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Sample records for aeroacoustic wind tunnel

  1. Aeroacoustic wind tunnel measurements on propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, F. R.; Stiewitt, H.

    1985-02-01

    Model tests were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel to determine the sound radiation of 5 propellers with different blade designs including variations of thickness ratios, blade profiles, blade planforms and blade tip configurations. The diameter of the propellers was 0.9 m, the propeller speed was kept constant. The tip Mach number was M sub I = 0.66 and the helical tip Mach number varied between 0.66 and 0.69. The main objectives were to investigate the effects of blade geometry on near field and far field noise and to locate the dominant sound sources in the propeller plane, radiating to the observer, by means of a highly directional microphone system. The results include: (1) comparisons of noise spectra of different propeller configurations; (2) near field sound pressures as function of axial distance from the propeller plane; and (3) directivity of sound radiation from the moving blades.

  2. Advanced Background Subtraction Applied to Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Horne, William C.

    2015-01-01

    An advanced form of background subtraction is presented and applied to aeroacoustic wind tunnel data. A variant of this method has seen use in other fields such as climatology and medical imaging. The technique, based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the background noise cross-spectral matrix, is robust against situations where isolated background auto-spectral levels are measured to be higher than levels of combined source and background signals. It also provides an alternate estimate of the cross-spectrum, which previously might have poor definition for low signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Simulated results indicate similar performance to conventional background subtraction when the subtracted spectra are weaker than the true contaminating background levels. Superior performance is observed when the subtracted spectra are stronger than the true contaminating background levels. Experimental results show limited success in recovering signal behavior for data where conventional background subtraction fails. They also demonstrate the new subtraction technique's ability to maintain a proper coherence relationship in the modified cross-spectral matrix. Beam-forming and de-convolution results indicate the method can successfully separate sources. Results also show a reduced need for the use of diagonal removal in phased array processing, at least for the limited data sets considered.

  3. Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing of the Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion aerodynamic testing team has completed more than 40 tests as part of developing the aerodynamic and loads databases for the vehicle. These databases are key to achieving good mechanical design for the vehicle and to ensure controllable flight during all potential atmospheric phases of a mission, including launch aborts. A wide variety of wind tunnels have been used by the team to document not only the aerodynamics but the aeroacoustic environment that the Orion might experience both during nominal ascents and launch aborts. During potential abort scenarios the effects of the various rocket motor plumes on the vehicle must be accurately understood. The Abort Motor (AM) is a high-thrust, short duration motor that rapidly separates Orion from its launch vehicle. The Attitude Control Motor (ACM), located in the nose of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle, is used for control during a potential abort. The 8 plumes from the ACM interact in a nonlinear manner with the four AM plumes which required a carefully controlled test to define the interactions and their effect on the control authority provided by the ACM. Techniques for measuring dynamic stability and for simulating rocket plume aerodynamics and acoustics were improved or developed in the course of building the aerodynamic and loads databases for Orion.

  4. Aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators in a low-speed wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Slaton, William V; Nishikawa, Asami

    2015-01-01

    The aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators with different neck geometries in a low-speed wind tunnel has been investigated. Experimental test results of this system reveal a strong aeroacoustic response over a Strouhal number range of 0.25 to 0.1 for both increasing and decreasing the flow rate in the wind tunnel. Aeroacoustic response in the low-amplitude range O(10(-3)) < Vac/Vflow < O(10(-1)) has been successfully modeled by describing-function analysis. This analysis, coupled with a turbulent flow velocity distribution model, gives reasonable values for the location in the flow of the undulating stream velocity that drives vortex shedding at the resonator mouth. Having an estimate for the stream velocity that drives the flow-excited resonance is crucial when employing the describing-function analysis to predict aeroacoustic response of resonators.

  5. Wind Tunnel Aeroacoustic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.; Oerlemans, S.

    2003-12-01

    Aeroacoustic tests of seven airfoils were performed in an open jet anechoic wind tunnel. Six of the airfoils are candidates for use on small wind turbines operating at low Reynolds number. One airfoil was tested for comparison to benchmark data. Tests were conducted with and without boundary layer tripping. In some cases a turbulence grid was placed upstream in the test section to investigate inflow turbulence noise. An array of 48 microphones was used to locate noise sources and separate airfoil noise from extraneous tunnel noise. Trailing edge noise was dominant for all airfoils in clean tunnel flow. With the boundary layer untripped, several airfoils exhibited pure tones that disappeared after proper tripping was applied. In the presence of inflow turbulence, leading edge noise was dominant for all airfoils.

  6. Analysis of SRB reentry acoustic environments. [aeroacoustic spectra determined from wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, T.; Dandridge, R. E.; Haddock, U. W.

    1979-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket booster reentry aeroacoustic environments were estimated. Particular emphasis was given to the aft skirt/exit plane region for the Mach number regime 0.6 = or greater than M infinity = or less than 3.5. The analysis is based on the evaluation of wind tunnel model results in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation of trajectory parameters. The experimental approach is described as well as the evaluation process utilized. Predicted environments are presented in terms of one-third octave band spectra representing space averaged values for critical regions on the solid rocket booster.

  7. Wind Tunnel Aeroacoustic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines; Period of Performance: August 23, 2002 through March 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Oerlemans, S.

    2004-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, working through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is engaged in a comprehensive research effort to improve our understanding of wind turbine aeroacoustics. Quiet wind turbines are an inducement to widespread deployment, so the goal of NREL's aeroacoustic research is to develop tools that the U.S. wind industry can use in developing and deploying highly efficient, quiet wind turbines at low wind speed sites. NREL's National Wind Technology Center is implementing a multifaceted approach that includes wind tunnel tests, field tests, and theoretical analyses in direct support of low wind speed turbine development by its industry partners. To that end, wind tunnel aerodynamic tests and aeroacoustic tests have been performed on six airfoils that are candidates for use on small wind turbines. Results are documented in this report.

  8. Enhanced focal-resolution of dipole sources using aeroacoustic time-reversal in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimani, A.; Moreau, D. J.; Prime, Z.; Doolan, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the first application of the Point-Time-Reversal-Sponge-Layer (PTRSL) damping technique to enhance the focal-resolution of experimental flow-induced dipole sources obtained using the Time-Reversal (TR) source localization method. Experiments were conducted in an Anechoic Wind Tunnel for the case of a full-span cylinder located in a low Mach number cross-flow. The far-field acoustic pressure sampled using two line arrays of microphones located above and below the cylinder exhibited a dominant Aeolian tone. The aeroacoustic TR simulations were implemented using the time-reversed signals whereby the source map revealed the lift-dipole nature at the Aeolian tone frequency. A PTRSL (centred at the predicted dipole location) was shown to reduce the size of dipole focal spots to 7/20th of a wavelength as compared to one wavelength without its use, thereby dramatically enhancing the focal-resolution of the TR technique.

  9. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, A. J.; Reed, D. K.; Nance, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of launch vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is a field best studied through experimentation, which is often carried out in the form of large scale wind tunnel testing. Measurement of the fluctuating pressures induced by the boundary layer noise is customarily made with miniature pressure transducers installed into a model of the vehicle of interest. Literature shows that noise level increases between two to five decibels (dB referenced to 20 micropascal) can be induced when the transducer surface is not mounted perfectly flush with the model outer surface. To reduce this artificially induced noise, special transducer holders have been used for aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing by NASA. This holder is a sleeve into which the transducer fits, with a cap that allows it to be mounted in a recessed hole in the model. A single hole in the holder allows the transport of the tunnel medium so the transducer can discriminate the fluctuating pressure due to the turbulent boundary layer noise. The holder is first dry fitted into the model and any difference in height between the holder and the model surface can be sanded flush. The holder is then removed from the model, the transducer glued inside the holder, and the holder replaced in the model, secured also with glue, thus eliminating the problem of noise level increases due to lack of flushness. In order to work with this holder design, special transducers have been ordered with their standard screen removed and the diaphragm moved as close to the top of the casing as possible to minimize any cavity volume. Although this greatly reduces induced noise due to the transducers being out of flush, the holders can also induce a cavity resonance that is usually at a very high frequency. This noise is termed transducer mount induced noise (XMIN). The peak of the mode can vary with the cavity depth, boundary layer noise that can excite the mode, tunnel flow medium, and the build of the transducers. Because the boundary

  10. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Reed, Darren K.; Nance, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Flight vehicle aeroacoustic environments induced during transonic and supersonic flight are usually predicted by subscale wind tunnel testing utilizing high frequency miniature pressure transducers. In order to minimize noise induced by the measurement itself, transducer flush mounting with the model surface is very important. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has accomplished flushness in recent testing campaigns via use of a transducer holder that can be machined and sanded. A single hole in the holder allows the flow medium to interact with the transducer diaphragm. Noise is induced by the resulting cavity however, and is a challenge to remove in post-processing. A new holder design has been developed that minimizes the effects of this transducer mount induced noise (XMIN) by reducing the resonance amplitude or increasing its resonance frequency beyond the range of interest. This paper describes a test conducted at the NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Trisonic Wind Tunnel intended to verify the effectiveness of this design. The results from this test show that this new transducer holder design does significantly reduce the influence of XMIN on measured fluctuating pressure levels without degrading a transducer's ability to accurately measure the noise external to the model.

  11. Aero-acoustic experimental verification of optimum configuration of variable-pitch fans for 40 x 80 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lown, H.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of two drive fan configurations (low-speed and high-speed variable pitch design) for a 40 x 80 foot wind tunnel were monitored. A 1/7-scale model was utilized. The necessary aero-acoustic data reduction computer program logic was supplied. Test results were evaluated, and the optimum configuration to be employed in the 40 foot full scale fan was recommended.

  12. Design and evaluation of an aeroacoustic wind tunnel for measurement of axial flow fans.

    PubMed

    Bilka, M; Anthoine, J; Schram, C

    2011-12-01

    An anechoic wind tunnel dedicated to fan self-noise studies has been designed and constructed at the von Karman Institute The multi-chamber, mass flow driven design allows for all fan performance characteristics, aerodynamic quantities (e.g., wake turbulence measurements), and acoustic properties to be assessed in the same facility with the same conditions. The acoustic chamber performance is assessed using the optimum reference method and found to be within the ISO 3745 standards down to 150 Hz for pure tone and broadband source mechanisms. The additional influence of installation effects of an aerodynamic inlet was found to create a scattered sound field only near the source location, while still providing good anechoic results at more distant sound pressure measurement positions. It was found to have inflow properties, span-wise uniformity, and low turbulence intensity, consistent with those desired for fan self-noise studies.

  13. Aeroacoustic wind-tunnel tests on full-scale propellers with unsymmetrical blade spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, W.

    In order to confirm predicted noise reductions for aircraft propellers designed with irregular blade spacing an aeroacoustic experiment is conducted on a 6-blade propeller. The two spacing angles between the pairs of blades are varied but kept identical, and noise spectra are measured along with polar noise-level directivities with comparisons to theoretical results. A maximum noise reduction of about 3 dB is found for helical-blade-tip Mach numbers in excess of 0.7 and blade-spacing angles in the range of 15-20 deg.

  14. NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Background Noise and Flow Survey Results Prior to FY05 Construction of Facilities Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel is a premier facility for model-scale testing of jet noise reduction concepts at realistic flow conditions. However, flow inside the open jet test section is less than optimum. A Construction of Facilities project, scheduled for FY 05, will replace the flow collector with a new design intended to reduce recirculation in the open jet test section. The reduction of recirculation will reduce background noise levels measured by a microphone array impinged by the recirculation flow and will improve flow characteristics in the open jet tunnel flow. In order to assess the degree to which this modification is successful, background noise levels and tunnel flow are documented, in order to establish a baseline, in this report.

  15. The design of test-section inserts for higher speed aeroacoustic testing in the Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E.

    1992-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80- by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal was to find test-section modifications that would allow improved aeroacoustic testing at airspeeds equal to and above the current 100 knots limit. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed drives the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis led to a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open-jet test section, and a 70 x 110 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoustic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 ft test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5-ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test-section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustics studies of large helicopter models, jets and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs.

  16. Full-Span Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) Overview and 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Test. [conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCluer, Megan S.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most helicopter data trends cannot be extrapolated to tiltrotors because blade geometry and aerodynamic behavior, as well as rotor and fuselage interactions, are significantly different for tiltrotors. A tiltrotor model has been developed to investigate the aeromechanics of tiltrotors, to develop a comprehensive database for validating tiltrotor analyses, and to provide a research platform for supporting future tiltrotor designs. The Full-Span Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Model (FS TRAM) is a dual-rotor, powered aircraft model with extensive instrumentation for measurement of structural and aerodynamic loads. This paper will present the Full-Span TRAM test capabilities and the first set of data obtained during a 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test conducted in late 2000 at NASA Ames Research Center. The Full-Span TRAM is a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 Osprey aircraft, and a heavily instrumented NASA and U.S. Army wind tunnel test stand. Rotor structural loads are monitored and recorded for safety-of-flight and for information on blade loads and dynamics. Left and right rotor balance and fuselage balance loads are monitored for safety-of-flight and for measurement of vehicle and rotor aerodynamic performance. Static pressure taps on the left wing are used to determine rotor/wing interactional effects and rotor blade dynamic pressures measure blade airloads. All of these measurement capabilities make the FS TRAM test stand a unique and valuable asset for validation of computational codes and to aid in future tiltrotor designs. The Full-Span TRAM was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel from October through December 2000. Rotor and vehicle performance measurements were acquired in addition to wing pressures, rotor acoustics, and Laser Light Sheet (LLS) flow visualization data. Hover, forward flight, and airframe (rotors off) aerodynamic runs were performed. Helicopter-mode data were acquired during angle of attack and thrust sweeps for

  17. The design of test-section inserts for higher speed aeroacoustic testing in the Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E.

    1992-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal was to find test-section modifications that would allow improved aeroacoustic testing at airspeeds equal to and above the current 100 knots limit. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed drives the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis led to a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open-jet test section, and a 70 x 110 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoustic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 ft test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5-ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test-section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustics studies of large helicopter models, jets, and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs. Successful development of acoustically transparent walls, though not strictly necessary to the project, would lead to a porous-wall test section that could be substituted for any of the open-jet designs, and thereby eliminate many aerodynamic and acoustic problems characteristic of open-jet shear layers.

  18. AMELIA Tests in NASA Wind Tunnel

    NASA Video Gallery

    This report from "This Week @ NASA" describes recent aerodynamic tests of a subscale model of the Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics, or "AMELIA," in a NASA wind tunnel. The...

  19. Large-scale aeroacoustic research feasibility and conceptual design of test-section inserts for the Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olsen, Larry E.

    1990-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80 by 120 foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The advantages and disadvantages of likely designs were analyzed. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed leads to the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis indicated a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open jet test section, and a 70 x 100 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining, respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoutic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5 ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustic studies of large helicopter models, jets, and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs. In all designs studied, the existing structure would have to be reinforced. Successful development of acoustically transparent walls, though not strictly necessary to the project, would lead to a porous-wall test section that could be substituted for any of the open-jet designs, and thereby eliminate many aerodynamic and acoustic problems characteristic of open-jet shear layers. The larger size of the facility would make installation and removal of the insert components difficult. Consequently, scheduling of the existing 80 x 120 aerodynamic test section and scheduling of the open-jet test section would likely be made on an

  20. Aeroacoustic Testing of Wind Turbine Airfoils: February 20, 2004 - February 19, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Devenport, W.; Burdisso, R. A.; Camargo, H.; Crede, E.; Remillieux, M.; Rasnick, M.; Van Seeters, P.

    2010-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), working through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is engaged in a comprehensive research effort to improve the understanding of wind turbine aeroacoustics. The motivation for this effort is the desire to exploit the large expanse of low wind speed sites that tend to be close to U.S. load centers. Quiet wind turbines are an inducement to widespread deployment, so the goal of NREL's aeroacoustic research is to develop tools that the U.S. wind industry can use in developing and deploying highly efficient, quiet wind turbines at low wind speed sites. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is implementing a multifaceted approach that includes wind tunnel tests, field tests, and theoretical analyses in direct support of low wind speed turbine development by its industry partners. NWTC researchers are working hand in hand with engineers in industry to ensure that research findings are available to support ongoing design decisions.

  1. Aeroacoustics of large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews published information on aerodynamically generated noise from large horizontal axis wind turbines operated for electric power generation. Methods are presented for predicting both the discrete frequency rotational noise components and the broadband noise components, and results are compared with measurements. Refraction effects that result in the formation of high-frequency shadow zones in the upwind direction and channeling effects for the low frequencies in the downwind direction are illustrated. Special topics such as distributed source effects in prediction and the role of building dynamics in perception are also included.

  2. Aeroacoustic Characterization of the NASA Ames Experimental Aero-Physics Branch 32- by 48-Inch Subsonic Wind Tunnel with a 24-Element Phased Microphone Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costanza, Bryan T.; Horne, William C.; Schery, S. D.; Babb, Alex T.

    2011-01-01

    The Aero-Physics Branch at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes a 32- by 48-inch subsonic wind tunnel for aerodynamics research. The feasibility of acquiring acoustic measurements with a phased microphone array was recently explored. Acoustic characterization of the wind tunnel was carried out with a floor-mounted 24-element array and two ceiling-mounted speakers. The minimum speaker level for accurate level measurement was evaluated for various tunnel speeds up to a Mach number of 0.15 and streamwise speaker locations. A variety of post-processing procedures, including conventional beamforming and deconvolutional processing such as TIDY, were used. The speaker measurements, with and without flow, were used to compare actual versus simulated in-flow speaker calibrations. Data for wind-off speaker sound and wind-on tunnel background noise were found valuable for predicting sound levels for which the speakers were detectable when the wind was on. Speaker sources were detectable 2 - 10 dB below the peak background noise level with conventional data processing. The effectiveness of background noise cross-spectral matrix subtraction was assessed and found to improve the detectability of test sound sources by approximately 10 dB over a wide frequency range.

  3. Fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    Progress in developing fiber-optic interferometric sensors for aeroacoustic measurements in wind tunnels, performed under the NASA program, is reported. Preliminary results show that the fiber-optic interferometer sensor array is a powerful instrument for solving complex acoustic measurement problems in wind tunnels, which cannot be resolved with the conventional transducer technique.

  4. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise (XMIN) on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Reed, Darren K.; Nance, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is often studied via large scale wind tunnel testing. Boundary layer noise is measured by miniature pressure transducers installed in a model. Noise levels (2-5 dB ref. 20 µPa) can be induced when transducer is mounted out of flush with model outer surface. This effect must be minimized to accurately determine aerodynamically induced acoustic environments.

  5. Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the influence of inlet aeroacoustic design as measured in the NASA Ames 40 x 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, R. G.; Langenbrunner, L. E.; Mccann, E. O.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet radiated noise of a turbofan engine was studied. The principal research objectives were to characterize or suppress such noise with particular regard to its tonal characteristics. The major portion of this research was conducted by using ground-based static testing without simulation of aircraft forward speed or aircraft installation-related aeroacoustic effects.

  6. Aeroacoustic Study of a 26%-Scale Semispan Model of a Boeing 777 Wing in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Burnside, Nathan J.; Soderman, Paul T.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Reinero, Bryan R.; James, Kevin D.; Arledge, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    An acoustic and aerodynamic study was made of a 26%-scale unpowered Boeing 777 aircraft semispan model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for the purpose of identifying and attenuating airframe noise sources. Simulated approach and landing configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.12 and 0.24. Cruise configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.24 and 0.33. The research team used two Ames phased-microphone arrays, a large fixed array and a small traversing array, mounted under the wing to locate and compare various noise sources in the wing high-lift system and landing gear. Numerous model modifications and noise alleviation devices were evaluated. Simultaneous with acoustic measurements, aerodynamic forces were recorded to document aircraft conditions and any performance changes caused by the geometric modifications. Numerous airframe noise sources were identified that might be important factors in the approach and landing noise of the full-scale aircraft. Several noise-control devices were applied to each noise source. The devices were chosen to manipulate and control, if possible, the flow around the various tips and through the various gaps of the high-lift system so as to minimize the noise generation. Fences, fairings, tip extensions, cove fillers, vortex generators, hole coverings, and boundary-layer trips were tested. In many cases, the noise-control devices eliminated noise from some sources at specific frequencies. When scaled to full-scale third-octave bands, typical noise reductions ranged from 1 to 10 dB without significant aerodynamic performance loss.

