plane masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kevin

    The search for life on other worlds is an exciting scientific endeavor that could change the way we perceive our place in the universe. Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered using indirect detection techniques. One of the most promising methods for discovering new exoplanets and searching for life is direct imaging with a coronagraph. Exoplanet coronagraphy of Earth-like planets is a challenging task, but we have developed many of the tools necessary to make it feasible. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph is one of the highest-performing architectures for direct exoplanet imaging. With a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask, the PIAA Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) can approach the theoretical performance limit for any direct detection technique. The architecture design is flexible enough to be applied to any arbitrary aperture shape, including segmented and obscured apertures. This is an important feature for compatibility with next-generation ground and space-based telescopes. PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks have been demonstrated in monochromatic light. An important next step for high-performance coronagraphy is the development of broadband phase-shifting focal plane masks. In this dissertation, we present an algorithm for designing the PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks to operate in broadband. We also demonstrate manufacturing of the focal plane masks, and show laboratory results. We use simulations to show the potential performance of the coronagraph system, and the use of wavefront control to correct for mask manufacturing errors. Given the laboratory results and simulations, we show new areas of exoplanet science that can potentially be explored using coronagraph technology. The main conclusion of this dissertation is that we now have the tools required to design and manufacture PIAA and PIAACMC achromatic focal plane masks. These tools can be applied to current and future telescope systems to enable new

  18. Slant plane CSAR processing using Householder transform.

    PubMed

    Burki, Jehanzeb; Barnes, Christopher F

    2008-10-01

    Fourier analysis-based focusing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected during circular flight path is a recent advancement in SAR signal processing. This paper uses the Householder transform to obtain a ground plane circular SAR (CSAR) signal phase history from the slant plane CSAR phase history by inverting the linear shift-varying system model, thereby circumventing the need for explicitly computing a pseudo-inverse. The Householder transform has recently been shown to have improved error bounds and stability as an underdetermined and ill-conditioned system solver, and the Householder transform is computationally efficient.

  19. [Normolipemic plane xanthomas and mycosis fungoides].

    PubMed

    García-Arpa, Mónica; Rodríguez-Vázquez, María; Vera, Elena; Romero, Guillermo; González-García, Jesús; Cortina, Pilar

    2005-06-01

    Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthomas are characterized by the presence of yellowish plaques on the eyelids, neck, upper trunk, buttocks and flexures. Histology shows foamy histiocytes in the dermis. Approximately half of all cases are associated with hematological disorders. On rare occasions, they have been described in the context of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. We present the case of a female patient with tumor-stage mycosis fungoides who developed normolipemic plane xanthomas coinciding with the appearance of new lymphoma lesions. We review English-language literature regarding the rare association of xanthomas and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

  20. Toward loop quantization of plane gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterleitner, Franz; Major, Seth

    2012-03-01

    The polarized Gowdy model in terms of Ashtekar-Barbero variables is reduced with an additional constraint derived from the Killing equations for plane gravitational waves with parallel rays. The new constraint is formulated in a diffeomorphism invariant manner and, when it is included in the model, the resulting constraint algebra is first class, in contrast to the prior work done in special coordinates. Using an earlier work by Banerjee and Date, the constraints are expressed in terms of classical quantities that have an operator equivalent in loop quantum gravity, making these plane gravitational wave spacetimes accessible to loop quantization techniques.

  1. Orbital plane change maneuver with aerocruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high earth orbit to low earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  2. Note: A novel integrated microforce measurement system for plane-plane contact research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Rostoucher, D.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation of plane-plane contact force has become a big issue in micro-/nano research, for example in microassembly. However with the lack of effective experimental equipments, the research on plane-plane contact has been limited to theoretical formulations or virtual simulation. In this paper, a microforce sensor and precision parallel robot integrated system is proposed for the microforce measurement of plane-plane contact. In the proposed system, the two objects are fixed on the parallel robot end-platform and the microforce sensor probe tip, respectively, and the high precision robot system is employed to provide six degree-of-freedom motions between both objects. So it is convenient for the microforce measurement between the planar objects with different orientations. As a significant application, the proposed system is utilized for measurements of pull-off force between planar objects, in which the validation of the system is demonstrated in practice. The proposed microforce measurement system is generic, which can be extended to a variety of microforce measurements in plane-plane contact.

  3. In plane oscillation of a bifilar pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, Peter F.

    2016-11-01

    The line tensions, the horizontal and vertical accelerations as well as the period of large angle oscillations parallel to the plane of a bifilar suspension are presented and have been experimentally investigated using strain gauges and a smart phone. This system has a number of advantages over the simple pendulum for studying large angle oscillations, and for measuring the acceleration due to gravity.

  4. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  5. Plane Smoothers for Multiblock Grids: Computational Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llorente, Ignacio M.; Diskin, Boris; Melson, N. Duane

    1999-01-01

    Standard multigrid methods are not well suited for problems with anisotropic discrete operators, which can occur, for example, on grids that are stretched in order to resolve a boundary layer. One of the most efficient approaches to yield robust methods is the combination of standard coarsening with alternating-direction plane relaxation in the three dimensions. However, this approach may be difficult to implement in codes with multiblock structured grids because there may be no natural definition of global lines or planes. This inherent obstacle limits the range of an implicit smoother to only the portion of the computational domain in the current block. This report studies in detail, both numerically and analytically, the behavior of blockwise plane smoothers in order to provide guidance to engineers who use block-structured grids. The results obtained so far show alternating-direction plane smoothers to be very robust, even on multiblock grids. In common computational fluid dynamics multiblock simulations, where the number of subdomains crossed by the line of a strong anisotropy is low (up to four), textbook multigrid convergence rates can be obtained with a small overlap of cells between neighboring blocks.

  6. Deep-Plane Lipoabdominoplasty in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jun-Young; Hong, Yoon Gi; Sim, Hyung Bo; Sun, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a new surgical technique by combining traditional abdominoplasty with liposuction. This combination of operations permits simpler and more accurate management of various abdominal deformities. In lipoabdominoplasty, the combination of techniques is of paramount concern. Herein, we introduce a new combination of liposuction and abdominoplasty using deep-plane flap sliding to maximize the benefits of both techniques. Methods Deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty was performed in 143 patients between January 2007 and May 2014. We applied extensive liposuction on the entire abdomen followed by a sliding flap through the deep plane after repairing the diastasis recti. The abdominal wound closure was completed with repair of Scarpa's fascia. Results The average amount of liposuction aspirate was 1,400 mL (700–3,100 mL), and the size of the average excised skin ellipse was 21.78×12.81 cm (from 15×10 to 25×15 cm). There were no major complications such as deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. We encountered 22 cases of minor complications: one wound infection, one case of skin necrosis, two cases of undercorrection, nine hypertrophic scars, and nine seromas. These complications were solved by conservative management or simple revision. Conclusions The use of deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty can correct abdominal deformities more effectively and with fewer complications than traditional abdominoplasty. PMID:27462568

  7. Microscale out-of-plane anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A microscale out-of-plane thermal sensor. A resistive heater is suspended over a substrate by supports raised with respect to the substrate to provide a clearance underneath the resistive heater for fluid flow. A preferred fabrication process for the thermal sensor uses surface micromachining and a three-dimensional assembly to raise the supports and lift the resistive heater over the substrate.

  8. End Site Control Plane Subsystem (ESCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Swany, Douglas Martin

    2014-08-12

    This project researched extending the control plane for dynamic networks into end sites like campuses and laboratories. Key aspects of consideration were signaling over local area network technologies, application integration and monitoring. We studied design considerations for such environments and developed and demonstrated a useful proof of concept implementation and documented implementation strategies for heterogeneous networks.

  9. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  10. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  11. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  12. Determining the Ice-binding Planes of Antifreeze Proteins by Fluorescence-based Ice Plane Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P.; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms. PMID:24457629

  13. Integrated focal-plane array /IFPA/ approach to large-area infrared focal plane architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A modular approach to IFPA design is presented which makes it possible to obtain a high-density infrared focal plane amendable to parallel manufacturing techniques as well as to serial plane integration and test. The percent fill factor of the design is dependent on the dimension of the individual detectors; each submodule is manufactured from identical components. The technologies including cables, interconnects, multilayer interconnect structures, and subassembly test requirements, which have direct application to scanning as well as staring integrated focal plane arrays, are discussed.

  14. The crack problem for a nonhomogeneous plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The plane elasticity problem for a nonhomogeneous medium containing a crack is considered. It is assumed that the Poisson's ratio of the medium is constant and the Young's modulus E varies exponentially with the coordinate parallel to the crack. First the half plane problem is formulated and the solution is given for arbitrary tractions along the boundary. Then the integral equation for the crack problem is derived. It is shown that the integral equation having the derivative of the crack surface displacement as the density function has a simple Cauchy type kernel. Hence, its solution and the stresses around the crack tips have the conventional square root singularity. The solution is given for various loading conditions. The results show that the effect of the Poisson's ratio and consequently that of the thickness constraint on the stress intensity factors are rather negligible.

  15. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  16. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  17. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  18. The iPTF Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Prince, Thomas A.; Miller, Adam; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kupfer, Thomas; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank J.; Oded Ofek, Eran; Shupe, David L.; Surace, Jason A.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory has conducted a survey of the Northern Galactic Plane. The major science goals of the survey include mapping variable stars throughout the Galaxy; discovering outbursting sources such as Cataclysmic Variables, FU Ori outbursts, and M-dwarf flares; and identifying rare types of compact binaries. Through 2015 the survey has obtained an average of 60 epochs in R-band in the spatial region 0 < l < 150 degrees, |b| < 20 degrees, with greatest coverage in the |b| < 5 degree region.I will describe the performance of the survey and present initial results, with a focus on variability-based identification of X-ray sources. The Zwicky Transient Facility, to begin in 2017, will include an extensive public variability survey of the Galactic Plane.

  19. Cutting Plane Algorithms for Maximum Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Bazaraa and Shetty (1979). For variational inequalities, references on the cutting plane approach are considerably less. Zuhovickii et al. (1969) (see...and can be expressed as a convex combination of a finite number of extreme points [see, e.g., Bazaraa et al., (1990)], For VI problems, both U and X are...unique solution (see, page 234 of Bazaraa and Shetty, 1979)., 32 Figure 4: A ’Strong’ Solution to a Variational Inequality Problem The rate of

  20. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

  1. Analytical modeling of PWAS in-plane and out-of-plane electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses theoretical analysis of electro-mechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS). Both free and constrained PWAS EMIS models are developed for in-plane (lengthwise) and outof plane (thickness wise) mode. The paper starts with the general piezoelectric constitutive equations that express the linear relation between stress, strain, electric field and electric displacement. This is followed by the PWAS EMIS models with two assumptions: 1) constant electric displacement in thickness direction (D3) for out-of-plane mode; 2) constant electric field in thickness direction (E3) for in-plane mode. The effects of these assumptions on the free PWAS in-plane and out-of-plane EMIS models are studied and compared. The effects of internal damping of PWAS are considered in the analytical EMIS models. The analytical EMIS models are verified by Coupled Field Finite Element Method (CF-FEM) simulations and by experimental measurements. The extent of the agreement between the analytical and experimental EMIS results is discussed. The paper ends with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.

  2. In-plane and out-of-plane motions of the human tympanic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-controlled digital holographic techniques are developed and used to measure shape and four-dimensional nano-scale displacements of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric human ears in response to tonal sounds. The combination of these measurements (shape and sound-induced motions) allows the calculation of the out-of-plane (perpendicular to the surface) and in-plane (tangential) motion components at over 1 000 000 points on the TM surface with a high-degree of accuracy and sensitivity. A general conclusion is that the in-plane motion components are 10–20 dB smaller than the out-of-plane motions. These conditions are most often compromised with higher-frequency sound stimuli where the overall displacements are smaller, or the spatial density of holographic fringes is higher, both of which increase the uncertainty of the measurements. The results are consistent with the TM acting as a Kirchhoff–Love's thin shell dominated by out-of-plane motion with little in-plane motion, at least with stimulus frequencies up to 8 kHz. PMID:26827009

  3. On the Road Map of Vogel's Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben L.

    2016-01-01

    We define "population" of Vogel's plane as points for which universal character of adjoint representation is regular in the finite plane of its argument. It is shown that they are given exactly by all solutions of seven Diophantine equations of third order on three variables. We find all their solutions: classical series of simple Lie algebras (including an "odd symplectic" one), {D_{2,1,λ}} superalgebra, the line of sl(2) algebras, and a number of isolated solutions, including exceptional simple Lie algebras. One of these Diophantine equations, namely {knm=4k+4n+2m+12,} contains all simple Lie algebras, except so{(2N+1).} Among isolated solutions are, besides exceptional simple Lie algebras, so called {e_{71/2}} algebra and also two other similar unidentified objects with positive dimensions. In addition, there are 47 isolated solutions in "unphysical semiplane" with negative dimensions. Isolated solutions mainly belong to the few lines in Vogel plane, including some rows of Freudenthal magic square. Universal dimension formulae have an integer values on all these solutions at least for first three symmetric powers of adjoint representation.

  4. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Bush, Brian W.; Gruchalla, Kenny; Smith, Steve

    2016-03-01

    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  5. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  6. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J L; Hackel, R P; Lungershausen, A W

    2003-08-03

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed.

  7. The fundamental plane correlations for globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the parameter space whose axes include a radius (core, or half-light), a surface brightness (central, or average within the half-light radius), and the central projected velocity dispersion, globular clusters lie on a two-dimensional surface (a plane, if the logarithmic quantities are used). This is analogous to the 'fundamental plane' of elliptical galaxies. The implied bivariate correlations are the best now known for globular clusters. The derived scaling laws for the core properties imply that cluster cores are fully virialized, homologous systems, with a constant (M/L) ratio. The corresponding scaling laws on the half-light scale are differrent, but are nearly identical to those derived from the 'fundamental plane' of ellipticals. This may be due to the range of cluster concentrations, which are correlated with other parameters. A similar explanation for elliptical galaxies may be viable. These correlations provide new empirical constraints for models of globular cluster formation and evolution, and may also be usable as rough distance-indicator relations for globular clusters.

  8. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  9. Control of gradual plane change during aerocruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Lee, S.; No, T. S.

    Motivated by the continuing interest in orbital maneuvering using aerodynamic forces and the oft overlooked close relationship between performance and stability analyses, we consider the stability and control of small plane change maneuvers during aerocruise. We use a model which consists of linear equations for perturbed motion with respect to a great circle trajectory about a non-rotating earth in terms of variables which allow uncoupling of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics, and partial uncoupling of lateral dynamics. Characteristics of the perturbed motion of a hypersonic flight vehicle with respect to a great circle trajectory are reviewed, including previous results which show that a change in the orientation of the great circle plane results from a general perturbation in initial conditions. This change is analogous to the heading change and lateral displacement which occur when a conventional aircraft's motion is disturbed. A linear quadratic controller for small plane change maneuvers is obtained, and an inverse method for generating controls for a steady-state aerocruise turn is described. An example is presented which shows that the majority of the optimal maneuver is approximated very well by the steady-state turn.

  10. Antenna arrays for producing plane whistler waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Linear whistler modes with ω ~= 0 . 3ωce <<ωpe are excited in a large laboratory plasma with magnetic loop antennas. A single antenna always produces a spatially bounded wave packet whose propagation cannot be directly compared to plane wave theories. By superimposing the fields from spatially separated antennas, the wavenumber along the antenna array can be nearly eliminated. 2D arrays nearly produce plane waves. The angle θ of wave propagation has been varied by a phase shift along the array. The refractive index surface n (θ) has been measured. The parallel phase and group velocities for Gendrin modes has been demonstrated. The interference between two oblique plane whistlers creates a whistler ``waveguide'' mode, i.e. standing waves for k ⊥B0 and propagation for k | |B0 . It also describes the reflection of oblique whistlers from a sharp discontinuity in the refractive index or conductivity. Radial reflections are also a dominant factor in small plasma columns of helicon devices. These results are of interest to space and laboratory plasmas. Work supported by NSF/DOE.

  11. Hamiltonian maps in the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.M.; Percival, I.C.

    1981-01-01

    Following Arnol'd's proof of the KAM theorem, an analogy with the vertical pendulum, and some general arguments concerning maps in the complex plane, detailed calculations are presented and illustrated graphically for the standard map at the golden mean frequency. The functional dependence of the coordinate q on the canonical angle variable theta is analytically continued into the complex theta-plane, where natural boundaries are found at constant absolute values of Im theta. The boundaries represent the appearance of chaotic motion in the complex plane. Two independent numerical methods based on Fourier analysis in the angle variable were used, one based on a variation-annihilation method and the other on a double expansion. The results were further checked by direct solution of the complex equations of motion. The numerically simpler, but intrinsically complex, semipendulum and semistandard map are also studied. We conjecture that natural boundaries appear in the analogous analytic continuation of the invariant tori or KAM surfaces of general nonintegrable systems.

  12. Cleavage plane determination in amphibian eggs.

    PubMed

    Sawai, T; Yomota, A

    1990-01-01

    In the present study using eggs of Cynops pyrrhogaster and Xenopus laevis, we examined (1) structural changes in the cytoplasm before the appearance of the cleavage furrow using a cytochemical method, (2) the time of cleavage plane determination depending on the mitotic apparatus (MA), by changing the shape of the eggs, and (3) the time of arrival of the "cleavage stimulus" at the cortex, by injecting colchicine solution or removing cytoplasm. Results were as follows: (1) In amphibian eggs the diastema was formed after development of the MA, appearing between the two asters after the MA had begun to degenerate. (2) The cleavage plane was preliminarily determined by the MA in the meta- to anaphase of karyokinesis. At this time, however, the egg cortex had not yet received the "cleavage stimulus" indispensable for furrow formation. (3) The egg cortex was really prepared to establish the furrow just after the edge of the diastema arrived at the cortex, when the MA had already degenerated. These results imply that the cleavage plane of the amphibian eggs is determined in two steps: the first, depending on the MA, is the determination of the direction of the growth of the diastema, and the second is the arrival of the "cleavage stimulus" at the cortex in association with the diastema.

  13. Fractional Fourier transforms, symmetrical lens systems, and their cardinal planes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, María M; Ferreira, Carlos; Mateos, Felipe

    2007-07-01

    We study the relation between optical lens systems that perform a fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) with the geometrical cardinal planes. We demonstrate that lens systems symmetrical with respect to the central plane provide an exact FRFT link between the input and output planes. Moreover, we show that the fractional order of the transform has real values between 0 and 2 when light propagation is produced between principal planes and antiprincipal planes, respectively. Finally, we use this new point of view to design an optical lens system that provides FRFTs with variable fractional order in the range (0,2) without moving the input and output planes.

  14. Palladium-chromium static strain gages for high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1992-01-01

    An electrical resistance strain gage that can provide accurate static strain measurement to a temperature of 1500 F or above is being developed both in fine wire and thin film forms. The gage is designed to be temperature compensated on any substrate material. It has a dual element: the gage element is a special alloy, palladium-13wt percent chromium (PdCr), and the compensator element is platinum (Pt). Earlier results of a PdCr based wire gage indicated that the apparent strain of this gage can be minimized and the repeatability of the apparent strain can be improved by prestabilizing the gage on the substrate for a long period of time. However, this kind of prestabilization is not practical in many applications and therefore the development of a wire gage which is prestabilized before installation on the substrate is desirable. This paper will present our recent progress in the development of a prestabilized wire gage which can provide meaningful strain data for the first thermal cycle. A weldable PdCr gage is also being developed for field testing where conventional flame-spraying installation can not be applied. This weldable gage is narrower than a previously reported gage, thereby allowing the gage to be more resistant to buckling under compressive loads. Some preliminary results of a prestabilized wire gage flame-sprayed directly on IN100, an engine material, and a weldable gage spot-welded on IN100 and SCS-6/(beta)21-S Titanium Matrix Composite (TMC), a National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) structure material, will be reported. Progress on the development of a weldable thin film gage will also be addressed. The measurement technique and procedures and the lead wire effect will be discussed.

  15. Development of a 3-D upwind PNS code for chemically reacting hypersonic flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannehill, J. C.; Wadawadigi, G.

    1992-01-01

    Two new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) codes were developed to compute the three-dimensional, viscous, chemically reacting flow of air around hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The first code (TONIC) solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a fully coupled manner using an implicit, approximately-factored, central-difference algorithm. This code was upgraded to include shock fitting and the capability of computing the flow around complex body shapes. The revised TONIC code was validated by computing the chemically-reacting (M(sub infinity) = 25.3) flow around a 10 deg half-angle cone at various angles of attack and the Ames All-Body model at 0 deg angle of attack. The results of these calculations were in good agreement with the results from the UPS code. One of the major drawbacks of the TONIC code is that the central-differencing of fluxes across interior flowfield discontinuities tends to introduce errors into the solution in the form of local flow property oscillations. The second code (UPS), originally developed for a perfect gas, has been extended to permit either perfect gas, equilibrium air, or nonequilibrium air computations. The code solves the PNS equations using a finite-volume, upwind TVD method based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver that was modified to account for real gas effects. The dissipation term associated with this algorithm is sufficiently adaptive to flow conditions that, even when attempting to capture very strong shock waves, no additional smoothing is required. For nonequilibrium calculations, the code solves the fluid dynamic and species continuity equations in a loosely-coupled manner. This code was used to calculate the hypersonic, laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at various angles of attack. In addition, the flow around the McDonnel Douglas generic option blended-wing-body was computed and comparisons were made between the perfect gas, equilibrium air, and the

  16. A US History of Airbreathing/Rocket Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion for Powering Future Aerospace Transports, with a Look Ahead to the Year 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1999-01-01

    A technohistorical and forward-planning overview of U.S. developments in combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion for advanced aerospace vehicle applications is presented. Such system approaches fall into one of two categories: (1) Combination propulsion systems (separate, non-interacting engines installed), and (2) Combined-Cycle systems. The latter, and main subject, comprises a large family of closely integrated engine types, made up of both airbreathing and rocket derived subsystem hardware. A single vehicle-integrated, multimode engine results, one capable of operating efficiently over a very wide speed and altitude range, atmospherically and in space. While numerous combination propulsion systems have reached operational flight service, combined-cycle propulsion development, initiated ca. 1960, remains at the subscale ground-test engine level of development. However, going beyond combination systems, combined-cycle propulsion potentially offers a compelling set of new and unique capabilities. These capabilities are seen as enabling ones for the evolution of Spaceliner class aerospace transportation systems. The following combined-cycle hypersonic engine developments are reviewed: (1) RENE (rocket engine nozzle ejector), (2) Cryojet and LACE, (3) Ejector Ramjet and its derivatives, (4) the seminal NASA NAS7-377 study, (5) Air Force/Marquardt Hypersonic Ramjet, (6) Air Force/Lockheed-Marquardt Incremental Scramjet flight-test project, (7) NASA/Garrett Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE), (8) National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), (9) all past projects; and such current and planned efforts as (10) the NASA ASTP-ART RBCC project, (11) joint CIAM/NASA DNSCRAM flight test,(12) Hyper-X, (13) Trailblazer,( 14) W-Vehicle and (15) Spaceliner 100. Forward planning programmatic incentives, and the estimated timing for an operational Spaceliner powered by combined-cycle engines are discussed.

  17. Wafer plane inspection with soft resist thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Carl; Shi, Rui-fang; Wihl, Mark; Xiong, Yalin; Pang, Song

    2008-10-01

    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is an inspection mode on the KLA-Tencor TeraScaTM platform that uses the high signalto- noise ratio images from the high numerical aperture microscope, and then models the entire lithographic process to enable defect detection on the wafer plane[1]. This technology meets the needs of some advanced mask manufacturers to identify the lithographically-significant defects while ignoring the other non-lithographically-significant defects. WPI accomplishes this goal by performing defect detection based on a modeled image of how the mask features would actually print in the photoresist. There are several advantages to this approach: (1) the high fidelity of the images provide a sensitivity advantage over competing approaches; (2) the ability to perform defect detection on the wafer plane allows one to only see those defects that have a printing impact on the wafer; (3) the use of modeling on the lithographic portion of the flow enables unprecedented flexibility to support arbitrary illumination profiles, process-window inspection in unit time, and combination modes to find both printing and non-printing defects. WPI is proving to be a valuable addition to the KLA-Tencor detection algorithm suite. The modeling portion of WPI uses a single resist threshold as the final step in the processing. This has been shown to be adequate on several advanced customer layers, but is not ideal for all layers. Actual resist chemistry has complicated processes including acid and base-diffusion and quench that are not consistently well-modeled with a single resist threshold. We have considered the use of an advanced resist model for WPI, but rejected it because the burdensome requirements for the calibration of the model were not practical for reticle inspection. This paper describes an alternative approach that allows for a "soft" resist threshold to be applied that provides a more robust solution for the most challenging processes. This approach is just

  18. Symmetrically converging plane thermonuclear burn waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2013-10-01

    Five variants of a one-dimensional problem on synchronous bilateral action of two identical drivers on opposite surfaces of a plane layer of DT fuel with the normal or five times greater initial density, where the solution includes two thermonuclear burn waves propagating to meet one another at the symmetry plane, are simulated. A laser pulse with total absorption of energy at the critical density (in two variants) and a proton bunch that provides for a nearly isochoric heating (in three variants) are considered as drivers. A wide-range equation of state for the fuel, electron and ion heat conduction, self-radiation of plasma and plasma heating by α-particles are taken into account. In spite of different ways of ignition, various models of α-particle heat, whether the burn wave remains slow or transforms into the detonation wave, and regardless of way of such a transformation, the final value of the burn-up factor depends essentially on the only parameter Hρ0, where H is the half-thickness of the layer and ρ0 is the initial fuel density. This factor is about 0.35 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 0.7 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. The expansion stage of the flow (after reflecting the burn or detonation wave from the symmetry plane) gives the main contribution in forming the final values of the burn-up factor and the gain at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and increases them approximately two times at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the proton driver, the final value of the gain is about 200 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 2000 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the laser driver, the above values are four times less in conformity with the difference between the driver energies.

  19. Seismological Constraints on Fault Plane Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, K.

    2015-12-01

    The down-dip geometry of seismically active normal faults is not well known. Many examples of normal faults with down-dip curvature exist, such as listric faults revealed in cross-section or in seismic reflection data, or the exposed domes of core complexes. However, it is not understood: (1) whether curved faults fail in earthquakes, and (2) if those faults have generated earthquakes, is the curvature a primary feature of the rupture or due to later modification of the plane? Even if an event is surface-rupturing, because of the limited depth-extent over which observations can be made, it is difficult to reliably constrain the change in dip with depth (if any) and therefore the fault curvature. Despite the uncertainty in seismogenic normal fault geometries, published slip inversions most commonly use planar fault models. We investigate the seismological constraints on normal fault geometry using a forward-modelling approach and present a seismological technique for determining down-dip geometry. We demonstrate that complexity in the shape of teleseismic body waveforms may be used to investigate the presence of down-dip fault plane curvature. We have applied this method to a catalogue of continental and oceanic normal faulting events. Synthetic models demonstrate that the shapes of SH waveforms at along-strike stations are particularly sensitive to fault plane geometry. It is therefore important to consider the azimuthal station coverage before modelling an event. We find that none of the data require significant down-dip curvature, although the modelling results for some events remain ambiguous. In some cases we can constrain that the down-dip fault geometry is within 20° of planar.

  20. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  1. Experiments with unilateral bite planes in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sergl, H G; Farmland, M

    1975-04-01

    1. Insertion of bite planes on the right mandibular lateral teeth of eight young rabbits caused load changes in the masticatory system. Eight other animals served as controls. 2. The induced changes were equilibrated during the nine-week experimental period by adapation processes. At the end of the period all teeth were in occlusion and the glenoid fossa-condylar process distance was equal on both sides. 3. The adaptation was the result of several mechanisms working together. We found changes in the alveolar region and at distant growth structures. Cranial scolioses were observed. 4. Masticatory functional loading is a factor which regulates growth in the region of the facial skeleton.

  2. Coincidence lattices in the hyperbolic plane.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Andrade, M A; Aragón-González, G; Aragón, J L; Gómez-Rodríguez, A

    2011-01-01

    The problem of coincidences of lattices in the space R(p,q), with p + q = 2, is analyzed using Clifford algebra. We show that, as in R(n), any coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of at most two reflections by vectors of the lattice. Bases and coincidence indices are constructed explicitly for several interesting lattices. Our procedure is metric-independent and, in particular, the hyperbolic plane is obtained when p = q = 1. Additionally, we provide a proof of the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem for R(p,q), with p + q = 2, that includes an algorithm to decompose an orthogonal transformation into a product of reflections.

  3. Dynamic Shear Band Development in Plane Strain,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    dicular to the initial propagation direction slows (town and further straining occurs inl a hand. The ul1timlate course of events is essentially...pr scribed velocita oal ysiave e n/sec. lie order of ilacint fiie V1 = -3 I/seecorrspon i toean avera elcirt of -300/etersos(i setal *" increase inl ...Spitzig, WV.A., 1980, *Initiation of Localized Shear Bands inl Plane Siraiii..1. .1lcch. Phys. Solids. \\Vol. 28, pp. 113-128. Asaro. R.J., 1983

  4. Black Plane Solutions and Localized Gravitational Energy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the issue of gravitational energy localization for static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, and Møller prescriptions, to the metric representing this category of solutions and determine the energy distribution for each. We find that the three prescriptions offer identical energy distributions, suggesting their utility for this type of model. PMID:27347499

  5. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

  6. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Alp; Demirkan, Fahir; Sabir, Nuran; Oto, Murat; Yorukoglu, Cagdas; Kiter, Esat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21–84 years). Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA) and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA) along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA) in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78–102°). On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP); instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively). Combined correlation is perfect (R2 = 1) as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component positioning

  7. Plane Strain Deformation in Generalized Thermoelastic Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Kumar, Rajneesh; Ram, Paras

    2008-08-01

    The present investigation is concerned with plane strain deformation in homogeneous isotropic generalized thermoelastic diffusion subjected to a normal force, thermal source, and chemical potential source. Laplace and Fourier transform techniques are employed to solve the problem. The integral transform have been inverted by using a numerical technique to obtain the displacements, stresses, temperature distribution, and chemical potential distribution. The numerical results of these quantities are illustrated graphically to depict the response of various sources in the theories of thermoelastic diffusion and thermoelasticity for a particular model. Some particular cases have been deduced from the present investigation.

  8. Plane wave reflection at flow intakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1987-06-01

    A treatment is presented for prediction of the acoustic field associated with an open duct termination whose inflow is at a mean Mach number, and requires a quantitative description of both the acoustic and flow conditions in the vicinity of the open end. This problem is presently simplified by restricting the acoustic field within the duct to plane wave motion, with component wave amplitudes p(+) and p(-), where p(+) is incident at the termination. A 'vena contracta' develops in the pipe just downstream of the intake, leading to a significant mean pressure loss.

  9. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Osborne, Matthew T; Alben, Silas

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on inclined planes. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes, triangular and sinusoidal waves, across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficients, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling waves with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  10. Braiding patterns on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Keith; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Vorobieff, Peter

    2004-07-08

    A jet of fluid flowing down a partially wetting, inclined plane usually meanders but--by maintaining a constant flow rate--meandering can be suppressed, leading to the emergence of a beautiful braided structure. Here we show that this flow pattern can be explained by the interplay between surface tension, which tends to narrow the jet, and fluid inertia, which drives the jet to widen. These observations dispel misconceptions about the relationship between braiding and meandering that have persisted for over 20 years.

  11. PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE IS A WHEEL BORING MACHINE USED DURING THE TIME THIS AREA WAS A WHEEL SHOP. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  13. 5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT, FILL CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. 2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MIDSLOPE VICINITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MID-SLOPE VICINITY, CUT CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. EASI - EQUILIBRIUM AIR SHOCK INTERFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    New research on hypersonic vehicles, such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), has raised concerns about the effects of shock-wave interference on various structural components of the craft. State-of-the-art aerothermal analysis software is inadequate to predict local flow and heat flux in areas of extremely high heat transfer, such as the surface impingement of an Edney-type supersonic jet. EASI revives and updates older computational methods for calculating inviscid flow field and maximum heating from shock wave interference. The program expands these methods to solve problems involving the six shock-wave interference patterns on a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge with an equilibrium chemically reacting gas mixture (representing, for example, the scramjet cowl of the NASP). The inclusion of gas chemistry allows for a more accurate prediction of the maximum pressure and heating loads by accounting for the effects of high temperature on the air mixture. Caloric imperfections and specie dissociation of high-temperature air cause shock-wave angles, flow deflection angles, and thermodynamic properties to differ from those calculated by a calorically perfect gas model. EASI contains pressure- and temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties to determine heating rates, and uses either a calorically perfect air model or an 11-specie, 7-reaction reacting air model at equilibrium with temperatures up to 15,000 K for the inviscid flowfield calculations. EASI solves the flow field and the associated maximum surface pressure and heat flux for the six common types of shock wave interference. Depending on the type of interference, the program solves for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction, expansion-fan/boundary-layer interaction, attaching shear layer or supersonic jet impingement. Heat flux predictions require a knowledge (from experimental data or relevant calculations) of a pertinent length scale of the interaction. Output files contain flow

  18. In-plane and out-of-plane defectivity in thin films of lamellar block copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Mitra, Indranil; Bozhchenko, Alona; ...

    2015-10-29

    We investigate the ordering of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) lamellar copolymers (periodicity L0 = 46 nm) confined between a free surface and brushed poly(styrene-r-methyl methacrylate) silicon substrate. The processing temperature was selected to eliminate wetting layers at the top and bottom interfaces, producing approximately neutral boundaries that stabilize perpendicular domain orientations. The PS-PMMA film thickness (t = 0.5L0–2.5L0) and brush grafting density (Σ = 0.2–0.6 nm–2) were systematically varied to examine their impacts on in-plane and out-of-plane ordering. Samples were characterized with a combination of high-resolution microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. In-plane order at the top of themore » film (quantified through calculation of orientational correlation lengths) improved with tn, where the exponent n increased from 0.75 to 1 as Σ decreased from 0.6 to 0.2 nm–2. Out-of-plane defects such as tilted domains were detected in all films, and the distribution of domain tilt angles was nearly independent of t and Σ. These studies demonstrate that defectivity in perpendicular lamellar phases is three-dimensional, comprised of in-plane topological defects and out-of-plane domain tilt, with little or no correlation between these two types of disorder. As a result, strong interactions between the block copolymer and underlying substrate may trap both kinds of thermally generated defects.« less

  19. In-plane and out-of-plane defectivity in thin films of lamellar block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Mitra, Indranil; Bozhchenko, Alona; Strzalka, Joseph; Stein, Gila E.

    2015-10-29

    We investigate the ordering of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) lamellar copolymers (periodicity L0 = 46 nm) confined between a free surface and brushed poly(styrene-r-methyl methacrylate) silicon substrate. The processing temperature was selected to eliminate wetting layers at the top and bottom interfaces, producing approximately neutral boundaries that stabilize perpendicular domain orientations. The PS-PMMA film thickness (t = 0.5L0–2.5L0) and brush grafting density (Σ = 0.2–0.6 nm–2) were systematically varied to examine their impacts on in-plane and out-of-plane ordering. Samples were characterized with a combination of high-resolution microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. In-plane order at the top of the film (quantified through calculation of orientational correlation lengths) improved with tn, where the exponent n increased from 0.75 to 1 as Σ decreased from 0.6 to 0.2 nm–2. Out-of-plane defects such as tilted domains were detected in all films, and the distribution of domain tilt angles was nearly independent of t and Σ. These studies demonstrate that defectivity in perpendicular lamellar phases is three-dimensional, comprised of in-plane topological defects and out-of-plane domain tilt, with little or no correlation between these two types of disorder. As a result, strong interactions between the block copolymer and underlying substrate may trap both kinds of thermally generated defects.

  20. Phase retrieval in the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaessler, W.; Peter, D.; Storz, C.

    Phase retrieval in the focal plane is a very appealing technique, which would simplify the optomechanics of an Adaptive Optics (AO) system a lot and could gain sensitivity under certain conditions. For conventional AO systems the limiting magnitude of the system does not depend on the diameter of the telescope, since any wave front sensor splits the light into sub-apertures, which are in number related to the telescope diameter. Having this in mind the phase retrieval technique looks promising as it breaks this paradigm in the diffraction limited case and thus yields some gain in limiting magnitude with larger telescope diameter. Until now this path was not followed deeply in astronomical AO systems, as the solution of the inversion is non unique and demands much higher calculation power as in conventional AO. This might change with state of the art computers. We give a short overview of some existing techniques and algorithms of focal plane AO and report results of other groups, which tested them in laboratory and on sky. To solve the drawback of the large computational demands and to increase the sensitivity we propose a bootstrapping process with dynamical binning.

  1. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  2. Dense granular flows down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Robert; Borzsonyi, Tamas

    2006-03-01

    Granular flow on a rough inclined plane is an important model system in which to study the basic rules of the dynamics of granular materials. Despite intensive study, many features of such flows are still incompletely understood. For uniformly flowing layers at relatively shallow inclination, we consider experimentally the the basic flow rheology of the granular media and propose new scalings to collapse our data for glass beads and rough sand as a function of inclination angle and particle diameter. At steep inclinations above some angle θs (θs/θr 1.3-1.5, where θr stands for the angle of repose) for flowing grains, numerics and theory predict that the surface roughness is inadequate to dissipate energy gained in the gravitational field, and the flow should continue to accelerate. We report on our experimental results on the properties of granular flows on a steeply inclined plane and define the domains of steady flows. We also discuss the instabilities of such flows leading to spatial patterns.

  3. Trajectory optimization for the National aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    While continuing the application of the inverse dynamics approach in obtaining the optimal numerical solutions, the research during the past six months has been focused on the formulation and derivation of closed-form solutions for constrained hypersonic flight trajectories. Since it was found in the research of the first year that a dominant portion of the optimal ascent trajectory of the aerospace plane is constrained by dynamic pressure and heating constraints, the application of the analytical solutions significantly enhances the efficiency in trajectory optimization, provides a better insight to understanding of the trajectory and conceivably has great potential in guidance of the vehicle. Work of this period has been reported in four technical papers. Two of the papers were presented in the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference (Hilton Head, SC, August, 1992) and Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference (Orlando, FL, December, 1992). The other two papers have been accepted for publication by Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, and will appear in 1993. This report briefly summarizes the work done in the past six months and work currently underway.

  4. Burnett description for plane Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Uribe, F J; Garcia, A L

    1999-10-01

    Two recent works have shown that at small Knudsen number (K) the pressure and temperature profiles in plane Poiseuille flow exhibit a different qualitative behavior from the profiles obtained by the Navier-Stokes equations. Tij and Santos [J. Stat. Phys. 76, 1399 (1994)] used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Kook model to show that the temperature profile is bimodal and the pressure profile is nonconstant. Malek-Mansour, Baras, and Garcia [Physica A 240, 255 (1997)] qualitatively confirmed these predictions in computer experiments using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). In this paper we compare the DSMC measurements of hydrodynamic variables and non-equilibrium fluxes with numerical solutions of the Burnett equations. Given that they are in better agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations [E. Salomons and M. Mareschal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] of strong shock waves than Navier-Stokes [F. J. Uribe, R. M. Velasco, and L. S. García-Colín, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2044 (1998)], and that they are second order in Knudsen number suggests that the Burnett equations may provide a better description for large K. We find that for plane Poiseuille flow the Burnett equations do not predict the bimodal temperature profile but do recover many of the other anomalous features (e.g., nonconstant pressure and nonzero parallel heat flux).

  5. Comments on a military transatmospheric aerospace plane

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a military transatmospheric aerospace plane candidate involves the selection of the mission(s), operating environment, operational concept, payload definition, specific design choices, and a close look at the technology base. A broad range of missions and concepts were reviewed prior to the selection of the mission and concepts presented in this paper. The mission selected was CONUS based global strike. The flight profile selected was a boost-glide-skip unrefuled global range trajectory. Two concepts were selected. The first was a rocket-powered design and the second was a combined air-breathing and rocket powered design. The rocket-powered configuration is a high lift-to-drag ratio modified lifting body. The rocket engine is an advanced dual fuel linear aero-spike. The air-breathing powered configuration is a modified waverider configuration. The engine for the air-breather is a rocket based combined cycle engine. Performance and technology readiness comparisons are presented for the two concepts. The paper closes with a discussion of lessons learned about military transatmospheric aerospace planes over the past twenty years. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Burnett description for plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, F. J.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    1999-10-01

    Two recent works have shown that at small Knudsen number (K) the pressure and temperature profiles in plane Poiseuille flow exhibit a different qualitative behavior from the profiles obtained by the Navier-Stokes equations. Tij and Santos [J. Stat. Phys. 76, 1399 (1994)] used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Kook model to show that the temperature profile is bimodal and the pressure profile is nonconstant. Malek-Mansour, Baras, and Garcia [Physica A 240, 255 (1997)] qualitatively confirmed these predictions in computer experiments using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). In this paper we compare the DSMC measurements of hydrodynamic variables and non-equilibrium fluxes with numerical solutions of the Burnett equations. Given that they are in better agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations [E. Salomons and M. Mareschal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] of strong shock waves than Navier-Stokes [F. J. Uribe, R. M. Velasco, and L. S. García-Colín, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2044 (1998)], and that they are second order in Knudsen number suggests that the Burnett equations may provide a better description for large K. We find that for plane Poiseuille flow the Burnett equations do not predict the bimodal temperature profile but do recover many of the other anomalous features (e.g., nonconstant pressure and nonzero parallel heat flux).

  7. Waveguide Metacouplers for In-Plane Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-06-01

    The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of the vectorial nature of light and a crucial parameter in a wide range of remote sensing applications. Nevertheless, the SOP is rather cumbersome to probe experimentally, as conventional detectors respond only to the intensity of the light, hence losing the phase information between orthogonal vector components. In this work, we propose a type of polarimeter that is compact and well suited for in-plane optical circuitry while allowing for immediate determination of the SOP through simultaneous retrieval of the associated Stokes parameters. The polarimeter is based on plasmonic phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces that facilitate normal incident light to launch in-plane photonic-waveguide modes propagating in six predefined directions with the coupling efficiencies providing a direct measure of the incident SOP. The functionality and accuracy of the polarimeter, which essentially is an all-polarization-sensitive waveguide metacoupler, is confirmed through full-wave simulations at the operation wavelength of 1.55 μ m .

  8. Stokes problems for moving half-planes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y; Weinbaum, S

    1995-01-01

    New exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained for the unbounded and bounded oscillatory and impulsive tangential edgewise motion of touching half-infinite plates in their own plane. In contrast to Stokes classical solutions for the harmonic and impulsive motion of an infinite plane wall, where the solutions are separable or have a simple similarity form, the present solutions have a two-dimensional structure in the near region of the contact between the half-infinite plates. Nevertheless, it is possible to obtain relatively simple closed-form solutions for the flow field in each case by defining new variables which greatly simplify the r- and theta- dependence of the solutions in the vicinity of the contact region. These solutions for flow in a half-infinite space are then extended to bounded flows in a channel using an image superposition technique. The impulsive motion has application to the motion near geophysical faults, whereas the oscillatory motion has arisen in the design of a novel oscillating half-plate flow chamber for examining the effect of fluid shear stress on cultured cell monolayers.

  9. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  10. Jets and storm tracks in ?-plane models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Harvey, Ben

    2013-04-01

    We will present new results from linear calculations and non-linear simulations of a two-layer baroclinic ?-plane model. The model consists of two interacting levels with dynamical temperature anomalies (as in the Eady model), but by its nature provides a consistent description of the continuous 3-dimensional velocity field inside the domain. Our set-up has realistic jet-profiles, yet has a very low-dimensional parameter space. The model is shown to exhibit realistic linear baroclinic instability properties. In addition, it is shown that the introduction of a ?-plane term induces a jet and a storm-track that is highly non-linear: it exhibits a realistic spiral jet structure and jet-exit region, as is the case for the observed N. Hemisphere jet on Earth. This seems to imply that the variability of the N. Atlantic jet stream is not the result of complex topographic and orographic boundary conditions in the N. Hemisphere, as recent simulations appear to suggest, but rather the result of the spherical geometry of the Earth, setting the right conditions for relevant non-linear interactions between Rossby waves and the jet.

  11. Extension and contraction of faulted marker planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Marie D.; Delaney, Paul T.

    1985-08-01

    We present graphical and analytical methods to determine the extensional or contractional separation of a faulted planar marker using commonly measured field data: fault attitude, slip direction, and bedding or other marker-plane attitude. This determination is easily accomplished for horizontal markers. Faults with normal components of slip extend the markers and indicate extensional tectonics; those with reverse components are contractional. Although the methods quantify this simple relation for horizontal markers, they are most useful in rocks with planar fabrics of steep dip where marker separation cannot be uniquely determined from map or outcrop patterns alone and where faults with normal components of dip slip can contract markers and those with reverse components can extend them. The methods rely on two parameters: (1) the angle between normals to the marker and fault planes and (2) the angle between the slip direction and intersection of the marker and fault. This second parameter measures the obliquity of slip relative to the directions of maximum extensional or contractional separation of the marker, and for a horizontal marker, it is equivalent to the rake of the slip direction. The graphical method requires stereographic projections routinely used for faulting data; the analytical method is programmable on a calculator. *Present address: Department of Applied Earth Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94035

  12. 63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO PASS OVER THE SUMMIT (THE HUMP OF LAND AT THE TOP OF PLANE TO HOLD BACK THE WATER AT THAT LEVEL), THE BOATS HAVE SEEN HINGED AND TWO CRADLES ARE USED TO CARRY THE BOAT UP THE PLANE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  13. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  14. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases

  15. Eta Carinae: Orientation of The Orbital Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Ivarsson, S.; Corcoran, M. F.; Verner, E.; Hillier, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence continues to build that Eta Carinae is a massive binary system with a hidden hot companion in a highly elliptical orbit. We present imaging and spectroscopic evidence that provide clues to the orientation of the orbital plane. The circumstellar ejecta, known as the Homunculus and Little Homunculus, are hourglass-shaped structures, one encapsulated within the other, tilted at about 45 degrees from the sky plane. A disk region lies between the bipolar lobes. Based upon their velocities and proper motions, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, very bright emission clumps 0.1 to 0.3" Northwest from Eta Carinae, lie in the disk. UV flux from the hot companion, Eta Car B, photoexcites the Weigelt blobs. Other clumps form a complete chain around the star, but are not significantly photoexcited. The strontium filament, a 'neutral' emission structure, lies in the same general direction as the Weigelt blobs and exhibits peculiar properties indicative that much mid-UV, but no hydrogen-ionizing radiation impinges on this structure. It is shielded by singly-ionized iron. P Cygni absorptions in Fe I I lines, seen directly in line of sight from Eta Carinae, are absent in the stellar light scattered by the Weigelt blobs. Rather than a strong absorption extending to -600 km/s, a low velocity absorption feature extends from -40 to -150 km/s. No absorbing Fe II exists between Eta Carinae and Weigelt D, but the outer reaches of the wind are intercepted in line of sight from Weigelt D to the observer. This indicates that the UV radiation is constrained by the dominating wind of Eta Car A to a small cavity carved out by the weaker wind of Eta Car B. Since the high excitation nebular lines are seen in the Weigelt blobs at most phases, the cavity, and hence the major axis of the highly elliptical orbit, must lie in the general direction of the Weigelt blobs. The evidence is compelling that the orbital major axis of Eta Carinae is projected at -45 degrees position angle on the sky. Moreover

  16. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position

  17. Occlusal plane determination using custom made broadrick occlusal plane analyser: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Manvi, Supriya; Miglani, Shaveta; Rajeswari, C L; Srivatsa, G; Arora, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Proper occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long span posterior restorations are designed. The determination of the occlusal plane can have a profound effect on the short and long term success of a restorative case. Purpose of Study. (1) To determine the appropriate occlusal curve for individual patients. (2) To compare the deviation of the clinical occlusal curve with the ideal ones. Materials and Methods. A total of 20 subjects were examined and study models were made of their maxillary and mandibular dentition. Inter-occlusal records were made and the casts were articulated in semiadjustable articulator. An ideal occlusal plane was created. The distance of the farthest cusp tip from the Broadrick curve was measured along the long axis of the tooth for each individual. Paired t-tests were used to compare the findings between subjects and controls. Results. A statistically significant difference P < 0.05 was found in the deviation from the Broadrick curve between patients who have lost posterior teeth and the control group who had a full dentition with no missing teeth. Conclusion. Proper utilization of the broadrick flag on a semi-adjustable articulator will allow for a correct determination of the occlusal plane.

  18. Optimal plane changes using third-body forces.

    PubMed

    Villac, B F; Scheeres, D J

    2004-05-01

    The fuel optimality of third-body driven plane changes (i.e., plane changes performed by using third-body forces) over one-impulse transfers is investigated numerically and analytically. In particular, the range of third-body driven plane changes that are realizable is shown to be restricted and one impulse must be used in the uncovered regions. However, when third-body driven plane changes are realizable, it is shown that they are always optimal above a certain critical value (about 40 degrees ) that depends on the initial condition. Contour plots of optimal DeltaV values to perform a desired plane changes are given.

  19. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    PubMed Central

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  20. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  1. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  2. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  3. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide.

  4. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zammert, Stefan; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Many shear flows follow a route to turbulence that has striking similarities to bifurcation scenarios in low-dimensional dynamical systems. Among the bifurcations that appear, crisis bifurcations are important because they cause global transitions between open and closed attractors, or indicate drastic increases in the range of the state space that is covered by the dynamics. We here study exterior and interior crisis bifurcations in direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace. We trace the state space dynamics from the appearance of the first three-dimensional exact coherent structures to the transition from an attractor to a chaotic saddle in an exterior crisis. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. The bifurcations contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space.

  5. On turbulent spots in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John

    1991-01-01

    Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a database obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The flow inside the turbulent area has a strong resemblance to that found in the fully developed turbulent channel. Suitably defined mean and r.m.s. fluctuations as well as the internal shear-layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The breakdown process of the oblique waves is reminiscent of the secondary instability observed during transition to turbulence in channel and boundary-layer flows. Other detailed characteristics associated with the Poiseuille spot are presented and are compared with experimental results.