  7. Cryogenic wind tunnels. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the cryogenic concept to various types of tunnels including Ludwieg tube tunnel, Evans clean tunnel, blowdown, induced-flow, and continuous-flow fan-driven tunnels is discussed. Benefits related to construction and operating costs are covered, along with benefits related to new testing capabilities. It is noted that cooling the test gas to very low temperatures increases Reynolds number by more than a factor of seven. From the energy standpoint, ambient-temperature fan-driven closed-return tunnels are considered to be the most efficient type of tunnel, while a large reduction in the required tunnel stagnation pressure can be achieved through cryogenic operation. Operating envelopes for three modes of operation for a cryogenic transonic pressure tunnel with a 2.5 by 2.5 test section are outlined. A computer program for calculating flow parameters and power requirements for wind tunnels with operating temperatures from saturation to above ambient is highlighted.

  8. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic for wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Maizi; Rabah, Dizene

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes a hybrid approach forpredicting noise radiated from the rotating Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades, where the sources are extracted from an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stocks (URANS) simulation, ANSYS CFX 11.0, was used to calculate The near-field flow parameters around the blade surface that are necessary for FW-H codes. Comparisons with NREL Phase II experimental results are presented with respect to the pressure distributions for validating a capacity of the solver to calculate the near-field flow on and around the wind turbine blades, The results show that numerical data have a good agreement with experimental. The acoustic pressure, presented as a sum of thickness and loading noise components, is analyzed by means of a discrete fast Fourier transformation for the presentation of the time acoustic time histories in the frequency domain. The results convincingly show that dipole source noise is the dominant noise source for this wind turbine.

  9. World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex, which houses two of the world's largest wind tunnels and has been used for testing experimental aircraft since 1944, is presented. This video highlights the structure and instrumentation of the 40 x 80 foot and 80 x 120 foot wind tunnels and documents their use in testing full scale aircraft, NASA's Space Shuttle and the XV-15 Tiltrotor aircraft.

  10. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  11. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  12. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  13. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  14. Dry wind tunnel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.

  15. Aeroacoustic wind-tunnel tests of a light twin-boom general-aviation airplane with free or shrouded-pusher propellers. [in the Langley full-scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclemore, H. C.; Pegg, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics of four different pusher-propeller configurations on a twin boom, general aviation airplane. The propellers included a 2-blade free propeller, two 3-blade shrouded propellers, and a 5-blade shrouded propeller. The tests were conducted for a range of airplane angles of attack from about 0 deg to 16 deg for test speeds from 0 to about 36 m/sec and for a range of propeller blade angles and rotation speeds. The free propeller provided the best aerodynamic propulsive performance. For forward flight conditions, the free propeller noise levels were lower than those of the shrouded propellers. In the static conditions the free propeller noise levels were as low as those for the shrouded propellers, except for the propeller in-plane noise where the shrouded propeller noise levels were lower.

  16. High-speed Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J

    1936-01-01

    Wind tunnel construction and design is discussed especially in relation to subsonic and supersonic speeds. Reynolds Numbers and the theory of compressible flows are also taken into consideration in designing new tunnels.

  17. The Langley Wind Tunnel Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kumar, Ajay; Kegelman, Jerome T.

    1998-01-01

    After 4 years of existence, the Langley WTE is alive and growing. Significant improvements in the operation of wind tunnels have been demonstrated and substantial further improvements are expected when we are able to truly address and integrate all the processes affecting the wind tunnel testing cycle.

  18. Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    8ft x 6ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test-Section showing changes made in Stainless Steel walls with 17 inch inlet model installation. The model is the ACN Nozzle model used for aircraft engines. The Supersonic Wind Tunnel is located in the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, now John H. Glenn Research Center

  19. The virtual wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levit, Creon

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design and implementaion of a virtual environment linked to a graphics workstation for the visualization of complex fluid flows. The user wears a stereo head-tracked display which displays 3D information and an instrumented glove to intuitively position flow-visualization tools. The idea is to create for the user an illusion that he or she is actually in the flow manipulating visualization tools. The user's presence does not disturb the flow so that sensitive flow areas can be easily investigated. The flow is precomputed and can be investigated at any length scale and with control over time. Particular attention is given to the visualization structures and their interfaces in the virtual environment, hardware and software, and the performance of the virtual wind tunnel using flow past a tapered cylinder as an example.

  20. Cryogenic Wind Tunnels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    4 Ua 0 - mI - L - In 04 4 0 .e NA rA 0O r, 41 --t4..4 Z~, 4A e4 LANO wIU a~I. . 4 *0r I .- . . . .44 󈧰 6j.4. oo I~~~ 0 A I 1 I 4 L tr- A I N 𔃺 LA...sometimes appropriate for industrial aerodynamics. 1.00 LINE pr ATM Tr K LINE Pt. ATM Tt’ K .9 -1 3D .9_ _ _ P. 09 390 HELIUM IDEAL .94 HELIUM IDEA L 𔃿 .92...L8CRYOGENIC WIND TUNNELS. (U) UNCLASSIFIED AGARDLS111" 1111 18* 111122 1111 111 - 1I1111.25 IIQ14 111.6 MI (NO(OPY RP tHI1IN Illki AGAVEI.11 C i

  1. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  2. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Installation of propeller and motor fairing for east exit cone. Smith DeFrance described the propellers and motors in NACA TR No. 459. ' The propellers are located side by side and 48 feet aft of the throat of the exit-cone bell. The propellers are 35 feet 5 inches in diameter and each consists of four cast aluminum alloy blades screwed into a cast steel hub.' 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4,000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed. In order to obtain the range of speed one pole change was provided and the other variations are obtained by the introduction of resistance in the rotor circuit. This control permits a variation in air speed from 25 to 118 miles per hour. The two motors are connected through an automatic switchboard to one drum-type controller located in the test chamber. All the control equipment is interlocked and connected through time-limit relays, so that regardless of how fast the controller handle is moved the motors will increase in speed at regular intervals.' (p. 294-295)

  3. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  4. National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC) Final Report summarizes the work carried out by a unique Government/Industry partnership during the period of June 1994 through May 1996. The objective of this partnership was to plan, design, build and activate 'world class' wind tunnel facilities for the development of future-generation commercial and military aircraft. The basis of this effort was a set of performance goals defined by the National Facilities Study (NFS) Task Group on Aeronautical Research and Development Facilities which established two critical measures of improved wind tunnel performance; namely, higher Reynolds number capability and greater productivity. Initial activities focused upon two high-performance tunnels (low-speed and transonic). This effort was later descoped to a single multipurpose tunnel. Beginning in June 1994, the NWTC Project Office defined specific performance requirements, planned site evaluation activities, performed a series of technical/cost trade studies, and completed preliminary engineering to support a proposed conceptual design. Due to budget uncertainties within the Federal government, the NWTC project office was directed to conduct an orderly closure following the Systems Design Review in March 1996. This report provides a top-level status of the project at that time. Additional details of all work performed have been archived and are available for future reference.

  5. A Wind Tunnel Captive Aircraft Testing Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Flight/Wind Tunnel Correlation of Aircraft Longitudinal Motion ....................................... 14 10. Fright/Wind Tunnel Correlation of...I 2 3 4 5 6 T IME, s e c Figure 9. Flight/wind tunnel correla- tion of aircraft longitudinal motion. ’ D A n ~ v i i i | ~ 0 0 - 4 0

  6. Videometric applications in wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Radeztsky, Ron H.; Liu, Tianshu

    1997-07-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach numbers from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blow-down facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  7. Videometric Applications in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Radeztsky, R. H.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    1997-01-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach number from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blowdown facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  8. Other Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The first cryogenic tunnel was built at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnels have been built at aeronautical research centers around the world. In this lecture some of the more interesting and significant of these projects that have not been covered by other lecturers at this Special Course are described. In this lecture authors describe cryogenic wind-tunnel projects at research centers in four countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Defence Research Agency - Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); and United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

  9. Other cryogenic wind tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The first cryogenic tunnel was built in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnel projects were started at aeronautical research centers around the world. Some of the more significant of these projects are described which are not covered by other lecturers at this Special Course. Described are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in five countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Royal Aerospace Establishment-Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NASA Langley); and U.S.S.R. (Central Aero-Hydronamics Institute (TsAGI), Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM), and Physical-Mechanical Institute at Kharkov (PMI-K).

  10. The self streamlining wind tunnel. [wind tunnel walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional test section in a low speed wind tunnel capable of producing flow conditions free from wall interference is presented. Flexible top and bottom walls, and rigid sidewalls from which models were mounted spanning the tunnel are shown. All walls were unperforated, and the flexible walls were positioned by screw jacks. To eliminate wall interference, the wind tunnel itself supplied the information required in the streamlining process, when run with the model present. Measurements taken at the flexible walls were used by the tunnels computer check wall contours. Suitable adjustments based on streamlining criteria were then suggested by the computer. The streamlining criterion adopted when generating infinite flowfield conditions was a matching of static pressures in the test section at a wall with pressures computed for an imaginary inviscid flowfield passing over the outside of the same wall. Aerodynamic data taken on a cylindrical model operating under high blockage conditions are presented to illustrate the operation of the tunnel in its various modes.

  11. Design and Characterization of the UTIAS Anechoic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Derrick H. F.

    The anechoic open-jet wind tunnel facility at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies was updated and characterized to meet the needs of current and future aeroacoustic experiments. The wind tunnel inlet was resurfaced and flow-conditioning screens were redesigned to improve the freestream turbulence intensity to below 0.4% in the test section. The circular nozzle was replaced with a square secondary contraction that increased the maximum test section velocity to 75 m/s and improved flow uniformity to over 99% across a usable cross-sectional area of 500 mm x 500 mm. Acoustic baffles were installed in front of the wind tunnel inlet and foam wedges were installed in the anechoic chamber. The overall background sound pressure levels in the chamber were improved by 8-18 db over the range of operational freestream velocities. The anechoic chamber cut-off frequency is 170 Hz and the reverberation time for a 60 dB sound power decay is 0.032 s.

  12. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  13. The optimum hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimmer, L. L.; Cary, A., Jr.; Voisinet, R. L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of existing hypersonic wind tunnels in the U.S. are assessed to form a basis for recommendations for a new, costly facility which would provide data for modeling the hypervelocity aerodynamics envisioned for the new generation of aerospace vehicles now undergoing early studies. Attention is given to the regimes, both entry and aerodynamic, which the new vehicles will encounter, and the shortcomings of data generated for the Orbiter before flight are discussed. The features of foreign-gas, impulse, aeroballistic range, arc-heated and combustion-heated facilities are examined, noting that in any hypersonic wind tunnel the flow must be preheated to prevent liquefaction upon expansion in the test channel. The limitations of the existing facilities and the identification of the regimes which must be studied lead to a description of the characteristics of an optimum hypersonic wind tunnel, including the operations and productivity, the instrumentation, the nozzle design and the flow quality. Three different design approaches are described, each costing at least $100 million to achieve workability.

  14. RITD – Wind tunnel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Schmidt, Walter; Heilimo, Jyri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Arruego, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    An atmospheric re-entry and descent and landing system (EDLS) concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques is highly promising for the Earth re-entry missions. We developed such EDLS for the Earth re-entry utilizing a concept that was originally developed for Mars. This EU-funded project is called RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development - and it was to assess the bene¬fits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develope a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. The RITD entry and descent system utilizes an inflatable hypersonic decelerator. Development of such system requires a combination of wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations. This included wind tunnel tests both in transsonic and subsonic regimes. The principal aim of the wind tunnel tests was the determination of the RITD damping factors in the Earth atmosphere and recalculation of the results for the case of the vehicle descent in the Mars atmosphere. The RITD mock-up model used in the tests was in scale of 1:15 of the real-size vehicle as the dimensions were (midsection) diameter of 74.2 mm and length of 42 mm. For wind tunnel testing purposes the frontal part of the mock-up model body was manufactured by using a PolyJet 3D printing technology based on the light curing of liquid resin. The tail part of the mock-up model body was manufactured of M1 grade copper. The structure of the mock-up model placed th center of gravity in the same position as that of the real-size RITD. The wind tunnel test program included the defining of the damping factor at seven values of Mach numbers 0.85; 0.95; 1.10; 1.20; 1.25; 1.30 and 1.55 with the angle of attack ranging from 0 degree to 40 degrees with the step of 5 degrees. The damping characteristics of

  15. Wind Tunnel Test of the SMART Active Flap Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Anand, Vaidyanthan R.; Birchette, Terrence S.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, DARPA, MIT, UCLA, and U. of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. The Boeing SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing edge flap on each blade. The eleven-week test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor at speeds up to 155 knots, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor aero-acoustic analysis, and quantified the effects of open and closed loop active flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness of the active flap control on noise and vibration was conclusively demonstrated. Results showed significant reductions up to 6dB in blade-vortex-interaction and in-plane noise, as well as reductions in vibratory hub loads up to 80%. Trailing-edge flap deflections were controlled within 0.1 degrees of the commanded value. The impact of the active flap on control power, rotor smoothing, and performance was also demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing.

  16. Quiet Supersonic Wind Tunnel Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Lyndell S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to control the extent of laminar flow on swept wings at supersonic speeds may be a critical element in developing the enabling technology for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Laminar boundary layers are less resistive to forward flight than their turbulent counterparts, thus the farther downstream that transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the wing boundary layer is extended can be of significant economic impact. Due to the complex processes involved experimental studies of boundary layer stability and transition are needed, and these are performed in "quiet" wind tunnels capable of simulating the low-disturbance environment of free flight. At Ames, a wind tunnel has been built to operate at flow conditions which match those of the HSCT laminar flow flight demonstration 'aircraft, the F-16XL, i.e. at a Mach number of 1.6 and a Reynolds number range of 1 to 3 million per foot. This will allow detailed studies of the attachment line and crossflow on the leading edge area of the highly swept wing. Also, use of suction as a means of control of transition due to crossflow and attachment line instabilities can be studied. Topics covered include: test operating conditions required; design requirements to efficiently make use of the existing infrastructure; development of an injector drive system using a small pilot facility; plenum chamber design; use of computational tools for tunnel and model design; and early operational results.

  17. Aeronautical Wind Tunnels, Europe and Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    AERONAUTICAL WIND TUNNELS EUROPE AND ASIA Researchers: Katarina David Jenele Gorham Sarah Kim Patrick Miller... Wind Tunnels Europe and Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...18 Library of Congress – Federal Research Division Aeronautical Wind Tunnels Europe and Asia PREFACE 1 This catalog is a compilation of data on

  18. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  19. Wind tunnel simulations of aerolian processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of aerolian (wind) activity as a surface modifying process on Earth, Mars, Venus, and appropriate satellites was determined. A combination of spacecraft data analysis, wind tunnel simulations, and terrestrial field analog studies were used to determine these characteristics. Wind tunnel experiments simulating Venusian surface conditions demonstrate that rolling of particles may be an important mode of transport by winds on Venus and that aerolian processes in the dense atmosphere may share attributes of both aerolian and aqueous environments on Earth.

  20. Models for cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Model requirements, types of model construction methods, and research in new ways to build models are discussed. The 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel was in operation for 16 years and many 2-D airfoil pressure models were tested. In addition there were airfoil models dedicated to transition detection techniques and other specialized research. There were also a number of small 3-D models tested. A chronological development in model building technique is described which led to the construction of many successful models. The difficulties of construction are illustrated by discussing several unsuccessful model fabrication attempts. The National Transonic Facility, a newer and much larger tunnel, was used to test a variety of models including a submarine, transport and fighter configurations, and the Shuttle Orbiter. A new method of building pressure models was developed and is described. The method is centered on the concept of bonding together plates with pressure channels etched into the bond planes, which provides high density pressure instrumentation with minimum demand on parent model material. With care in the choice of materials and technique, vacuum brazing can be used to produce strong bonds without blocking pressure channels and with no bonding voids between channels. Using multiple plates, a 5 percent wing with 96 orifices was constructed and tested in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Samples of test data are presented and future applications of the technology are suggested.

  1. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  2. F-16XL Wind Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a multiple exposure image of the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) model in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This wind tunnel test was conducted to verify design pressure distributions for the SLFC flight experiment (see modified port wing) and to obtain simulator coefficients for stability and control investigations.

  3. Measurement of aeroacoustic noise generated on wind turbine blades modified by trailing edge brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asheim, Michael J.

    As wind technology becomes a larger portion of the energy production picture, the problematic interactions between the machines and society will continue to become more pronounced. Of these problems, wind turbine noise is one of the most important to the future of wind turbine development. This study looks at the effect trailing edge brushes mounted on the 2 bladed Controls Advance Research Turbine (CART 2), located at the National Wind Technology Center, have on the overall acoustic and aerodynamic performance of the blades. The use of trailing edge brushes reduced the aeroacoustic noise by 1.0 to 5.0 dB over the baseline blade, depending on wind speed. This acoustic performance comes at a cost to the aerodynamic performance of the blades. The aerodynamic performance indicators, such as turbine power and root bending moments show that increased drag due to the brushes is the main contributor to the reduction in power production. An economic analysis also investigated how to best use noise mitigation devices to optimize acoustic, power performance and loads of a 600 kW baseline turbine, such as the CART 2. The analysis shows that the use of up a noise mitigation device of 4 dB is best used by increasing the rotor diameter and the power rating of the machine, from a 43.3 m diameter, 600 kW machine to a 68.8 m diameter, 886.7 kW machine. This increase resulted in an annual energy production increase of 414% when using a Rayleigh wind distribution with at a mean annual wind speed of 8.5 m/s. This is a reduction of cost of energy from 0.0463 per kWh to 0.0422 kWh. This reduction in energy production costs helps to explain the continuing trend of turbine machine growth in both rotor diameter and power rating.

  4. Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, D L

    1921-01-01

    The difficulties experienced in properly holding thin tipped or tapered airfoils while testing on an N.P.L. type aerodynamic balance even at low air speeds, and the impossibility of holding even solid metal models at the high speeds attainable at the National Advisory Committee's wind tunnel, necessitated the design of a balance which would hold model airfoils of any thickness and at speeds up to 150 m.p.h. In addition to mechanical strength and rigidity, it was highly desirable that the balance readings should require a minimum amount of correction and mathematical manipulation in order to obtain the lift and drag coefficients and the center of pressure. The balance described herein is similar to one in use at the University of Gottingen, the main difference lying in the addition of a device for reading the center of pressure directly, without the necessity of any correction whatsoever. Details of the design and operation of the device are given.

  5. WT - WIND TUNNEL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    WT was developed to calculate fan rotor power requirements and output thrust for a closed loop wind tunnel. The program uses blade element theory to calculate aerodynamic forces along the blade using airfoil lift and drag characteristics at an appropriate blade aspect ratio. A tip loss model is also used which reduces the lift coefficient to zero for the outer three percent of the blade radius. The application of momentum theory is not used to determine the axial velocity at the rotor plane. Unlike a propeller, the wind tunnel rotor is prevented from producing an increase in velocity in the slipstream. Instead, velocities at the rotor plane are used as input. Other input for WT includes rotational speed, rotor geometry, and airfoil characteristics. Inputs for rotor blade geometry include blade radius, hub radius, number of blades, and pitch angle. Airfoil aerodynamic inputs include angle at zero lift coefficient, positive stall angle, drag coefficient at zero lift coefficient, and drag coefficient at stall. WT is written in APL2 using IBM's APL2 interpreter for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. WT requires a CGA or better color monitor for display. It also requires 640K of RAM and MS-DOS v3.1 or later for execution. Both an MS-DOS executable and the source code are provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for WT is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette in PKZIP format. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP, is also included. WT was developed in 1991. APL2 and IBM PC are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. PKUNZIP is a registered trademark of PKWare, Inc.