  6. Stabilized dispersive focal plane systems for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Beebe, Chip R.; Brooks, Mark J.; Davis, Michael W.; Klar, Robert A.; Roberts, John M.; Rose, Randall J.; Winters, Gregory S.

    2012-09-01

    As the costs of space missions continue to rise, the demand for compact, low mass, low-cost technologies that maintain high reliability and facilitate high performance is increasing. One such technology is the stabilized dispersive focal plane system (SDFPS). This technology provides image stabilization while simultaneously delivering spectroscopic or direct imaging functionality using only a single optical path and detector. Typical systems require multiple expensive optical trains and/or detectors, sometimes at the expense of photon throughput. The SDFPS is ideal for performing wide-field low-resolution space-based spectroscopic and direct-imaging surveys. In preparation for a suborbital flight, we have built and ground tested a prototype SDFPS that will concurrently eliminate unwanted image blurring due to the lack of adequate platform stability, while producing images in both spectroscopic and direct-imaging modes. We present the overall design, testing results, and potential scientific applications.

  7. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  8. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  9. Vorticity Fluctuations in Plane Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz de Zarate, Jose; Sengers, Jan V.

    2010-11-01

    In this presentation we evaluate the flow-induced amplification of the thermal noise in plane Couette configuration. The physical origin of the noise is the random nature of molecular collisions, that contribute with a stochastic component to the stress tensor (Landau's fluctuating hydrodynamics). This intrinsic stochastic forcing is then amplified by the mode- coupling mechanisms associated to shear flow. In a linear approximation, noise amplification can be studied by solving stochastic Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations. We compare the efficiency of the different mechanisms, being the most important the direct coupling between Squire and Orr-Sommerfed equations. The main effect is to amplify wall-normal vorticity fluctuations with an spanwise modulation at wave number around 1.5, a configuration that resembles the streaks that have been proposed as precursors of the flow instability.

  10. The in-focus variable line spacing plane grating monochromator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, R.

    2011-09-01

    The in-focus variable line spacing plane grating monochromator is based on only two plane optical elements, a variable line spacing plane grating and a plane pre-mirror that illuminates the grating at the angle of incidence that will focus the required photon energy. A high throughput beamline requires only a third optical element after the exit slit, an aberration corrected elliptical toroid. Since plane elements can be manufactured with the smallest figure errors, this monochromator design can achieve very high resolving power. Furthermore, this optical design can correct the deformations induced by the heat load on the optics along the dispersion plane. This should allow obtaining a resolution of 10 meV at 1 keV with currently achievable figure errors on plane optics. The position of the photon source when an insertion device center is not located at the center of the straight section, a common occurrence in new insertion device beamlines, is investigated.

  11. Stationary equilibrium singularity distributions in the plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, P. K.; Ostrovskyi, V.

    2012-02-01

    We characterize all stationary equilibrium point singularity distributions in the plane of logarithmic type, allowing for real, imaginary or complex singularity strengths. The dynamical system follows from the assumption that each of the N singularities moves according to the flow field generated by all the others at that point. For strength vector \\vec{\\Gamma} \\in {\\Bbb R}^N , the dynamical system is the classical point vortex system obtained from a singular discrete representation of the vorticity field from ideal, incompressible fluid flow. When \\vec{\\Gamma} \\in \\Im , it corresponds to a system of sources and sinks, whereas when \\vec{\\Gamma} \\in {\\Bbb C}^N the system consists of spiral sources and sinks discussed in Kochin et al (1964 Theoretical Hydromechanics 1 (London: Interscience)). We formulate the equilibrium problem as one in linear algebra, A \\vec{\\Gamma} = 0 , A \\in {\\Bbb C}^{N \\times N} , \\vec{\\Gamma} \\in {\\Bbb C}^N , where A is a N × N complex skew-symmetric configuration matrix which encodes the geometry of the system of interacting singularities. For an equilibrium to exist, A must have a kernel and \\vec{\\Gamma} must be an element of the nullspace of A. We prove that when N is odd, A always has a kernel, hence there is a choice of \\vec{\\Gamma} for which the system is a stationary equilibrium. When N is even, there may or may not be a non-trivial nullspace of A, depending on the relative position of the points in the plane. We provide examples of evenly and randomly distributed points on curves such as circles, figure eights, flower-petal configurations and spirals. We then show how to classify the stationary equilibria in terms of the singular spectrum of A.

  12. ECLAIRs detection plane: current state of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, K.; Pons, R.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Mercier, K.; Mandrou, P.; Marty, W.; Nasser, G.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2014-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in near real time in the 4-150 keV energy band. The design of ECLAIRs has been mainly driven by the objective of achieving a low-energy threshold of 4 keV, unprecedented for this type of instrument. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe semiconductor detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3 organized on elementary hybrid matrices of 4x8 detectors. The detectors will be polarized from -300V to -500V and operated at -20°C to reduce both the leakage current and the polarization effect induced by the Schottky contact. The remarkable low-energy threshold homogeneity required for the detection plane has been achieved thanks to: i) an extensive characterization and selection of the detectors, ii) the development of a specific low-noise 32-channel ASIC, iii) the realization of an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic (holding 32 CdTe detectors with their high voltage grid), associated to an HTCC ceramic (housing the ASIC chip within an hermetic enclosure). In this paper, we start describing a complete hybrid matrix, and then the manufacturing of a first set of 50 matrices (representing 1600 detectors, i.e. a quarter of ECLAIRs detector's array). We show how this manufacturing allowed to validate the different technologies used for this hybridization, as well as the industrialization processes. During this phase, we systematically measured the leakage current on Detector Ceramics after an outgassing, and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) for each of the 32 channels on ASIC Ceramics, in order to optimize the coupling of the two ceramics. Finally, we performed on each hybrid module, spectral measurements at -20°C in our vacuum chamber, using several calibrated radioactive sources (241Am and 55Fe), to check the performance homogeneity of the 50 modules. The results demonstrated that the 32-detector hybrid matrices

  13. Focal-plane electric field sensing with pupil-plane holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Por, Emiel H.; Keller, Christoph U.

    2016-07-01

    The direct detection and spectral characterization of exoplanets requires a coronagraph to suppress the diffracted star light. Amplitude and phase aberrations in the optical train fill the dark zone of the coronagraph with quasi-static speckles that limit the achievable contrast. Focal-plane electric field sensing, such as phase diversity introduced by a deformable mirror (DM), is a powerful tool to minimize this residual star light. The residual electric field can be estimated by sequentially applying phase probes on the DM to inject star light with a well-known amplitude and phase into the dark zone and analyzing the resulting intensity images. The DM can then be used to add light with the same amplitude but opposite phase to destructively interfere with this residual star light. Using a static phase-only pupil-plane element we create holographic copies of the point spread function (PSF), each superimposed with a certain pupil-plane phase probe. We therefore obtain all intensity images simultaneously while still retaining a central, unaltered science PSF. The electric field sensing method only makes use of the holographic copies, allowing for correction of the residual electric field while retaining the central PSF for uninterrupted science data collection. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of this method with numerical simulations.

  14. A Cool Tool for Deicing Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Nicknamed the "ice zapper," the Electro Expulsive Separation System (EESS) is an aircraft ice removal system that "pulverizes ice and removes layers of ice as thin as frost or as thick as an inch of glaze," according to the principle inventor of the technology. Patented by NASA's Ames Research Center, the EESS consists of layers of conductors encased in materials that are bonded directly to the airframe structure. When ice accumulates on the aircraft, an electric current is sent through the conductors, causing them to pulse. Even though the conductors move less than a twenty-thousandth of an inch in just a millisecond, the movement is sufficient to pulverize the ice. It is this highly accelerated motion that shatters the ice into particles the size of table salt; too small to be harmful to the aircraft. When compared with other systems in use, such as thermal deicers and pneumatic boots, the ice zapper does very well. Thermal deicers are fairly common, although they use an enormous amount of energy and present the possibility of ice refreezing. Pneumatic boots are not always effective because they require an inflation device that is unable to work until a quarter inch of ice has accumulated. With both systems, the ice that is loosened may still be large enough to cause problems for the plane once dislodged.

  15. Coupled Riccati equations for complex plane constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Kristin M.; Sesak, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A new Linear Quadratic Gaussian design method is presented which provides prescribed imaginary axis pole placement for optimal control and estimation systems. This procedure contributes another degree of design freedom to flexible spacecraft control. Current design methods which interject modal damping into the system tend to have little affect on modal frequencies, i.e., they predictably shift open plant poles horizontally in the complex plane to form the closed loop controller or estimator pole constellation, but make little provision for vertical (imaginary axis) pole shifts. Imaginary axis shifts which reduce the closed loop model frequencies (the bandwidths) are desirable since they reduce the sensitivity of the system to noise disturbances. The new method drives the closed loop modal frequencies to predictable (specified) levels, frequencies as low as zero rad/sec (real axis pole placement) can be achieved. The design procedure works through rotational and translational destabilizations of the plant, and a coupling of two independently solved algebraic Riccati equations through a structured state weighting matrix. Two new concepts, gain transference and Q equivalency, are introduced and their use shown.

  16. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  17. HgCdTe hybrid focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, J. P.

    1984-09-01

    Second-generation IR systems, consisting of 2-D mosaics of IR detectors, have been under intense development for the last few years. One of the most successful architectures has been a HgCdTe hybrid focal plane array (FPA), using a Si charge-coupled device (CCD) readout chip interfaced to epitaxial HgCdTe. Detection is made by backside-illuminated photovoltaic detectors with high fill factors and quantum efficiency. The detectors are coupled into the CCD by In bumps which mass bond each detector in the mosaic to a CCD input. Advances have been made in uniform, large area HgCdTe detector material that can be grown with a bandgap from less than 0.1 eV to greater than 1 eV. CCD architectures have been developed with simple, linear inputs and dynamic ranges up to 80 dB. Hybrid FPAs are currently being tested in prototype imaging systems, for detecting thermal differences as well as reflected sunlight in the IR. In the 3-5μm region, these arrays have proven capable of noise-equivalent temperature differences as low as 0.01 K, acquired at a 400 Hz frame rate. In addition to improving current imaging systems, these area arrays allow new system concepts to be brought to fruition.

  18. Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes

    PubMed Central

    Biancofiore, L.; Gallaire, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163–185 (2007)]10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)]10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171–195 (2006)]10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs. PMID:22865998

  19. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K.

    2014-07-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  20. Advanced dynamic pyroelectric focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglaub, Ricardo A. G.; Celinska, Jolanta B.; McWilliams, Christopher R.; Paz de Araujo, Carlos A.; Forbes, Timothy; Pankin, Jayson D.

    2010-04-01

    The pyroelectric effect has been characterized for single-pixel elements consisting of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric material as the sensing elements. These pixels have been integrated into second-generation focal plane arrays. The constituent second-generation pixels include thermal insulating layers and an infrared absorber layer. The MEMS-less arrays are operated in active mode, a technique that eliminates radiation choppers found in other passive pyroelectric IR imagers. This paper addresses the results of precursor 2x2 to 14x14 second-generation arrays of SBT elements, the active detection mechanism, and the unique read-out, interrogation signal, and the synchronization electronics. The second-generation 14x14 pixels array was implemented to demonstrate the performance of an active pyroelectric array as a precursor to larger size arrays using different pixel dimensions. The active mode detection eliminates the use of a chopper, enables the dynamic partition of the array into pixel domains in which pixel sensitivity in the domains can be adjusted independently. This unique feature in IR detection can be applied to the simultaneous tracking of diverse contrast objects. In addition, by controlling the thickness of the absorber material the arrays can be optimized for maximum response at specified wavelengths by means of quarter-wavelength interferometry.

  1. Quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Leibscher, Monika; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2009-07-15

    A semianalytical approach to the quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum is developed, based on Mathieu functions which appear as stationary wave functions. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for pendular analogs of coherent and squeezed states of a harmonic oscillator, induced by instantaneous changes of the periodic potential energy function. Coherent pendular states are discussed between the harmonic limit for small displacements and the inverted pendulum limit, while squeezed pendular states are shown to interpolate between vibrational and free rotational motion. In the latter case, full and fractional revivals as well as spatiotemporal structures in the time evolution of the probability densities (quantum carpets) are quantitatively analyzed. Corresponding expressions for the mean orientation are derived in terms of Mathieu functions in time. For periodic double well potentials, different revival schemes, and different quantum carpets are found for the even and odd initial states forming the ground tunneling doublet. Time evolution of the mean alignment allows the separation of states with different parity. Implications for external (rotational) and internal (torsional) motion of molecules induced by intense laser fields are discussed.

  2. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  3. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes.

    PubMed

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999)PHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  4. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  5. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  6. Avalanche dynamics on a rough inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Halsey, Thomas C; Ecke, Robert E

    2008-07-01

    The avalanche behavior of gravitationally forced granular layers on a rough inclined plane is investigated experimentally for different materials and for a variety of grain shapes ranging from spherical beads to highly anisotropic particles with dendritic shape. We measure the front velocity, area, and height of many avalanches and correlate the motion with the area and height. We also measure the avalanche profiles for several example cases. As the shape irregularity of the grains is increased, there is a dramatic qualitative change in avalanche properties. For rough nonspherical grains, avalanches are faster, bigger, and overturning in the sense that individual particles have down-slope speeds u p that exceed the front speed uf as compared with avalanches of spherical glass beads that are quantitatively slower and smaller and where particles always travel slower than the front speed. There is a linear increase of three quantities: (i) dimensionless avalanche height, (ii) ratio of particle to front speed, and (iii) the growth rate of avalanche speed with increasing avalanche size with increasing tan theta r where theta r is the bulk angle of repose, or with increasing beta P, the slope of the depth averaged flow rule, where both theta r and beta P reflect the grain shape irregularity. These relations provide a tool for predicting important dynamical properties of avalanches as a function of grain shape irregularity. A relatively simple depth-averaged theoretical description captures some important elements of the avalanche motion, notably the existence of two regimes of this motion.

  7. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained from a numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow are described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving periodic suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  8. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow is reported. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time-evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction-blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  9. Characterization of Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide with Narrow Ground Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1997-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide with finite width ground planes is characterized through measurements, conformal mapping, and the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique for the purpose of determining the optimum ground plane width. The attenuation and effective permittivity of the lines are related to its geometry. It is found that the characteristics of the Finite Ground Coplanar line (FGC) are not dependent on the ground plane width if it is greater than twice the center conductor width, but less than lambda(sub d)/8. In addition, electromagnetic field plots are presented which show for the first time that electric fields in the plane of the substrate terminate on the outer edge of the ground plane, and that the magnitude of these fields is related to the ground plane width.

  10. Phase measurement profilometry based on a virtual reference plane method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongbing; Lee, Jinlong; Gao, Xiaorong

    2016-09-01

    In Phase Measurement Profilometry(PMP), the setting of the reference plane plays an important role. It is a critical step to capture the grating fringe projected onto the reference plane in PMP. However, it is sometimes difficult to choose and place the reference plane in practical applications. In this paper, a virtual reference plane is introduced into PMP, with which 3D measurement can be realized without using the physical reference plane. The virtual reference plane is generated through extracting a partial area of the deformed fringe image that corresponds to a planar region and employing the interpolation algorithm. The method is proved theoretically through simulation experiments, providing a new suggestion for actual measurement by PMP.

  11. Error compensation research on the focal plane attitude measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongfei; Zhang, Feifan; Zhai, Chao; Zhou, Zengxiang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. Combined with the six DOF parallel focal plane attitude measurement instrument that had been already designed, space attitude error compensation of the attitude measurement instrument for the focal plane was studied in order to measure the deformation and surface shape of the focal plane in different space attitude accurately.

  12. Plane wave gravitons, curvature singularities and string physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R. . Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1991-03-21

    This paper discusses bounded (compactifying) potentials arising from a conspiracy between plane wave graviton and dilaton condensates. So are string propagation and supersymmetry in spacetimes with curvature singularities.

  13. Angle measures, general rotations, and roulettes in normed planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Vitor; Horváth, Ákos G.; Martini, Horst

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a special group of bijective maps of a normed plane (or, more generally, even of a plane with a suitable Jordan curve as unit circle) is introduced which we call the group of general rotations of that plane. It contains the isometry group as a subgroup. The concept of general rotations leads to the notion of flexible motions of the plane, and to the concept of Minkowskian roulettes. As a nice consequence of this new approach to motions the validity of strong analogues to the Euler-Savary equations for Minkowskian roulettes is proved.

  14. Barotropic Vortex Evolution on a Beta Plane.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Lloyd J.; Ooyama, Katsuyuki V.

    1990-01-01

    A barotropic, primitive equation (shallow water) model is used on the beta plane to investigate the influence of divergence, total relative angular momentum (RAM) and advective nonlinearities on the evolution of a hurricane-like vortex. The multinested numerical model is based on the spectral application of a finite element representation. The undisturbed fluid depth is taken to be 1 km. Scaling of the vorticity equation, in conjunction with a Bessel function spectral decomposition, indicates that divergence should have a very small effect on the hurricane motion. Simulations with an initially symmetric cyclonic vortex in a resting environment confirm this analysis, and contradict previous published studies on the effect of divergence in a barotropic model.During a 120 h simulation the cyclonic vortex develops asymmetries that have an influence far from the initial circulation. The total RAM within a large circle centered on the vortex decreases with time, and then oscillates about zero. For circles with radii 1000 km, the total RAM approaches, but does not reach, zero. An angular momentum budget indicates that the horizontal angular momentum flux tends to counteract the net Coriolis torque on the vortex. If the total RAM of the initial symmetric vortex is zero, the weak far-field asymmetries are essentially eliminated. The motion of the vortex is not, however, related to the RAM in any simple way.Within a few days the near-vortex asymmetries reach a near-steady state. The Asymmetric Absolute vorticity (AAV) is nearly uniform within 350 km of the vortex center. The homogenization of AAV, which occurs within the closed vortex gyre, is likely due to shearing by the symmetric wind, combined with removal of energy at the smallest scales. The homogenization effectively neutralizes the planetary beta effect, as well as the vorticity associated with an environmental wind.

  15. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  16. THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W. E-mail: apinnick@bu.edu E-mail: bwtaylor@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of A{sub V} ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg{sup 2} of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18 Degree-Sign to 56 Degree-Sign and b =-1 Degree-Sign to +1 Degree-Sign . Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 {mu}m) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain 'step-and-integrate' polarimetry over its full 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/{sigma}{sub P} > 3); most of these have m{sub H} < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  17. The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W.

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of AV ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg2 of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18° to 56° and b =-1° to +1°. Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 μm) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain "step-and-integrate" polarimetry over its full 10 × 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/σ P > 3); most of these have mH < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  18. Double in-plane alignment in biaxially textured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elofsson, V.; Saraiva, M.; Boyd, R. D.; Sarakinos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The scientific interest and technological relevance of biaxially textured polycrystalline thin films stem from their microstructure that resembles that of single crystals. To explain the origin and predict the type of biaxial texture in off-normally deposited films, Mahieu et al. have developed an analytical model [S. Mahieu et al., Thin Solid Films 515, 1229 (2006)]. For certain materials, this model predicts the occurrence of a double in-plane alignment, however, experimentally only a single in-plane alignment has been observed and the reason for this discrepancy is still unknown. The model calculates the resulting in-plane alignment by considering the growth of faceted grains with an out-of-plane orientation that corresponds to the predominant film out-of-plane texture. This approach overlooks the fact that in vapor condensation experiments where growth kinetics is limited and only surface diffusion is active, out-of-plane orientation selection is random during grain nucleation and happens only upon grain impingement. Here, we compile and implement an experiment that is consistent with the key assumptions set forth by the in-plane orientation selection model by Mahieu et al.; a Cr film is grown off-normally on a fiber textured Ti epilayer to pre-determine the out-of-plane orientation and only allow for competitive growth with respect to the in-plane alignment. Our results show unambiguously a biaxially textured Cr (110) film that possesses a double in-plane alignment, in agreement with predictions of the in-plane selection model. Thus, a long standing discrepancy in the literature is resolved, paving the way towards more accurate theoretical descriptions and hence knowledge-based control of microstructure evolution in biaxially textured thin films.

  19. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting III: Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This is the third part of a study of plane transformations described in a complex setting. After the study of homotheties, translations, rotations and reflections, we proceed now to the study of plane similarities, either direct or inverse. Their group theoretical properties are described, and their action on classical geometrical objects is…

  20. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting I: Homotheties-Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, T.

    2006-01-01

    A previous note described how complex numbers can be used for elementary analytic geometry in the plane, describing lines, circles and their intersections using complex Cartesian equations. In the present note, a description of elementary plane transformations, namely homotheties and translations, their group structure and their operations on…

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  6. Gaining Momentum: Re-Creating Galileo's Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

    1998-01-01

    Provides an excerpt of Galileo's description of his inclined plane experiment. Describes the replication of Galileo's inclined plane experiment by students at Rice University (Texas) using an Internet site called the Galileo Project; then describes the authors' replication of the Project. (AEF)

  7. A New Dynamics Cart on an Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorsson, Pall

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment to study the acceleration of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane. Demonstrates how multitiming and the study of the movement in both directions allows the determination of the component of gravitational force along an inclined plane without any assumptions about friction. (JRH)

  8. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  9. 3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View some what similar to that of NJ-30-2. Stone track bed is visible under cable system of NJ-30-2. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 10 West, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  10. 7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE AND EAST FACE OF CUT STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  11. 4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT TO CONEMAUGH RIVER AND AREA OF LOWER INCLINE - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  13. In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2013-08-23

    The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Eric S.; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L.; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H.; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A.; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. Objectives: To compare an out-of-plane interscalene catheter technique to the in-plane technique in a randomized clinical trial. Patients and Methods: Eighty-four patients undergoing open shoulder surgery were randomized to either the in-plane or out-of-plane ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene technique. The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included pain ratings in the recovery room and at 48 hours, morphine consumption, the incidence of catheter dislodgments, procedure time, and block difficulty. Procedural data and all pain ratings were collected by blinded observers. Results: There were no differences in the primary outcome of median VAS pain rating at 24 hours between the out-of-plane and in-plane groups (1.50; IQR, [0 - 4.38] vs. 1.25; IQR, [0 - 3.75]; P = 0.57). There were also no differences, respectively, between out-of-plane and in-plane median PACU pain ratings (1.0; IQR, [0 - 3.5] vs. 0.25; IQR, [0 - 2.5]; P = 0.08) and median 48-hour pain ratings (1.25; IQR, [1.25 - 2.63] vs. 0.50; IQR, [0 - 1.88]; P = 0.30). There were no differences in any other secondary endpoint. Conclusions: Our out-of-plane technique did not provide superior analgesia to the in-plane technique. It did not increase the number of complications. Our technique is an acceptable alternative in situations where the in-plane technique is difficult to perform. PMID:26705526

  15. Planes of satellite galaxies and the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Pomarède, Daniel; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Recent observational studies have demonstrated that the majority of satellite galaxies tend to orbit their hosts on highly flattened, vast, possibly corotating planes. Two nearly parallel planes of satellites have been confirmed around the M31 galaxy and around the Centaurus A galaxy, while the Milky Way also sports a plane of satellites. It has been argued that such an alignment of satellites on vast planes is unexpected in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model of cosmology if not even in contradiction to its generic predictions. Guided by ΛCDM numerical simulations, which suggest that satellites are channelled towards hosts along the axis of the slowest collapse as dictated by the ambient velocity shear tensor, we re-examine the planes of local satellites systems within the framework of the local shear tensor derived from the Cosmicflows-2 data set. The analysis reveals that the Local Group and Centaurus A reside in a filament stretched by the Virgo cluster and compressed by the expansion of the Local Void. Four out of five thin planes of satellite galaxies are indeed closely aligned with the axis of compression induced by the Local Void. Being the less massive system, the moderate misalignment of the Milky Way's satellite plane can likely be ascribed to its greater susceptibility to tidal torques, as suggested by numerical simulations. The alignment of satellite systems in the local Universe with the ambient shear field is thus in general agreement with predictions of the ΛCDM model.

  16. Computational insight into the capacitive performance of graphene edge planes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhan, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Cummings, Peter T.; ...

    2017-02-01

    Recent experiments have shown that electric double-layer capacitors utilizing electrodes consisting of graphene edge plane exhibit higher capacitance than graphene basal plane. However, theoretical understanding of this capacitance enhancement is still limited. Here we applied a self-consistent joint density functional theory calculation on the electrode/electrolyte interface and found that the capacitance of graphene edge plane depends on the edge type: zigzag edge has higher capacitance than armchair edge due to the difference in their electronic structures. We further examined the quantum, dielectric, and electric double-layer (EDL) contributions to the total capacitance of the edge-plane electrodes. Classical molecular dynamics simulation foundmore » that the edge planes have higher EDL capacitance than the basal plane due to better adsorption of counter-ions and higher solvent accessible surface area. Finally, our work therefore has elucidated the capacitive energy storage in graphene edge planes that take into account both the electrode's electronic structure and the EDL structure.« less

  17. Pad Plane Design and Readout for SAMURAI TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yenello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI TPC is being built at Michigan State University to be used in the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN in Japan, as part of the Symmetry Energy project, which focuses on obtaining constraints on the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. The presentation will discuss the development of the TPC as well as design for readout plane design for the TPC. These involve enabling the use of existing and future front end electronics (FEE), making the most of limited space, designing a circuit board for the pad plane, and techniques to glue the pad plane. The pad plane has been designed to work with either STAR or AGET electronics. The pad plane is made of a circuit board designed to minimize crosstalk and capacitance. The board must be built in smaller pieces and tiled, using alignment pins and precision gluing. Prototypes for the pad plane to FEE connection, pad plane gluing and STAR card mounting will be presented. Supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0004835.