  6. Rudolf Hermann, wind tunnels and aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.; Coleman, Anne M.

    2008-04-01

    Rudolf Hermann was born on December 15, 1904 in Leipzig, Germany. He studied at the University of Leipzig and at the Aachen Institute of Technology. His involvement with wind tunnels began in 1934 when Professor Carl Wieselsberger engaged him to work at Aachen on the development of a supersonic wind tunnel. On January 6, 1936, Dr. Wernher von Braun visited Dr. Hermann to arrange for use of the Aachen supersonic wind tunnel for Army problems. On April 1, 1937, Dr. Hermann became Director of the Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the Army installation at Peenemunde. Results from the Aachen and Peenemunde wind tunnels were crucial in achieving aerodynamic stability for the A-4 rocket, later designated as the V-2. Plans to build a Mach 10 'hypersonic' wind tunnel facility at Kochel were accelerated after the Allied air raid on Peenemunde on August 17, 1943. Dr. Hermann was director of the new facility. Ignoring destruction orders from Hitler as WWII approached an end in Europe, Dr. Hermann and his associates hid documents and preserved wind tunnel components that were acquired by the advancing American forces. Dr. Hermann became a consultant to the Air Force at its Wright Field in November 1945. In 1951, he was named professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Minnesota. In 1962, Dr. Hermann became the first Director of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), a position he held until he retired in 1970.

  7. Luminescent barometry in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavandi, Janet; Callis, James; Gouterman, Martin; Khalil, Gamal; Wright, Daniel; Green, Edmond; Burns, David; Mclachlan, Blair

    1990-01-01

    A flexible and relatively inexpensive method and apparatus are described for continuous pressure mapping of aerodynamic surfaces using photoluminescence and imaging techniques. Platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) has a phosphorescence known to be quenched by oxygen. When dissolved in a silicone matrix, PtOEP may be distributed over a surface as a thin, uniform film. When the film is irradiated with ultraviolet light, the luminescence intensity provides a readily detectable, qualitative surface flow visualization. Moreover, since the luminescence intensity is found to be inversely proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen, a quantitative measure of pressure change may be obtained using a silicon target vidicon or a charge-coupled device video sensor to measure intensity. Luminescent images are captured by a commercial frame buffer board. Images taken in wind tunnels during airflow are ratioed to images taken under ambient 'wind-off' conditions. The resulting intensity ratio information is converted to pressure using calibration curves of I0/I vs p/p0, where I0 is the intensity at ambient pressure p0 and I is the intensity at any other pressure p.

  8. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) balance. Smith DeFrance described the 6-component type balance in NACA TR No. 459 (which also includes a schematic diagram of the balance and its various parts). 'Ball and socket fittings at the top of each of the struts hod the axles of the airplane to be tested; the tail is attached to the triangular frame. These struts are secured to the turntable, which is attached to the floating frame. This frame rests on the struts (next to the concrete piers on all four corners), which transmit the lift forces to the scales (partially visible on the left). The drag linkage is attached to the floating frame on the center line and, working against a known counterweight, transmits the drag force to the scale (center, face out). The cross-wind force linkages are attached to the floating frame on the front and rear sides at the center line. These linkages, working against known counterweights, transmit the cross-wind force to scales (two front scales, face in). In the above manner the forces in three directions are measured and by combining the forces and the proper lever arms, the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments can be computed. The scales are of the dial type and are provided with solenoid-operated printing devices. When the proper test condition is obtained, a push-button switch is momentarily closed and the readings on all seven scales are recorded simultaneously, eliminating the possibility of personal errors.'

  9. Wind tunnel pressurization and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pejack, Edwin R.; Meick, Joseph; Ahmad, Adnan; Lateh, Nordin; Sadeq, Omar

    1988-01-01

    The high density, low toxicity characteristics of refrigerant-12 (dichlorofluoromethane) make it an ideal gas for wind tunnel testing. Present limitations on R-12 emissions, set to slow the rate of ozone deterioration, pose a difficult problem in recovery and handling of large quantities of R-12. This preliminary design is a possible solution to the problem of R-12 handling in wind tunnel testing. The design incorporates cold temperature condensation with secondary purification of the R-12/air mixture by adsorption. Also discussed is the use of Freon-22 as a suitable refrigerant for the 12 foot wind tunnel.

  10. Field verification of the wind tunnel coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W. K.; Mellstrom, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate information about wind action on antennas is required for reliable prediction of antenna pointing errors in windy weather and for the design of an antenna controller with wind disturbance rejection properties. The wind tunnel data obtained 3 years ago using a scaled antenna model serves as an antenna industry standard, frequently used for the first purpose. The accuracy of the wind tunnel data has often been challenged, since they have not yet been tested in a field environment (full-aized antenna, real wind, actual terrain, etc.). The purpose of this investigation was to obtain selected field measurements and compare them with the available wind tunnel data. For this purpose, wind steady-state torques of the DSS-13 antenna were measured, and dimensionless wind torque coefficients were obtained for a variety of yaw and elevation angles. The results showed that the differences between the wind tunnel torque coefficients and the field torque coefficients were less than 10 percent of their values. The wind-gusting action on the antenna was characterized by the power spectra of the antenna encoder and the antenna torques. The spectra showed that wind gusting primarily affects the antenna principal modes.

  11. Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the

  12. V/STOL wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Factors influencing effective program planning for V/STOL wind-tunnel testing are discussed. The planning sequence itself, which includes a short checklist of considerations that could enhance the value of the tests, is also described. Each of the considerations, choice of wind tunnel, type of model installation, model development and test operations, is discussed, and examples of appropriate past and current V/STOL test programs are provided. A short survey of the moderate to large subsonic wind tunnels is followed by a review of several model installations, from two-dimensional to large-scale models of complete aircraft configurations. Model sizing, power simulation, and planning are treated, including three areas is test operations: data-acquisition systems, acoustic measurements in wind tunnels, and flow surveying.

  13. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Norman W. Schaeffler, a NASA aerospace research engineer, describes how wind tunnels work and how aircraft designers use them to understand aerodynamic forces at low speeds. Learn the advantage...

  14. Wind-Tunnel/Flight Correlation, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, L. W. (Editor); Baals, D. D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Wind-tunnel/flight correlation activities are reviewed to assure maximum effectiveness of the early experimental programs of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Topics included a status report of the NTF, the role of tunnel-to-tunnel correlation, a review of past flight correlation research and the resulting data base, the correlation potential of future flight vehicles, and an assessment of the role of computational fluid dynamics.

  15. Design and Development of a Deep Acoustic Lining for the 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Schmitz, Fredric H.; Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Sacco, Joe N.; Mosher, Marianne; Hayes, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this report has made effective use of design teams to build a state-of-the-art anechoic wind-tunnel facility. Many potential design solutions were evaluated using engineering analysis, and computational tools. Design alternatives were then evaluated using specially developed testing techniques, Large-scale coupon testing was then performed to develop confidence that the preferred design would meet the acoustic, aerodynamic, and structural objectives of the project. Finally, designs were frozen and the final product was installed in the wind tunnel. The result of this technically ambitious project has been the creation of a unique acoustic wind tunnel. Its large test section (39 ft x 79 ft x SO ft), potentially near-anechoic environment, and medium subsonic speed capability (M = 0.45) will support a full range of aeroacoustic testing-from rotorcraft and other vertical takeoff and landing aircraft to the take-off/landing configurations of both subsonic and supersonic transports.

  16. Italian and French Experiments on Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, WM

    1920-01-01

    Given here are the results of experiments conducted by Colonel Costanzi of the Italian Army to determine the influence of the surrounding building in which a wind tunnel was installed on the efficiency of the installation, and how the efficiency of the installation was affected by the design of the tunnel. Also given are the results of a series of experiments by Eiffel on 34 models of tunnels of different dimensions. This series of experiments was started in order to find out if, by changing the shape of the nozzle or of the diffuser of the large tunnel at Auteuil, the efficiency of the installation could be improved.

  17. Review of Aeronautical Wind Tunnel Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The nation's aeronautical wind tunnel facilities constitute a valuable technological resource and make a significant contribution to the global supremacy of U.S. aircraft, both civil and military. At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board organized a commitee to review the state of repair, adequacy, and future needs of major aeronautical wind tunnel facilities in meeting national goals. The comittee identified three main areas where actions are needed to sustain the capability of NASA's aeronautical wind tunnel facilities to support the national aeronautical research and development activities: tunnel maintenance and upgrading, productivity enhancement, and accommodation of new requirements (particularly in hypersonics). Each of these areas are addressed and the committee recommendations for appropriate actions presented.

  18. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  19. Wind tunnel measurements of windscreen performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniet, Edward R.

    2002-05-01

    Microphone windscreens are routinely used in outdoor acoustic measurements to reduce wind noise pickup. Characterization of windscreen performance outdoors with real wind has several drawbacks notably that the test conditions cannot be controlled. Test methodology has been developed that provides controlled, repeatable measurements of microphone windscreen performance in a laboratory setting. Wind noise measurements are performed using a high-speed/laminar-flow, low-noise wind tunnel that incorporates a large anechoic chamber. The wind tunnel is modified to produce a turbulent flow into which the microphone and windscreen under evaluation are placed. The turbulent velocity spectrum is measured using multi-axis hot-wire anemometers and compared to outdoor data to locate the best position in the turbulent flow to place the test article. Comparative performance measurements of several windscreen designs are presented.

  20. Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Hillje, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A major phase of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) Development Program was the acquisition of data through the space shuttle wind tunnel testing program. It became obvious that the large number of configuration/environment combinations would necessitate an extremely large wind tunnel testing program. To make the most efficient use of available test facilities and to assist the prime contractor for orbiter design and space shuttle vehicle integration, a unique management plan was devised for the design and development phase. The space shuttle program is reviewed together with the evolutional development of the shuttle configuration. The wind tunnel testing rationale and the associated test program management plan and its overall results is reviewed. Information is given for the various facilities and models used within this program. A unique posttest documentation procedure and a summary of the types of test per disciplines, per facility, and per model are presented with detailed listing of the posttest documentation.

  1. 7. VIEW WEST OF SCALE ROOM IN FULLSCALE WIND TUNNEL; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST OF SCALE ROOM IN FULL-SCALE WIND TUNNEL; SCALES ARE USED TO MEASURE FORCES ACTING ON MODEL AIRCRAFT SUSPENDED ABOVE. - NASA Langley Research Center, Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, 224 Hunting Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  3. 12. VIEW EAST, BUILDING 12 INTERIOR, WIND TUNNEL 157 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW EAST, BUILDING 12 INTERIOR, WIND TUNNEL 157 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. 8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR VIEW, WIND TUNNEL 139 Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR VIEW, WIND TUNNEL 139 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  5. 13. VIEW NORTHEAST, BUILDING 12 INTERIOR, WIND TUNNEL FAN ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTHEAST, BUILDING 12 INTERIOR, WIND TUNNEL FAN ASSEMBLY - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  6. 2. VIEW SOUTH OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND SUPERSONIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. 6. VIEW OF FIVEFOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF FIVE-FOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND OPERATOR STATION IN FOREGROUND (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 19, Five-Foot Wind Tunnel, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  8. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. 1. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND TRANSONIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  10. 2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. 2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 157, NORTH ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 157, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. 4. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  13. 3. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO SUBSONIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  14. Wind tunnel simulation of Martian sand storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1980-01-01

    The physics and geological relationships of particles driven by the wind under near Martian conditions were examined in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel. Emphasis was placed on aeolian activity as a planetary process. Threshold speeds, rates of erosion, trajectories of windblown particles, and flow fields over various landforms were among the factors considered. Results of experiments on particles thresholds, rates of erosion, and the effects of electrostatics on particles in the aeolian environment are presented.

  15. Spinoff from Wind Tunnel Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Douglas Juanarena, a former NASA Langley instrument design engineer, found a solution to the problem of long, repetitive tunnel runs needed to measure airflow pressures. Electronically scanned pressure (ESP) replaced mechanical systems with electronic sensors. Juanarena licensed the NASA-patented technology and now manufactures ESP modules for research centers, aerospace companies, etc.

  16. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue. Volume 1: Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penaranda, F. E. (Compiler); Freda, M. S. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Domestic and foreign wind tunnel facilities are enumerated and their technical parameters are described. Data pertinent to managers and engineers are presented. Facilities judged comparable in testing capability are noted and grouped together. Several comprehensive cross-indexes and charts are included.

  17. WIND TUNNEL SIMULATIONS OF POLLUTION FROM ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wind tunnel study has been conducted to examine the influence of roadway configurations and nearby structures on the flow and dispersion of traffic related pollutant concentrations within a few hundred meters of the roadway. The study focused four selected configurations (all w...

  18. A construction technique for wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Sandefur, P. G., Jr.; Wood, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    High strength, good surface finish, and corrosion resistance are imparted to miniature wind tunnel models by machining pressure channels as integral part of model. Pattern for pressure channels is scribed, machined, or photoetched before channels are drilled. Mating surfaces for channels are flashed and then diffusion brazed together.

  19. Automatic control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.

    1989-01-01

    Inadequate Reynolds number similarity in testing of scaled models affects the quality of aerodynamic data from wind tunnels. This is due to scale effects of boundary-layer shock wave interaction which is likely to be severe at transonic speeds. The idea of operation of wind tunnels using test gas cooled to cryogenic temperatures has yielded a quantrum jump in the ability to realize full scale Reynolds number flow similarity in small transonic tunnels. In such tunnels, the basic flow control problem consists of obtaining and maintaining the desired test section flow parameters. Mach number, Reynolds number, and dynamic pressure are the three flow parameters that are usually required to be kept constant during the period of model aerodynamic data acquisition. The series of activity involved in modeling, control law development, mechanization of the control laws on a microcomputer, and the performance of a globally stable automatic control system for the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) are discussed. A lumped multi-variable nonlinear dynamic model of the cryogenic tunnel, generation of a set of linear control laws for small perturbation, and nonlinear control strategy for large set point changes including tunnel trajectory control are described. The details of mechanization of the control laws on a 16 bit microcomputer system, the software features, operator interface, the display and safety are discussed. The controller is shown to provide globally stable and reliable temperature control to + or - 0.2 K, pressure to + or - 0.07 psi and Mach number to + or - 0.002 of the set point value. This performance is obtained both during large set point commands as for a tunnel cooldown, and during aerodynamic data acquisition with intrusive activity like geometrical changes in the test section such as angle of attack changes, drag rake movements, wall adaptation and sidewall boundary-layer removal. Feasibility of the use of an automatic Reynolds number control mode with

  20. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation

  1. Wall Interference in Wind Tunnels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    d’un d £ faut d’ßtendue des signatures. Sp^cialeinent dans le cas de la correction d’incidence, la pondäration des ecarts de Kp entre les deux parois, de...für Stromungsmechanik der Tech. Univers. Bienroder Weg 3 D -3300 Braunschweig — Germany MrL.H.Ohman Head, High Speed Aerodynamics Lab. National...CORRECTIONS IM ’. • SOLID-WALL TUNNELS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF STATIC PRESSURE AT THE WALLS j t by t P. R. Ashill and D . J. Weeks Aerodynamics

  2. Application Of Artificial Intelligence To Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses potential use of artificial-intelligence systems to manage wind-tunnel test facilities at Ames Research Center. One of goals of program to obtain experimental data of better quality and otherwise generally increase productivity of facilities. Another goal to increase efficiency and expertise of current personnel and to retain expertise of former personnel. Third goal to increase effectiveness of management through more efficient use of accumulated data. System used to improve schedules of operation and maintenance of tunnels and other equipment, assignment of personnel, distribution of electrical power, and analysis of costs and productivity. Several commercial artificial-intelligence computer programs discussed as possible candidates for use.

  3. Calibration of transonic and supersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, T. D.; Pope, T. C.; Cooksey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    State-of-the art instrumentation and procedures for calibrating transonic (0.6 less than M less than 1.4) and supersonic (M less than or equal to 3.5) wind tunnels were reviewed and evaluated. Major emphasis was given to transonic tunnels. Continuous, blowdown and intermittent tunnels were considered. The required measurements of pressure, temperature, flow angularity, noise and humidity were discussed, and the effects of measurement uncertainties were summarized. A comprehensive review of instrumentation currently used to calibrate empty tunnel flow conditions was included. The recent results of relevant research are noted and recommendations for achieving improved data accuracy are made where appropriate. It is concluded, for general testing purposes, that satisfactory calibration measurements can be achieved in both transonic and supersonic tunnels. The goal of calibrating transonic tunnels to within 0.001 in centerline Mach number appears to be feasible with existing instrumentation, provided correct calibration procedures are carefully followed. A comparable accuracy can be achieved off-centerline with carefully designed, conventional probes, except near Mach 1. In the range 0.95 less than M less than 1.05, the laser Doppler velocimeter appears to offer the most promise for improved calibration accuracy off-centerline.

  4. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayagalingam, T.

    1980-06-01

    High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

  5. Photogrammetry Applied to Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Cattafesta, L. N., III; Radeztsky, R. H.; Burner, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    In image-based measurements, quantitative image data must be mapped to three-dimensional object space. Analytical photogrammetric methods, which may be used to accomplish this task, are discussed from the viewpoint of experimental fluid dynamicists. The Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) for camera calibration, used in pressure sensitive paint, is summarized. An optimization method for camera calibration is developed that can be used to determine the camera calibration parameters, including those describing lens distortion, from a single image. Combined with the DLT method, this method allows a rapid and comprehensive in-situ camera calibration and therefore is particularly useful for quantitative flow visualization and other measurements such as model attitude and deformation in production wind tunnels. The paper also includes a brief description of typical photogrammetric applications to temperature- and pressure-sensitive paint measurements and model deformation measurements in wind tunnels.

  6. Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Models. Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, C. P., Jr. (Compiler); Gloss, B. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The principal motivating factor was the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Since the NTF can achieve significantly higher Reynolds numbers at transonic speeds than other wind tunnels in the world, and will therefore occupy a unique position among ground test facilities, every effort is being made to ensure that model design and fabrication technology exists to allow researchers to take advantage of this high Reynolds number capability. Since a great deal of experience in designing and fabricating cryogenic wind tunnel models does not exist, and since the experience that does exist is scattered over a number of organizations, there is a need to bring existing experience in these areas together and share it among all interested parties. Representatives from government, the airframe industry, and universities are included.

  7. An Automatic Speed Control for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1928-01-01

    Described here is an automatic control that has been used in several forms in wind tunnels at the Washington Navy Yard. The form now in use with the 8-foot tunnel at the Navy Yard is considered here. Details of the design and operation of the automatic control system are given. Leads from a Pitot tube are joined to an inverted cup manometer located above a rheostat. When the sliding weight of this instrument is set to a given notch, say for 40 m.p.h, the beam tip vibrates between two electric contacts that feed the little motor. Thus, when the wind is too strong or too weak, the motor automatically throws the rheostat slide forward and backward. If it failed to function well, the operator would notice the effect on his meniscus, and would operate the hand control by merely pressing the switch.

  8. Review of Potential Wind Tunnel Balance Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Williams, Quincy L.; Phillips, Ben D.; Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathon D.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript reviews design, manufacture, materials, sensors, and data acquisition technologies that may benefit wind tunnel balances for the aerospace research community. Current state-of-the-art practices are used as the benchmark to consider advancements driven by researcher and facility needs. Additive manufacturing is highlighted as a promising alternative technology to conventional fabrication and has the potential to reduce both the cost and time required to manufacture force balances. Material alternatives to maraging steels are reviewed. Sensor technologies including piezoresistive, piezoelectric, surface acoustic wave, and fiber optic are compared to traditional foil based gages to highlight unique opportunities and shared challenges for implementation in wind tunnel environments. Finally, data acquisition systems that could be integrated into force balances are highlighted as a way to simplify the user experience and improve data quality. In summary, a rank ordering is provided to support strategic investment in exploring the technologies reviewed in this manuscript.