  18. Testing the two planes of satellites in the Centaurus group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Oliver; Jerjen, Helmut; Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Binggeli, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Context. The existence of satellite galaxy planes poses a major challenge for the standard picture of structure formation with non-baryonic dark matter. Recently Tully et al. (2015, ApJ, 802, L25) reported the discovery of two almost parallel planes in the nearby Cen A group using mostly high-mass galaxies (MB< -10 mag) in their analysis. Aims: Our team detected a large number of new group member candidates in the Cen A group. This dwarf galaxy sample, combined with other recent results from the literature, enables us to test the galaxy distribution in the direction of the Cen A group and to determine the statistical significance of the geometric alignment. Methods: Taking advantage of the fact that the two galaxy planes lie almost edge-on along the line of sight, the newly found group members can be assigned relative to the two planes. We used various statistical methods to test whether the distribution of galaxies follows a single normal distribution or shows evidence of bimodality as has been reported earlier. Results: We confirm that the data used for the Tully et al. study support the picture of a bimodal structure. When the new galaxy samples are included, however, the gap between the two galaxy planes is closing and the significance level of the bimodality is reduced. Instead, the plane that contains Cen A becomes more prominent. Conclusions: We found evidence that the galaxy system around Cen A is made up of only one plane of satellites. This plane is almost orthogonal to the dust plane of Cen A. Accurate distances to the new dwarf galaxies will be required to measure the precise 3D distribution of the galaxies around Cen A.

  19. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  20. Test chamber for low-background IR focal plane testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staller, Craig; Capps, Richard W.; Butler, Douglas; Moss, Nancy; Norwood, Wynn

    1989-01-01

    A unique and versatile vacuum chamber has been designed for JPL's IR Focal Plane Technology Group. This chamber is equipped with multiple ports for cryogen and electrical vacuum feedthroughs, pumping units, vacuum gages, sources, and detector camera heads. The design incorporates a liquid-nitrogen-cooled optical table and radiation shield for low-background IR detector testing. Focal planes can be tested at temperatures ranging from 300 K to that of liquid helium. This paper describes the design and construction of this low-background IR focal plane test chamber and discusses some of its distinctive features. An analysis of the test chamber's performance is also presented.

  1. Colliding plane waves in F(R)=RN gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahamtan, T.; Halilsoy, M.; Habib Mazharimousavi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We identify a region of a specific F( R)= R N gravity solution without external sources which is isometric to the spacetime of colliding plane waves (CPW). The analogy renders construction and collision of plane waves in F( R)= R N gravity possible. The geometry of the interaction region is equivalent to the Reissner-Nordström (RN) one, however there is no Einstein-Maxwell (EM) source --this is made possible by using the model of RN gravity and the parameter N>1 creates the source. For N=1, we naturally recover the plane waves (and their collision) in Einstein's theory.

  2. Large molecular cloud in Lupus far from the Galactic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, L.A.; Thaddeus, P.; Bronfman, L.; Cohen, R.S.

    1987-03-01

    The detection of a large molecular cloud at a distance of more than 200 pc from the Galactic plane, situated above a prominent hole in the CO distribution in the plane, is reported. The cloud has a radial velocity of -41 km/s, much larger than is characteristic of most local, high-latitude gas. The cloud's displacement above the plane is the largest for any cloud yet detected. The mass of the cloud is about 100,000 solar masses, and its gravitational potential energy is about 7 x 10 to the 50th ergs. A single event may have created both the cloud and the nearby hole. 27 references.

  3. High temperature NASP engine seals: A technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Tong, Mike

    1991-01-01

    Progress in developing advanced high temperature engine seal concepts and related sealing technologies for advanced hypersonic engines are reviewed. Design attributes and issues requiring further development for both the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal are examined. Leakage data are presented for these seals for engine simulated pressure and temperature conditions and compared to a target leakage limit. Basic elements of leakage flow models to predict leakage rates for each of these seals over the wide range of pressure and temperature conditions anticipated in the engine are also presented.

  4. Physical Educators' Perceptions of Their Use of NASPE Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Langley, Jennifer; Bishop, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of childhood obesity in the United States is approximately 17%. Because physical education can be a key intervention strategy against this epidemic, this study was conducted to determine physical educators' perceptions on their use of recommended national standards specifically focused on physical fitness and activity in their classroom.…

  5. Investigations into a potential laser-NASP transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Laser propelled flight/transport technology is surveyed. A detailed conceptual design is presented for an on-place Mercury-Lightcraft: other designs are briefly explored for larger, 15-place Executive Lightcraft, and 150 to 350 passenger Jumbo Lightcraft.

  6. Epitaxial growth, electrical and optical properties of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Ajagunna, A. O.; Iliopoulos, E.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Georgakilas, A.

    2010-01-15

    The heteroepitaxy of a-plane (1120) InN films on r-plane (1102) sapphire substrates, by nitrogen radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, has been investigated and compared to that of c-plane (0001) InN. The epitaxial growth of a-plane InN proceeded through the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of three-dimensional islands, resulting in surface roughness that increased monotonically with epilayer thickness. The full width at half maximum of (1120) x-ray diffraction rocking curves decreased significantly with increasing InN thickness, characteristic of structural improvement, and it reached the value of 24 arcmin for a 1 {mu}m thick film. Hall-effect measurements exhibited a similar dependence of electron concentration and mobility on thickness for both the a- and c-plane InN films. The analysis of the Hall-effect measurements, by considering the contribution of two conducting layers, indicates a similar accumulation of low mobility electrons with N{sub s}>10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} at the films' surface/interfacial region for both the a- and c-plane InN films. From optical transmittance measurements, the absorption edge of 0.768 eV was determined for the 1 {mu}m a-plane film, consistent with the expected Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited a lower energy peak at 0.631 eV, suggesting defect-related transitions.

  7. 2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  8. 5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  9. 1. Overview of Building 1015 (land plane hanger), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of Building 1015 (land plane hanger), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. 4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  11. 6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  12. 3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. 8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  14. 7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. Effect of periodontal root planing on dentin permeability.

    PubMed

    Fogel, H M; Pashley, D H

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate the effects of root planing on the permeability of human root dentin in vitro. Unerupted 3rd molars were used. The crowns were removed and longitudinal slices made of the root. The hydraulic conductance of the root dentin was measured before and after root planing, acid etching and potassium oxalate application using a fluid filtration method. The results showed that root planing creates a smear layer that reduces the permeability of the underlying dentin. However, this smear layer is acid labile. Thus, root planing may ultimately cause increased dentin permeability and the associated sequelae of sensitive dentin, bacterial invasion of tubules, reduced periodontal reattachment and pulpal irritation.

  16. 16. A VIEW DIRECTLY INTO THE NORTHNORTHEAST FACING PURSUIT PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. A VIEW DIRECTLY INTO THE NORTH-NORTHEAST FACING PURSUIT PLANE BAY OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 14. LOOKING WEST INTO THE EAST PURSUIT PLANE BAY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. LOOKING WEST INTO THE EAST PURSUIT PLANE BAY OF AR-9. LOW WALLED CREW SHELTER AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    PubMed

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia.

  19. Getting the Drop on Flight With the "X" Planes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson uses the online NASA CONNECT™™: Proportionality: The X-Plane Generation Educator Guide and the NASA aeronautics bookmark: Designing the 21st Century Aerospace Vehicle and Ring Wing Glid...

  20. Distorted Plane Waves on Manifolds of Nonpositive Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingremeau, Maxime

    2017-03-01

    We will consider the high frequency behaviour of distorted plane waves on manifolds of nonpositive curvature which are Euclidean or hyperbolic near infinity, under the assumption that the curvature is negative close to the trapped set of the geodesic flow and that the topological pressure associated to half the unstable Jacobian is negative. We obtain a precise expression for distorted plane waves in the high frequency limit, similar to the one in Guillarmou and Naud (Am J Math 136:445-479, 2014) in the case of convex co-compact manifolds. In particular, we will show {L_{loc}^∞} bounds on distorted plane waves that are uniform with frequency. We will also show a small-scale equidistribution result for the real part of distorted plane waves, which implies sharp bounds for the volume of their nodal sets.

  1. Optimal aeroassisted return from high earth orbit with plane change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winh, N. X.; Hanson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the problem of aeroassisted return from a high earth orbit to LEO is presented. The approach taken is that of the minimum fuel aeroassisted return from the higher to the lower orbit with occasional maneuvers within the atmosphere while performing a plane change. The plane changes are calculated for different angular alterations, and a model is developed for optimized atmospheric turning. It is found that larger plane changers demand deeper penetration into the denser regions of the atmosphere, where greater velocity depletion will also occur. Attention is given to lift effects and their optimized solution, and an atmospheric exit condition is characterized which will require one post atmospheric impulse to achieve a LEO of 380 km. Finally, it is shown that application of an impulse will always result in a plane change.

  2. Optimal aeroassisted return from high earth orbit with plane change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winh, N. X.; Hanson, J. M.

    1983-10-01

    An analytical treatment of the problem of aeroassisted return from a high earth orbit to LEO is presented. The approach taken is that of the minimum fuel aeroassisted return from the higher to the lower orbit with occasional maneuvers within the atmosphere while performing a plane change. The plane changes are calculated for different angular alterations, and a model is developed for optimized atmospheric turning. It is found that larger plane changers demand deeper penetration into the denser regions of the atmosphere, where greater velocity depletion will also occur. Attention is given to lift effects and their optimized solution, and an atmospheric exit condition is characterized which will require one post atmospheric impulse to achieve a LEO of 380 km. Finally, it is shown that application of an impulse will always result in a plane change.

  3. Students as Researchers: An Inclined-Plane Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an inquiry activity in which students explore the variables that influence the amount of time it takes a ball to roll down an inclined plane. Relates features of the activity to recommendations in the NCTM Standards. (MKR)

  4. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-09-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)

  5. Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthoma associated with monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yoon K; Elpern, David J

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthoma (DNPX) was first described by Altman and Winkelmann in 1962. It is a rare and non-inherited form of xanthomatosis. Clinically, the dermatosis is characterized by the presence of symmetric yellowish-orange plaques that favor the neck, upper trunk, flexural folds and periorbital region. It has been recognized to be associated with hematological diseases, especially with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy. We present a patient with diffuse plane xanthoma, normal lipid level, and monoclonal gammopathy.

  6. Kinoform phase plates for focal plane irradiance profile control

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.N.; Lawson, J.K.; Manes, K.R.; Powell, H.T. ); Nugent, K.A. )

    1994-03-15

    A versatile, rapidly convergent, iterative algorithm is presented for the construction of kinoform phase plates for tailoring the far-field intensity distribution of laser beams. The method consists of repeated Fourier transforming between the near-field and the far-field planes with constraints imposed in each plane. For application to inertial confinement fusion, the converged far-field pattern contains more than 95% of the incident energy inside a desired region and is relatively insensitive to beam aberrations.

  7. General image method in a plane-layered elastostatic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, N.; Li, V. C.

    1988-01-01

    The general-image method presently used to obtain the elastostatic fields in plane-layered media relies on the use of potentials in order to represent elastic fields. For the case of a single interface, this method yields the displacement field in closed form, and is applicable to antiplane, plane, and three-dimensional problems. In the case of multiplane interfaces, the image method generates the displacement fields in terms of infinite series whose convergences can be accelerated to improve method efficiency.

  8. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  9. Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

  10. Orion: The Largest Infrared Hybrid Focal Plane in Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Albert M.; Merrill, Michael; Ball, William J.; Henden, Arne A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; McCreight, Craig R.

    2003-03-01

    Orion is a program to develop a 2048x2048 infrared focal plane using InSb PV detectors. It is the natural follow-on to the successful Aladdin 1024x1024 program, which was the largest IR focal plane of the 90's. Although the pixels are somewhat smaller than Aladdin, the overall focal plane is over 50mm in size and for the present is the largest IR focal plane of the 21st century. The work is being done by Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO but better known as SBRC) by many of the same people who created the Aladdin focal plane. The design is very similar to the successful Aladdin design with the addition of reference pixels to lower noise and drift effects in long integrations. So far we have made five focal plane modules with hybridized InSb detectors. In this paper we will discuss the unique design features of this device as well as present test data taken from these devices.

  11. Cryogenic focal plane flatness measurement with optical zone slope tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Jerry; Sirk, Martin; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Besuner, Robert W.; Hoff, Matthew; Perry, Paul; Heetderks, Henry D.; Bebek, Christopher J.; Levi, Michael E.

    2011-10-01

    We describe a non-contact optical measurement method used to determine the surface flatness of a cryogenic sensor array developed for the JDEM mission. Large focal planes envisioned for future visible to near infra-red astronomical large area point-source surveys such as JDEM, WFIRST, or EUCLID must operate at cryogenic temperatures while maintaining focal plane flatness within a few 10's of μm over half-meter scales. These constraints are imposed by sensitivity conditions that demand low noise observations from the sensors and the large-field, fast optical telescopes necessary to obtain the science yield. Verifying cryogenic focal plane flatness is challenging because μm level excursions need to be measured within and across many multi-cm sized sensors using no physical contact and while situated within a high-vacuum chamber. We have used an optical metrology Shack-Hartmann scheme to measure the 36x18 cm focal plane developed for the JDEM mission at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The focal plane holds a 4x8 array of CCDs and HgCdTe detectors. The flatness measurement scheme uses a telescope-fed micro-lens array that samples the focal plane to determine slope changes of individual sensor zones.

  12. Monodisperse dry granular flows on inclined planes: role of roughness.

    PubMed

    Goujon, C; Thomas, N; Dalloz-Dubrujeaud, B

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have pointed out the importance of the basal friction on the dynamics of granular flows. We present experimental results on the influence of the roughness of the inclined plane on the dynamics of a monodisperse dry granular flow. We found experimentally that there exists a maximum of the friction for a given relative roughness. This maximum is shown to be independent of the slope angle. This behavior is observed for four planes with different bump sizes (given by the size of the beads glued on the plane) from 200 microm to 2 mm. The relative roughness corresponding to the maximum of the friction can be predicted with a geometrical model of stability of one single bead on the plane. The main parameters are the size of the bumps and the size of the flowing beads. In order to obtain a higher precision, the model also takes into account the spacing between the bumps of the rough plane. Experimental results and model are in good agreement for all the planes we studied. Other parameters, like the sphericity of the beads, or irregularities in the thickness of the layer of glued particles, are shown to be of influence on the friction.

  13. Contact resonance AFM to quantify the in-plane and out-of-plane loss tangents of polymers simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, E.; Turner, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    Contact resonance atomic force microscope (AFM) methods are used to quantify the elastic and viscoelastic properties of numerous materials including polymers. More recently, U-shaped AFM thermalevers have been developed to allow the local heating of samples, and the resonances of these probes are much more complex. These probes also allow the in-plane and out-of-plane tip-sample motion to be excited independently at the same location using a Lorentz force excitation. Here, such a probe is used to determine the in-plane and out-of-plane viscoelastic properties at the same location. The approach is demonstrated with respect to the indentation and shear loss tangents on high-density polyethylene and polystyrene.

  14. Concurrent Monitoring of In-plane Strain and Out-of-plane Displacement of Tire Using Digital Image Correlation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    In order to improve performance of anti lock brake system (ABS) and detect condition of road surface, intelligent tires that monitor strain of interior surface and rolling radius of tire are demanded. However, the high stiffness of an attached sensor like a strain gauge causes debonding of sensors from tire rubber. In the present study, noncontact concurrent monitoring method is proposed using digital image correlation method (DICM) and spotlight projection. In-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement (rolling radius) are calculated by using image processing with an image of interior surface of tire that is taken with a single CCD camera fixed on wheel rim. New monitoring system is applied to Al beam and commercially available radial tire. As a result, this monitoring system is proved to be able to measure in-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement with high accuracy, and confirmed to be effective for concurrent monitoring of tires.

  15. Nonlinear coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane motion about a stationary point in geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiring, B. R.

    1981-01-01

    The range of validity of the solutions in the vicinity of the libration points include significant out-of-plane oscillations by the satellite. The stability of inclined geosynchronous satellites is studied.

  16. Rigorous formulation for electromagnetic plane-wave scattering from a general-shaped groove in a perfectly conducting plane: comment.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A

    2008-05-01

    We show that the problem of scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by a general-shaped groove engraved on a perfectly conducting plane, which was recently studied by Basha et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 1647 (2007)], was solved 11 years ago using the same formulation. This method was further extended to deal with a finite number of grooves and also with complex apertures including several nonlossy and lossy dielectrics, as well as real metals.

  17. Uniform stress fields inside multiple inclusions in an elastic infinite plane under plane deformation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ming; Gao, Cun-Fa; Ru, C. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple elastic inclusions with uniform internal stress fields in an infinite elastic matrix are constructed under given uniform remote in-plane loadings. The method is based on the sufficient and necessary condition imposed on the boundary value of a holomorphic function that guarantees the existence of the holomorphic function in a multiply connected region. The unknown shape of each of the multiple inclusions is characterized by a conformal mapping. This work focuses on a major large class of multiple inclusions characterized by a simple condition that covers and is much beyond the known related results reported in previous works. Extensive examples of multiple inclusions with or without geometrical symmetry are shown. Our results showed that the inclusion shapes obtained for the uniformity of internal stress fields are independent of the remote loading only when all of the multiple inclusions have the same shear modulus as that of the matrix. Moreover, specific conditions are derived on remote loading, elastic constants of the inclusions and uniform internal stress fields, which guarantee the existence of multiple symmetric inclusions or multiple rotationally symmetrical inclusions with uniform internal stress fields. PMID:27547096

  18. Monolithically integrated HgCdTe focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicu, Silviu; Lee, Tae-Seok; Ashokan, Renganathan; Grein, Christoph H.; Boieriu, Paul; Chen, Y. P.; Dinan, John H.; Lianos, Dimitrios

    2003-12-01

    The cost and performance of hybrid HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays are constrained by the necessity of fabricating the detector arrays on a CdZnTe substrate. These substrates are expensive, fragile, are available only in small rectangular formats, and are not a good thermal expansion match to the silicon readout integrated circuit. We discuss in this paper an infrared sensor technology based on monolithically integrated infrared focal plane arrays that could replace the conventional hybrid focal plane array technology. We have investigated the critical issues related to the growth of HgCdTe on Si read-out integrated circuits and the fabrication of monolithic focal plane arrays: (1) the design of Si read-out integrated circuits and focal plane array layouts, (2) the low temperature cleaning of Si(001) wafers, (3) growth of CdTe and HgCdTe layers on read-out integrated circuits, (4) array fabrication, interconnection between focal plane array and read-out integrated circuit input nodes and demonstration of the photovoltaic operation, and (5) maintenance of the read-out integrated circuit characteristics after substrate cleaning, molecular beam epitaxy growth and device fabrication. Crystallographic, optical and electrical properties of the grown layers are presented. Electrical properties for diodes fabricated on misoriented Si and read-out integrated circuit substrates are discussed. The fabrication of arrays with demonstrated I-V properties show that monolithic integration of HgCdTe-based infrared focal plane arrays on Si read-out integrated circuits is feasible and could be implemented in the 3rd generation of infrared systems.

  19. Artificial impedance ground planes for low profile antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Ian T.

    Recent interest in artificial impedance surfaces for low-profile antennas has led to extensive research with the goal of optimizing the ground plane's characteristics for a given antenna configuration and broadening the operational bandwidth, or alternatively creating a multi-band functionality. A method of determining the optimal reflection phase for a low-profile dipole antenna over an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) ground plane has been developed based on image theory and is presented with experimental and numerical validation. A new artificial impedance surface has also been developed, which is composed of an annular slot ring on a thin grounded dielectric. The main difference between the proposed ground plane and a conventional EBG is that the high impedance condition exists only in the vicinity of the slot and is therefore best suited for antennas with a current distribution that has a similar shape as the annular slot ring. It is shown that a loop antenna positioned closely over an annular slot loaded ground plane exhibits approximately the same gain as a loop antenna over a conventional EBG ground plane. The advantage of the new structure is its lack of periodicity, which significantly eases manufacturing. Additionally, it is shown that multiple concentric slot rings can be designed into the ground plane, which excites multiple resonances in low-profile wideband antennas. The result is a multi-band high impedance ground plane constructed using a simple arrangement of annular slots. Finally, a manufacturing technique is presented for the application of arbitrarily configured EBG antennas to handheld dual-sensor landmine detection systems. It is shown that creating an EBG antenna using very thin layers of metal will enable it to be used for ground penetrating radar (GPR) when it is co-located with a low frequency metal detector without compromising the operation of the metal detector. The potential benefit of such an antenna would be a lower profile sensor

  20. More on accreting black hole spacetime in equatorial plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahshoor, K.; Nozari, K.; Khesali, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime around an accreting black hole is an interesting issue to study. The metric of an isolated black hole (rotating or non-rotating) spacetime has been well-known for decades. Although metrics of some spacetimes containing accreting black holes are known in some situations, the issue has some faces that are not well-known yet and need further investigation. In this paper, we construct a new form of metric which the effect of accretion disk on black hole spacetime is taken into account in the equatorial plane. We study motion and trajectories of massive particles and also photons falling from infinity towards black hole in equatorial plane around the black hole. We use an exponential form for the density profile of the accretion disk in equatorial plane as ρ =ρ0e^{-α r}. We show that with this density profile, the disk is radially stable if α ≤ 3 × 10^{-3} (in units of length inverse). In order to study some important quantities related to the accretion disks such as locations of marginally stable circular orbits (r_{ms} or r_{ISCO}), marginally bounded circular orbits (r_{mb}), and also photon orbits in equatorial plane, we use the effective potential approach. We show that in this spacetime metric the innermost stable circular orbit in equatorial plane is given by r_{ISCO}=4.03 μ (where μ =MG/c 2) which is different, but comparable, with the Schwarzschild spacetime result, r^{(Sch)}_{ISCO}=6 μ . We show that the maximum radiation efficiency of the accretion disk, η , in equatorial plane is 8.6 percent which is greater than the corresponding value for Schwarzschild spacetime. Finally, we show that in this setup photons can have stable circular orbits in equatorial plane unlike the Schwarzschild spacetime.

  1. Röthlisberger Channel Model with Anti-­Plane Shear Loading Superposed on In-Plane Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M. C.; Meyer, C. R.; Rice, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Röthlisberger channel (R­-channel) is a commonly adopted model that balances creep closure by Nye 2D in-plane straining, driven by the ice overburden pressure, against the melt rate from viscous energy dissipation in turbulent flow within the channel. Perol and Rice (AGU abstr. C11B-0677, 2011; JGR 2014 in review) and Suckale et al. (JGR F003008, 2014) have conjectured that these R-Channels may exist at the beds of rapidly straining West Antarctic Ice Stream shear margins. That is expected as a result of melt generation and drainage from forming temperate ice, and the channels may interact through the bed hydrology to partially stabilize the shear margin against lateral expansion. However, at those locations the overburden stresses, driving in-plane flow, are supplemented by substantial anti­-plane shear stresses. Similarly, R-channels in mountain glaciers are also subject to both in-plane and anti-plane stresses. These channels usually form in the downstream direction, where anti-plane shear effects arise horizontally from drag at lateral moraines and vertically from the downslope gravity component. Here we examine how superposed anti-plane loading can alter results of the Nye solution for a 2D R-­channel. We use a combination of perturbation analyses and finite element methods, varying the amount of applied anti-plane stress. A closed-form solution is derived for imposing a small anti-plane perturbation, which has no effect at linear order on the Nye closure rate. Such effects become strong at more substantial perturbations, and the in­plane stress and strain fields are then significantly altered from the Nye solution. We further extend our model to compute channel size in terms of the external stressing and flow rate. Understanding the effect of the ice flow on channel size and formation is important to subglacial hydrology, as well as a potentially vital component for our understanding of the formation and motion of ice streams found in West Antarctica.

  2. Muscle contributions to frontal plane angular momentum during walking.

    PubMed

    Neptune, Richard R; McGowan, Craig P

    2016-09-06

    The regulation of whole-body angular momentum is important for maintaining dynamic balance during human walking, which is particularly challenging in the frontal plane. Whole-body angular momentum is actively regulated by individual muscle forces. Thus, understanding which muscles contribute to frontal plane angular momentum will further our understanding of mediolateral balance control and has the potential to help diagnose and treat balance disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify how individual muscles and gravity contribute to whole-body angular momentum in the frontal plane using a muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulation analysis. A three-dimensional simulation was developed that emulated the average walking mechanics of a group of young healthy adults (n=10). The results showed that a finite set of muscles are the primary contributors to frontal plane balance and that these contributions vary throughout the gait cycle. In early stance, the vasti, adductor magnus and gravity acted to rotate the body towards the contralateral leg while the gluteus medius acted to rotate the body towards the ipsilateral leg. In late stance, the gluteus medius continued to rotate the body towards the ipsilateral leg while the soleus and gastrocnemius acted to rotate the body towards the contralateral leg. These results highlight those muscles that are critical to maintaining dynamic balance in the frontal plane during walking and may provide targets for locomotor therapies aimed at treating balance disorders.