  9. Residual interference and wind tunnel wall adaption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokry, Miroslav

    1989-01-01

    Measured flow variables near the test section boundaries, used to guide adjustments of the walls in adaptive wind tunnels, can also be used to quantify the residual interference. Because of a finite number of wall control devices (jacks, plenum compartments), the finite test section length, and the approximation character of adaptation algorithms, the unconfined flow conditions are not expected to be precisely attained even in the fully adapted stage. The procedures for the evaluation of residual wall interference are essentially the same as those used for assessing the correction in conventional, non-adaptive wind tunnels. Depending upon the number of flow variables utilized, one can speak of one- or two-variable methods; in two dimensions also of Schwarz- or Cauchy-type methods. The one-variable methods use the measured static pressure and normal velocity at the test section boundary, but do not require any model representation. This is clearly of an advantage for adaptive wall test section, which are often relatively small with respect to the test model, and for the variety of complex flows commonly encountered in wind tunnel testing. For test sections with flexible walls the normal component of velocity is given by the shape of the wall, adjusted for the displacement effect of its boundary layer. For ventilated test section walls it has to be measured by the Calspan pipes, laser Doppler velocimetry, or other appropriate techniques. The interface discontinuity method, also described, is a genuine residual interference assessment technique. It is specific to adaptive wall wind tunnels, where the computation results for the fictitious flow in the exterior of the test section are provided.

  10. Python Engine Installed in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    An engine mechanic checks instrumentation prior to an investigation of engine operating characteristics and thrust control of a large turboprop engine with counter-rotating propellers under high-altitude flight conditions in the 20-foot-dianieter test section of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  11. Condensation in hypersonic nitrogen wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, Melissa A.; Yanta, William J.; Ragsdale, William C.; Hudson, Susan T.; Griffith, Wayland C.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental observations and a theoretical model for the onset and disappearance of condensation are given for hypersonic flows of pure nitrogen at M = 10, 14 and 18. Measurements include Pitot pressures, static pressures and laser light scattering experiments. These measurements coupled with a theoretical model indicate a substantial non-equilibrium supercooling of the vapor phase beyond the saturation line. Typical results are presented with implications for the design of hypersonic wind tunnel nozzles.

  12. SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as an aid in the design and analysis of subsonic wind tunnels. It brings together and refines previously scattered and over-simplified techniques used for the design and loss prediction of the components of subsonic wind tunnels. It implements a system of equations for determining the total pressure losses and provides general guidelines for the design of diffusers, contractions, corners and the inlets and exits of non-return tunnels. The algorithms used in the program are applicable to compressible flow through most closed- or open-throated, single-, double- or non-return wind tunnels or ducts. A comparison between calculated performance and that actually achieved by several existing facilities produced generally good agreement. Any system through which air is flowing which involves turns, fans, contractions etc. (e.g., an HVAC system) may benefit from analysis using this software. This program is an update of ARC-11138 which includes PC compatibility and an improved user interface. The method of loss analysis used by the program is a synthesis of theoretical and empirical techniques. Generally, the algorithms used are those which have been substantiated by experimental test. The basic flow-state parameters used by the program are determined from input information about the reference control section and the test section. These parameters were derived from standard relationships for compressible flow. The local flow conditions, including Mach number, Reynolds number and friction coefficient are determined for each end of each component or section. The loss in total pressure caused by each section is calculated in a form non-dimensionalized by local dynamic pressure. The individual losses are based on the nature of the section, local flow conditions and input geometry and parameter information. The loss forms for typical wind tunnel sections considered by the program include: constant area ducts, open throat ducts, contractions, constant

  13. Airloads and Wake Geometry Calculations for an Isolated Tiltrotor Model in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 0.25-scale V-22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance for hover and helicopter mode operation, and airloads for helicopter mode. Calculated induced power, profile power, and wake geometry provide additional information about the aerodynamic behavior. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.

  14. Comparison Between Field Data and NASA Ames Wind Tunnel Data

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this analysis is to compare the measured data from the NASA Ames wind tunnel experiment to those collected in the field at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) with the same turbine configuration. The results of this analysis provide insight into what measurements can be made in the field as opposed to wind tunnel testing.

  15. Sound propagation from a simple source in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III

    1975-01-01

    The nature of the acoustic field of a simple source in a wind tunnel under flow conditions was examined theoretically and experimentally. The motivation of the study was to establish aspects of the theoretical framework for interpreting acoustic data taken (in wind) tunnels using in wind microphones. Three distinct investigations were performed and are described in detail.

  16. Aeroacoustic Experiments in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Lockard, David P.; Macaraeg, Michele G.; Singer, Bart A.; Streett, Craig L.; Neubert, Guy R.; Stoker, Robert W.; Underbrink, James R.; Berkman, Mert E.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2002-01-01

    A phased microphone array was used in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to obtain acoustic data radiating from high-lift wing configurations. The data included noise localization plots and acoustic spectra. The tests were performed at Reynolds numbers based on the cruise-wing chord, ranging from 3.6 x 10(exp 6) to 19.2 x 10(exp 6). The effects of Reynolds number were small and monotonic for Reynolds numbers above 7.2 x 10(exp 6).

  17. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verelst, D. R. S.; Larsen, T. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.

  18. Overview of the 1989 Wind Tunnel Calibration Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Arthur, Jr.; Mckinney, L. Wayne

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the 1989 Wind Tunnel Calibration Workshop held at NASA LaRC in Hampton, VA on 19-20 Apr. 1989 is presented. The purpose of the Workshop was to explore wind tunnel calibration requirements as they relate to test quality and data accuracy, with the ultimate goal of developing wind tunnel calibration requirements for the major NASA wind tunnels at ARC, LaRC, and LeRC. The two sessions addressed the following topics: (1) what constitutes a properly calibrated wind tunnel; and (2) the status of calibration of NASA's major wind tunnels. The most significant contributions to the stated goals are highlighted, and the consensus of the Workshop's conclusions and recommendations regarding formulation and implementation of that goal are presented.

  19. Rocket Plume Scaling for Orion Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Greathouse, James S.; White, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was undertaken to assess the jet interaction effects caused by the various solid rocket motors used on the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). These interactions of the external flowfield and the various rocket plumes can cause localized aerodynamic disturbances yielding significant and highly non-linear control amplifications and attenuations. This paper discusses the scaling methodologies used to model the flight plumes in the wind tunnel using cold air as the simulant gas. Comparisons of predicted flight, predicted wind tunnel, and measured wind tunnel forces-and-moments and plume flowfields are made to assess the effectiveness of the selected scaling methodologies.

  20. Wind-Tunnel Testing In The 12-Foot Low - Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Low-speed wind tunnel test were conducted in the 12 - foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research center to investigate application of various wing devices on the effect of stall departure resistance at high angles of attack.

  1. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica; Simley, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  2. Nano-ADEPT Aeroloads Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Yount, Bryan; Kruger, Carl; Brivkalns, Chad; Makino, Alberto; Cassell, Alan; Zarchi, Kerry; McDaniel, Ryan; Ross, James; Wercinski, Paul; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Swanson, Gregory; Gold, Nili

    2016-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of the Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) was conducted in April 2015 at the US Army's 7 by10 Foot Wind Tunnel located at NASA Ames Research Center. Key geometric features of the fabric test article were a 0.7 meter deployed base diameter, a 70 degree half-angle forebody cone angle, eight ribs, and a nose-to-base radius ratio of 0.7. The primary objective of this wind tunnel test was to obtain static deflected shape and pressure distributions while varying pretension at dynamic pressures and angles of attack relevant to entry conditions at Earth, Mars, and Venus. Other objectives included obtaining aerodynamic force and moment data and determining the presence and magnitude of any dynamic aeroelastic behavior (buzz/flutter) in the fabric trailing edge. All instrumentation systems worked as planned and a rich data set was obtained. This paper describes the test articles, instrumentation systems, data products, and test results. Four notable conclusions are drawn. First, test data support adopting a pre-tension lower bound of 10 foot pounds per inch for Nano-ADEPT mission applications in order to minimize the impact of static deflection. Second, test results indicate that the fabric conditioning process needs to be reevaluated. Third, no flutter/buzz of the fabric was observed for any test condition and should also not occur at hypersonic speeds. Fourth, translating one of the gores caused ADEPT to generate lift without the need for a center of gravity offset. At hypersonic speeds, the lift generated by actuating ADEPT gores could be used for vehicle control.

  3. Aeroservoelastic Wind-Tunnel Test of the SUGAR Truss Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Allen, Timothy J.; Funk, Christie J.; Castelluccio, Mark A.; Sexton, Bradley W.; Claggett, Scott; Dykman, John; Coulson, David A.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) aeroservoelastic (ASE) wind-tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and was completed in April, 2014. The primary goals of the test were to identify the open-loop flutter boundary and then demonstrate flutter suppression. A secondary goal was to demonstrate gust load alleviation (GLA). Open-loop flutter and limit cycle oscillation onset boundaries were identified for a range of Mach numbers and various angles of attack. Two sets of control laws were designed for the model and both sets of control laws were successful in suppressing flutter. Control laws optimized for GLA were not designed; however, the flutter suppression control laws were assessed using the TDT Airstream Oscillation System. This paper describes the experimental apparatus, procedures, and results of the TBW wind-tunnel test. Acquired system ID data used to generate ASE models is also discussed.2 study.

  4. Integral equations for flows in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromme, J. A.; Golberg, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys recent work on the use of integral equations for the calculation of wind tunnel interference. Due to the large number of possible physical situations, the discussion is limited to two-dimensional subsonic and transonic flows. In the subsonic case, the governing boundary value problems are shown to reduce to a class of Cauchy singular equations generalizing the classical airfoil equation. The theory and numerical solution are developed in some detail. For transonic flows nonlinear singular equations result, and a brief discussion of the work of Kraft and Kraft and Lo on their numerical solution is given. Some typical numerical results are presented and directions for future research are indicated.

  5. Adaptive-Wall Wind-Tunnel Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    CALSPAN ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY CENTER A DA PTI VE. WA L L WIND- TUNNEL IN VES TIGA TIONS J.C. Erickson , Jr., C.E. Wittliff, C. Padova and G.F. Homicz...Cooper as technical monitor, and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, initially with Mr. Milton Rogers and later with Dr. James D. Wilson as...technical monitors. The late Mr. R. J. Vidal was principai investigator until May 1978 and was followed by Dr. J. C. Erickson , Jr. Dr. A. Ritter, Head

  6. Supersonic Flow Choking in Engine Wind Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Tohru; Miyajima, Hiroshi; Tani, Koichiro; Kouchi, Toshinori; Sakuranaka, Noboru; Watanabe, Syuichi

    Breakdown of diffuser flow was often observed in our scramjet engine tests. This facility operation may damage the engine wind-tunnel and should be prevented. An one-dimensional analysis was applied to the diffuser flow to identify the causes of the flow breakdown. All the losses and gains by engine and friction loss in the diffuser were represented by point-sources of mass, momentum and energy. The thermal choking condition was calculated by uses of a chemical equilibrium code. The fuel rates causing the flow-choking successfully reproduced the limit fuel rates observed in our tests. Inlet-unstart of engine lost the ejector-pumping effect in the diffuser system to trigger the flow choking. The choking was also promoted by the drag of the gas sampling rakes. The choking in diffuser flow and the engine unstart may couple each other to cause hysteresis in the diffuser breakdown, which was also experienced in our tests. A rocket-based, combined-cycle (RBCC) engine will be tested under the Mach 4 condition. The engine easily causes the choking of diffuser because of the large propellant supply rates and the relatively-low specific impulse. Operation of the wind-tunnel was discussed to control the flow choking in the tests.

  7. Hyper-X Wind Tunnel Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClinton, C. R.; Holland, S. D.; Rock, K. E.; Engelund, W. C.; Voland, R. T.; Huebner, L. D.; Roger, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of NASA's focused hypersonic technology program, called the Hyper-X Program. The Hyper-X Program, a joint NASA Langley and Dryden program, is designed to move hypersonic, air breathing vehicle technology from the laboratory environment to the flight environment, the last stage preceding prototype development. The Hyper-X research vehicle will provide the first ever opportunity to obtain data on an airframe integrated scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) propulsion system at true flight conditions and the first opportunity for flight validation of experimental wind tunnel, numerical and analytical methods used for design of these vehicles. A substantial portion of the program is experimentally based, both for database development and performance validation. The program is now concentrating on Mach 7 vehicle development, verification and validation and flight test risk reduction. This paper concentrates on the aerodynamic and propulsion experimental programs. Wind tunnel testing of the flight engine and complete airframe integrated scramjet configuration flow-path is expected in 1998 and 1999, respectively, and flight test is planned for 2000.

  8. Wind tunnel studies of Martian aeolian processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Iversen, J. D.; Pollack, J. B.; Udovich, N.; White, B.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported of an investigation which involves wind tunnel simulations, geologic field studies, theoretical model studies, and analyses of Mariner 9 imagery. Threshold speed experiments were conducted for particles ranging in specific gravity from 1.3 to 11.35 and diameter from 10.2 micron to 1290 micron to verify and better define Bagnold's (1941) expressions for grain movement, particularly for low particle Reynolds numbers and to study the effects of aerodynamic lift and surface roughness. Wind tunnel simulations were conducted to determine the flow field over raised rim craters and associated zones of deposition and erosion. A horseshoe vortex forms around the crater, resulting in two axial velocity maxima in the lee of the crater which cause a zone of preferential erosion in the wake of the crater. Reverse flow direction occurs on the floor of the crater. The result is a distinct pattern of erosion and deposition which is similar to some martian craters and which indicates that some dark zones around Martian craters are erosional and some light zones are depositional.

  9. Wind Tunnel Seeding Systems for Laser Velocimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr. (Compiler); Nichols, C. E., Jr. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The principal motivating factor for convening the Workshop on the Development and Application of Wind Tunnel Seeding Systems for Laser Velocimeters is the necessity to achieve efficient operation and, most importantly, to insure accurate measurements with velocimeter techniques. The ultimate accuracy of particle scattering based laser velocimeter measurements of wind tunnel flow fields depends on the ability of the scattering particle to faithfully track the local flow field in which it is embedded. A complex relationship exists between the particle motion and the local flow field. This relationship is dependent on particle size, size distribution, shape, and density. To quantify the accuracy of the velocimeter measurements of the flow field, the researcher has to know the scattering particle characteristics. In order to obtain optimum velocimeter measurements, the researcher is striving to achieve control of the particle characteristics and to verify those characteristics at the measurement point. Additionally, the researcher is attempting to achieve maximum measurement efficiency through control of particle concentration and location in the flow field.

  10. Weather hazard simulation in the Modane wind-tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasso, G.; Leclere, G.; Charpin, F.

    1983-01-01

    Specially designed wind tunnel setups make it possible to simulate various weather hazards, in an imperfect but systematic manner. Systems installed in the Modane wind tunnels for rain and icing tests are described. A qust simulator being developed is also discussed.

  11. Wind-Tunnel Capability at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Presley, L. L.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes $700 million wind-tunnel complex at Ames Research Center, including auxiliary support systems, test instrumentation, and special test rigs. Planned near-term facility improvement aimed at providing new test capabilities and increased productivity, as well as some potential longer-term improvements, also discussed. Aerodynamic test facilities range from subsonic wind tunnels to highenthalpy arc jets.

  12. 5. VIEW NORTH OF TEST SECTION IN FULLSCALE WIND TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTH OF TEST SECTION IN FULL-SCALE WIND TUNNEL WITH FREE-FLIGHT MODEL OF A BOEING 737 SUSPENDED FROM A SAFETY CABLE. - NASA Langley Research Center, Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, 224 Hunting Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  13. 14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  14. 13. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  15. Screens Would Protect Wind-Tunnel Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Moses G.

    1992-01-01

    Butterfly screen installed in wind tunnel between test section and fan blades to prevent debris from reaching fan blades if model structure fails. Protective screens deployed manually or automatically. Concept beneficial anywhere wind tunnels employed. Also useful in areas outside of aerospace industry, such as in airflow design of automobiles and other vehicles.

  16. Design Philosophy for Wind Tunnel Model Positioning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    reasonable tolerance, closed-loop computer controlled systems have been developed for use in the wind tunnel facilities at the Arnold Engineering Development...methods, computer controlled systems have been developed to provide this function in the wind tunnel. The concept developed is a closed-loop position

  17. Build an Inexpensive Wind Tunnel to Test CO2 Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the technology education curriculum, the author's eighth-grade students design, build, test, and race CO2 vehicles. To help them in refining their designs, they use a wind tunnel to test for aerodynamic drag. In this article, the author describes how to build a wind tunnel using inexpensive, readily available materials. (Contains 1…

  18. Jet engine powers large, high-temperature wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, T. F.; Mulliken, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Wind tunnel for large component testing uses a jet engine with afterburner to provide high temperatures /1200 degrees to 2000 degrees F/ and controlled high velocity gas. This economical wind tunnel can accommodate parts ten feet by ten feet or larger, and is a useful technique for qualitative information.

  19. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique for Wind Tunnel Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.

    2006-01-01

    Videogrammetric measurement technique developments at NASA Langley were driven largely by the need to quantify model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This paper summarizes recent wind tunnel applications and issues at the NTF and other NASA Langley facilities including the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel, 8-Ft high Temperature Tunnel, and the 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. In addition, several adaptations of wind tunnel techniques to non-wind tunnel applications are summarized. These applications include wing deformation measurements on vehicles in flight, determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements, measurements on ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures, and the use of an object-to-image plane scaling technique to support NASA s Space Exploration program.

  20. A 2025+ View of the Art of Wind Tunnel Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Department of Defense [DoD] or National Aeronautics and Space Administration [ NASA ]). The GTTC considered wind tunnel testing a foundational activity...requirement for wind tunnel hours, this workload is highly variable because of the cycles of major national programs. NASA recently reported in the Newport...Tunnel 16S (inactive); the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure (closed and probably to be demolished), Low Turbulence Pressure (closed), 30 3 60

  1. A Vision in Aeronautics: The K-12 Wind Tunnel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A Vision in Aeronautics, a project within the NASA Lewis Research Center's Information Infrastructure Technologies and Applications (IITA) K-12 Program, employs small-scale, subsonic wind tunnels to inspire students to explore the world of aeronautics and computers. Recently, two educational K-12 wind tunnels were built in the Cleveland area. During the 1995-1996 school year, preliminary testing occurred in both tunnels.

  2. Overview of 6- X 6-foot wind tunnel aero-optics tests. [transonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The splitter-plate arrangement used in tests in the 6 x 6 foot wind tunnel and how it was configured to study boundary layers, both heated and unheated, shear layers over a cavity, separated flows behind spoilers, accelerated flows around a turret, and a turret wake are described. The flows are characterized by examples of the steady-state pressure and of velocity profiles through the various types of flow layers.

  3. NASA Glenn Wind Tunnel Model Systems Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.; Roeder, James W.; Stark, David E.; Linne, Alan A.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes criteria for the design, analysis, quality assurance, and documentation of models that are to be tested in the wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report presents two methods for computing model allowable stresses on the basis of the yield stress or ultimate stress, and it defines project procedures to test models in the NASA Glenn aeropropulsion facilities. Both customer-furnished and in-house model systems are discussed. The functions of the facility personnel and customers are defined. The format for the pretest meetings, safety permit process, and model reviews are outlined. The format for the model systems report (a requirement for each model that is to be tested at NASA Glenn) is described, the engineers responsible for developing the model systems report are listed, and the timetable for its delivery to the project engineer is given.

  4. Advanced recovery systems wind tunnel test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, R. H.; Wailes, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    Pioneer Aerospace Corporation (PAC) conducted parafoil wind tunnel testing in the NASA-Ames 80 by 120 test sections of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex, Moffett Field, CA. The investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two scale ram air wings in support of air drop testing and full scale development of Advanced Recovery Systems for the Next Generation Space Transportation System. Two models were tested during this investigation. Both the primary test article, a 1/9 geometric scale model with wing area of 1200 square feet and secondary test article, a 1/36 geometric scale model with wing area of 300 square feet, had an aspect ratio of 3. The test results show that both models were statically stable about a model reference point at angles of attack from 2 to 10 degrees. The maximum lift-drag ratio varied between 2.9 and 2.4 for increasing wing loading.

  5. The Kevlar-walled anechoic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devenport, William J.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Borgoltz, Aurelien; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Barone, Matthew F.; Brown, Kenneth A.; Morton, Michael A.

    2013-08-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of an anechoic wind tunnel test section with walls made from thin Kevlar cloth have been measured and analyzed. The Kevlar test section offers some advantages over a conventional free-jet arrangement. The cloth contains the bulk of the flow but permits the transmission of sound with little loss. The containment results in smaller far-field aerodynamic corrections meaning that larger models can be tested at higher Reynolds numbers. The containment also eliminates the need for a jet catcher and allows for a much longer test section. Model-generated noise is thus more easily separated from facility background using beamforming. Measurements and analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic corrections for a Kevlar-walled test section are presented and discussed, along with benchmark trailing edge noise measurements.