  3. Analysis of nulling phase functions suitable to image plane coronagraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, François; Carlotti, Alexis; Vérinaud, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Coronagraphy is a very efficient technique for identifying and characterizing extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star, especially in a space environment. An important family of coronagraphs is actually based on phase plates located at an intermediate image plane of the optical system, and spreading the starlight outside the "Lyot" exit pupil plane of the instrument. In this commutation we present a set of candidate phase functions generating a central null at the Lyot plane, and study how it propagates to the image plane of the coronagraph. These functions include linear azimuthal phase ramps (the well-known optical vortex), azimuthally cosine-modulated phase profiles, and circular phase gratings. Nnumerical simulations of the expected null depth, inner working angle, sensitivity to pointing errors, effect of central obscuration located at the pupil or image planes, and effective throughput including image mask and Lyot stop transmissions are presented and discussed. The preliminary conclusion is that azimuthal cosine functions appear as an interesting alternative to the classical optical vortex of integer topological charge.

  4. Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2015-07-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  5. Root planing with interdental papilla reflection and fiber optic illumination.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, R A; Johnson, G K; Tussing, G J

    1985-12-01

    The complete removal of accretions during closed scaling and root planing in moderate-deep pockets is difficult, presumably due to inadequate mechanical and visual access. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of minimal papilla reflection and illumination with a prototype fiber optic unit on root planing efficiency. Nonmolar teeth with moderate-deep interproximal pockets (greater than 3 mm) in four patients scheduled to receive immediate complete dentures were randomly divided into groups for treatment: Group I--interproximal root planing augmented by papilla reflection and fiber optic illumination (n = 26 surfaces); Group II--interproximal root planing with papilla reflection only (n = 24); Group III--untreated controls (n = 23). Immediately after treatment, the experimental teeth were extracted, stained with toluidine blue and interproximal areas were evaluated for remaining accretions with a microscope-digitizing pad-computer system. Significantly less (P less than 0.01) root surface was covered by deposits in Group I than Group II (0.57 +/- 0.29% vs. 2.42 +/- 0.63%), and both treatment groups had fewer (P less than 0.0005) accretions than untreated controls (57.72 +/- 3.40%). These results suggest that root planing with papilla reflection produces an interproximal surface with few remaining deposits, and fiber optic illumination and transillumination further enhance this effect.

  6. Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

  7. Resolution of oblique-plane images in sectioning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, C W; Botcherby, E J; Wilson, T

    2011-01-31

    Live biological specimens exhibit time-varying behavior on the microscale in all three dimensions. Although scanning confocal and two-photon microscopes are able to record three-dimensional image stacks through these specimens, they do so at relatively low speeds which limits the time resolution of the biological processes that can be observed. One way to improve the data acquisition rate is to image only the regions of a specimen that are of interest and so researchers have recently begun to acquire two-dimensional images of inclined planes or surfaces extending significantly into the z-direction. As the resolution is not uniform in x, y and z, the images possess non-isotropic resolution. We explore this theoretically and show that images of an oblique plane may contain spectral content that could not have been generated by specimen features lying wholly within the plane but must instead arise from a spatial variation in another direction. In some cases we find that the image contains frequencies three times higher than the resolution limit for in-plane features. We confirm this finding through numerical simulations and experiments on a novel, oblique-plane imaging system and suggest that care be taken in the interpretation of such images.

  8. 75 FR 10694 - Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... fatigue tests being conducted by the manufacturer have shown the need for inspection of critical fastener... tests being conducted by the manufacturer have shown the need for inspection of critical fastener holes... continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) states: The results of full scale fatigue tests being...

  9. 75 FR 30268 - Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... scale fatigue tests being conducted by the manufacturer have shown the need for inspection of critical... condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: The results of full scale fatigue tests being...: The results of full scale fatigue tests being conducted by the manufacturer have shown the need...

  10. Materials, devices, techniques, and applications for Z-plane focal plane array technology II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 12, 13, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John C.

    1990-11-01

    Various papers on materials, devices, techniques, and applications for X-plane focal plane array technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: application of Z-plane technology to the remote sensing of the earth from GEO, applications of smart neuromorphic focal planes, image-processing of Z-plane technology, neural network Z-plane implementation with very high interconnection rates, using a small IR surveillance satellite for tactical applications, establishing requirements for homing applications, Z-plane technology. Also discussed are: on-array spike suppression signal processing, algorithms for on-focal-plane gamma circumvention and time-delay integration, current HYMOSS Z-technology, packaging of electrons for on- and off-FPA signal processing, space/performance qualification of tape automated bonded devices, automation in tape automated bonding, high-speed/high-volume radiometric testing of Z-technology focal planes, 128-layer HYMOSS-module fabrication issues, automation of IRFPA production processes.

  11. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Conjugate variables in finite phase plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Zak, J.

    2005-05-01

    We construct two pairs of quasicoordinates and quasimomenta in a finite phase plane, which form sets of conjugate variables. In such a plane the coordinate x is quantized with a step c, and the momentum p with a step \\frac{2\\pi}{Mc} , where Mc is the size of the phase plane in the x-direction. The construction depends crucially on the possibility of writing M = M1M2 with M1 and M2 relatively prime. The conjugate variables are applied to Harper-like Hamiltonians. It is shown how to design physical systems with energy spectra containing any desired number of discrete energy levels, say M1, each of them having a prescribed degeneracy M2.

  13. Scattering by a groove in an impedance plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindiganavale, Sunil; Volakis, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional scattering from a narrow groove in an impedance plane is presented. The groove is represented by a impedance surface and the problem reduces to that of scattering from an impedance strip in an otherwise uniform impedance plane. On the basis of this model, appropriate integral equations are constructed using a form of the impedance plane Green's functions involving rapidly convergent integrals. The integral equations are solved by introducing a single basis representation of the equivalent current on the narrow impedance insert. Both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations are treated. The resulting solution is validated by comparison with results from the standard boundary integral method (BIM) and a high frequency solution. It is found that the presented solution for narrow impedance inserts can be used in conjunction with the high frequency solution for the characterization of impedance inserts of any given width.

  14. Polarization sensitivity testing of off-plane reflection gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randal L.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Laubis, Christian; Soltwisch, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Off-Plane reflection gratings were previously predicted to have different efficiencies when the incident light is polarized in the transverse-magnetic (TM) versus transverse-electric (TE) orientations with respect to the grating grooves. However, more recent theoretical calculations which rigorously account for finitely conducting, rather than perfectly conducting, grating materials no longer predict significant polarization sensitivity. We present the first empirical results for radially ruled, laminar groove profile gratings in the off-plane mount which demonstrate no difference in TM versus TE efficiency across our entire 300-1500 eV bandpass. These measurements together with the recent theoretical results confirm that grazing incidence off-plane reflection gratings using real, not perfectly conducting, materials are not polarization sensitive.

  15. Simple plane wave implementation for photonic crystal calculations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shangping; Albin, Sacharia

    2003-01-27

    A simple implementation of plane wave method is presented for modeling photonic crystals with arbitrary shaped 'atoms'. The Fourier transform for a single 'atom' is first calculated either by analytical Fourier transform or numerical FFT, then the shift property is used to obtain the Fourier transform for any arbitrary supercell consisting of a finite number of 'atoms'. To ensure accurate results, generally, two iterating processes including the plane wave iteration and grid resolution iteration must converge. Analysis shows that using analytical Fourier transform when available can improve accuracy and avoid the grid resolution iteration. It converges to the accurate results quickly using a small number of plane waves. Coordinate conversion is used to treat non-orthogonal unit cell with non-regular 'atom' and then is treated by standard numerical FFT. MATLAB source code for the implementation requires about less than 150 statements, and is freely available at http://www.lions.odu.edu/~sguox002.

  16. Sagittal plane balancing in the total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Manson, Theodore T; Khanuja, Harpal S; Jacobs, Michael A; Hungerford, Marc W

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative stiffness or instability may result from a total knee arthroplasty imbalanced in the sagittal plane. Total knee arthroplasty instrumentation systems differ in the basic strategies used to assure this balance. In an anterior referencing system, changes in femoral size affect flexion gap tightness, and femoral size selection is paramount to assure sagittal plane balance. Conversely, in posterior referencing systems, femoral size changes do not affect the flexion gap but, rather, influence femoral component-patella articulation. Flexion/extension gap systems use calibrated spacer blocks to ensure gap balance but do not guarantee midrange stability; if used incorrectly, they may cause component malposition and joint line elevation. The authors reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of system types and provided system-specific troubleshooting guidelines for clinicians addressing intraoperative sagittal plane imbalance.

  17. Plane symmetric thin-shell wormholes: Solutions and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-08-15

    Using the cut-and-paste procedure, we construct static and dynamic, plane symmetric wormholes by surgically grafting together two spacetimes of plane symmetric vacuum solutions with a negative cosmological constant. These plane symmetric wormholes can be interpreted as domain walls connecting different universes, having planar topology, and upon compactification of one or two coordinates, cylindrical topology or toroidal topology, respectively. A stability analysis is carried out for the dynamic case by taking into account specific equations of state, and a linearized stability analysis around static solutions is also explored. It is found that thin-shell wormholes made of a dark energy fluid or of a cosmological constant fluid are stable, while thin-shell wormholes made of phantom energy are unstable.

  18. Research of annular polishing asymmetric ZnS plane window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weijin; Tong, Yi; Jin, Yuzhu; Lin, Nana

    2016-10-01

    Due the annular polishing technology for planar optical components do not have the sharp selectivity, annular polishing technology is a very import process to fabricate irregular planar elements which with high precision surface shape and low surface roughness. According to the characteristics of annular polishing, the zns asymmetric plane window annular polishing process and key technical parameters control was researched. In this paper, one pair of asymmetric planar ZnS window parts were machined which diagonal length is 147mm, through technology experiments, obtained process test samples. The surface figures of the plane zns window are measured by a Zygo interferometer and the reflect wavefront P-V value is better than 1.5λ, the reflect wavefront local error rms value is better than 0.05λ (λ=632.8nm). Experiments results demonstrate the effectiveness of annular processing technology was used to manufacture zinc sulfide asymmetric shape plane window.

  19. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-08-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

  20. A multilinear constraint on dichromatic planes for illumination estimation.

    PubMed

    Toro, Javier; Funt, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A new multilinear constraint on the color of the scene illuminant based on the dichromatic reflection model is proposed. The formulation avoids the problem, common to previous dichromatic methods, of having to first identify pixels corresponding to the same surface material. Once pixels from two or more materials have been identified, their corresponding dichromatic planes can be intersected to yield the illuminant color. However, it is not always easy to determine which pixels from an arbitrary region of an image belong to which dichromatic plane. The image region may cover an area of the scene encompassing several different materials and, hence, pixels from several different dichromatic planes. The new multilinear constraint accounts for this multiplicity of materials and provides a mechanism for choosing the most plausible illuminant from a finite set of candidate illuminants. The performance of this new method is tested on a database of real images.

  1. Navigating solid medical images by pencils of sectioning planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Athey, Brian D.; Green, William D. K.; Wetzel, Arthur W.

    2000-10-01

    Beyond their involvement in ordinary surface rendering, the boundaries of organs in medical images have differential properties that make them quite useful for quantitative understanding. In particular, their geometry affords a framework for navigating the original solid, representing its R3 contents quite flexibility as multiple pseudovolumes R2 x T, where T is ar eal-valued parameter standing for screen time. A navigation is a smoothly parameterized series of image sections characterized by normal direction, centerpoint, scale and orientation. Such filmstrips represent a radical generalization of conventional medical image dynamics. The lances encountered in these navigations can be represented by constructs from classic differential geometry. Sequences of plane sections can be formalized as continuous pencils of planes, sets of cardinality (infinity) 1 that are sometimes explicitly characterized by a real-value parameter and sometimes defined implicitly as the intersection (curve of common elements) of a pair of bundles of (infinity) 2 planes. An example of the first type of navigation is the pencil of planes through the tangent line at one point of a curve; of the second type, the cone of planes through a point tangent to a surface. The further enhancements of centering, orienting, and rescaling in the medical context are intended to leave landmark points or boundary intersections invariant on the screen. Edgewarp, a publicly available software package, allows free play with pencils of planes like these as they section one single enormous medical data resource, the Visible Human data sets from the National Library of Medicine. This paper argues the relative merits of such visualizations over conventional surface-rendered flybys for understanding and communication of associated anatomical knowledge.

  2. Laplace plane modifications arising from solar radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical effects of solar radiation pressure (SRP) in the solar system have been rigorously studied since the early 1900s. This non-gravitational perturbation plays a significant role in the evolution of dust particles in circumplanetary orbits, as well as in the orbital motion about asteroids and comets. For gravitationally dominated orbits, SRP is negligible and the resulting motion is largely governed by the oblateness of the primary and the attraction of the Sun. The interplay between these gravitational perturbations gives rise to three mutually perpendicular planes of equilibrium for circular satellite orbits. The classical Laplace plane lies between the equatorial and orbital planes of the primary, and is the mean reference plane about whose axis the pole of a satellite's orbit precesses. From a previously derived solution for the secular motion of an orbiter about a small body in a SRP dominated environment, we find that SRP acting alone will cause an initially circular orbit to precess around the pole of the primary's heliocentric orbital plane. When the gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations act in concert, the resulting equilibrium planes turn out to be qualitatively different, in some cases, from those obtained without considering the radiation pressure. The warping of the surfaces swept out by the modified equilibria as the semi-major axis varies depends critically on the cross-sectional area of the body exposed. These results, together with an adiabatic invariance argument on Poynting-Robertson drag, provide a natural qualitative explanation for the initial albedo dichotomy of Saturn's moon, Iapetus.

  3. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbertson, Christian; Dainotti, Maria; Postnikov, Sergey; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Willingale, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A class of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obeys a three-dimensional (3D) relation (Dainotti et al. 2016), between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, Ta, its corresponding X-ray luminosity, La, and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, Lpeak. We extended the original analysis with X-ray data from July 2014 to July 2016 achieving a total sample of 183 Swift GRBs with afterglow plateaus and known redshifts. We added the most recent GRBs to the previous ‘gold sample’ (now including 45 GRBs) and obtained a relation plane with intrinsic scatter compatible within one σ with the previous result. We compared several GRB categories, such as short with extended emission, X-ray Flashes, GRBs associated with SNe, long-duration GRBs, and the gold sample, composed only by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus and evaluated their relation planes. We found that they are not statistically different from the fundamental plane derived from the gold sample and that the fundamental plane still has the smallest scatter. We compared the jet opening angles tabulated in literature with the angles derived using the Eiso-Egamma relation of the method in Pescalli et al. (2015) and calculated the relation plane for a sample of long GRBs accounting for the different jet opening angles. We observed that this correction does not significantly reduce the scatter. In an extended analysis, we found that the fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  4. I-V characteristics of in-plane and out-of-plane strained edge-hydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cartamil-Bueno, S. J. E-mail: rbolivar@ugr.es; Rodríguez-Bolívar, S. E-mail: rbolivar@ugr.es

    2015-06-28

    The effects of tensile strain on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of hydrogenated-edge armchair graphene nanoribbons are investigated by using DFT theory. The strain is introduced in two different ways related to the two types of systems studied in this work: in-plane strained systems (A) and out-of-plane strained systems due to bending (B). These two kinds of strain lead to make a distinction among three cases: in-plane strained systems with strained electrodes (A1) and with unstrained electrodes (A2), and out-of-plane homogeneously strained systems with unstrained, fixed electrodes (B). The systematic simulations to calculate the electronic transmission between two electrodes were focused on systems of 8 and 11 dimers in width. The results show that the differences between cases A2 and B are negligible, even though the strain mechanisms are different: in the plane case, the strain is uniaxial along its length; while in the bent case, the strain is caused by the arc deformation. Based on the study, a new type of nanoelectromechanical system solid state switching device is proposed.

  5. Combinatorics associated with inflections and bitangents of plane quartics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatullin, M. Kh

    2013-08-01

    After a preliminary survey and a description of some small Steiner systems from the standpoint of the theory of invariants of binary forms, we construct a binary Golay code (of length 24) using ideas from J. Grassmann's thesis of 1875. One of our tools is a pair of disjoint Fano planes. Another application of such pairs and properties of plane quartics is a construction of a new block design on 28 objects. This block design is a part of a dissection of the set of 288 Aronhold sevens. The dissection distributes the Aronhold sevens into 8 disjoint block designs of this type.

  6. Trajectory of a projectile on a frictional inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaosun

    2014-08-01

    A closed form solution is given for the trajectory of a particle sliding on an inclined plane with Coulomb-type friction. If the inclination of the plane is less than the friction angle, the particle eventually comes to rest and expressions for the location of this point and the duration of the motion are given. If the initial launch is inclined at a small angle with respect to the upward line of greatest slope, the direction of the velocity changes rapidly during the last instants of motion.

  7. Plasmonic Airy beam generated by in-plane diffraction.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, T; Wang, S M; Zhang, C; Zhu, S N

    2011-09-16

    We report an experimental realization of a plasmonic Airy beam, which is generated thoroughly on a silver surface. With a carefully designed nanoarray structure, such Airy beams come into being from an in-plane propagating surface plasmon polariton wave, exhibiting nonspreading, self-bending, and self-healing properties. Besides, a new phase-tuning method based on nonperfectly matched diffraction processes is proposed to generate and modulate the beam almost at will. This unique plasmonic Airy beam as well as the generation method would significantly promote the evolutions in in-plane surface plasmon polariton manipulations and indicate potential applications in lab-on-chip photonic integrations.

  8. The universal plane method for calculating the dimensions of heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perres, L. B.; Baum, I. V.

    It is pointed out that heliostat dimensions are crucial in ensuring that sunlight is properly reflected during the day in solar furnaces and solar power stations. In determining these dimensions, allowance must be made for changes in the sun's position during the day, changes which depend on the latitude of the installation. To construct unique algorithms for calculating the dimensions, a procedure involving general concepts must be formulated and this formulation introduces a universal frame of reference. An example of this which has attracted considerable interest involves a flat round receiver that is parallel either to the horizontal plane or to the universal plane considered here.

  9. Optic flow and the metric of the visual ground plane.

    PubMed

    Beusmans, J M

    1998-04-01

    A theory is developed in which the optic flow of an observer translating over the ground plane determines the metric of egocentric visual space. Optic flow is used to operationalize the equality of spatial intervals not unlike physicists use time to compare spatial intervals. The theory predicts empirical matching ratios for collinear, sagittal intervals to within 2% of the mean (eight subjects, standard error also 2%). The theory predicts that frontoparallel intervals on the ground plane will match sagittal intervals if their relative image motions match, which was found empirically. It is suggested that the optic flow metric serves to calibrate static depth cues such as angular elevation and binocular parallax.

  10. Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    AD-A276 963 1111111111 I NAWCWPNS TP 8185 Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays OTIC by ELECTE Dr. Gary Hewer MAR 151994 and...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1994 Final; 199 ,L TTLE ND SBTILE LFUNDNG UBER Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays...nonlinearity 71,(w) = sgn(w)(IwI-t). with threshold t to each empirical sample value w in the wavelet transform d scales. After thresholding the wavelet

  11. Self-powered In-plane Accelerometer Using Triboelectric Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Dhakar, Lokesh; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a self-powered triboelectric based accelerometer to detect wide range of in-plane acceleration utilizing the triboelectric mechanism. The freestanding sliding mode was utilized to realize the in-plane sensing. The fabricated device consists of soft polymer spring which displays wide detection range from ±1g to ±6g (g = 9.8m/s2) in x and y directions with sensitivity of 21mV/(g). The proposed device can be utilized for self-powered shock sensing in various future applications.

  12. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  13. Percutaneous sagittal plane closing wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-02-01

    Osteotomy of the first metatarsal in the sagittal plane is useful in correction of numerous deformity of the foot. Plantarflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal can be used to treat hallux rigidus, hallux limitus, forefoot varus in flatfoot deformity and iatrogenic metatarsus primus elevates. Dorsiflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal is an important component in surgical correction of pes cavus. It is also indicated in recalcitrant diabetic neuropathic ulcers at the first metatarsal head. We described a minimally invasive technique of sagittal plane corrective osteotomy of the first metatarsal, which can be either a plantarflexion or dorsiflexion one.

  14. Current mapping of nonpolar a-plane and polar c-plane GaN films by conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shengrui; Jiang, Teng; Lin, Zhiyu; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Linan; Zhang, Jincheng; Li, Peixian; Hao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN and polar (0001) c-plane GaN films have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane (1-102) and c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates, respectively. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) has been used to investigate the local conductivity of the films. C-AFM shows enhanced current conduction within the etch pits of c-plane GaN and triangular pits of a-plane GaN. The results indicate that the off-axis planes are more electrically active than c-plane and a-plane. Surprisingly, the C-AFM values in triangular pit of the a-plane GaN are much smaller than that in etch pits of the c-plane GaN. The dislocations type related current leakage mechanism is revealed for polar c-plane and nonpolar a-plane GaN films.

  15. In-plane and out-of-plane tissue micro-displacement measurement by correlation coefficients of optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to measure the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of tissue using the correlation coefficients of optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals. The displacements are determined by the local correlation coefficients between digitally shifted reference OCT images and a target image. The method achieves sub-micron displacement measurement with an accuracy better than 0.32 μm and repeatability better than 0.36 μm. The feasibility of the method was examined by measuring the displacement field of a laser irradiated porcine retina. This method successfully visualized the dynamic change of the displacement field during laser irradiation.

  16. Out-of-plane scattering from vertically asymmetric photonic crystal slab waveguides with in-plane disorder.

    PubMed

    Topolancik, Juraj; Vollmer, Frank; Ilic, Rob; Crescimanno, Michael

    2009-07-20

    We characterize optical wave propagation along line defects in two-dimensional arrays of air-holes in free-standing silicon slabs. The fabricated waveguides contain random variations in orientation of the photonic lattice elements which perturb the in-plane translational symmetry. The vertical slab symmetry is also broken by a tilt of the etched sidewalls. We discuss how these lattice imperfections affect out-of-plane scattering losses and introduce a mechanism for high-Q cavity excitation related to polarization mixing.

  17. NASA's New Orbital Space Plane: A Bridge to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Engler, Leah M.; Fisher, Mark F.; Dumbacher, Dan L.; Boswell, Barry E.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing a new spacecraft system called the Orbital Space Plane (OSP). The OSP will be launched on an expendable launch vehicle and serve to augment the shuttle in support of the International Space Station by transporting astronauts to and from the International Space Station and by providing a crew rescue system.

  18. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  19. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  20. Determining Plane Mirror Image Distance from Eye Charts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a method to convince students that the image produced by a plane mirror is actually behind the mirror. Uses observations that the letters of an eye chart posted on a mirror are twice the size of the images of letters of an eye chart they are holding. Provides two reproducible eye charts. (MDH)

  1. Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, R.A.; Tipler, F.J.

    1984-04-15

    We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.

  2. Two-plane balance and slip-ring design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    A 3.25 cm (1.28 in.) two plane balance and eight channel slip ring assembly has been designed to measure and transmit the thrust (667-N;150-lb) and torque (135-N-m;100-lb-ft) components produced by wind tunnel model turboprops and drive motors operating at 300 Hz.

  3. Dirac semimetal thin films in in-plane magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Tan, Seng Ghee

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the effects of in-plane magnetic fields on thin films of the Dirac Semimetal (DSM) Na3Bi where one of the in-plane directions is perpendicular to the k-separation between the two Weyl nodes that exist for each spin orientation. We show numerically that the states localized near the surfaces of these thin films are related to the Fermi arc states in semi-infinite slabs. Due to the anisotropy between the two in-plane directions, the application of a magnetic field along these directions have differing effects. A field parallel to the k space separation between the Weyl nodes leads to a broadening of the surface state band and the formation of an energy plateau, while a perpendicular field shifts the energy where the hole and particle bands meet upwards, and sharpens the tips of the bands. We illustrate the effects of these changes to the dispersion relation by studying the transmission from a source segment without a magnetic field to a drain segment with a field, with the field and interface at various in-plane directions.

  4. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazalis, B.; Desquines, J.; Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T.; Bernaudat, C.

    2016-04-01

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO® specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod.

  5. Exact Steady Azimuthal Internal Waves in the f-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2017-03-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations with Coriolis and centripetal terms in the f-plane approximation for internal geophysical trapped waves with a uniform current near the equator. This solution describes in the Lagrangian framework azimuthal equatorial internal waves propagating westward in a stratified rotational fluid.

  6. Making Robot Planes Useful for Scientific Investigation of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennison, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph slides presentation reviews the program to use unmanned aerial vehicles to gather information to study the Earth, the changes to the climate, and to protect the Earth. Several robot planes are shown, and cooperative programs with other agencies of the U.S. Government are highlighted. Including one with the United States Forest Service, that is planned to assist in locating fires

  7. Prototype focal plane assembly for multispectral remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Vampola, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing. A prototype multispectral sensor system is under development. The three major subsystems making up the prototype sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {mu}m to 10.7 {mu}m. All the linear arrays are mounted on a single motherboard and are designed to operate at 75 K. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 16.4 megapixels per second. The diverse requirements for the focal plane assembly make this a challenging, sensor to design and build.

  8. Dirac semimetal thin films in in-plane magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Tan, Seng Ghee

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the effects of in-plane magnetic fields on thin films of the Dirac Semimetal (DSM) Na3Bi where one of the in-plane directions is perpendicular to the k-separation between the two Weyl nodes that exist for each spin orientation. We show numerically that the states localized near the surfaces of these thin films are related to the Fermi arc states in semi-infinite slabs. Due to the anisotropy between the two in-plane directions, the application of a magnetic field along these directions have differing effects. A field parallel to the k space separation between the Weyl nodes leads to a broadening of the surface state band and the formation of an energy plateau, while a perpendicular field shifts the energy where the hole and particle bands meet upwards, and sharpens the tips of the bands. We illustrate the effects of these changes to the dispersion relation by studying the transmission from a source segment without a magnetic field to a drain segment with a field, with the field and interface at various in-plane directions. PMID:27721387

  9. Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero-Valdés, Carlos; Herrera-Guzmán, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a generalized Fick-Jacob's equation obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal directions of an arbitrary curve on the plane.

  10. Grace and Courtesy across the Planes of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludick, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Pat Ludick's commentary on grace and courtesy is established by a philosophical orientation to development: Grace is oriented to the life of the interior that is consciousness and being, and courtesy moves outward to daily living where civility reflects on success with human interactions. Pat's projected grace and courtesy across the planes is…

  11. Simple partitions of a hyperbolic plane of positive curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Romakina, Lyudmila N

    2012-09-30

    We construct special monohedral isotropic partitions with symmetries of the hyperbolic plane H of positive curvature with a simple 4-contour as a cell. An analogue of mosaic in these partitions called a tiling is introduced. Also we consider some fractal tilings. The existence of band tilings in each homological series with code (m, n) is proved. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  12. Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzner, Richard A.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1984-04-01

    We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.

  13. Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve

    SciTech Connect

    Valero-Valdés, Carlos; Herrera-Guzmán, Rafael

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a generalized Fick-Jacob's equation obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal directions of an arbitrary curve on the plane.

  14. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  15. Plane wave (curl; Ω) conforming finite elements for Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledger, P. D.; Morgan, K.; Hassan, O.; Weatherill, N. P.

    This paper proposes a discretisation of Maxwell's equations which combines the popular edge elements of Nédélec with expansions of plane waves. The method is applied to simple two dimensional electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering simulations and issues of accuracy and matrix conditioning are investigated.

  16. A Simple Chaotic Flow with a Plane of Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Sajad; Sprott, J. C.; Molaie, Malihe

    2016-06-01

    Using a systematic computer search, a simple four-dimensional chaotic flow was found that has the unusual feature of having a plane of equilibria. Such a system belongs to a newly introduced category of chaotic systems with hidden attractors that are important and potentially problematic in engineering applications.

  17. Specimen housing unit for cinemicrographic studies in the vertical plane.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, J R; Tynan, C I; Boykin, E H

    1976-01-01

    A compact housing unit for low-power (X6 to X50) cinemicrographic studies of microbial specimens in the vertical plane is described. This unit was used successfully to record the development of a "halo" of cells around subsurface colonies of Escherichia coli. Images PMID:788640

  18. Procedures for calculating the nonconvexity measures of a plane set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, P. D.; Uspenskii, A. A.

    2009-03-01

    The geometry of nonconvex sets is analyzed. The measure of nonconvexity of a closed set that has the sense of an angle is considered. Characteristic manifolds of nonconvex sets are constructed. Procedures for calculating the measure of nonconvexity are proposed for a class of plane sets.

  19. A perspective view of the plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, J.; Cogollos, M.; Bernal, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the plane mixing layer is constructed by applying digital image processing and computer graphic techniques to laser fluorescent motion pictures of its transversal sections. A system of streamwise vortex pairs is shown to exist on top of the classical spanwise eddies. Its influence on mixing is examined.

  20. Exact Nonlinear Internal Equatorial Waves in the f-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2016-07-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations for internal geophysical water waves propagating westward above the thermocline in the f-plane approximation near the equator. Moreover, the mass transport velocity induced by this internal equatorial wave is eastward and a westward current occurs in the transition zone between the great depth where the water is still and the thermocline.

  1. D-branes in Type IIB plane wave background

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2007-01-12

    We classify and summarize the intersecting supersymmetric D-branes in the type IIB plane wave background, based on the Green-Schwarz superstring formulation. Many new configurations appears if we turn on the electric or magnetic background fields or boost the D-branes. Applications to the phenomelogical models are left for further study.

  2. 11. A VIEW TO THE SOUTH SHOWING PURSUIT PLANE REVETMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. A VIEW TO THE SOUTH SHOWING PURSUIT PLANE REVETMENT AR-9 (LEFT) IN RELATION TO BOMBER REVETMENTS AR-8 (CENTER) AND AR-10 (RIGHT). - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  4. Modelling the landing of a plane in a calculus lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, José A.

    2012-10-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics.

  5. Inclined Planes and Motion Detectors: A Study of Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students work in cooperative groups and roll balls down inclined planes, collect data with the help of an electronic motion detector, and represent data with a graphing calculator to explore concepts such as mass, gravity, velocity, and acceleration. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/ASK)

  6. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  7. 40. CONSTRUCTION OF GALLERY NO. 3, SHOWING INCLINED PLANE USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. CONSTRUCTION OF GALLERY NO. 3, SHOWING INCLINED PLANE USED TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS, ALSO SPOIL FROM TUNNEL INTERIOR. POWDER HOUSE AND TOOL SHED VISIBLE TO RIGHT OF BASE INCLINE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Tunnel, Two miles east of Zion Canyon Scenic Drive, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  8. 85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ARE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE CABLE LEAVING THE POWER HOUSE. THIS CABLE IS ATTATCHED TO A DRUM ON THE INSIDE THE POWER HOUSE WHICH IS TURNED BY MEANS OF A WATER POWERED TURBINE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  9. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  10. VIEW OF TURNTABLE, WITH CAR MACHINE SHOP AND PLANING MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TURNTABLE, WITH CAR MACHINE SHOP AND PLANING MILL IN THE BACKGROUND AND ERECTING/MACHINE SHOP AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST. ATSF 5021 2-10-4 STEAM LOCOMOTIVE IS ON TURNTABLE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Intersection of Three Planes Revisited--An Algebraic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkler, Götz; Trenkler, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Given three planes in space, a complete characterization of their intersection is provided. Special attention is paid to the case when the intersection set does not exist of one point only. Besides the vector cross product, the tool of generalized inverse of a matrix is used extensively.

  12. Simulation study of plane motion of air cushion vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Qin; Shi, Xiao-Cheng; Shi, Yi-Long; Bian, Xin-Qian

    2003-12-01

    This research is on horizontal plane motion equations of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and its simulation. To investigate this, a lot of simulation study including ACV’s voyage and turning performance has been done. It was found that the voyage simulation results were accorded with ACV own characteristic and turning simulation results were accorded with USA ACV’s movement characteristic basically.

  13. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainotti, Maria; Gilbertson, Christian; Postnikov, Sergey; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Willingale, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A class of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obeys a three dimensional (3D) relation (Dainotti et al. 2016), between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, $T_a$, its corresponding X-ray luminosity, $L_{a}$, and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, $L_{peak}$, which is an extension of the two dimensional Dainotti relation. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we confirmed. We extended the original analysis with X-ray data from July 2014 to July 2016 achieving a total sample of 183 {\\it Swift} GRBs with afterglow plateaus and known redshifts. We added the most recent GRBs to the previous `gold sample' (now including 45 GRBs) and obtained an intrinsic scatter compatible within one $\\sigma$ with the previous result. We compared several GRB categories, such as short with extended emission, X-ray Flashes, GRBs associated with SNe, a sample of only long duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed only by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We evaluated the relation planes for each of the mentioned categories and showed that they are not statistically different from the plane derived from the gold sample and that the fundamental plane derived from the gold sample has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. We compared the jet opening angles tabulated in literature with the angles derived using the $E_{iso}-E_{gamma}$ relation of the method in Pescalli et al. (2015) and calculated the relation plane for a sample of long GRBs accounting for the different jet opening angles. We observed that this correction does not significantly reduce the scatter. In an extended analysis, we found that the fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters, such as the jet opening angle, $\\theta

  14. Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181

  15. Determining the pivotal plane of fluid lipid membranes in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Deserno, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Each leaflet of a curved lipid membrane contains a surface at which the area strain vanishes, the so-called pivotal plane. Its distance z0 from the bilayer's midplane arises in numerous contexts, for instance the connection between monolayer and bilayer moduli, stress-profile moments, or area-difference elasticity theories. Here, we propose two precise methods for determining the location of the pivotal plane in computer simulations, both of which rely on monitoring the lipid imbalance across a curved bilayer. The first method considers the ratio of lipid number between the two leaflets of cylindrical or spherical vesicles; it hence requires lipid flip-flop for equilibration. The second method looks at the leaflet difference across local sections cut out from a buckled membrane; this observable equilibrates even in the absence of flip-flop. We apply our methods to two different coarse-grained lipid models, the generic three-bead solvent-free Cooke model and a ten-bead representation of dimyristoylphosphocholine with the explicit solvent MARTINI model. The Cooke model is amenable to both methods and gives results that agree at the percent level. Using it, we also show that the pivotal plane moves outward as lipid curvature becomes more positive. The MARTINI model can only be analyzed with the buckling method; the obtained value z0 = 0.850(11) nm lies about 0.4 nm inwards of the glycerol backbone and is hence unexpectedly small. We attribute this to limitations of the coarse-grained description, suggesting that the location of the pivotal plane might be a good indicator for how well lipid models capture the microscopic origins of curvature elasticity. Finally, we also show that the pivotal plane position itself moves as the membrane is bent. The leading correction is linear in curvature, dependent on the Poisson ratio, and can matter when analyzing experimental results obtained from highly curved inverse hexagonal phases.

  16. Resolution in 3D in multifocal plane microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Jerry; Ram, Sripad; Abraham, Anish V.; Ward, E. Sally; Ober, Raimund J.

    2008-02-01

    Using single molecule microscopy, biological interactions can be imaged and studied at the level of individual biomolecules. When characterizing an imaged biological interaction, the distance separating the two participating biomolecules can provide valuable information. Therefore, the resolvability of an imaging setup is of practical significance in the analysis of the acquired image data. Importantly, the resolvability of the imaging setup needs evaluation in the 3D context, since in general biomolecules reside in 3D space within the cellular environment. We recently introduced an information-theoretic 2D resolution measure which shows that the resolution limit due to Rayleigh's criterion can be overcome. This new result predicts that the resolution of optical microscopes is not limited, but rather can be improved with increased photon counts detected from the single molecules. The 2D result was subsequently extended to the 3D context, and the proposed information-theoretic 3D resolution measure can readily be used to determine the resolvability of a conventional single focal plane imaging setup. Here, we consider the 3D resolution measure for a multifocal plane microscope setup, an imaging system which allows the concurrent imaging of multiple focal planes within a specimen. The technique is useful in applications such as the tracking of subcellular objects in 3D. By comparing their 3D resolution measures, we find a two-plane setup to outperform a comparable conventional single-plane setup in resolvability over a range of axial locations for the single molecule pair. Moreover, we investigate and compare the impact of noise on the resolvability of the two setups.

  17. In-plane information from tapping mode AFM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Matthew

    2003-03-01

    Phase contrast in intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy is shown to reveal in-plane structural and mechanical properties of poly(diacetylene) monolayer films. This is surprising because measurements of in-plane properties typically require a contact mode of microscopy. Such measurements are possible because the tilt in the oscillating cantilever provides components of motion not just perpendicular to the surface, but also parallel to the sample surface. Lateral tip displacement is virtually universal in AFM, implying that any oscillating tip-AFM technique is sensitive to in-plane material properties. Although the tilt in the cantilever is small ( 10^o) it produces a component of motion that is 20% of the total tip displacement, and this motion accounts for 5-10% of dissipated energy through the tip-sample interaction[1]. The data is used in conjunction with a numerical model to extract in-plane material parameters. The effect of the cantilever tilt on phase measurements is directly verified through measurements on silicon samples tilted at a variety of angles with respect to the cantilever. The lateral tip displacement we make use of allows measurements of in-plane properties of soft samples such as polymer and biological samples. This work was done in collaboration with M. D'Amato, R.W. Carpick, and M.A. Eriksson, and was supported by the NSF CAREER and MRSEC programs and the Research Corporation. 1. M.S. Marcus, R.W. Carpick, D.Y. Sasaki, M.A. Eriksson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 226103 (2002)

  18. Ultrafast vascular strain compounding using plane wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H G; Saris, A E C M; Vaka, N R; Nillesen, M M; de Korte, C L

    2014-03-03

    Deformations of the atherosclerotic vascular wall induced by the pulsating blood can be estimated using ultrasound strain imaging. Because these deformations indirectly provide information on mechanical plaque composition, strain imaging is a promising technique for differentiating between stable and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This paper first explains 1-D radial strain estimation as applied intravascularly in coronary arteries. Next, recent methods for noninvasive vascular strain estimation in a transverse imaging plane are discussed. Finally, a compounding technique that our group recently developed is explained. This technique combines motion estimates of subsequently acquired focused ultrasound images obtained at various insonification angles. However, because the artery moves and deforms during the multi-angle acquisition, errors are introduced when compounding. Recent advances in computational power have enabled plane wave ultrasound acquisition, which allows 100 times faster image acquisition and thus might resolve the motion artifacts. In this paper the performance of strain imaging using plane wave compounding is investigated using simulations of an artery with a vulnerable plaque and experimental data of a two-layered vessel phantom. The results show that plane wave compounding outperforms 0° focused strain imaging. For the simulations, the root mean squared error reduced by 66% and 50% for radial and circumferential strain, respectively. For the experiments, the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR(e) and CNR(e)) increased with 2.1 dB and 3.7 dB radially, and 5.6 dB and 16.2dB circumferentially. Because of the high frame rate, the plane wave compounding technique can even be further optimized and extended to 3D in future.

  19. Transition in Plane Channel Flow with Spatially Periodic Perturbations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Michael Francis

    We studied experimentally the primary and secondary instabilities in a plane channel flow perturbed by a streamwise -periodic array of cylinders. Wall-bounded shear flow in plane channels typically undergoes a direct transition from simple laminar behavior to turbulence with complex spatial and temporal intermittency; such behavior is characteristic of open flows, where fluid can advect through the system. However, the spatially perturbed channel flow displays bifurcations to well-ordered stable states, similar to transition exhibited by closed flows (flows confined in a box). The primary transition is a supercritical Hopf bifurcation arising from convective rather than absolute instability. The critical value of Reynolds number R _1 = 130 for the transition is more than an order of magnitude less than that for the unperturbed flow (R_1 = 5772 from linear stability theory). The stable secondary flow, a two-dimensional travelling-wave, resembles Tollmein-Schlichting waves, the linear modes of plane Poiseuille flow. As in the spatially unperturbed case, intentionally imposed, controlled disturbances are required to reveal transition since the bifurcation arises from convective instability. Numerical simulations are in quantitative agreement with the experimental observations. The secondary flow loses stability at R _2~ 160 to a three-dimensional state with a preferred spanwise periodicity. This tertiary flow demonstrates standing-wave behavior as it evolves along the streamwise direction; equivalent behavior results from differing initial disturbances. The flow structure and the strictly periodic spectra resemble the beginning stages of turbulent breakdown typically displayed by unperturbed plane channel flow; however, we observed no evidence in our experiment that the three-dimensional states continue to evolve toward turbulence. For R _sp {~}{>} 200, power spectra from our experiment have broad subharmonics that are also observed in other wall-bounded shear flows

  20. Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.; Ballard, M.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

  1. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging. I. Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes.

    PubMed

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs), has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as angular differential imaging and spectral differential imaging. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement derivatives using dual-wavelength digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Gannavarpu; Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod

    2011-12-01

    The paper introduces a method for simultaneously measuring the in-plane and out-of-plane displacement derivatives of a deformed object in digital holographic interferometry. In the proposed method, lasers of different wavelengths are used to simultaneously illuminate the object along various directions such that a unique wavelength is used for a given direction. The holograms formed by multiple reference-object beam pairs of different wavelengths are recorded by a 3-color CCD camera with red, green, and blue channels. Each channel stores the hologram related to the corresponding wavelength and hence for the specific direction. The complex reconstructed interference field is obtained for each wavelength by numerical reconstruction and digital processing of the recorded holograms before and after deformation. Subsequently, the phase derivative is estimated for a given wavelength using two-dimensional pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution and the in-plane and out-of-plane components are obtained from the estimated phase derivatives using the sensitivity vectors of the optical configuration.

  3. Direct Growth of a-Plane GaN on r-Plane Sapphire by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Chiu; Su, Yan-Kuin; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Wang, Yu-Jen; Wu, Chun-Ying; Chou, Ming-Chieh

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we had demonstrated the direct growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on an r-plane sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without any buffer layer. First, in this experiment, we had determined the optimum temperature for two-step growth, including obtaining three-dimensional (3D) GaN islands in the nucleation layer and coalescing with a further two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. The result shows that the nucleation layer grown under high temperature (1150 °C) leads to large islands with few grain boundaries. Under the same temperature, the effect of the V/III ratio on the growth of the overlaying GaN layer to obtain a flat and void free a-plane GaN layer is also studied. The result indicates one can directly grow a smooth epitaxial layer on an r-plane sapphire by changing the V/III ratio. The rms roughness decreases from 13.61 to 2.02 nm. The GaN crystal quality is verified using a mixed acid to etch the film surface. The etch pit density (EPD) is 3.16 ×107 cm-2.

  4. Analysis of Relative Parallelism Between Hamular-Incisive-Papilla Plane and Campers Plane in Edentulous Subjects: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Tambake, Deepti; Shetty, Shilpa; Satish Babu, C L; Fulari, Sangamesh G

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the parallelism between hamular-incisive-papilla plane (HIP) and the Campers plane. And to determine which part of the posterior reference of the tragus i.e., the superior, middle or the inferior of the Camper's plane is parallel to HIP using digital lateral cephalograms. Fifty edentulous subjects with well formed ridges were selected for the study. The master casts were obtained using the standard selective pressure impression procedure. On the deepest point of the hamular notches and the centre of the incisive papilla stainless steel spherical bearings were glued to the cast at the marked points. The study templates were fabricated with autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The subjects were prepared for the lateral cephalograms. Stainless steel spherical bearings were adhered to the superior, middle, inferior points of the tragus of the ear and inferior border of the ala of the nose using surgical adhesive tape. The subjects with study templates were subjected to lateral cephalograms. Cephalometric tracings were done using Autocad 2010 software. Lines were drawn connecting the incisive papilla and hamular notch and the stainless steel spherical bearings placed on the superior, middle and inferior points on the tragus and the ala of the nose i.e., the Campers line S, Campers line M, Campers line I. The angles between the three Camper's line and the HIP were measured and recorded. Higher mean angulation was recorded in Campers line S -HIP (8.03) followed by Campers line M-HIP (4.60). Campers line I-HIP recorded the least angulation (3.80). The HIP is parallel to the Camper's plane. The Camper's plane formed with the posterior reference point as inferior point of the tragus is relatively parallel to the HIP.

  5. Direct Growth of a-Plane GaN on r-Plane Sapphire Substrate by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Masahiro; Mochimizo, Noriaki; Hoshino, Katsuyuki; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2007-02-01

    We have investigated the direct growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN layers on an r-plane sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). A high-density nucleation of GaN islands was obtained on the r-plane sapphire substrate at the initial stage of the high-temperature growth without a buffer layer, which resulted in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. We studied the effects of V/III ratio growth conditions on the surface morphology and growth features of an a-plane GaN layer. The results showed that a high density of pits with an inverse-pyramidal shape were formed at a high V/III ratio, whereas a relatively low density of pits were formed at a low V/III ratio due to the increase in the rate of lateral growth along the c-axis direction. We successfully grew a-plane GaN layers with a flat and pit-free surface using the “two-step growth method”. The method consisted of growing a first layer at a high V/III ratio and growing a second layer at a low V/III ratio. We found that the first layer plays an important role in GaN layer growth. The formation of a void-free GaN layer with sidewall facets in the first step leads to a flat and pit-free layer grown at a high rate of lateral growth along the c-axis direction in the second step.

  6. A scalable control plane for optical-packet-switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Reed, M. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the design considerations and architecture of a Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)-based scalable control plane that we are prototyping for optical packet switched (OPS) networks. Functional components of the control plane include a user network interface (UNI), optical label coding, multi-layer routing/traffic engineering algorithm and integrated signaling protocol. Initial implementation and experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of our prototype as a testbed for various control schemes for OPS networks. One key element of the architecture proposed is the use of external MPLS labeling controlled by the UNI. This proposal reduces the load on the OPS domain header processing while having little impact on the MPLS domain.

  7. Signal processing on the focal plane array: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Roger W.; Trautfield, Walter C.; Taylor, Scott M.; Murray, Mark P.; Mesh, Frank J.; Horn, Stuart B.; Finch, James A.; Dang, Khoa V.; Caulfield, John T.

    2000-12-01

    Raytheon's Infrared Operations (RIO) has invented and developed a new class of focal plane arrays; the Adaptive IR Sensor (AIRS) and Thinfilm Analog Image Processor (TAIP). The AIRS FPA is based upon biologically inspired on-focal- plane circuitry, which adaptively removes detector and optic temperature drift and l/f induced fixed pattern noise. This third-generation multimode IRFPA, also called a Smart FPA, is a 256x256-array format capable of operation in four modes: 1) Direct Injection (DI), 2) Adaptive Non-uniformity Correction (NUC), 3) Motion/Edge Detection, and 4) Subframe Averaging. Also the 320x240 TAIP results have shown excellent image processing in the form of Spatial and Temporal processing.

  8. Saturn Ring Plane Crossing Observations in August and November 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Philip

    1995-07-01

    The plane of Saturn's rings passes through the earth on 10 August 1995, and through the sun on 17-21 November 1995, providing a rare opportunity to determine the thickness, vertical distortions, and pole orientation of the rings. A similar opportunity will not recur until the year 2038. We will obtain time series of images using the Wide Field Camera and methane filter at each crossing time, in order to measure the radial profile of apparent ring thickness, to determine the moment of the earth's crossing to within a few minutes, and to look for the expected warp in the ring plane due to satellite perturbations. In addition, the Planetary Camera will be used to recover the small satellites Pan and Atlas and thus refine their orbital periods. A series of multi-color WFC observations will be used to probe the structure and particle size distribution within the faint E and G rings.

  9. Optical path difference in a plane-parallel uniaxial plate.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha

    2006-04-01

    The flux of energy given by the Poynting vector Se and the kt-wave vector normal to the geometrical wavefront for the extraordinary ray propagating through uniaxial crystals can be evaluated by using the theory developed by Avendaño-Alejo et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1668 (2002)] and Avendaño-Alejo and Stavroudis [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1674 (2002)]. We give here the equations necessary to evaluate the general dispersion angle Se x kt. Additionally we define two new dispersion angles, Se x A and kt x A, where A is the crystal axis vector. With these new dispersion angles we evaluate the optical path length traversed by the extraordinary ray in a plane-parallel uniaxial plate when the crystal axis lies in the plane of incidence.

  10. Critical O (N ) models in the complex field plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litim, Daniel F.; Marchais, Edouard

    2017-01-01

    Local and global scaling solutions for O (N ) symmetric scalar field theories are studied in the complexified field plane with the help of the renormalization group. Using expansions of the effective action about small, large, and purely imaginary fields, we obtain and solve exact recursion relations for all couplings and determine the 3 d Wilson-Fisher fixed point analytically. For all O (N ) universality classes, we further establish that Wilson-Fisher fixed point solutions display singularities in the complex field plane, which dictate the radius of convergence for real-field expansions of the effective action. At infinite N , we find closed expressions for the convergence-limiting singularities and prove that local expansions of the effective action are powerful enough to uniquely determine the global Wilson-Fisher fixed point for any value of the fields. Implications of our findings for interacting fixed points in more complicated theories are indicated.

  11. Cell imaging techniques based on digital image plane holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoji; Gong, Wendi; Liu, Feifei; Wang, Huaying

    2010-11-01

    This paper has further studied the implementation methods and recording conditions of digital microscopic image plane holography (DMIPH). Two optical systems of DMIPH were built: one is recording hologram by using plane waves as reference light, the other is recording hologram by spherical reference light. Breast cancer cells and USAF resolution test target is used as tested samples in the experiment. Then the intensity distribution and three-dimensional shape information of the cells are got accurately. The experiment results show that DMIPH avoids the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach. The recording and reconstruction process of DMIPH is simple. Therefore DMIPH can be applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively.