  6. Probabilistic Assessment of National Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. R.; Shiao, M.; Chamis, C. C.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary probabilistic structural assessment of the critical section of National Wind Tunnel (NWT) is performed using NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) computer code. Thereby, the capabilities of NESSUS code have been demonstrated to address reliability issues of the NWT. Uncertainties in the geometry, material properties, loads and stiffener location on the NWT are considered to perform the reliability assessment. Probabilistic stress, frequency, buckling, fatigue and proof load analyses are performed. These analyses cover the major global and some local design requirements. Based on the assumed uncertainties, the results reveal the assurance of minimum 0.999 reliability for the NWT. Preliminary life prediction analysis results show that the life of the NWT is governed by the fatigue of welds. Also, reliability based proof test assessment is performed.

  7. Structural Integrity of a Wind Tunnel Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkehabadi, R.; Rhew, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gage balances for utilization in wind tunnels since its inception. The utilization of balances span over a wide variety of aerodynamic tests. A force balance is an inherently critically stressed component due to the requirements of measurement sensitivity. Research and analyses are done in order to investigate the structural integrity of the balances as well as developing an understanding of their performance in order to enhance their capability. Maximum loading occurs when all 6 components of the loads are applied simultaneously with their maximum value allowed (limit load). This circumstance normally does not occur in the wind tunnel. However, if it occurs, is the balance capable of handling the loads with an acceptable factor of safety? LaRC Balance 1621 was modeled and meshed in PATRAN for analysis in NASTRAN. For a complete analysis, it is necessary to consider all the load cases as well as use dense mesh near all the edges. Because of computer limitations, it is not possible to have one model with the dense mesh near all edges. In the present study, a dense mesh is limited to the surface corners where the cage and axial sections meet. Four different load combinations are used for the current analysis. Linear analysis is performed for each load case. In the case where the stress value is above linear elastic region, it is necessary to perform nonlinear analysis. It is also important to investigate the variables limiting the structural integrity of the balances. In order to investigate the possibility of modifying the existing balances to enhance the structural integrity, some modifications are done on this balance. The structural integrity of the balance after modification is investigated.

  8. Use of 3D Printing for Custom Wind Tunnel Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagorik, Paul; Bates, Zachary; Issakhanian, Emin

    2016-11-01

    Small-scale wind tunnels for the most part are fairly simple to produce with standard building equipment. However, the intricate bell housing and inlet shape of an Eiffel type wind tunnel, as well as the transition from diffuser to fan in a rectangular tunnel can present design and construction obstacles. With the help of 3D printing, these shapes can be custom designed in CAD models and printed in the lab at very low cost. The undergraduate team at Loyola Marymount University has built a custom benchtop tunnel for gas turbine film cooling experiments. 3D printing is combined with conventional construction methods to build the tunnel. 3D printing is also used to build the custom tunnel floor and interchangeable experimental pieces for various experimental shapes. This simple and low-cost tunnel is a custom solution for specific engineering experiments for gas turbine technology research.

  9. Sources, paths, and concepts for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is investigating the feasibility of modifying the 4x7m Wind Tunnel at the Langley Research Center to make it suitable for a variety of aeroacoustic testing applications, most notably model helicopter rotors. The amount of noise reduction required to meet NASA's goal for test section background noise was determined, the predominant sources and paths causing the background noise were quantified, and trade-off studies between schemes to reduce fan noise at the source and those to attenuate the sound generated in the circuit between the sources and the test section were carried out. An extensive data base is also presented on circuit sources and paths.

  10. Wind tunnel testing of a closed-loop wake deflection controller for wind farm power maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnolo, Filippo; Petrović, Vlaho; Schreiber, Johannes; Nanos, Emmanouil M.; Croce, Alessandro; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results from wind tunnel tests aimed at evaluating a closed- loop wind farm controller for wind farm power maximization by wake deflection. Experiments are conducted in a large boundary layer wind tunnel, using three servo-actuated and sensorized wind turbine scaled models. First, we characterize the impact on steady-state power output of wake deflection, achieved by yawing the upstream wind turbines. Next, we illustrate the capability of the proposed wind farm controller to dynamically driving the upstream wind turbines to the optimal yaw misalignment setting.

  11. Computational design and analysis of flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  12. Combined Experiment Phase 1. [Horizontal axis wind turbines: wind tunnel testing versus field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  13. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F... Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-2 Table F-2 to Subpart F...

  14. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F... Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-2 Table F-2 to Subpart F...

  15. Hardening Doppler Global Velocimetry Systems for Large Wind Tunnel Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Fletcher, Mark T.; South, Bruce W.

    2004-01-01

    The development of Doppler Global Velocimetry from a laboratory curiosity to a wind tunnel instrumentation system is discussed. This development includes system advancements from a single velocity component to simultaneous three components, and from a steady state to instantaneous measurement. Improvements to system control and stability are discussed along with solutions to real world problems encountered in the wind tunnel. This on-going development program follows the cyclic evolution of understanding the physics of the technology, development of solutions, laboratory and wind tunnel testing, and reevaluation of the physics based on the test results.

  16. Wind Tunnel Management and Resource Optimization: A Systems Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Derya, A.; Aasen, Curtis A.

    2000-01-01

    Time, money, and, personnel are becoming increasingly scarce resources within government agencies due to a reduction in funding and the desire to demonstrate responsible economic efficiency. The ability of an organization to plan and schedule resources effectively can provide the necessary leverage to improve productivity, provide continuous support to all projects, and insure flexibility in a rapidly changing environment. Without adequate internal controls the organization is forced to rely on external support, waste precious resources, and risk an inefficient response to change. Management systems must be developed and applied that strive to maximize the utility of existing resources in order to achieve the goal of "faster, cheaper, better". An area of concern within NASA Langley Research Center was the scheduling, planning, and resource management of the Wind Tunnel Enterprise operations. Nine wind tunnels make up the Enterprise. Prior to this research, these wind tunnel groups did not employ a rigorous or standardized management planning system. In addition, each wind tunnel unit operated from a position of autonomy, with little coordination of clients, resources, or project control. For operating and planning purposes, each wind tunnel operating unit must balance inputs from a variety of sources. Although each unit is managed by individual Facility Operations groups, other stakeholders influence wind tunnel operations. These groups include, for example, the various researchers and clients who use the facility, the Facility System Engineering Division (FSED) tasked with wind tunnel repair and upgrade, the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Fabrication (FAB) group which fabricates repair parts and provides test model upkeep, the NASA and LARC Strategic Plans, and unscheduled use of the facilities by important clients. Expanding these influences horizontally through nine wind tunnel operations and vertically along the NASA management structure greatly increases the

  17. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  18. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; ...

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  19. Wind Tunnel to Atmospheric Mapping for Static Aeroelastic Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Rivera, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Wind tunnel to Atmospheric Mapping (WAM) is a methodology for scaling and testing a static aeroelastic wind tunnel model. The WAM procedure employs scaling laws to define a wind tunnel model and wind tunnel test points such that the static aeroelastic flight test data and wind tunnel data will be correlated throughout the test envelopes. This methodology extends the notion that a single test condition - combination of Mach number and dynamic pressure - can be matched by wind tunnel data. The primary requirements for affecting this extension are matching flight Mach numbers, maintaining a constant dynamic pressure scale factor and setting the dynamic pressure scale factor in accordance with the stiffness scale factor. The scaling is enabled by capabilities of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and by relaxation of scaling requirements present in the dynamic problem that are not critical to the static aeroelastic problem. The methodology is exercised in two example scaling problems: an arbitrarily scaled wing and a practical application to the scaling of the Active Aeroelastic Wing flight vehicle for testing in the TDT.

  20. A simplified method for calculating temperature time histories in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, R. L., Jr.; Lamb, M.

    1976-01-01

    Average temperature time history calculations of the test media and tunnel walls for cryogenic wind tunnels have been developed. Results are in general agreement with limited preliminary experimental measurements obtained in a 13.5-inch pilot cryogenic wind tunnel.

  1. Procedures and requirements for testing in the Langley Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassum, Donald L.; Hyman, Curtis E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information is presented to assist those interested in conducting wind-tunnel testing within the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Procedures, requirements, forms and examples necessary for tunnel entry are included.

  2. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F..., and Static Chamber Test Primary Partical Mean Size a (µm) Full Wind Tunnel Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Inlet Aspiration Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Static Fractionator Test Volatility Test 1.5±0.25 S S S 2.0±0.25 S S S...

  3. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F..., and Static Chamber Test Primary Partical Mean Size a (µm) Full Wind Tunnel Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Inlet Aspiration Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Static Fractionator Test Volatility Test 1.5±0.25 S S S 2.0±0.25 S S S...

  4. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F..., and Static Chamber Test Primary Partical Mean Size a (µm) Full Wind Tunnel Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Inlet Aspiration Test 2 km/hr 24 km/hr Static Fractionator Test Volatility Test 1.5±0.25 S S S 2.0±0.25 S S S...

  5. Wind tunnel interference factors for high-lift wings in closed wind tunnels. Ph.D. Thesis - Princeton Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joppa, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A problem associated with the wind tunnel testing of very slow flying aircraft is the correction of observed pitching moments to free air conditions. The most significant effects of such corrections are to be found at moderate downwash angles typical of the landing approach. The wind tunnel walls induce interference velocities at the tail different from those induced at the wing, and these induced velocities also alter the trajectory of the trailing vortex system. The relocated vortex system induces different velocities at the tail from those experienced in free air. The effect of the relocated vortex and the walls is to cause important changes in the measured pitching moments in the wind tunnel.

  6. Kasprzyk airfoil. The first wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wusatowski, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Kasprzyk slotted flap glider airfoil (the Kasper wing) enabling glider flight at 32 km/h and 0.5 m/sec descent speed was wind tunnel tested in the U.S. The test layout is described and reasons offered for discrepancies between wind tunnel results and Polish in flight data: high induced drag caused by relative size of model wing span and tunnel, by vortex attenuators on the model and their proximity to the tunnel wall, nonsimilarity between flow over a smooth wing and flow over the Kasprzyk wing with bound vortices, obstruction of the tunnel test chamber cross section by the model wing, discrepant Reynolds numbers, and model airfoil aspect ratio much smaller than the prototype. The overall results offer partial confirmation of the Kasprzyk theory, but further in tunnel and in flight studies are recommended.

  7. 7. Detail view west of Arctic Chamber wind tunnel shell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view west of Arctic Chamber wind tunnel shell (typical) in east elevation. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 14. View north of Tropic wind tunnel and frontal view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View north of Tropic wind tunnel and frontal view of main fan (typical). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  9. Low-Hysteresis Flow-Through Wind-Tunnel Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, N.; Luna, P. M.; Roberts, A. C.; Smith, R. C.; Horne, W. L.; Smith, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Improved flow-through wind-tunnel balance includes features minimizing both spurious force readings caused by internal pressurized flow and mechanical hysteresis. Symmetrical forces caused by internal flow cancelled.

  10. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel test database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data were acquired by competing contractors and NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. This wind tunnel test data has been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retro-glide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings.

  11. 1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. Oil-smeared models aid wind tunnel measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S.; Loving, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    For visualizing flow characteristics in wind tunnel tests, model surfaces are smeared with any common petroleum-base oils. These fluoresce under ultraviolet light and the flow patterns are readily visualized.

  13. Drag force in wind tunnels: A new method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, P. V. S.; Girardi, D.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.

    2017-02-01

    A rigid object of general shape is fixed inside a wind tunnel. The drag force exerted on it by the wind is determined by a new method based on simple basic Physics concepts, provided one has a solver, any solver, for the corresponding dynamic Navier-Stokes equation which determines the wind velocity field around the object. The method is completely general, but here we apply it to the traditional problem of a long cylinder perpendicular to the wind.

  14. The 13-inch magnetic suspension and balance system wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William G., Jr.; Dress, David A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Langley has a small, subsonic wind tunnel in use with the 13-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The tunnel is capable of speeds up to Mach 0.5. This report presents tunnel design and construction details. It includes flow uniformity, angularity, and velocity fluctuation data. It also compares experimental Mach number distribution data with computed results for the General Electric Streamtube Curvature Program.

  15. Preliminary Tests in the NACA Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, C H

    1937-01-01

    Typical models and the testing technique used in the NACA free-spinning wind tunnel are described in detail. The results of tests on two models afford a comparison between the spinning characteristics of scale models in the tunnel and of the airplanes that they represent.

  16. Wind tunnel technology for the development of future commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szodruch, J.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements for new technologies in the area of civil aircraft design are mainly related to the high cost involved in the purchase of modern, fuel saving aircraft. A second important factor is the long term rise in the price of fuel. The demonstration of the benefits of new technologies, as far as these are related to aerodynamics, will,for the foreseeable future, still be based on wind tunnel measurements. Theoretical computation methods are very successfully used in design work, wing optimization, and an estimation of the Reynolds number effect. However, wind tunnel tests are still needed to verify the feasibility of the considered concepts. Along with other costs, the cost for the wind tunnel tests needed for the development of an aircraft is steadily increasing. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of numerical aerodynamics and civil aircraft technology on the development of wind tunnels. Attention is given to the requirements for the wind tunnel, investigative methods, measurement technology, models, and the relation between wind tunnel experiments and theoretical methods.

  17. Wind tunnel seeding particles for laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghorieshi, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The design of an optimal air foil has been a major challenge for aerospace industries. The main objective is to reduce the drag force while increasing the lift force in various environmental air conditions. Experimental verification of theoretical and computational results is a crucial part of the analysis because of errors buried in the solutions, due to the assumptions made in theoretical work. Experimental studies are an integral part of a good design procedure; however, empirical data are not always error free due to environmental obstacles or poor execution, etc. The reduction of errors in empirical data is a major challenge in wind tunnel testing. One of the recent advances of particular interest is the use of a non-intrusive measurement technique known as laser velocimetry (LV) which allows for obtaining quantitative flow data without introducing flow disturbing probes. The laser velocimeter technique is based on measurement of scattered light by the particles present in the flow but not the velocity of the flow. Therefore, for an accurate flow velocity measurement with laser velocimeters, two criterion are investigated: (1) how well the particles track the local flow field, and (2) the requirement of light scattering efficiency to obtain signals with the LV. In order to demonstrate the concept of predicting the flow velocity by velocity measurement of particle seeding, the theoretical velocity of the gas flow is computed and compared with experimentally obtained velocity of particle seeding.

  18. Laminar-flow wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Sewall, William G.; Stack, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Although most of the laminar flow airfoils recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center were intended for general aviation applications, low-drag airfoils were designed for transonic speeds and wind tunnel performance tested. The objective was to extend the technology of laminar flow to higher Mach and Reynolds numbers and to swept leading edge wings representative of transport aircraft to achieve lower drag and significantly improved operation costs. This research involves stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (Natural Laminar Flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (Laminar-Flow Control, LFC), either through discrete slots or perforated surface. Results show that extensive regions of laminar flow with large reductions in skin friction drag can be maintained through the application of passive NLF boundary-layer control technologies to unswept transonic wings. At even greater extent of laminar flow and reduction in the total drag level can be obtained on a swept supercritical airfoil with active boundary layer-control.

  19. Wind tunnel observations of drifting snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterna, Enrico; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Drifting snow has a significant impact on snow redistribution in mountains, prairies as well as on glaciers, ice shelves, and sea ice. In all these environments, the local mass balance is highly influenced by drifting snow. Understanding the dynamic of snow saltation is crucial to the accurate description of the process. We applied digital shadowgraphy in a cold wind tunnel to measure drifting snow over natural snow covers. The acquisition and evaluation of time-resolved shadowgraphy images allowed us to resolve a large part of the saltation layer. The technique has been successfully compared to the measurements obtained from a Snow Particle Counter, considered the most robust technique for snow mass-flux measurements so far. The streamwise snow transport is dominated by large-scale events. The vertical snow transport has a more equal distribution of energy across the scales, similarly to what is observed for the flow turbulence velocities. It is hypothesized that the vertical snow transport is a quantity that reflects the local entrainment of the snow crystals into the saltation layer while the streamwise snow transport results from the streamwise development of the trajectories of the snow particles once entrained, and therefore is rather a non-local quantity.

  20. Noise measurement in wind tunnels, workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickley, D. H.; Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    In reviewing the progress made in acoustic measurements in wind tunnels over the 5-yr span of the workshops, it is evident that a great deal of progress has occurred. Specialized facilities are now on line, special measurement techniques were developed, and corrections were devised and proven. This capability is in the process of creating a new and more correct data bank on acoustic phenomena, and represents a major step forward in acoustics technology. Additional work is still required, but now, rather than concentrating on facilities and techniques, researchers may more profitably concentrate on noise-source modeling, with the simulation of propulsor noise source (in flight) and of propulsor/airframe airflow characteristics. Promising developments in directional acoustic receivers and other discrimination/correlation techniques should now be regularly exploited, in part for model noise-source diagnosis, but also to expedite extraction of the lone source signal from any residual background noise and reverberation in the working chamber and from parasitic noise due to essential rigs or instrumentation inside the airstream.

  1. Wind tunnel tests of space shuttle solid rocket booster insulation material in the aerothermal tunnel c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, A. S.; Nutt, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of the space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Insulation were conducted in the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility Tunnel C. For these tests, Tunnel C was run at Mach 4 with a total temperature of 1100-1440 and a total pressure of 100 psia. Cold wall heating rates were changed by varying the test article support wedge angle. Selected results are presented to illustrate the test techniques and typical data obtained.

  2. Mass flux similarity for slotted transonic-wind-tunnel walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Goradia, Suresh H.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the flow field measurements obtained in the vertical plane at several stations along the centerline of slots in two different longitudinally slotted wind tunnel walls is presented. The longitudinal and transverse components of the data are then transformed using the concept of flow similarity to demonstrate the applicability of the technique to the development of the viscous shear flow along and through a slotted wall of an airfoil tunnel. Results are presented showing the performance of the similarity transformations with variations in tunnel station, Mach number, and airfoil induced curvature of the tunnel free stream.

  3. Supersonic Wind Tunnels (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, operation, performance, and use of supersonic wind tunnels. References cover the design of flow nozzles, diffusers, test sections, and ejectors for tunnels driven by compressed air, high-pressure gases, or cryogenic liquids. Methods for flow calibration, boundary layer control, local and freestream turbulence reduction, and force measurement are discussed. Instrusive and non-intrusive instrumentation, sources of measurement error, and measurement corrections are also covered. The citations also include the testing of inlets, nozzles, airfoils, and other components of aerospace vehicles that must operate supersonically. Comprehensive coverage of wind tunnel force balancing systems, and blowdown and supersonic wind tunnels are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Wind tunnel measurements of a large wind farm model approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    A scaled wind farm, with 100 porous disk models of wind turbines, is used to study the effect of wind farm layout on the wind farm power output and its variability, in a wind tunnel study. The wind farm consists of 20 rows and 5 columns. The porous disk models have a diameter of 0 . 03 m and are instrumented with strain gages to measure the thrust force, as a surrogate for wind turbine power output. The frequency response of the measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the models and allows studying the spatio-temporal characteristics of the power output for different layouts. A variety of layouts are considered by shifting the individual rows in the spanwise direction. The reference layout has a regular streamwise spacing of Sx / D = 7 and a spanwise spacing of Sy / D = 5 . The parameter space is further expanded by considering layouts with an uneven streamwise spacing: Sx / D = 3 . 5 & 10 . 5 and Sx / D = 1 . 5 & 12 . 5 . We study how the mean row power changes as a function of wind farm layout and investigate the appearance of an asymptotic limiting behavior as previously described in the literature by application of the top-down model for the spatially averaged wind farm - boundary layer interaction. Work supported by ERC (Grant No. 306471, the ActiveWindFarms project) and by NSF (OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  5. An experimental investigation of end treatments for nonreturn wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Piazza, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a series of flow quality and performance tests on several inlet and exit configurations for nonreturn wind tunnels are presented. Test section flow angularities, local dynamic pressure variations, and total-pressure-loss variations are presented as functions of wind-to-test-section dynamic pressure ratio. The results show that a nonreturn wind tunnel should have end treatments with three characteristics: (1) a vertical exit system, (2) a horizontal inlet system, and (3) an area of protected enclosure at the inlet. Inlet and exhaust treatments were developed that produced good aerodynamic flow qualities with low power penalties.