  12. 3D fluorescence anisotropy imaging using selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hedde, Per Niklas; Ranjit, Suman; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence anisotropy imaging is a popular method to visualize changes in organization and conformation of biomolecules within cells and tissues. In such an experiment, depolarization effects resulting from differences in orientation, proximity and rotational mobility of fluorescently labeled molecules are probed with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence anisotropy is typically imaged using laser scanning and epifluorescence-based approaches. Unfortunately, those techniques are limited in either axial resolution, image acquisition speed, or by photobleaching. In the last decade, however, selective plane illumination microscopy has emerged as the preferred choice for three-dimensional time lapse imaging combining axial sectioning capability with fast, camera-based image acquisition, and minimal light exposure. We demonstrate how selective plane illumination microscopy can be utilized for three-dimensional fluorescence anisotropy imaging of live cells. We further examined the formation of focal adhesions by three-dimensional time lapse anisotropy imaging of CHO-K1 cells expressing an EGFP-paxillin fusion protein. PMID:26368202

  13. Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Alex

    2015-09-16

    The Aquantis 2.5 MW Ocean Current Generation Device technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) is a derivation of wind power generating technology (a means of harnessing a slow moving fluid) adapted to the ocean environment. The Aquantis Project provides an opportunity for accelerated technological development and early commercialization, since it involves the joining of two mature disciplines: ocean engineering and wind turbine design. The Aquantis Current Plane (C-Plane) technology is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from a current flow. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced, continuous, base-load, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  14. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  15. Subcritical transition to turbulence in plane channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A linear three dimensional mechanism for the transition of plane Poiseuille flows to turbulence is presented which provides good agreement with experimental observations. The mechanism is based on the evolution of states within a band of quasi-equilibria which slowly approach the stable upper branch solutions for the evolution of flow energy but which are strongly unstable to infinitesimal three-dimensional disturbances. Numerical simulation has shown that if two-dimensional flow persists long enough for the three-dimensional perturbations to attain finite amplitude, the resulting three dimensional flow quickly develops a turbulent character with nonperiodic behavior, and thus transition can be predicted from knowledge of the initial two- and three-dimensional energies and time scales. The mechanism predicts transition to turbulence at Reynolds numbers greater than 1000, as observed in experiments, and implies higher threshold three-dimensional energies in plane Couette flow.

  16. Circulation-preserving plane flows of incompressible viscous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.-L.

    1983-06-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a systematic use of the method of complex variables in a study of (generally unsteady) plane solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. Circulation-preserving flows are considered in the investigation. However, the employed method can also be applied to more general cases. A circulation-preserving plane solution of the Navier-Stokes equation possesses a biharmonic stream function. The stream function may, therefore, be expressed in terms of two complex analytic functions, taking into account Goursat's representation. Attention is given to differential equations in the complex form, the case of steady vorticity, the case of unsteady vorticity with a spatially constant vorticity gradient, solutions with logarithmic vorticity fields, and a proof of completeness.

  17. Dust in three dimensions in the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. J.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-12-01

    We present three-dimensional maps in monochromatic extinction A0 and the extinction parameter R0 within a few degrees of the Galactic plane. These are inferred using photometry from the Pan-STARRS1 and Spitzer GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire) surveys of nearly 20 million stars located in the region l = 0°-250° and from b = -4.5° to 4.5°. Given the available stellar number density, we use an angular resolution of 7 arcmin × 7 arcmin and steps of 1 mag in distance modulus. We simultaneously estimate distance modulus and effective temperature Teff alongside the other parameters for stars individually using the method of Hanson & Bailer-Jones before combining these estimates to a complete map. The full maps are available via the MNRAS website.

  18. Surface path lines in plane stokes flow driven by capillarity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, R.W.

    1993-05-03

    Consider the free creeping viscous plane flow in a region, bounded by a simple smooth closed curve and driven solely by surface tension. The shape evolution may in principle, and often in practice, be described by a time-dependent mapping z = {Omega}({zeta},t) of the unit circle, conformal on {vert_bar}{zeta}{vert_bar} {le} 1. It is shown that the path lines of fluid elements at the surface are determined by a first-order ordinary differential equation involving {Omega}({zeta},t), together with an initial condition. Typically, this must be integrated numerically. Velocities are not needed. The analogous theory for maps from the half-plane Im {zeta} {ge} 0 is presented. Surface path lines of a collapsing elliptic hole, in two reference frames, are calculated.

  19. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  20. A doubly-localized solution of plane Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Evan; Gibson, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a new equilibrium solution of plane Couette flow localized in two spatially extended directions. The solution is derived from the EQ7/HVS solution of plane Couette flow discovered independently by Itano and Generalis (PRL 2009) and Gibson et al. (JFM 2009), of which a spanwise localized version has also recently been produced (Gibson, these proceedings). The doubly localized solution displays relatively long length scales in comparison with the spatially periodic and spanwise localized solutions, suggesting the importance of these scales in capturing the spatial complexity of transitional and low-Reynolds number turbulence. The solution is comparable in size and appearance to the doubly-localized, chaotically evolving edge states previously computed in this flow by Duguet et al. (PoF 2009) and Schneider et al. (JFM 2010). Additionally, we address the structure of localized solutions in the ``tails,'' i.e. in the region approaching laminar.

  1. Kepler's Theory of Highly Symmetric Plane Figures and Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsch, Gerhard

    The main idea of Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum of 1596 involves the five regular "Platonic" polyhedra. Hence it seems appropriate to discuss Kepler's considerations on, or his "theory" of regular plane figures and solids. This is a key aspect of his "geometrical cosmology". In modern mathematics the regularity of figures and solids is normally expressed in terms of symmetries and symmetry groups. Although Kepler himself does not speak of symmetries, the author is applying at some points the modern, admittedly anachronistic terminology. This seems to be justified, because here is presented a mathematician's view rather than a historical discourse. The tradition of plane regular figures and regular solids, from antiquity to Kepler's time, and the sourses of Kepler's mathematics have been thoroughly investigated by Hofmann and Fields.

  2. Simultaneous measurements and flow visualization in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherikar, S. V.; Chevray, R.

    Wind tunnel experiments performed to determine the flow characteristics of a plane mixing layer are described. Two parallel streams of air moving at different velocities were separated by a splitter plate prior to their mixing in the test section. Gaseous NH3 and gaseous HCI were introduced near the splitter plate to produce an ammonium chloride aerosol which made flow visualization possible. Flow visualization records (movies) and velocity measurements, using laser-doppler-velocimeters tracking silicone oil particles in the flow, were made simultaneously and synchronized using a chopped beam of a He-Ne laser which left a signature on the move film and provided a signal for flow rate data acquisition. Analysis of these synchronized data verified the existence of large, essentially two-dimensional coherent structures in the plane mixing layer.

  3. Plane Waves in a Transparent Isotropic Chiral Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisanov, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    A homogeneous isotropic transparent chiral medium supports two normal plane waves with left and right circular polarization and differently valued positive wave numbers. The presence or absence of forward and backward Beltrami waves and their helicity are regulated by the signs of the permittivity and permeability and the strength of the chirality. The ray refractive index is a universal parameter whose sign differentiates the forward and backward waves.

  4. Observations of the galactic plane by the zodiacal infrared project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, L. J.; Stemwedel, S. W.; Price, S. D.

    1990-01-01

    The two rocket flights of the Zodiacal Infrared Project (ZIP), flown 18 August 1980 and 31 July 1981, were intended to provide data on the near-infrared thermal emission of the interplanetary dust cloud over a broad range of ecliptic coordinates (latitudes -60 to +85 degrees, solar elongation angles 22 to 90 degrees and 140 to 180 degrees). In addition, their multiple crossings of the Galactic plane provided low resolution spectral data (delta lambda/lambda ranging from 1. to 0.1, for effective wavelengths from 3 to 30 microns) for most of the first quadrant (longitudes 30 to 100 degrees). Examples are displayed. Having made a thorough reanalysis of the calibration of the ZIP database, researchers present the salient features of the Galactic plane as observed by ZIP. The binned, in-plane data, corrected for zodiacal emission, generally show an exponential decrease with increasing longitude. The fitted exponential scale-length is 0.038/degree, and can be inverted to derive a radial density profile. Channel ratios are converted to temperatures by using model spectra in which thermal emitters with emissivity approx. 1/lambda are convolved with the filter responses. The results for channels 5 (11 microns) and 12 (21 microns) are shown, along with similarly derived temperatures from Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) 12 microns and 25 microns data. The ZIP data show little variation with longitude, consistent with IRAS results. A narrow spectral feature at 13 microns appears consistently in data for the plane (uncorrected for zodiacal emission). However, this is strongly contaminated by calibration problems for channel 8. Researchers suggest that residual emission at 13 microns arises from the (NeII) line at 12.8 microns.

  5. Angle amplifying optics using plane and ellipsoidal reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Alexander J.

    1977-01-01

    An optical system for providing a wide angle input beam into ellipsoidal laser fusion target illumination systems. The optical system comprises one or more pairs of centrally apertured plane and ellipsoidal mirrors disposed to accept the light input from a conventional lens of modest focal length and thickness, to increase the angular divergence thereof to a value equivalent to that of fast lenses, and to direct the light into the ellipsoidal target illumination system.

  6. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  7. Holography and entropy bounds in the plane wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Mints, Aleksey L.

    2006-06-15

    As a quantum theory of gravity, matrix theory should provide a realization of the holographic principle, in the sense that a holographic theory should contain one binary degree of freedom per Planck area. We present evidence that Bekenstein's entropy bound, which is related to area differences, is manifest in the plane wave matrix model. If holography is implemented in this way, we predict crossover behavior at strong coupling when the energy exceeds N{sup 2} in units of the mass scale.

  8. Stretching of a plane with a lattice of cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Yu. M.

    2016-06-01

    An exact analytical solution of the problem in elasticity theory about stretching of a plane with an infinite lattice of rectilinear cuts has been obtained. The analysis is based on G.V. Kolosov's formulas associating the stress components with two regular functions of a complex variable. The obtained solution revealed the original effects of stretching stress screening and localization of compressive stresses between cuts.

  9. Thermal and structural analyses of variable thickness plane problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.

    1995-07-01

    Finite difference formulations for variable thickness thermal analysis and variable thickness plane stress analysis are presented. In heat transfer analysis, radiation effects and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are taken into account. While in thermal stress analysis, the thermal expansion coefficient is considered as temperature dependent. An application of the variable thickness window for synchrotron radiation beamline under very strong X-ray is provided.

  10. Supercritical transition in plane channel flow with spatially periodic perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatz, Michael F.; Tagg, Randall P.; Swinney, Harry L.; Fischer, Paul F.; Patera, Anthony T.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have been conducted for plane channel flow with a streamwise-periodic array of cylinders. The primary transition in this open flow occurs as a convective rather than absolute instability and leads to traveling-wave packets, which advect out of the system. The ordered secondary state is characteristic of closed flows, in contrast with other open flows where the primary transition often leads directly to turbulence.

  11. Scattering of a CW plane wave by a pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivett, D. H.; Rogers, P. H.

    1982-05-01

    A procedure similar to the CW crossed-beam calculation of Ingard and Pridmore-Brown (1956) is used to calculate the far field scattered sound pressure of a pulse interacting with a plane wave. The scattered sound is found to be at neither the sum nor the difference frequency. It is suggested that this type of interaction is ideal for investigating the scattering of sound by sound, and a numerical solution is used to discuss the general features of the nearfield waveform.

  12. Waterjet Propulsor Performance Prediction in Planing Craft Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    technique Is1 presented for flush inlet waterjet syetems installed on planing craft. The equations were derived based on empirical data and physical...Block 20) ýavailahle waterJets. Radically new waterJet configurations would require an update of tle equations based on empirical data...10 iv Ire, ;I NOTATION Symbol Description D 1rmens ions AI Pump inlet area L A1,1. 0 , 3 Coefficients of waterjet weight equation

  13. Parametrics of submarine dynamic stability in the vertical plane

    SciTech Connect

    Papoulias, F.A.; Papanikolaou, S.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of dynamic stability of submersible vehicles in the dive plane is examined utilizing bifurcation techniques. The primary mechanism of loss of stability is identified in the form of generic Hopf bifurcations to periodic solutions. Stability of the resulting limit cycles is established using center manifold approximations and integral averaging. Parametric studies are performed with varying vehicle geometric properties. The methods described in this work could lead to techniques resulting in enlargement of the submerged operational envelope of a vehicle.

  14. The Synthesis of Force Closure Grasps in the Plane.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    TASK U Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UN IT "NMUIERS ~( 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 SI. CONTROLLING OFICE NAME ANO... ARTIFICIAL INThLLIX’ ENCE LABORATORY A. 1. Memo 861 September, 1985 The Synthesis of Force-Closure Grasps In the Plane DTIC ’VeL% ,#ECTE 1 VnDcNguyenU Abstract... Artificial In- telligenmcc Liabomatory of thle Massachuset Is hInsttute of Teclhnolog3 . Support for the Lahoratot * s Artificial Intelligence research is

  15. Inclined selective plane illumination microscopy adaptor for conventional microscopes.

    PubMed

    Cutrale, Francesco; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-11-01

    Driven by the biological sciences, there is an increased need for imaging modalities capable of live cell imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution. To achieve this goal in a comprehensive manner, three-dimensional acquisitions are necessary. Ideal features of a modern microscope system should include high imaging speed, high contrast ratio, low photo-bleaching and photo-toxicity, good resolution in a 3D context, and mosaic acquisition for large samples. Given the importance of collecting data in live sample further increases the technical challenges required to solve these issues. This work presents a practical version of a microscopy method, Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy re-introduced by Huisken et al. (Science2004,305,1007-1009). This method is gaining importance in the biomedical field, but its use is limited by difficulties associated with unconventional microscope design which employs two objectives and a particular kind of sample preparation needed to insert the sample between the objectives. Based on the selective plane illumination principle but with a design similar to the Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscope, Dunsby (Dunsby, Opt Express 2008,16,20306-20316) demonstrated the oblique plane microscope (OPM) using a single objective which uses conventional sample preparation protocols. However, the Dunsby instrument was not intended to be part of a commercial microscope. In this work, we describe a system with the advantages of OPM and that can be used as an adaptor to commonly used microscopes, such as IX-71 Olympus, simplifying the construction of the OPM and increasing performance of a conventional microscope. We named our design inclined selective plane illumination microscope (iSPIM).

  16. Parameterized Hilbert-Type Integral Inequalities in the Whole Plane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    By the use of the way of real analysis, we estimate the weight functions and give some new Hilbert-type integral inequalities in the whole plane with nonhomogeneous kernels and multiparameters. The constant factors related to the hypergeometric function and the beta function are proved to be the best possible. We also consider the equivalent forms, the reverses, and some particular cases in the homogeneous kernels. PMID:25215314

  17. Euler and Navier–Stokes equations on the hyperbolic plane

    PubMed Central

    Khesin, Boris; Misiołek, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    We show that nonuniqueness of the Leray–Hopf solutions of the Navier–Stokes equation on the hyperbolic plane ℍ2 observed by Chan and Czubak is a consequence of the Hodge decomposition. We show that this phenomenon does not occur on ℍn whenever n ≥ 3. We also describe the corresponding general Hamiltonian framework of hydrodynamics on complete Riemannian manifolds, which includes the hyperbolic setting. PMID:23091015

  18. In-plane optical anisotropy of layered gallium telluride

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; ...

    2016-08-16

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h3 space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron–photon and electron–phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in opticalmore » extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. Furthermore, these studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.« less

  19. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

  20. Acoustic Emission, b-values and Foliation Plane Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehizadeh, Mahdi; Nasseri, Mohammad H.; Ye, Sheng; Young, R. Paul

    2016-04-01

    The b-value and D-value are two parameters related to size and distance distribution of earthquakes. There are many different factors affecting b-value such as stress state, thermal gradients, focal mechanism and heterogeneity. For example, the literature shows that the b-value changes systematically with respect to the focal mechanism. In laboratory experiments, foliation planes introduce a weakness in samples and can be considered as a potential for rupture or pre-existing faults, so they may exhibit similar relationships. The D-value defines the degree of clustering of earthquakes and would be expected to have a defined relationship with respect to the anisotropy. Using a unique facility in the Rock Fracture Dynamics laboratory at the University of Toronto, three sets of polyaxial experiments have been performed on cubic samples with foliation planes systematically oriented at different angles to the principal stress direction. During these tests, samples were loaded under controlled true-triaxial stress conditions until they failed or had severe damage and acoustic emission events were recorded using 18 sensors around the samples. The paper describes how the combination of stress state and foliation planes affects the b-value and D-value under laboratory conditions.

  1. Binding of an oligopeptide to a specific plane of ice.

    PubMed

    Houston, M E; Chao, H; Hodges, R S; Sykes, B D; Kay, C M; Sönnichsen, F D; Loewen, M C; Davies, P L

    1998-05-08

    The alpha-helical antifreeze protein (AFP) from winter flounder inhibits ice growth by binding to a specific set of pyramidal surface planes that are not otherwise macroscopically expressed. The 37-residue AFP contains three 11-amino acid repeats that make a stereo-specific fit to the ice lattice along the <01-12> direction of the (20-21) and equivalent binding planes. When the AFP was shortened to delete two of the three 11-amino acid ice-binding repeats, the resulting 15-residue peptide and its variants were less helical and showed no antifreeze activity. However, when the helicity of the peptide was reinforced by an internal lactam bridge between Glu-7 and Lys-11, the minimized AFP was able to stably express the pyramidal plane (20-21) on the surface of growing ice crystals. This dynamic shaping of the ice surface by a single ice-binding repeat provides evidence that AFP adsorption to the ice lattice is not an "all-or-nothing" interaction. Instead, a partial interaction can help develop the binding site on ice to which the remainder of the AFP (or other AFP molecules) can orient and bind.

  2. Analysis of out-of-plane thermal microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atre, Amarendra

    2006-02-01

    Out-of-plane thermal microactuators find applications in optical switches to motivate micromirrors. Accurate analysis of such actuators is beneficial for improving existing designs and constructing more energy efficient actuators. However, the analysis is complicated by the nonlinear deformation of the thermal actuators along with temperature-dependent properties of polysilicon. This paper describes the development, modeling issues and results of a three-dimensional multiphysics nonlinear finite element model of surface micromachined out-of-plane thermal actuators. The model includes conductive and convective cooling effects and takes into account the effect of variable air gap on the response of the actuator. The model is implemented to investigate the characteristics of two diverse MUMPs fabricated out-of-plane thermal actuators. Reasonable agreement is observed between simulated and measured results for the model that considers the influence of air gap on actuator response. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by implementing it to observe the effect of actuator geometry variation on steady-state deflection response.

  3. An Improved Event Plane Detector for the STAR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewigleben, Justin; STAR EPD Group Team

    2017-01-01

    The BES program at RHIC has shown hints of a critical point and first order phase transition at the BES energies. Key measurements for locating the critical point and determining the first order phase transition are limited by poor event plane resolution, limited statistics and a TPC-only centrality determination. Therefore, phase II of the BES program was proposed to take data with upgraded detectors and increased statistics for the further investigation. A new event plane and collision centrality detector is planned to replace the existing detector, the BBC, with higher granularity and acceptance. The design of the EPD consists of two scintillator discs at z= +/- 3.75m from the center of STAR, covering 2.2 < η < 5.1, the same as the BBC. The detector will be read out by silicon photomultipliers - an inexpensive and magnetic field insensitive replacement for the traditional phototube. A prototype of the detector, consisting of a single sector was integrated into STAR during the 2016 run, which will be shown. The optimized segmentation, size and shape of the final design was decided in order to maximize event plane resolution, , centrality estimation and flow harmonic measurements. We will discuss the plans to install one quarter of a disc into STAR for the 2017 run.

  4. Active point out-of-plane ultrasound calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Alexis; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Hyunjae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Image-guided surgery systems are often used to provide surgeons with informational support. Due to several unique advantages such as ease of use, real-time image acquisition, and no ionizing radiation, ultrasound is a common intraoperative medical imaging modality used in image-guided surgery systems. To perform advanced forms of guidance with ultrasound, such as virtual image overlays or automated robotic actuation, an ultrasound calibration process must be performed. This process recovers the rigid body transformation between a tracked marker attached to the transducer and the ultrasound image. Point-based phantoms are considered to be accurate, but their calibration framework assumes that the point is in the image plane. In this work, we present the use of an active point phantom and a calibration framework that accounts for the elevational uncertainty of the point. Given the lateral and axial position of the point in the ultrasound image, we approximate a circle in the axial-elevational plane with a radius equal to the axial position. The standard approach transforms all of the imaged points to be a single physical point. In our approach, we minimize the distances between the circular subsets of each image, with them ideally intersecting at a single point. We simulated in noiseless and noisy cases, presenting results on out-of-plane estimation errors, calibration estimation errors, and point reconstruction precision. We also performed an experiment using a robot arm as the tracker, resulting in a point reconstruction precision of 0.64mm.

  5. Facial Rejuvenation with Fillers: The Dual Plane Technique

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Giovanni; Rauso, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy “dual plane”. A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects. PMID:26644734

  6. Universal rules for division plane selection in plants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sabine

    2012-04-01

    Coordinated cell divisions and cell expansion are the key processes that command growth in all organisms. The orientation of cell divisions and the direction of cell expansion are critical for normal development. Symmetric divisions contribute to proliferation and growth, while asymmetric divisions initiate pattern formation and differentiation. In plants these processes are of particular importance since their cells are encased in cellulosic walls that determine their shape and lock their position within tissues and organs. Several recent studies have analyzed the relationship between cell shape and patterns of symmetric cell division in diverse organisms and employed biophysical and mathematical considerations to develop computer simulations that have allowed accurate prediction of cell division patterns. From these studies, a picture emerges that diverse biological systems follow simple universal rules of geometry to select their division planes and that the microtubule cytoskeleton takes a major part in sensing the geometric information and translates this information into a specific division outcome. In plant cells, the division plane is selected before mitosis, and spatial information of the division plane is preserved throughout division by the presence of reference molecules at a distinct region of the plasma membrane, the cortical division zone. The recruitment of these division zone markers occurs multiple times by several mechanisms, suggesting that the cortical division zone is a highly dynamic region.

  7. In-plane optical anisotropy of layered gallium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; Guo, Huaihong; Wang, Ziqiang; Watson, Garrett; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Kong, Jing; Li, Ju; Yang, Teng; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2016-08-16

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h3 space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron–photon and electron–phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in optical extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. Furthermore, these studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.

  8. Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolt, Thomas L.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. With the superconducting metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

  9. On-chip ADC for infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Guo-qiang; Wang, Pan; Ding, Rui-jun

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a low power and small area analog-digital converter (ADC) for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA) readout integrated circuit (ROIC). Successive approximation register (SAR) ADC architecture is used in this IRFPA readout integrated circuit. Each column of the IRFPA shares one SAR ADC. The most important part is the three-level DAC. Compared to the previous design, this three-level DAC needs smaller area, has lower power, and more suitable for IRFPA ROIC. In this DAC, its most significant bit (MSB) sub-DAC uses charge scaling, while the least significant bit (LSB) sub-DAC uses voltage scaling. Where the MSB sub-DAC consists of a four-bit charge scaling DAC and a five-bit sub-charge scaling DAC. We need to put a scaling capacitor Cs between these two sub-DACs. Because of the small area, we have more design methods to make the ADC has a symmetrical structure and has higher accuracy. The ADC also needs a high resolution comparator. In this design the comparator uses three-stage operational amplifier structure to have a 77dB differential gain. As the IR focal plane readout circuit signal is stepped DC signal, the circuit design time without adding the sample and hold circuit, so we can use a DC signal instead of infrared focal plane readout circuit output analog signals to be simulated. The simulation result shows that the resolution of the ADC is 12 bit.

  10. Operational Capabilities and Legal Implications of a Military Space Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    The potential challenges for the United States military in this upcoming century may require new types of capabilities only achievable through the application of new technologies. One of these potential capabilities includes a Military Space Plane (MSP). An MSP is a concept to use reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technologies in a system to provide the military global access and reach in a timely fashion that could be operational within a decade. New awareness is evident from both recent federal commission reports and activities in Afghanistan of the military's possible use of such capabilities to provide asymmetric advantages. The MSP may eventually become part of a new spaceforce that coordinates the broad range of defensive and offensive space assets. In addition, a new emphasis is being placed upon NASA and the U.S. Air Force to coordinate activity on such a space plane/RLV development. The interaction of civilian and defense agencies for such a program has ramifications, not just in terms of the requirements on a final operational vehicle, but also on the legal charters of both entities. This examination presents operational scenarios for a military space plane in order to derive various legal implications.