  6. Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures

    PubMed Central

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. Methodology/Principal Findings As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. Conclusions Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed). We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality. PMID:23152764

  7. Within-Tunnel Variations in Pressure Data for Three Transonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the results of pressure measurements made on the same test article with the same test matrix in three transonic wind tunnels. A comparison is presented of the unexplained variance associated with polar replicates acquired in each tunnel. The impact of a significance component of systematic (not random) unexplained variance is reviewed, and the results of analyses of variance are presented to assess the degree of significant systematic error in these representative wind tunnel tests. Total uncertainty estimates are reported for 140 samples of pressure data, quantifying the effects of within-polar random errors and between-polar systematic bias errors.

  8. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  9. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  10. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  11. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  12. 40 CFR 53.63 - Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet aspiration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedure: Wind tunnel inlet... extracts an ambient aerosol at elevated wind speeds. This wind tunnel test uses a single-sized, liquid... this subpart (under the heading of “wind tunnel inlet aspiration test”). The candidate sampler...

  13. Aerodynamic performance of a low-speed wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Frechen, F-B; Frey, M; Wett, M; Löser, C

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the odour mass flow emitted from a source is a very important step and forms the basis for all subsequent considerations and calculations. Wastewater treatment plants, as well as waste treatment facilities, consist of different kinds of odour sources. Unfortunately, most of the sources are passive sources, where no outward air flow-rate can be measured, but where odorants are obviously emitted. Thus, a type of sampling is required that allows to measure the emitted odour flow-rate (OFR). To achieve this, different methods are in use worldwide. Besides indirect methods, such as micrometeorological atmospheric dispersion models, which have not been used in Germany (in other countries due to different problems, direct methods are also used). Direct measurements include hood methods, commonly divided into static flux chambers, dynamic flux chambers and wind tunnels. The wind tunnel that we have been operating in principle since 1983 is different from all subsequent presented wind tunnels, in that we operate it at a considerably lower wind speed than the others. To describe the behaviour of this wind tunnel, measurement of the flow pattern in this low-speed tunnel are under way, and some initial results are presented here.

  14. CFD wind tunnel test: Field velocity patterns of wind on a building with a refuge floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. K.; Yuen, K. K.; Lam, K. M.; Lo, S. M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a CFD wind tunnel study of wind patterns on a square-plan building with a refuge floor at its mid-height level. In this study, a technique of using calibrated power law equations of velocity and turbulent intensity applied as the boundary conditions in CFD wind tunnel test is being evaluated by the physical wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author with wind blowing perpendicularly on the building without a refuge floor. From the evaluated results, an optimised domain of flow required to produce qualitative agreement between the wind tunnel data and simulated results is proposed in this paper. Simulated results with the evaluated technique are validated by the wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author. The results contribute to an understanding of the fundamental behaviour of wind flow in a refuge floor when wind is blowing perpendicularly on the building. Moreover, the results reveal that the designed natural ventilation of a refuge floor may not perform desirably when the wind speed on the level is low. Under this situation, the refuge floor may become unsafe if smoke was dispersed in the leeward side of the building at a level immediately below the refuge floor.

  15. Adventures in using a portable wind tunnel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a natural process that often occurs wherever loose, dry, erodible soil is exposed to strong erosive winds. The study of wind erosion in the field is quite challenging, with the researcher at the mercy of an unpredictable, large variation in weather factors affecting the outcome. Fie...

  16. Stainless steel welding shines through on wind tunnel project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The European transonic wind (ETW) tunnel designed by Babcock Energy at Renfrew, Scotland, and erected in Cologne, Germany, is described which is scheduled to be operational in 1994. This cryogenic tunnel is capable of operating under pressures from 1.25 to 4.5 bar in a temperature range from 183 to 40 C through the use of liquid nitrogen injection. Topics discussed include selection of welding consumables, metallurgy, ETW fabrication, and welding processes and techniques.

  17. Flow Visualization and Laser Velocimetry for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The need for flow visualization and laser velocimetry were discussed. The purpose was threefold: (1) provide a state-of-the-art overview; (2) provide a forum for industry, universities, and government agencies to address problems in developing useful and productive flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques; and (3) provide discussion of recent developments and applications of flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques and instrumentation systems for wind tunnels including the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel.

  18. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  19. Wind Tunnel Studies in Aerodynamic Phenomena at High Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Fales, E N

    1921-01-01

    A great amount of research and experimental work has been done and fair success obtained in an effort to place airplane and propeller design upon an empirical basis. However, one can not fail to be impressed by the apparent lack of data available toward establishing flow phenomena upon a rational basis, such that they may be interpreted in terms of the laws of physics. With this end in view it was the object of the authors to design a wind tunnel differing from the usual type especially in regard to large power and speed of flow. This report describes the wind tunnel at Mccook Field and gives the results of experiments conducted in testing the efficiency of the wind tunnel.

  20. Accessing Wind Tunnels From NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Jeff; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames wind tunnel customers are one of the first users of the Information Power Grid (IPG) storage system at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division. We wanted to be able to store their data on the IPG so that it could be accessed remotely in a secure but timely fashion. In addition, incorporation into the IPG allows future use of grid computational resources, e.g., for post-processing of data, or to do side-by-side CFD validation. In this paper, we describe the integration of grid data access mechanisms with the existing DARWIN web-based system that is used to access wind tunnel test data. We also show that the combined system has reasonable performance: wind tunnel data may be retrieved at 50Mbits/s over a 100 base T network connected to the IPG storage server.

  1. Reducing Wind Tunnel Data Requirements Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Jorgenson, Charles C.; Norgaard, Magnus

    1997-01-01

    The use of neural networks to minimize the amount of data required to completely define the aerodynamic performance of a wind tunnel model is examined. The accuracy requirements for commercial wind tunnel test data are very severe and are difficult to reproduce using neural networks. For the current work, multiple input, single output networks were trained using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients. When applied to the aerodynamics of a 55% scale model of a U.S. Air Force/ NASA generic fighter configuration, this scheme provided accurate models of the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients. Using only 50% of the data acquired during, the wind tunnel test, the trained neural network had a predictive accuracy equal to or better than the accuracy of the experimental measurements.

  2. Cryogenic wind tunnels for high Reynolds number testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Kilgore, R. A.; Mcguire, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of lectures presented at various Universities over a span of several years is discussed. A central theme of these lectures has been to present the research facility in terms of the service it provides to, and its potential effect on, the entire community, rather than just the research community. This theme is preserved in this paper which deals with the cryogenic transonic wind tunnels at Langley Research Center. Transonic aerodynamics is a focus both because of its crucial role in determining the success of aeronautical systems and because cryogenic wind tunnels are especially applicable to the transonics problem. The paper also provides historical perspective and technical background for cryogenic tunnels, culminating in a brief review of cryogenic wind tunnel projects around the world. An appendix is included to provide up to date information on testing techniques that have been developed for the cryogenic tunnels at Langley Research Center. In order to be as inclusive and as current as possible, the appendix is less formal than the main body of the paper. It is anticipated that this paper will be of particular value to the technical layman who is inquisitive as to the value of, and need for, cryogneic tunnels.

  3. SMART Rotor Development and Wind-Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Straub, Friedrich; Anand, V. R.; Birchette, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California at Los Angeles, and University of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center, figure 1. The SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing-edge flap on each blade. The development effort included design, fabrication, and component testing of the rotor blades, the trailing-edge flaps, the piezoelectric actuators, the switching power amplifiers, the actuator control system, and the data/power system. Development of the smart rotor culminated in a whirl-tower hover test which demonstrated the functionality, robustness, and required authority of the active flap system. The eleven-week wind tunnel test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor noise analysis, and quantified the effects of open- and closed-loop active-flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness and the reliability of the flap actuation system were successfully demonstrated in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing. The data acquired and lessons learned will be instrumental in maturing this technology and transitioning it into production. The development effort, test hardware, wind-tunnel test program, and test results will be presented in the full paper.

  4. An Overview of Computational Aeroacoustic Modeling at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of computational techniques in the area of acoustics is known as computational aeroacoustics and has shown great promise in recent years. Although an ultimate goal is to use computational simulations as a virtual wind tunnel, the problem is so complex that blind applications of traditional algorithms are typically unable to produce acceptable results. The phenomena of interest are inherently unsteady and cover a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. Nonetheless, with appropriate simplifications and special care to resolve specific phenomena, currently available methods can be used to solve important acoustic problems. These simulations can be used to complement experiments, and often give much more detailed information than can be obtained in a wind tunnel. The use of acoustic analogy methods to inexpensively determine far-field acoustics from near-field unsteadiness has greatly reduced the computational requirements. A few examples of current applications of computational aeroacoustics at NASA Langley are given. There remains a large class of problems that require more accurate and efficient methods. Research to develop more advanced methods that are able to handle the geometric complexity of realistic problems using block-structured and unstructured grids are highlighted.

  5. A Numerical Comparison of Symmetric and Asymmetric Supersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Kylen D.

    Supersonic wind tunnels are a vital aspect to the aerospace industry. Both the design and testing processes of different aerospace components often include and depend upon utilization of supersonic test facilities. Engine inlets, wing shapes, and body aerodynamics, to name a few, are aspects of aircraft that are frequently subjected to supersonic conditions in use, and thus often require supersonic wind tunnel testing. There is a need for reliable and repeatable supersonic test facilities in order to help create these vital components. The option of building and using asymmetric supersonic converging-diverging nozzles may be appealing due in part to lower construction costs. There is a need, however, to investigate the differences, if any, in the flow characteristics and performance of asymmetric type supersonic wind tunnels in comparison to symmetric due to the fact that asymmetric configurations of CD nozzle are not as common. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study has been conducted on an existing University of Michigan (UM) asymmetric supersonic wind tunnel geometry in order to study the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Simulations were made on both the existing asymmetrical tunnel geometry and two axisymmetric reflections (of differing aspect ratio) of that original tunnel geometry. The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved via NASAs OVERFLOW code to model flow through these configurations. In this way, information has been gleaned on the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Shock boundary layer interactions are paid particular attention since the test section integrity is greatly dependent upon these interactions. Boundary layer and overall flow characteristics are studied. The RANS study presented in this document shows that the UM asymmetric wind tunnel/nozzle configuration is not as well suited to producing uniform test section flow as that of a symmetric configuration, specifically one

  6. Wind tunnel testing of low-drag airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. Donald; Mcghee, R. J.; Harris, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented for the measured performance recently obtained on several airfoil concepts designed to achieve low drag by maintaining extensive regions of laminar flow without compromising high-lift performance. The wind tunnel results extend from subsonic to transonic speeds and include boundary-layer control through shaping and suction. The research was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel (TPT) and Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) which have been developed for testing such low-drag airfoils. Emphasis is placed on identifying some of the major factors influencing the anticipated performance of low-drag airfoils.

  7. Airship Model Tests in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Ira H

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airship models. Eight Goodyear-Zeppelin airship models were tested in the original closed-throat tunnel. After the tunnel was rebuilt with an open throat a new model was tested, and one of the Goodyear-Zeppelin models was retested. The results indicate that much may be done to determine the drag of airships from evaluations of the pressure and skin-frictional drags on models tested at large Reynolds number.

  8. Magnetic Leviation System Design and Implementation for Wind Tunnel Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin E.; Sheu, Yih-Ran; Jou, Hui-Long

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents recent work in magnetic suspension wind tunnel development in National Cheng Kung University. In this phase of research, a control-based study is emphasized to implement a robust control system into the experimental system under study. A ten-coil 10 cm x 10 cm magnetic suspension wind tunnel is built using a set of quadrant detectors for six degree of freedom control. To achieve the attitude control of suspended model with different attitudes, a spacial electromagnetic field simulation using OPERA 3D is studied. A successful test for six degree of freedom control is demonstrated in this paper.

  9. Drift studies--comparison of field and wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R; Regenauer, W

    2005-01-01

    Drift at pesticide application leads to a pollution of non-target crops, non-target species and surface water. Spray drift is influenced by many factors like environmental conditions, vegetation, technical conditions, and physical properties of the tank mixes and influenced by Chemicals. Field experiments to characterise spray drift effects with the risk of permanent changing weather conditions can be supported by wind tunnel experiments. Wind tunnel experiments do not lead to the same soil deposition curves like field experiments, but the ratio of drift reduction potential is comparable.

  10. Development of an intelligent hypertext system for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Steinle, Frank W.; Wu, Y. C. L. Susan; Hoyt, W. Andes

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a system utilizing artificial intelligence technology to improve the productivity of project engineers who conduct wind tunnel tests. The objective was to create an intelligent hypertext system which integrates a hypertext manual and expert system that stores experts' knowledge and experience. The preliminary (Phase I) effort implemented a prototype IHS module encompassing a portion of the manuals and knowledge used for wind tunnel testing. The effort successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the intelligent hypertext system concept. A module for the internal strain gage balance, implemented on both IBM-PC and Macintosh computers, is presented. A description of the Phase II effort is included.

  11. Wind Tunnel Wall Interference Assessment and Correction, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A. (Editor); Barnwell, R. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Technical information focused upon emerging wall interference assessment/correction (WIAC) techniques applicable to transonic wind tunnels with conventional and passively or partially adapted walls is given. The possibility of improving the assessment and correction of data taken in conventional transonic wind tunnels by utilizing simultaneously obtained flow field data (generally taken near the walls) appears to offer a larger, nearer-term payoff than the fully adaptive wall concept. Development of WIAC procedures continues, and aspects related to validating the concept need to be addressed. Thus, the scope of wall interference topics discussed was somewhat limited.

  12. Dataset from chemical gas sensor array in turbulent wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dataset includes the acquired time series of a chemical detection platform exposed to different gas conditions in a turbulent wind tunnel. The chemo-sensory elements were sampling directly the environment. In contrast to traditional approaches that include measurement chambers, open sampling systems are sensitive to dispersion mechanisms of gaseous chemical analytes, namely diffusion, turbulence, and advection, making the identification and monitoring of chemical substances more challenging. The sensing platform included 72 metal-oxide gas sensors that were positioned at 6 different locations of the wind tunnel. At each location, 10 distinct chemical gases were released in the wind tunnel, the sensors were evaluated at 5 different operating temperatures, and 3 different wind speeds were generated in the wind tunnel to induce different levels of turbulence. Moreover, each configuration was repeated 20 times, yielding a dataset of 18,000 measurements. The dataset was collected over a period of 16 months. The data is related to "On the performance of gas sensor arrays in open sampling systems using Inhibitory Support Vector Machines", by Vergara et al.[1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+arrays+in+open+sampling+settings.

  13. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1992-01-01

    Aspects of the design and construction of the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory are discussed. The wind tunnel is to be used as part of the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP).

  14. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS VA-118-B-10 LOOKING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  15. NASA's Aeroacoustic Tools and Methods for Analysis of Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft community noise is a significant concern due to continued growth in air traffic, increasingly stringent environmental goals, and operational limitations imposed by airport authorities. The ability to quantify aircraft noise at the source and ultimately at observers is required to develop low noise aircraft designs and flight procedures. Predicting noise at the source, accounting for scattering and propagation through the atmosphere to the observer, and assessing the perception and impact on a community requires physics-based aeroacoustics tools. Along with the analyses for aero-performance, weights and fuel burn, these tools can provide the acoustic component for aircraft MDAO (Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization). Over the last decade significant progress has been made in advancing the aeroacoustic tools such that acoustic analyses can now be performed during the design process. One major and enabling advance has been the development of the system noise framework known as Aircraft NOise Prediction Program2 (ANOPP2). ANOPP2 is NASA's aeroacoustic toolset and is designed to facilitate the combination of acoustic approaches of varying fidelity for the analysis of noise from conventional and unconventional aircraft. The toolset includes a framework that integrates noise prediction and propagation methods into a unified system for use within general aircraft analysis software. This includes acoustic analyses, signal processing and interfaces that allow for the assessment of perception of noise on a community. ANOPP2's capability to incorporate medium fidelity shielding predictions and wind tunnel experiments into a design environment is presented. An assessment of noise from a conventional and Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft using medium fidelity scattering methods combined with noise measurements from a model-scale HWB recently placed in NASA's 14x22 wind tunnel are presented. The results are in the form of community noise metrics and

  16. Design and calibration of the mixing layer and wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed account of the design, assembly and calibration of a wind tunnel specifically designed for free-shear layer research is contained. The construction of this new facility was motivated by a strong interest in the study of plane mixing layers with varying initial and operating conditions. The Mixing Layer Wind tunnel is located in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center. The tunnel consists of two separate legs which are driven independently by centrifugal blowers connected to variable speed motors. The blower/motor combinations are sized such that one is smaller than the other, giving maximum flow speeds of about 20 and 40 m/s, respectively. The blower speeds can either be set manually or via the Microvax II computer. The two streams are allowed to merge in the test section at the sharp trailing edge of a slowly tapering splitter plate. The test section is 36 cm in the cross-stream direction, 91 cm in the spanwise direction and 366 cm in length. One test section side-wall is slotted for probe access and adjustable so that the streamwise pressure gradient may be controlled. The wind tunnel is also equipped with a computer controlled, three-dimensional traversing system which is used to investigate the flow fields with pressure and hot-wire instrumentation. The wind tunnel calibration results show that the mean flow in the test section is uniform to within plus or minus 0.25 pct and the flow angularity is less than 0.25 deg. The total streamwise free-stream turbulence intensity level is approximately 0.15 pct. Currently the wind tunnel is being used in experiments designed to study the three-dimensional structure of plane mixing layers and wakes.

  17. Microspheres for laser velocimetry in high temperature wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghorieshi, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of non-intrusive measurement techniques in wind tunnel experimentation has been a turning point in error free data acquisition. Laser velocimetry has been progressively implemented and utilized in various wind tunnels; e.g. subsonic, transonic, and supersonic. The success of the laser velocimeter technique is based on an accurate measurement of scattered light by seeding particles introduced into the flow stream in the wind tunnel. Therefore, application of appropriate seeding particles will affect, to a large extent the acquired data. The seeding material used depends on the type of experiment being run. Among the seeding material for subsonic tunnel are kerosene, Kaolin, and polystyrene. Polystyrene is known to be the best because of being solid particles, having high index of refraction, capable of being made both spherical and monodisperse. However for high temperature wind tunnel testing seeding material must have an additional characteristic that is high melting point. Typically metal oxide powders such as Al2O3 with melting point 3660 F are used. The metal oxides are, however polydispersed, have a high density, and a tendency to form large agglomerate that does not closely follow the flow velocity. The addition of flame phase silica to metal oxide helps to break up the agglomerates, yet still results in a narrow band of polydispersed seeding. The less desirable utility of metal oxide in high temperature wind tunnels necessitates the search for a better alternative particle seeding which this paper addresses. The Laser Velocimetry (LV) characteristic of polystyrene makes it a prime candidate as a base material in achieving the high temperature particle seeding inexpensively. While polystyrene monodisperse seeding particle reported has been successful in a subsonic wind tunnel, it lacks the high melting point and thus is not practically usable in a high temperature wind tunnel. It is well known that rise in melting point of polystyrene can be

  18. Wind tunnel investigation of a 14 foot vertical axis windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. J.; Guillotte, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A full scale wind tunnel investigation was made to determine the performance characteristics of a 14 ft diameter vertical axis windmill. The parameters measured were wind velocity, shaft torque, shaft rotation rate, along with the drag and yawing moment. A velocity survey of the flow field downstream of the windmill was also made. The results of these tests along with some analytically predicted data are presented in the form of generalized data as a function of tip speed ratio.

  19. An experimental study of several wind tunnel wall configurations using two V/STOL model configurations. [low speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binion, T. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the low speed wind tunnel using two V/STOL models, a jet-flap and a jet-in-fuselage configuration, to search for a wind tunnel wall configuration to minimize wall interference on V/STOL models. Data were also obtained on the jet-flap model with a uniform slotted wall configuration to provide comparisons between theoretical and experimental wall interference. A test section configuration was found which provided some data in reasonable agreement with interference-free results over a wide range of momentum coefficients.

  20. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  1. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  2. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  3. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  4. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  5. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  6. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  7. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  8. 40 CFR 53.62 - Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 § 53.62 Test procedure: Full wind tunnel test. (a) Overview. The full wind tunnel test evaluates the effectiveness of the candidate sampler at...

  9. Study of ice accretion on icing wind tunnel components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, J. E.; Olsen, W.

    1986-01-01

    In a closed loop icing wind tunnel the icing cloud is simulated by introducing tiny water droplets through an array of nozzles upstream of the test section. This cloud will form ice on all tunnel components (e.g., turning vanes, inlet guide vanes, fan blades, and the heat exchanger) as the cloud flows around the tunnel. These components must have the capacity to handle their icing loads without causing significant tunnel performance degradation during the course of an evening's run. To aid in the design of these components for the proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) at NASA Lewis Research Center the existing Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) is used to measure icing characteristics of the IRT's components. The results from the IRT are scaled to the AWT to account for the AWT's larger components and higher velocities. The results show that from 90 to 45 percent of the total spray cloud froze out on the heat exchanger. Furthermore, the first set of turning vanes downstream of the test section, the FOD screen and the fan blades show significant ice formation. The scaling shows that the same results would occur in the AWT.

  10. Development of an intelligent videogrammetric wind tunnel measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Sharon S.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2001-11-01

    A videogrammetric technique developed at NASA Langley Research Center has been used at five NASA facilities at the Langley and Ames Research Centers for deformation measurements on a number of sting mounted and semispan models. These include high-speed research and transport models tested over a wide range of aerodynamic conditions including subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. The technique, based on digital photogrammetry, has been used to measure model attitude, deformation, and sting bending. In addition, the technique has been used to study model injection rate effects and to calibrate and validate methods for predicting static aeroelastic deformations of wind tunnel models. An effort is currently underway to develop an intelligent videogrammetric measurement system that will be both useful and usable in large production wind tunnels while providing accurate data in a robust and timely manner. Designed to encode a higher degree of knowledge through computer vision, the system features advanced pattern recognition techniques to improve automated location and identification of targets placed on the wind tunnel model to be used for aerodynamic measurements such as attitude and deformation. This paper will describe the development and strategy of the new intelligent system that was used in a recent test at a large transonic wind tunnel.

  11. Investigations and Experiments in the Guidonia Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1939-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of the experiments and equipment used in investigations at the Guidonia wind tunnel. The equipment consisted of: a number of subsonic and supersonic cones, an aerodynamic balance, and optical instruments operating on the Schlieren and interferometer principle.

  12. Calibrated cylindrical Mach probe in a plasma wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Dandurand, D.; Gray, T.; Brown, M. R.; Lukin, V. S.

    2011-03-15

    A simple cylindrical Mach probe is described along with an independent calibration procedure in a magnetized plasma wind tunnel. A particle orbit calculation corroborates our model. The probe operates in the weakly magnetized regime in which probe dimension and ion orbit are of the same scale. Analytical and simulation models are favorably compared with experimental calibration.

  13. A Modified Bagnold-Type Wind Tunnel for Laboratory Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Alan

    1975-01-01

    Using the basic Bagnold design, a relatively inexpensive suction-type wind tunnel can be constructed for laboratory demonstration of sand-grain movement, ripple development, and other eolian processes. Its simple design provides no workshop problems and it can be made for a total cost in materials of approximately $225. (Author/CP)

  14. Ski jumping takeoff in a wind tunnel with skis.

    PubMed

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha; Komi, Paavo

    2011-11-01

    The effect of skis on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping takeoff was examined in a wind tunnel. Takeoff forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the tunnel floor. Signals from the front and rear parts of the force plate were collected separately to examine the anteroposterior balance of the jumpers during the takeoff. Two ski jumpers performed simulated takeoffs, first without skis in nonwind conditions and in various wind conditions. Thereafter, the same experiments were repeated with skis. The jumpers were able to perform very natural takeoff actions (similar to the actual takeoff) with skis in wind tunnel. According to the subjective feeling of the jumpers, the simulated ski jumping takeoff with skis was even easier to perform than the earlier trials without skis. Skis did not much influence the force levels produced during the takeoff but they still changed the force distribution under the feet. Contribution of the forces produced under the rear part of the feet was emphasized probably because the strong dorsiflexion is needed for lifting the skis to the proper flight position. The results presented in this experiment emphasize that research on ski jumping takeoff can be advanced by using wind tunnels.

  15. The role of wind tunnels in predicting sounding rocket aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of some cases of flow separation, flow-field interference, unusual vehicle shape or size, excessive deviations to high angular positions. Mach number induced effects, Reynolds number effects, and effects of protruberances on wind tunnel investigations of sounding rockets are illustrated.

  16. Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.

  17. Development of an Intelligent Videogrammetric Wind Tunnel Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Sharon S.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2004-01-01

    A videogrammetric technique developed at NASA Langley Research Center has been used at five NASA facilities at the Langley and Ames Research Centers for deformation measurements on a number of sting mounted and semispan models. These include high-speed research and transport models tested over a wide range of aerodynamic conditions including subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. The technique, based on digital photogrammetry, has been used to measure model attitude, deformation, and sting bending. In addition, the technique has been used to study model injection rate effects and to calibrate and validate methods for predicting static aeroelastic deformations of wind tunnel models. An effort is currently underway to develop an intelligent videogrammetric measurement system that will be both useful and usable in large production wind tunnels while providing accurate data in a robust and timely manner. Designed to encode a higher degree of knowledge through computer vision, the system features advanced pattern recognition techniques to improve automated location and identification of targets placed on the wind tunnel model to be used for aerodynamic measurements such as attitude and deformation. This paper will describe the development and strategy of the new intelligent system that was used in a recent test at a large transonic wind tunnel.

  18. Support interference of wind tunnel models: A selective annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Lawing, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 143 citations arranged in chronological order by dates of publication. Selection of the citations was made for their relevance to the problems involved in understanding or avoiding support interference in wind tunnel testing throughout the Mach number range. An author index is included.

  19. The requirements for a new full scale subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. W.; Mckinney, M. O.; Luidens, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Justification and requirements are presented for a large subsonic wind tunnel capable of testing full scale aircraft, rotor systems, and advanced V/STOL propulsion systems. The design considerations and constraints for such a facility are reviewed, and the trades between facility test capability and costs are discussed.

  20. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, aerials of East Area. L5169: Langley's seaplane towing facility (right) and the Full Scale Tunnel (left) were photographed in November of 1930. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 39), by James Schultz.

  1. Support interference of wind tunnel models: A selective annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Gloss, B. B.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 143 citations arranged in chronological order by dates of publication. Selection of the citations was made for their relevance to the problems involved in understanding or avoiding support interference in wind tunnel testing throughout the Mach number range. An author index is included.

  2. Results of buffet tests in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, R. P.; Johnson, W. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Buffet tests on two semispan wing models with different leading edge sweep show that it is feasibile to use the standard dynamic wing root bending moment technique in a cryogenic wind tunnel. One model was a slender 65 deg swept delta wing with sharp leading edges. The other model was an unswept wing of aspect ratio 1.5 with a British NPL 9510 airfoil section. The results for the 65 deg swept delta wing indicate the importance of matching the reduced frequency parameter in model tests for planforms which are sensitive to reduced frequency parameter if quantitative buffet measurements are required. The unique ability of a pressurized cryogenic wind tunnel to separate the effects of Reynolds number and of static aeroelastic distortion by variations in the tunnel stagnation temperature and pressure were demonstrated.

  3. 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David; Stephens, David

    2016-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was built in 1969 in the return leg of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). The 8x6 SWT was completed in 1949 and acoustically treated to mitigate community noise issues in 1950. This treatment included the addition of a large muffler downstream of the 8x6 SWT test section and diffuser. The 9x15 LSWT was designed for performance testing of VSTOL aircraft models, but with the addition of the current acoustic treatment in 1986 the tunnel has been used principally for acoustic and performance testing of aircraft propulsions systems. The present document describes an anticipated acoustic upgrade to be completed in 2017.

  4. Aeroacoustic Duster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Chen, Di (Inventor); Vachon, Nicholas Mario (Inventor); Hitt, Darren (Inventor); Wu, Junru (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aero-acoustic duster invention disclosed herein provides for high particle removal rate from surfaces with low energy expenditure relative to competing vacuum-based devices. The device removes particulate matter from a surface using a two-step process: 1. Acoustic radiation is used to break the adhesive bonds between dust and the surface, forcing particles into a mode where they continuously bounce up and down on the surface; and, 2. A bounded vortex is generated over the surface, with suction in the vortex center and jets for blowing air along the periphery. The jets are tilted in the tangential direction to induce vortex motion within the suction region. The vortex is said to be bounded because streamlines originating in the downward jets are entrained back into the central vortex.

  5. The cryogenic wind tunnel concept for high Reynolds number testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Goodyer, M. J.; Adcock, J. B.; Davenport, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Theoretical considerations indicate that cooling the wind-tunnel test gas to cryogenic temperatures will provide a large increase in Reynolds number with no increase in dynamic pressure while reducing the tunnel drive-power requirements. Studies were made to determine the expected variations of Reynolds number and other parameters over wide ranges of Mach number, pressure, and temperature, with due regard to avoiding liquefaction. Practical operational procedures were developed in a low-speed cryogenic tunnel. Aerodynamic experiments in the facility demonstrated the theoretically predicted variations in Reynolds number and drive power. The continuous-flow-fan-driven tunnel is shown to be particularly well suited to take full advantage of operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Maniaci, David Charles; Kelley, Christopher Lee; Chiu, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program’s Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of München.

  7. Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles: A selected, annotated bibliography to aid in the development of quiet wind tunnel technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 298 citations arranged in chronological order. The citations were selected to be helpful to persons engaged in the design and development of quiet (low disturbance) nozzles for modern supersonic wind tunnels. Author, subject, and corporate source indexes are included to assist with the location of specific information.

  8. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel, part 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1993-01-01

    A summary of optical techniques for the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels are discussed. Six optical techniques were studied: Schlieren, light sheet and laser vapor screen, angle of attack, model deformation, infrared imagery, and digital image processing. The study includes surveys and reviews of wind tunnel optical techniques, some conceptual designs, and recommendations for use of optical methods in the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels. Particular emphasis was placed on searching for systems developed for wind tunnel use and on commercial systems which could be readily adapted for wind tunnels. This final report is to summarize the major results and recommendations.

  9. Minimum energy test direction design in the control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1980-06-01

    The advent of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept is attributable to the need for high Reynolds number flow in wind tunnels. The cryogenic wind tunnel concept consists of operating the test medium of a conventional tunnel at cryogenic temperatures down to 80 K. Nitrogen gas, cooled by injected liquid nitrogen, proves to be ideal for the cryogenic tunnel test medium because of its near perfect behavior in insentropic flow. Cryogenic operation of a wind tunnel results in reduced fan power consumption and no penalty in flow dynamic pressure. In a cryogenic tunnel, the flow parameters (Reynolds number, Mach number and flow dynamic pressure) can be independently controlled by separately controlling the tunnel flow variables: total temperature, test section mass flow, and the tunnel total pressure. The problem of closed-loop control of the tunnel total temperature, flow Mach number, and total pressure is addressed and reported.

  10. Experimental localization of an acoustic sound source in a wind-tunnel flow by using a numerical time-reversal technique.

    PubMed

    Padois, Thomas; Prax, Christian; Valeau, Vincent; Marx, David

    2012-10-01

    The possibility of using the time-reversal technique to localize acoustic sources in a wind-tunnel flow is investigated. While the technique is widespread, it has scarcely been used in aeroacoustics up to now. The proposed method consists of two steps: in a first experimental step, the acoustic pressure fluctuations are recorded over a linear array of microphones; in a second numerical step, the experimental data are time-reversed and used as input data for a numerical code solving the linearized Euler equations. The simulation achieves the back-propagation of the waves from the array to the source and takes into account the effect of the mean flow on sound propagation. The ability of the method to localize a sound source in a typical wind-tunnel flow is first demonstrated using simulated data. A generic experiment is then set up in an anechoic wind tunnel to validate the proposed method with a flow at Mach number 0.11. Monopolar sources are first considered that are either monochromatic or have a narrow or wide-band frequency content. The source position estimation is well-achieved with an error inferior to the wavelength. An application to a dipolar sound source shows that this type of source is also very satisfactorily characterized.

  11. Ultra-light duct for an anechoic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambourion, J.; Lewy, S.; Papirnyk, O.; Rahier, G.; Remandet, J.-N.

    1989-01-01

    A tunnel ultra-light (or TUL) is a duct composed of acoustically transparent cloth designed to transform an open-jet wind tunnel into a closed-jet wind tunnel. This concept is of interest (a priori) for anechoic wind tunnels because it improves the aerodynamic quality without hindering the measurement of sound in the far field. A full scale device designed for the 3 m diameter test section of CEPRA 19 was described. The apparatus installation did not develop any significant problems, and the mechanical support turned out to be excellent. Aerodynamic and acoustic tests are discussed. Certain imperfections in the installation as tested - instabilities above 25 m/s and acceptable cloth transmission up to 4kHz were revealed. The system as tested could eventually be used in certain applications, for example, in ground based transport. However, the concept of TUL must be developed further to arrive at a reliable mechanism for use in a large number of applications.

  12. Design, construction and calibration of a portable boundary layer wind tunnel for field use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind tunnels have been used for several decades to study wind erosion processes. Portable wind tunnels offer the advantage of testing natural surfaces in the field, but they must be carefully designed to insure that a logarithmic boundary layer is formed and that wind erosion processes may develop ...

  13. A survey of the three-dimensional high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.; Sawada, H.; Aoki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The facilities for aerodynamic testing of airplane models at transonic speeds and high Reynolds numbers are surveyed. The need for high Reynolds number testing is reviewed, using some experimental results. Some approaches to high Reynolds number testing such as the cryogenic wind tunnel, the induction driven wind tunnel, the Ludwieg tube, the Evans clean tunnel and the hydraulic driven wind tunnel are described. The level of development of high Reynolds number testing facilities in Japan is discussed.

  14. Cost effective use of liquid nitrogen in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Glen E.; Lombard, David S.; Martindale, David L.; Dunn, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    A method of reliquefying from 12 to 19% of the nitrogen exhaust gas from a cryogenic wind tunnel has been developed. Technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of the system depends on performance of an innovative positive displacement expander which requires scale model testing to confirm design studies. The existing cryogenic system at the 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel has been surveyed and extensive upgrades proposed. Upgrades are generally cost effective and may be implemented immediately since they are based on established technology.

  15. A wind tunnel application of large-field focusing schlieren

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Seiner, John M.; Mitchell, L. K.; Manning, James C.; Jansen, Bernard J.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1992-01-01

    A large-field focusing schlieren apparatus was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center 9 by 15 foot wind tunnel in an attempt to determine the density gradient flow field of a free jet issuing from a supersonic nozzle configuration. The nozzle exit geometry was designed to reduce acoustic emissions from the jet by enhancing plume mixing. Thus, the flow exhibited a complex three-dimensional structure which warranted utilizing the sharp focusing capability of this type of schlieren method. Design considerations concerning tunnel limitations, high-speed photography, and video tape recording are presented in the paper.

  16. N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel Facility (An example of a Versatile Wind Tunnel) Tunnel 1 I is a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel Facility (An example of a Versatile Wind Tunnel) Tunnel 1 I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test sections and nozzles. The facility provides experimental support for the fluid mechanics research, including experimental verification of aerodynamic computer codes and boundary-layer and airfoil studies that require high Reynolds number simulation. (Tunnel 1)

  17. A comparison of the acoustic and aerodynamic measurements of a model rotor tested in two anechoic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Lewy, S.; Caplot, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two aeroacoustic facilities--the CEPRA 19 in France and the DNW in the Netherlands--are compared. The two facilities have unique acoustic characteristics that make them appropriate for acoustic testing of model-scale helicopter rotors. An identical pressure-instrumented model-scale rotor was tested in each facility and acoustic test results are compared with full-scale-rotor test results. Blade surface pressures measured in both tunnels were used to correlated nominal rotor operating conditions in each tunnel, and also used to assess the steadiness of the rotor in each tunnel's flow. In-the-flow rotor acoustic signatures at moderate forward speeds (35-50 m/sec) are presented for each facility and discussed in relation to the differences in tunnel geometries and aeroacoustic characteristics. Both reports are presented in appendices to this paper. ;.);

  18. Calculation of the Aerodynamic Behavior of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) in the DNW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 1/4-scale V- 22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance and airloads for helicopter mode operation, as well as calculated induced and profile power. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.

  19. The 2009 ESA/Danish Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, P.; Merrison, J. P.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.

    2009-04-01

    Simulation of the dynamic environment in immediate proximity to the surface of Mars requires access to simulation facilities which can reproduce the atmospheric properties (pressure, temperature, gas composition, UV-VIS light conditions, wind flow etc.). It also requires access to analogue Martian surface material (soil and dust). Simulations can be carried out in a wind tunnel placed in a tank which can be pumped out, like the 400 mm Ø, 1500 mm long wind tunnel that has operated in the Mars Simulation Laboratory at University of Aarhus, Denmark since 2000 (1). A wide range of applications have taken place, from development, test and calibration of instruments, over tests of solar panels, and aerodynamic studies of granular transport to studies of physical properties of dust materials such as grain electrification, aggregation and magnetic properties (2,3). The Salten Skov I analogue (4) and other Martian regolits and dust analogues have been used in the wind tunnel experiments. With the view to future instrument development, solar panel optimization and future research on Martian surface processes a new ESA supported wind tunnel has been constructed at University of Aarhus, Denmark and is now under building. This wind tunnel will have a cross section of close to 1 x 2 m and be able to reach a wind speed of close to 30 m/s under Martian pressure conditions and with samples cooled down to Martian temperatures. The facility is planned to be finally tested and ready for use in July 2009. ESA, ExoMars use of this facility will have priority. However, research projects in collaboration with external users will also be welcome in the future. Later this year information on access possibilities will be announced at the Mars Simulation Laboratory home page: www.marslab.dk. References: (1) Merrison, J., Bertelsen, P., Frandsen, C., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Knudsen, J.M., Madsen, M.B., Mossin, L., Nielsen, J., Nørnberg, P., Rasmussen, K.R., Uggerhøj, E. and Weyer, G. 2002

  20. Comparison of Theory and Experiment on Aeroacoustic Loads and Deflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, L. M. B. C.; Bourgine, A.; Bonomi, B.