  11. Propagation of Scalar Fields in a Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestino, Juliana; Alves, Márcio E. S.; Barone, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    The present article deals with solutions for a minimally coupled scalar field propagating in a static plane symmetric spacetime. The considered metric describes the curvature outside a massive infinity plate and exhibits an intrinsic naked singularity (a singular plane) that makes the accessible universe finite in extension. This solution can be interpreted as describing the spacetime of static domain walls. In this context, a first solution is given in terms of zero order Bessel functions of the first and second kind and presents a stationary pattern which is interpreted as a result of the reflection of the scalar waves at the singular plane. This is an evidence, at least for the massless scalar field, of an old interpretation given by Amundsen and Grøn regarding the behaviour of test particles near the singularity. A second solution is obtained in the limit of a weak gravitational field which is valid only far from the singularity. In this limit, it was possible to find out an analytic solution for the scalar field in terms of the Kummer and Tricomi confluent hypergeometric functions.

  12. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  13. The aerospace plane design challenge: Credible computational fluid dynamics results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1990-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is necessary in the design processes of all current aerospace plane programs. Single-stage-to-orbit (STTO) aerospace planes with air-breathing supersonic combustion are going to be largely designed by means of CFD. The challenge of the aerospace plane design is to provide credible CFD results to work from, to assess the risk associated with the use of those results, and to certify CFD codes that produce credible results. To establish the credibility of CFD results used in design, the following topics are discussed: CFD validation vis-a-vis measurable fluid dynamics (MFD) validation; responsibility for credibility; credibility requirement; and a guide for establishing credibility. Quantification of CFD uncertainties helps to assess success risk and safety risks, and the development of CFD as a design tool requires code certification. This challenge is managed by designing the designers to use CFD effectively, by ensuring quality control, and by balancing the design process. For designing the designers, the following topics are discussed: how CFD design technology is developed; the reasons Japanese companies, by and large, produce goods of higher quality than the U.S. counterparts; teamwork as a new way of doing business; and how ideas, quality, and teaming can be brought together. Quality control for reducing the loss imparted to the society begins with the quality of the CFD results used in the design process, and balancing the design process means using a judicious balance of CFD and MFD.

  14. Mapping optically variable quasars towards the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Verdugo, T.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A. C.; de Diego, J. A.; Motta, V.; Vega, L.; Downes, J. J.; Mateu, C.; Vivas, A. K.; Briceño, C.; Abad, C.; Vieira, K.; Hernández, J.; Nuñez, A.; Gatuzz, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the CIDA Equatorial Variability Survey (CEVS), looking for quasar (hereafter QSO) candidates near the Galactic plane. The CEVS contains photometric data from extended and adjacent regions of the Milky Way disk (˜ 500 sq. deg.). In this work 2.5 square degrees with moderately high temporal sampling in the CEVS were analyzed. The selection of QSO candidates was based on the study of intrinsic optical photometric variability of 14,719 light curves. We studied samples defined by cuts in the variability index (V_{index}>66.5), periodicity index (Q > 2), and the distribution of these sources in the plane (A_T,γ), using a slight modification of the first-order of the structure function for the temporal sampling of the survey. Finally, 288 sources were selected as QSO candidates. The results shown in this work are a first attempt to develop a robust method to detect QSO towards the Galactic plane in the era of massive surveys such as VISTA and Gaia.

  15. Basal Plane Affinity of an Insect Antifreeze Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaya, N.; Gauthier, S. Y.; Davies, P. L.; Braslavsky, I.

    2007-03-01

    sbwAFP is a powerful antifreeze protein (AFP) with high thermal hysteresis activity that protects spruce budworm (sbw) from freezing during harsh winters in the spruce and fir forests of USA and Canada. Different types of antifreeze proteins have been found in many other species and have potential applications in cryomedicine and cryopreservation. When an ice crystal is cooled in the presence of AFP below the non-equilibrium freezing point the crystal will suddenly and rapidly grow in specific directions. Hyperactive antifreezes like sbwAFP expand perpendicular to the c-axis (in the plane of the a-axes), whereas moderately active AFPs, like type III from fish, grow in the direction parallel to the c-axis. It has been proposed that the basis for hyperactivity of certain AFPs is that they bind and accumulate on the basal plane to inhibit c-axial growth. By putting fluorescent tags on these two types of AFPs we have been able to directly visualize the binding of different types of AFPs to ice surfaces. We do indeed find that the insect AFP accumulates on the basal plane of an ice crystal while type III AFP does not. Supported by CIHR and BNTI.

  16. Solution of the plane stochastic creep boundary value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, L. V.; Popov, N. N.; Radchenko, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    The solution of the non-linear stochastic boundary-value problem of the creep of a thin plate in a plane stress state when the elastic strains are small and can be neglected is presented. The plate material is stochastically inhomogeneous so that the stress and strain tensors are random functions of the coordinates. The constitutive creep relation, taken as in non-linear viscous flow theory, is formulated in a stochastic form. Using the perturbation method, the non-linear stochastic problem is reduced to a system of three linear partial differential equations in the fluctuations of the stress tensor and, then, changing by implementing the stress function, to a differential equation, the solution of which is represented in the form of the sum of two series. The first series is the solution far from the boundary of the plate, ignoring edge effects, and the second is the solution in the boundary layer, and its terms rapidly decay as the distance from the boundary of the plate increases. The stretching of a stochastically inhomogeneous half-plane in the direction of two mutually orthogonal axes is considered as an example. The stress concentration in the boundary of the half-plane is investigated. It is shown that the spread of the stresses in the surface layer, the width of which depends on the degree of non-linearity of the material, can be much greater than in the deep layers.

  17. In-Plane Optical Anisotropy of Layered Gallium Telluride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; Guo, Huaihong; Wang, Ziqiang; Watson, Garrett; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Kong, Jing; Li, Ju; Yang, Teng; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-09-27

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h(3) space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in optical extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. These studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.

  18. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    PubMed

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  19. Calculating the Fresnel diffraction of light from a shifted and tilted plane.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Senoh, Takanori; Oi, Ryutaro; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2012-06-04

    We propose a technique for calculating the diffraction of light in the Fresnel region from a plane that is the light source (source plane) to a plane at which the diffracted light is to be calculated (destination plane). When the wavefield of the source plane is described by a group of points on a grid, this technique can be used to calculate the wavefield of the group of points on a grid on the destination plane. The positions of both planes may be shifted, and the plane normal vectors of both planes may have different directions. Since a scaled Fourier transform is used for the calculation, it can be calculated faster than calculating the diffraction by a Fresnel transform at each point. This technique can be used to calculate and generate planar holograms from computer graphics data.

  20. 2-tier in-plane motion correction and out-of-plane motion filtering for contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Casey N.; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Mattrey, Robert F.; Kono, Yuko; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) cines of focal liver lesions (FLL) can be quantitatively analyzed to measure tumor perfusion on a pixel-by-pixel basis for diagnostic indication. However, CEUS cines acquired freehand and during free breathing cause non-uniform in-plane and out-of-plane motion from frame to frame. These motions create fluctuations in the time-intensity curves (TIC), reducing accuracy of quantitative measurements. Out-of-plane motion cannot be corrected by image registration in 2D CEUS and degrades the quality of in-plane motion correction (IPMC). A 2-tier IPMC strategy and adaptive out-of-plane motion filter (OPMF) are proposed to provide a stable correction of non-uniform motion to reduce the impact of motion on quantitative analyses. Materials and Methods 22 cines of FLLs were imaged with dual B-mode and contrast specific imaging to acquire a 3-minute TIC. B-mode images were analyzed for motion, and the motion correction was applied to both B-mode and contrast images. For IPMC, the main reference frame was automatically selected for each cine, and subreference frames were selected in each respiratory cycle and sequentially registered toward the main reference frame. All other frames were sequentially registered toward the local subreference frame. Four OPMFs were developed and tested: subsample Normalized Correlation (NC), subsample Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD), mean frame NC, and histogram. The frames that were most dissimilar to the OPMF reference frame using one of the four above criteria in each respiratory cycle were adaptively removed by thresholding against the low-pass filter of the similarity curve. OPMF was quantitatively evaluated by an out-of-plane motion metric (OPMM) that measured normalized variance in the high-pass filtered time-intensity curve within the tumor region-of-interest with low OPMM being the goal. IPMC and OPMF results were qualitatively evaluated by two blinded observers who ranked the motion in the

  1. Epitaxial relationship of semipolar s-plane (1101) InN grown on r-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrakopulos, G. P.

    2012-07-02

    The heteroepitaxy of semipolar s-plane (1101) InN grown directly on r-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques. The epitaxial relationship is determined to be (1101){sub InN} Parallel-To (1102){sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}, [1120]{sub InN} Parallel-To [2021]{sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}, [1102]{sub InN}{approx} Parallel-To [0221]{sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}, which ensures a 0.7% misfit along [1120]{sub InN}. Two orientation variants are identified. Proposed geometrical factors contributing to the high density of basal stacking faults, partial dislocations, and sphalerite cubic pockets include the misfit accommodation and reduction, as well as the accommodation of lattice twist.

  2. In-plane chiral tunneling and out-of-plane valley-polarized quantum tunneling in twisted graphene trilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2014-08-01

    Here we show that a twisted graphene trilayer made by misoriented stacking of a graphene monolayer on top of a Bernal graphene bilayer can exhibit rich and tailored electronic properties. For the case that the graphene monolayer and bilayer are strongly coupled, both the massless Dirac fermions and massive chiral fermions coexist in the twisted trilayer, leading to unique in-plane chiral tunneling. For a weak coupling between the two graphene systems, the distinct chiralities and pseudospin textures of quasiparticles in monolayer and bilayer enable vertical valley-polarized quantum tunneling between them. Intriguingly, the polarity of the valley polarization can be inverted simply by either controlling the rotational angles between the two systems or tuning the Fermi levels of the two systems. Our result implies that layered van der Waals structures assembled from individual atomic planes can create materials that harbor unusual properties and alternative functionalities depending on the stacking configuration of the crystalline layers.

  3. SCRAM - AN ENGINEER'S TOOL FOR PREDICTION OF AIRFRAME INTEGRATED SCRAMJET PERFORMANCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    This program determines the one-dimensional performance for an airframe integrated supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet). The supersonic combustion ramjet cycle, which uses hydrogen for fuel and atmospheric air for oxidation, is essential for the development of a propulsion system for single-stage-to-orbit aerospace vehicles. These vehicles are intended to be launched horizontally, as opposed to vertical launching for current space vehicles. In addition, they must achieve hypersonic flight to Mach 25 prior to orbital insertion into low Earth orbit. The propulsion system of these vehicles must be reusable, efficient, and cost effective. The scramjet cycle analysis code performs nose-to-tail, hydrogen fueled, Airframe Integrated Scramjet (AIS) simulation in a real gas flow with equilibrium thermodynamic properties. This allows ready generation of preliminary estimates for SCRAM cycle performance. SCRAM is a reliable, efficient, and speedy design tool that is useable on all standard computers down to IBM PC-AT compatible machines. Developed in the Hypersonic Propulsion Branch at NASA Langley Research Center for the Hypersonic Research Engine and Langley 3-Strut engine programs, the current version of this code has been modified by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility of the Ames Research Center for the purpose of supporting the Langley Strutless Parametric engine and National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) engine test programs. The current version of SCRAM optimizes the tradeoffs between the needs for computational speed, accuracy, and future modifications. The program utilizes a five station geometry model, with variable step size between each station, to analyze a vehicle nose-to-tail mass capture stream tube control-volume with real gas equilibrium flow properties. SCRAM applies the laws of Conservation of Mass, Momentum, and Energy across each step to calculate the changing flow parameters along the control volume. The code incorporates an integral boundary layer

  4. SU-E-J-245: Sensitivity of FDG PET Feature Analysis in Multi-Plane Vs. Single-Plane Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S; Jeraj, R; Galavis, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Sensitivity of PET-derived texture features to reconstruction methods has been reported for features extracted from axial planes; however, studies often utilize three dimensional techniques. This work aims to quantify the impact of multi-plane (3D) vs. single-plane (2D) feature extraction on radiomics-based analysis, including sensitivity to reconstruction parameters and potential loss of spatial information. Methods: Twenty-three patients with solid tumors underwent [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans under identical protocols. PET data were reconstructed using five sets of reconstruction parameters. Tumors were segmented using an automatic, in-house algorithm robust to reconstruction variations. 50 texture features were extracted using two Methods: 2D patches along axial planes and 3D patches. For each method, sensitivity of features to reconstruction parameters was calculated as percent difference relative to the average value across reconstructions. Correlations between feature values were compared when using 2D and 3D extraction. Results: 21/50 features showed significantly different sensitivity to reconstruction parameters when extracted in 2D vs 3D (wilcoxon α<0.05), assessed by overall range of variation, Rangevar(%). Eleven showed greater sensitivity to reconstruction in 2D extraction, primarily first-order and co-occurrence features (average Rangevar increase 83%). The remaining ten showed higher variation in 3D extraction (average Range{sub var}increase 27%), mainly co-occurence and greylevel run-length features. Correlation of feature value extracted in 2D and feature value extracted in 3D was poor (R<0.5) in 12/50 features, including eight co-occurrence features. Feature-to-feature correlations in 2D were marginally higher than 3D, ∣R∣>0.8 in 16% and 13% of all feature combinations, respectively. Larger sensitivity to reconstruction parameters were seen for inter-feature correlation in 2D(σ=6%) than 3D (σ<1%) extraction. Conclusion: Sensitivity

  5. Sagittal plane deformity: an overview of interpretation and management.

    PubMed

    Roussouly, Pierre; Nnadi, Colin

    2010-11-01

    The impact of sagittal plane alignment on the treatment of spinal disorders is of critical importance. A failure to recognise malalignment in this plane can have significant consequences for the patient not only in terms of pain and deformity, but also social interaction due to deficient forward gaze. A good understanding of the principles of sagittal balance is vital to achieve optimum outcomes when treating spinal disorders. Even when addressing problems in the coronal plane, an awareness of sagittal balance is necessary to avoid future complications. The normal spine has lordotic curves in the cephalad and caudal regions with a kyphotic curve in between. Overall, there is a positive correlation between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. There are variations on the degree of normal curvature but nevertheless this shape allows equal distribution of forces across the spinal column. It is the disruption of this equilibrium by pathological processes or, as in most cases, ageing that results in deformity. This leads to adaptive changes in the pelvis and lower limbs. The effects of limb alignment on spinal posture are well documented. We now also know that changes in pelvic posture also affect spinal alignment. Sagittal malalignment presents as an exaggeration or deficiency of normal lordosis or kyphosis. Most cases seen in clinical practise are due to kyphotic deformity secondary to inflammatory, degenerative or post-traumatic disorders. They may also be secondary to infection or tumours. There is usually pain and functional disability along with concerns about self-image and social interaction due to inability to maintain a horizontal gaze. The resultant pelvic and lower limb posture is an attempt to restore normal alignment. Addressing this complex problem requires detailed expertise and awareness of the potential pitfalls surrounding its treatment.

  6. Pluto's plasma wake oriented away from the ecliptic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-de-Tejada, H.; Durand-Manterola, H.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Lundin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Conditions similar to those observed in the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars where there is a planetary atmosphere in the absence of a global intrinsic magnetic field may also be applicable to Pluto. With up to 24 μbars inferred for the Pluto atmosphere it is possible that the feeble solar photon radiation flux that reaches by its orbit, equivalent to ∼10-3 that at Earth, is sufficient to produce an ionization component that can be eroded by the solar wind. In view of the reduced solar wind density (∼10-3 with respect to that at 1 AU) that should be available by Pluto its total kinetic energy will be significantly smaller than that at Earth. However, the parameter values that are implied for the interaction process between the solar wind and the local upper ionosphere are sufficient to produce a plasma wake that should extend downstream from Pluto. In view of its low gravity force the plasma wake should have a wider cross-section than that in the Venus and Mars plasma environment. Since Pluto rotates with the axis tilted ∼30° away from the ecliptic plane the plasma wake will be influenced by a Magnus force that has a large component is the north-south solar polar direction. That force will be responsible for propelling the plasma wake with a component that can be directed away from that plane. It is estimated that transport of solar wind momentum to the upper Pluto's ionosphere implies rotation periods smaller than that of the solid body, and thus large values of the Magnus force that can increase the orientation of the plasma wake away from the ecliptic plane.

  7. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Bias Filter for Ultrasensitive Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process has been developed for cryogenic in-line filtering for the bias and readout of ultrasensitive cryogenic bolometers for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The design is a microstripline filter that cuts out, or strongly attenuates, frequencies (10 50 GHz) that can be carried by wiring staged at cryogenic temperatures. The filter must have 100-percent transmission at DC and low frequencies where the bias and readout lines will carry signal. The fabrication requires the encapsulation of superconducting wiring in a dielectric-metal envelope with precise electrical characteristics. Sufficiently thick insulation layers with high-conductivity metal layers fully surrounding a patterned superconducting wire in arrayable formats have been demonstrated. A degenerately doped silicon wafer has been chosen to provide a metallic ground plane. A metallic seed layer is patterned to enable attachment to the ground plane. Thick silicon dioxide films are deposited at low temperatures to provide tunable dielectric isolation without degrading the metallic seed layer. Superconducting wiring is deposited and patterned using microstripline filtering techniques to cut out the relevant frequencies. A low Tc superconductor is used so that it will attenuate power strongly above the gap frequency. Thick dielectric is deposited on top of the circuit, and then vias are patterned through both dielectric layers. A thick conductive film is deposited conformally over the entire circuit, except for the contact pads for the signal and bias attachments to complete the encapsulating ground plane. Filters are high-aspect- ratio rectangles, allowing close packing in one direction, while enabling the chip to feed through the wall of a copper enclosure. The chip is secured in the copper wall using a soft metal seal to make good thermal and electrical contact to the outer shield.

  8. Pluto's Plasma Wake Oriented Away from the Ecliptic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez De Tejada, H. A.; Durand-Manterola, H.; Lundin, R. N.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2013-12-01

    Conditions similar to those observed in the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars with a planetary atmosphere and in the absence of an intrinsic magnetic field should also be applicable to Pluto. With up to 24 μbars inferred for the Pluto atmosphere it is possible that the feeble solar photon radiation flux that reaches by its orbit, equivalent to ~10-3 of that at earth, is sufficient to produce an ionization component that can be eroded by the solar wind. In view of the reduced solar wind density (~ 10-3 with respect to that by 1 AU) that should be available by Pluto its kinetic energy will be significantly smaller than that by earth. However, the parameter values that are implied for the interaction process between the solar wind and the local upper ionosphere are sufficient to produce a plasma wake that should extend downstream from Pluto. In view of its low gravity force the plasma wake should have a wider cross-section than that in the Venus and Mars plasma environment. Since Pluto rotates with its rotational axis tilted close to its orbital plane the plasma wake will be influenced by a Magnus force that is nearly north-south oriented. That force will be responsible for propelling the plasma wake with a component that can be directed away from the ecliptic plane. It is estimated that transport of solar wind momentum to the upper Pluto's ionosphere implies rotation periods smaller than that of the solid body, and thus larger values of the Magnus force that can increase the orientation of the plasma wake away from the ecliptic plane.

  9. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  10. Stolt's f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wave-fronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. To perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to outline the advantages of PWI with Stolt's f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt's f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J.-Y. Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a stateof- the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles, thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu's and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes for the Stolt's f-k migration for PWI are provided.

  11. Use of abnormal preprophase bands to decipher division plane determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, C.; Cyr, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many premitotic plant cells possess a cortical preprophase band of microtubules and actin filaments that encircles the nucleus. In vacuolated cells, the preprophase band is visibly connected to the nucleus by a cytoplasmic raft of actin filaments and microtubules termed the phragmosome. Typically, the location of the preprophase band and phragmosome corresponds to, and thus is thought to influence, the location of the cell division plane. To better understand the function of the preprophase band and phragmosome in orienting division, we used a green fluorescent protein-based microtubule reporter protein to observe mitosis in living tobacco bright yellow 2 cells possessing unusual preprophase bands. Observations of mitosis in these unusual cells support the involvement of the preprophase band/phragmosome in properly positioning the preprophase nucleus, influencing spindle orientation such that the cytokinetic phragmoplast initially grows in an appropriate direction, and delineating a region in the cell cortex that attracts microtubules and directs later stages of phragmoplast growth. Thus, the preprophase band/phragmosome appears to perform several interrelated functions to orient the division plane. However, functional information associated with the preprophase band is not always used or needed and there appears to be an age or distance-dependent character to the information. Cells treated with the anti-actin drug, latrunculin B, are still able to position the preprophase nucleus suggesting that microtubules may play a dominant role in premitotic positioning. Furthermore, in treated cells, spindle location and phragmoplast insertion are frequently abnormal suggesting that actin plays a significant role in nuclear anchoring and phragmoplast guidance. Thus, the microtubule and actin components of the preprophase band/phragmosome execute complementary activities to ensure proper orientation of the division plane.

  12. Sagittal plane deformity: an overview of interpretation and management

    PubMed Central

    Roussouly, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The impact of sagittal plane alignment on the treatment of spinal disorders is of critical importance. A failure to recognise malalignment in this plane can have significant consequences for the patient not only in terms of pain and deformity, but also social interaction due to deficient forward gaze. A good understanding of the principles of sagittal balance is vital to achieve optimum outcomes when treating spinal disorders. Even when addressing problems in the coronal plane, an awareness of sagittal balance is necessary to avoid future complications. The normal spine has lordotic curves in the cephalad and caudal regions with a kyphotic curve in between. Overall, there is a positive correlation between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. There are variations on the degree of normal curvature but nevertheless this shape allows equal distribution of forces across the spinal column. It is the disruption of this equilibrium by pathological processes or, as in most cases, ageing that results in deformity. This leads to adaptive changes in the pelvis and lower limbs. The effects of limb alignment on spinal posture are well documented. We now also know that changes in pelvic posture also affect spinal alignment. Sagittal malalignment presents as an exaggeration or deficiency of normal lordosis or kyphosis. Most cases seen in clinical practise are due to kyphotic deformity secondary to inflammatory, degenerative or post-traumatic disorders. They may also be secondary to infection or tumours. There is usually pain and functional disability along with concerns about self-image and social interaction due to inability to maintain a horizontal gaze. The resultant pelvic and lower limb posture is an attempt to restore normal alignment. Addressing this complex problem requires detailed expertise and awareness of the potential pitfalls surrounding its treatment. PMID:20567858

  13. Domain faceting in an in-plane magnetic reorientation transition

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovo, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Sadowski, J.T.; Ablett, J.M.; Nino, M.A.; Locatelli, A.

    2010-11-04

    The microscopic structure of the 90{sup o} in-plane magnetic reorientation transition in Fe(110) films is examined using photoemission x-ray microscopy. At the nanoscale, sharp magnetic boundaries are detected. They are indicative of a first-order transition and are consistent with Fe magnetic anisotropy constants. At the micron scale, the magnetic boundary breaks up into triangular patterns whose characteristic angular dependence is revealed by experiments on conical microwedges. This effect, fully accounted by micromagnetic simulations, opens the possibility to control the sharpness of the transition at the microscopic scale.

  14. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of an Aerodynamically Refined Planing-Tail Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert; Suydam, Henry B.

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of an aerodynamically refined planing-tail hull were determined from dynamic model tests in Langley tank no. 2. Stable take-off could be made for a wide range of locations of the center of gravity. The lower porpoising limit peak was high, but no upper limit was encountered. Resistance was high, being about the same as that of float seaplanes. A reasonable range of trims for stable landings was available only in the aft range of center-of-gravity locations.

  15. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  16. Roll plane analysis of on-aircraft antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Marhefka, R. J.; Byu, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Roll plane radiation patterns of on-aircraft antennas are analyzed using high frequency solutions. Aircraft-antenna pattern performance in which the aircraft is modelled in its most basic form is presented. The fuselage is assumed to be a perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder with the antennas mounted near the top or bottom. The wings are simulated by arbitrarily many sided flat plates and the engines by circular cylinders. The patterns in each case are verified by measured results taken on simple models as well as scale models of actual aircraft.

  17. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Here, the local plane detector system for the KArlsiuhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high vacuum system, a high vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system, It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  18. Motion on an inclined plane and the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-03-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations? What aspects of friction could they discern? What understanding of the nature of science was revealed—and developed—during their investigation and subsequent discussion with the teacher?

  19. Study of vertical plane turbulent jets and plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaprian, B. R.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.

    1983-03-01

    Asymptotic, plane, vertical, turbulent plumes and nonbuoyant jets were studied. Simultaneous velocity and temperature were measured using frequency shifted, two component Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), resistance thermometry and a high speed data acquisition system. Results obtained for two plumes with vastly different initial Richardson numbers indicate that both the plumes exhibit a nearly universal asymptotic behavior. The Richardson number of the asymptotic plume is a universal constant and is about 0.3. The mean velocity and temperature profiles in both jets and plumes are nearly Gaussian. It is found that turbulence levels in plumes are significantly higher than in jets.

  20. Plane elastostatic analysis of V-notched plates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, B.; Mendelson, A.

    1972-01-01

    Solutions are given for several plane elastostatic problems of plates having a V-notch on one edge, and subjected to a variety of boundary conditions. The effect of the magnitude of the V-notch angle and specimen geometry on stress intensity factors KI and KII are obtained for unloaded notch surfaces. There is less than one per cent difference in opening model stress intensity factor in going from a zero degree notch angle to a 30 degree notch angle. Notch opening displacements at the plate edge were measured experimentally, and the results obtained were in excellent agreement with the computed results.