    1999-01-01

    The correlation of acoustic pressure loads induced by a turbulent wake on a nearby structural panel is considered: this problem is relevant to the acoustic fatigue of aircraft, rocket and satellite structures. Both the correlation of acoustic pressure loads and the panel deflections, were measured in an 8-m diameter transonic wind tunnel. Using the measured correlation of acoustic pressures, as an input to a finite-element aeroelastic code, the panel response was reproduced. The latter was also satisfactorily reproduced, using again the aeroelastic code, with input given by a theoretical formula for the correlation of acoustic pressures; the derivation of this formula, and the semi-empirical parameters which appear in it, are included in this paper. The comparison of acoustic responses in aeroacoustic wind tunnels (AWT) and progressive wave tubes (PWT) shows that much work needs to be done to bridge that gap; this is important since the PWT is the standard test means, whereas the AWT is more representative of real flight conditions but also more demanding in resources. Since this may be the first instance of successful modelling of acoustic fatigue, it may be appropriate to list briefly the essential ``positive'' features and associated physical phenomena: (i) a standard aeroelastic structural code can predict acoustic fatigue, provided that the correlation of pressure loads be adequately specified; (ii) the correlation of pressure loads is determined by the interference of acoustic waves, which depends on the exact evaluation of multiple scattering integrals, involving the statistics of random phase shifts; (iii) for the relatively low frequencies (one to a few hundred Hz) of aeroacoustic fatigue, the main cause of random phase effects is scattering by irregular wakes, which are thin on wavelength scale, and appear as partially reflecting rough interfaces. It may also be appropriate to mention some of the ``negative'' features, to which may be attached illusory

  1. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale entrance cone looking north, exit cone looking south, wind vanes north end, wind vanes north end of east return passage, wind vanes south end of west exit cone looking north east, wind vanes at south end of east exit cone looking north west, entrance cone looking south from north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) entrance cone under construction. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  2. Standardization Tests of NACA No. 1 Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1925-01-01

    The tests described in this report were made in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, at Langley Field. The primary objective of collecting data on the characteristics of this tunnel for comparison with those of others throughout the world, in order that, in the future, the results of tests made in all the principle laboratories may be interpreted, compared, and coordinated on a basis of scientifically established relationships, a process hitherto impossible due to the lack of comparable data. The work includes tests of a disk, spheres, cylinders, and airfoils, explorations of the test section for static pressure and velocity distribution, and determination of the variations of air flow direction throughout the operating range of the tunnel. (author)

  3. Wind tunnel test evaluation of a Shuttle derived launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewell, J. R.; Buell, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) is a proposed unmanned launch system configured using Shuttle elements. The SDV incorporates two solid rocket boosters, an external tank and three Space Shuttle main engines identical to those used in the present Space Transportation System. Two new elements, a recoverable propulsion/avionics module housing the main engines and an expendable payload module, complete the SDV configuration. This paper describes the activities and results of wind tunnel tests conducted to validate the aerodynamic and controllability characteristics of SDV configurations. The configuration variables consisted of the payload module diameter, length and nose shape. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel. Aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 4.96. The attack and sideslip angles were varied + or - 8.0 deg. Forces and moments were measured by a sting-supported six component strain gage balance.

  4. Rain and deicing experiments in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasso, G.

    1983-01-01

    Comments on films of tests simulating rain and ice conditions in a wind tunnel are presented, with the aim of studying efficient methods of overcoming the adverse effects of rain and ice on aircraft. In the experiments, lifesize models and models of the Mirave 4 aircraft were used. The equipment used to simulate rain and ice is described. Different configurations of landing and takeoff under conditions of moderate or heavy rain at variable angles of incidence and of skipping and at velocities varying from 30 to 130 m/sec are reproduced in the wind tunnel. The risks of erosion of supersonic aircraft by the rain during the loitering and approach phases are discussed.

  5. Preparation of polystyrene microspheres for laser velocimetry in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Cecil E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Laser Velocimetry (L/V) had made great strides in replacing intrusive devices for wind tunnel flow measurements. The weakness of the L/V has not been the L/V itself, but proper size seeding particles having known drag characteristics. For many Langley Wind Tunnel applications commercial polystyrene latex microspheres suspended in ethanol, injected through a fluid nozzle provides excellent seeding but was not used due to the high cost. This paper provides the instructions, procedures, and formulations for producing polystyrene latex monodisperse microspheres of 0.6, 1.0, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.7 micron diameters. These are presently being used at Langley Research Center as L/V seeding particles.

  6. Propulsion simulation for magnetically suspended wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Prakash B.; Beerman, Henry P.; Chen, James; Krech, Robert H.; Lintz, Andrew L.; Rosen, David I.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of simulating propulsion-induced aerodynamic effects on scaled aircraft models in wind tunnels employing Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems. The investigation concerned itself with techniques of generating exhaust jets of appropriate characteristics. The objectives were to: (1) define thrust and mass flow requirements of jets; (2) evaluate techniques for generating propulsive gas within volume limitations imposed by magnetically-suspended models; (3) conduct simple diagnostic experiments for techniques involving new concepts; and (4) recommend experiments for demonstration of propulsion simulation techniques. Various techniques of generating exhaust jets of appropriate characteristics were evaluated on scaled aircraft models in wind tunnels with MSBS. Four concepts of remotely-operated propulsion simulators were examined. Three conceptual designs involving innovative adaptation of convenient technologies (compressed gas cylinders, liquid, and solid propellants) were developed. The fourth innovative concept, namely, the laser-assisted thruster, which can potentially simulate both inlet and exhaust flows, was found to require very high power levels for small thrust levels.

  7. Wind tunnel wall effects in a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    Experiments in a linear oscillating cascade reveal that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the airfoils have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the oscillating cascade aerodynamics. In a subsonic flow field, biconvex airfoils are driven simultaneously in harmonic, torsion-mode oscillations for a range of interblade phase angle values. It is found that the cascade dynamic periodicity - the airfoil to airfoil variation in unsteady surface pressure - is good for some values of interblade phase angle but poor for others. Correlation of the unsteady pressure data with oscillating flat plate cascade predictions is generally good for conditions where the periodicity is good and poor where the periodicity is poor. Calculations based upon linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory indicate that pressure waves reflected from the wind tunnel walls are responsible for the cases where there is poor periodicity and poor correlation with the predictions.

  8. Advanced optical position sensors for magnetically suspended wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, S.

    1985-01-01

    A major concern to aerodynamicists has been the corruption of wind tunnel test data by model support structures, such as stings or struts. A technique for magnetically suspending wind tunnel models was considered by Tournier and Laurenceau (1957) in order to overcome this problem. This technique is now implemented with the aid of a Large Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (LMSBS) and advanced position sensors for measuring model attitude and position within the test section. Two different optical position sensors are discussed, taking into account a device based on the use of linear CCD arrays, and a device utilizing area CID cameras. Current techniques in image processing have been employed to develop target tracking algorithms capable of subpixel resolution for the sensors. The algorithms are discussed in detail, and some preliminary test results are reported.

  9. Wind tunnel tests for wind pressure distribution on gable roof buildings.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiao-kun; Li, Yuan-qi

    2013-01-01

    Gable roof buildings are widely used in industrial buildings. Based on wind tunnel tests with rigid models, wind pressure distributions on gable roof buildings with different aspect ratios were measured simultaneously. Some characteristics of the measured wind pressure field on the surfaces of the models were analyzed, including mean wind pressure, fluctuating wind pressure, peak negative wind pressure, and characteristics of proper orthogonal decomposition results of the measured wind pressure field. The results show that extremely high local suctions often occur in the leading edges of longitudinal wall and windward roof, roof corner, and roof ridge which are the severe damaged locations under strong wind. The aspect ratio of building has a certain effect on the mean wind pressure coefficients, and the effect relates to wind attack angle. Compared with experimental results, the region division of roof corner and roof ridge from AIJ2004 is more reasonable than those from CECS102:2002 and MBMA2006.The contributions of the first several eigenvectors to the overall wind pressure distributions become much bigger. The investigation can offer some basic understanding for estimating wind load distribution on gable roof buildings and facilitate wind-resistant design of cladding components and their connections considering wind load path.

  10. Wind Tunnel Analysis of the Detachment Bubble on Bolund Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeow, T. S.; Cuerva, A.; Conan, B.; J, Pérez-Álvarez

    2014-12-01

    The flow topology on two scaled models (1:230 and 1:115) of the Bolund Island is analysed in two wind tunnels, focusing on the characteristics of the detachment pattern when the wind blows from 270° wind direction and the atmospheric condition is neutral. Since the experiments are designed as the simplest possible reference cases, no additional roughness is added neither to the models surface nor to the wind tunnel floor. Pressure measurements on the surface of the 1:230 scale model are used to estimate the horizontal extension of the intermittent recirculation region, by applying the diagnostic means based in exploring the pressure statistics, proposed in the literature for characterising bubbles on canonical obstacles. The analysis is done for a range of Reynolds numbers based on the mean undisturbed wind speed, U∞ and the maximum height of the island, h[5.1×104,8.5×104]. An isoheight mapping of the velocity field is obtained using 3D hotwire (3D HW). The velocity field in a vertical plane is determined using 3D HW and 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the 1:115 scale model in order to reproduce and complete already existing results in the literature.

  11. Wind tunnel model surface gauge for measuring roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Gilsinn, D. E.; Teague, E. C.; Giauque, C. H. W.; Scire, F. E.; Cao, L. X.

    1987-01-01

    The optical inspection of surface roughness research has proceeded along two different lines. First, research into a quantitative understanding of light scattering from metal surfaces and into the appropriate models to describe the surfaces themselves. Second, the development of a practical instrument for the measurement of rms roughness of high performance wind tunnel models with smooth finishes. The research is summarized, with emphasis on the second avenue of research.

  12. Wind tunnels with adapted walls for reducing wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganzer, U.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principle of adaptable wind tunnel walls is explained. First results of an investigation carried out at the Aero-Space Institute of Berlin Technical University are presented for two dimensional flexible walls and a NACA 0012 airfoil. With five examples exhibiting very different flow conditions it is demonstrated that it is possible to reduce wall interference and to avoid blockage at transonic speeds by wall adaptation.

  13. Wind Tunnel Tests Conducted to Develop an Icing Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program goals to reduce aviation accidents due to icing, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading a flight simulator development activity to improve pilot training for the adverse flying characteristics due to icing. Developing flight simulators that incorporate the aerodynamic effects of icing will provide a critical element in pilot training programs by giving pilots a pre-exposure of icing-related hazards, such as ice-contaminated roll upset or tailplane stall. Integrating these effects into training flight simulators will provide an accurate representation of scenarios to develop pilot skills in unusual attitudes and loss-of-control events that may result from airframe icing. In order to achieve a high level of fidelity in the flight simulation, a series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a 6.5-percent-scale Twin Otter aircraft model. These wind tunnel tests were conducted at the Wichita State University 7- by 10-ft wind tunnel and Bihrle Applied Research's Large Amplitude Multiple Purpose Facility in Neuburg, Germany. The Twin Otter model was tested without ice (baseline), and with two ice configurations: 1) Ice on the horizontal tail only; 2) Ice on the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. These wind tunnel tests resulted in data bases of aerodynamic forces and moments as functions of angle of attack; sideslip; control surface deflections; forced oscillations in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes; and various rotational speeds. A limited amount of wing and tail surface pressure data were also measured for comparison with data taken at Wichita State and with flight data. The data bases from these tests will be the foundation for a PC-based Icing Flight Simulator to be delivered to Glenn in fiscal year 2001.

  14. Bar-Chart-Monitor System For Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Real-time monitor system provides bar-chart displays of significant operating parameters developed for National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at Ames Research Center. Designed to gather and process sensory data on operating conditions of wind tunnels and models, and displays data for test engineers and technicians concerned with safety and validation of operating conditions. Bar-chart video monitor displays data in as many as 50 channels at maximum update rate of 2 Hz in format facilitating quick interpretation.

  15. Problems associated with operations and measurement in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, A.; Delcourt, V.; Plazanet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cryogenic wind tunnel T'3 under continuous blower operation has been the object of improvements and the installation of auxiliary equipment, dealing in particular with the enlargement of the liquid nitrogen injection reservoir and the hook-up to a fast data acquisition system. Following a brief description of the installation and its functioning, we present the main experimental techniques and the instrumentation used in the cryogenic environment.

  16. Summary of HEAT 1 Aeroacoustics Installation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Soderman, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    A critical part of the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) program is the demonstration of satisfactory suppression of the jet noise present at low airspeeds. One scheme for reducing jet exhaust noise generated by a future High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) is the use of a mixer/ ejector system which would entrain large quantities of ambient air into the exhaust flow from the powerplant in order to cool and slow the jet exhaust before it leaves the tailpipe. Of the variety of factors which can affect the noise suppression characteristics of the mixer/ejector system, the influence of the wing flow field and high-lift devices is not well understood. The effectiveness of the noise suppression device must be evaluated in the presence of the wing/high-lift system before definitive assessments can be made concerning HSCT noise. Of nearly equal importance is the evaluation of the performance of the high-lift system(s) in the presence of realistic propulsion units which feature high ambient flow entrainment rates and jet thrust coefficients. These noise suppressors must provide the required acoustic attenuation while not overly degrading the thrust efficiency of the propulsion system or the lift enhancement of the high-lift devices on the wing. The overall objective of the NASA High-lift Engine Aeroacoustics Technology program is to demonstrate satisfactory interaction between the jet noise suppressor and the high-lift system at airspeeds and angles of attack consistent with takeoff, climb, approach, and landing. In support of this program, an isolated aeroacoustic test of a 13.5%-scale, candidate mixer/ejector nozzle was performed in the Ames' Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The purpose of the test was to measure the baseline aeroacoustic performance characteristics of this nozzle in isolation from the aerodynamic flowfield induced by an HSCT airframe. The test documented the acoustic signature of the nozzles with treated and hardwall ejector surfaces and with

  17. Ventilation of idealised urban area, LES and wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukačka, L.; Fuka, V.; Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Jaňour, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In order to estimate the ventilation of vehicle pollution within street canyons, a wind tunnel experiment and a large eddy simulation (LES) was performed. A model of an idealised urban area with apartment houses arranged to courtyards was designed according to common Central European cities. In the wind tunnel, we assembled a set-up for simultaneous measurement of vertical velocity and tracer gas concentration. Due to the vehicle traffic emissions modelling, a new line source of tracer gas was designed and built into the model. As a computational model, the LES model solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was used. In this paper, we focused on the street canyon with the line source situated perpendicular to an approach flow. Vertical and longitudinal velocity components of the flow with the pollutant concentration were obtained from two horizontal grids placed in different heights above the street canyon. Vertical advective and turbulent pollution fluxes were computed from the measured data as ventilation characteristics. Wind tunnel and LES data were qualitatively compared. A domination of advective pollution transport within the street canyon was determined. However, the turbulent transport with an opposite direction to the advective played a significant role within and above the street canyon.

  18. Contraction design for small low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1988-01-01

    An iterative design procedure was developed for 2- or 3-dimensional contractions installed on small, low speed wind tunnels. The procedure consists of first computing the potential flow field and hence the pressure distributions along the walls of a contraction of given size and shape using a 3-dimensional numerical panel method. The pressure or velocity distributions are then fed into 2-dimensional boundary layer codes to predict the behavior of the boundary layers along the walls. For small, low speed contractions, it is shown that the assumption of a laminar boundary layer originating from stagnation conditions at the contraction entry and remaining laminar throughout passage through the successful designs is justified. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the predicted boundary layer data at the contraction exit with measured data in existing wind tunnels. The measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of four existing contractions, two of which were 3-D, were found to lie within 10 percent of the predicted values, with the predicted values generally lower. From the contraction wall shapes investigated, the one based on a 5th order polynomial was selected for newly designed mixing wind tunnel installation.

  19. Contraction design for small low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1988-01-01

    An iterative design procedure was developed for two- or three-dimensional contractions installed on small, low-speed wind tunnels. The procedure consists of first computing the potential flow field and hence the pressure distributions along the walls of a contraction of given size and shape using a three-dimensional numerical panel method. The pressure or velocity distributions are then fed into two-dimensional boundary layer codes to predict the behavior of the boundary layers along the walls. For small, low-speed contractions it is shown that the assumption of a laminar boundary layer originating from stagnation conditions at the contraction entry and remaining laminar throughout passage through the successful designs if justified. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the predicted boundary layer data at the contraction exit with measured data in existing wind tunnels. The measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of four existing contractions, two of which were 3-D, were found to lie within 10 percent of the predicted values, with the predicted values generally lower. From the contraction wall shapes investigated, the one based on a fifth-order polynomial was selected for installation on a newly designed mixing layer wind tunnel.

  20. The use of wind tunnel facilities to estimate hydrodynamic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Tophøj Rasmussen, Johannes; Hansen, Svend Ole; Reiso, Marit; Isaksen, Bjørn; Egeberg Aasland, Tale

    2016-03-01

    Experimental laboratory testing of vortex-induced structural oscillations in flowing water is an expensive and time-consuming procedure, and the testing of high Reynolds number flow regimes is complicated due to the requirement of either a large-scale or high-speed facility. In most cases, Reynolds number scaling effects are unavoidable, and these uncertainties have to be accounted for, usually by means of empirical rules-of-thumb. Instead of performing traditional hydrodynamic measurements, wind tunnel testing in an appropriately designed experimental setup may provide an alternative and much simpler and cheaper framework for estimating the structural behavior under water current and wave loading. Furthermore, the fluid velocities that can be obtained in a wind tunnel are substantially higher than in a water testing facility, thus decreasing the uncertainty from scaling effects. In a series of measurements, wind tunnel testing has been used to investigate the static response characteristics of a circular and a rectangular section model. Motivated by the wish to estimate the vortex-induced in-line vibration characteristics of a neutrally buoyant submerged marine structure, additional measurements on extremely lightweight, helium-filled circular section models were conducted in a dynamic setup. During the experiment campaign, the mass of the model was varied in order to investigate how the mass ratio influences the vibration amplitude. The results show good agreement with both aerodynamic and hydrodynamic experimental results documented in the literature.

  1. Tactical Defenses Against Systematic Variation in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of unexplained systematic variation on the reproducibility of wind tunnel test results. Sample means and variances estimated in the presence of systematic variations are shown to be susceptible to bias errors that are generally non-reproducible functions of those variations. Unless certain precautions are taken to defend against the effects of systematic variation, it is shown that experimental results can be difficult to duplicate and of dubious value for predicting system response with the highest precision or accuracy that could otherwise be achieved. Results are reported from an experiment designed to estimate how frequently systematic variations are in play in a representative wind tunnel experiment. These results suggest that significant systematic variation occurs frequently enough to cast doubts on the common assumption that sample observations can be reliably assumed to be independent. The consequences of ignoring correlation among observations induced by systematic variation are considered in some detail. Experimental tactics are described that defend against systematic variation. The effectiveness of these tactics is illustrated through computational experiments and real wind tunnel experimental results. Some tutorial information describes how to analyze experimental results that have been obtained using such quality assurance tactics.

  2. Variable Stiffness Spar Wind-Tunnel Model Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florance, James R.; Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Ivanco, Thomas G.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Lively, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of exploiting wing flexibility to improve aerodynamic performance was investigated in the wind tunnel by employing multiple control surfaces and by varying wing structural stiffness via a Variable Stiffness Spar (VSS) mechanism. High design loads compromised the VSS effectiveness because the aerodynamic wind-tunnel model was much stiffer than desired in order to meet the strength requirements. Results from tests of the model include stiffness and modal data, model deformation data, aerodynamic loads, static control surface derivatives, and fuselage standoff pressure data. Effects of the VSS on the stiffness and modal characteristics, lift curve slope, and control surface effectiveness are discussed. The VSS had the most effect on the rolling moment generated by the leading-edge outboard flap at subsonic speeds. The effects of the VSS for the other control surfaces and speed regimes were less. The difficulties encountered and the ability of the VSS to alter the aeroelastic characteristics of the wing emphasize the need for the development of improved design and construction methods for static aeroelastic models. The data collected and presented is valuable in terms of understanding static aeroelastic wind-tunnel model development.

  3. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Installation Effects for Conventional and Unconventional Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    As extensive experimental campaign was performed to study the aeroacoustic installation effects of an open rotor with respect to both a conventional tube and wing type airframe and an unconventional hybrid wing body airframe. The open rotor rig had two counter rotating rows of blades each with eight blades of a design originally flight tested in the 1980s. The aeroacoustic installation effects measured in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel included those from flow effects due to inflow distortion or wake interaction and acoustic propagation effects such as shielding and reflection. The objective of the test campaign was to quantify the installation effects for a wide range of parameters and configurations derived from the two airframe types. For the conventional airframe, the open rotor was positioned in increments in front of and then over the main wing and then in positions representative of tail mounted aircraft with a conventional tail, a T-tail and a U-tail. The interaction of the wake of the open rotor as well as acoustic scattering results in an increase of about 10 dB when the rotor is positioned in front of the main wing. When positioned over the main wing a substantial amount of noise reduction is obtained and this is also observed for tail-mounted installations with a large U-tail. For the hybrid wing body airframe, the open rotor was positioned over the airframe along the centerline as well as off-center representing a twin engine location. A primary result was the documentation of the noise reduction from shielding as a function of the location of the open rotor upstream of the trailing edge of the hybrid wing body. The effects from vertical surfaces and elevon deflection were also measured. Acoustic lining was specially designed and inserted flush with the elevon and airframe surface, the result was an additional reduction in open rotor noise propagating to the far field microphones. Even with the older blade design used, the experiment provided

  4. The steady-state flow quality in a model of a non-return wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mort, K. W.; Eckert, W. T.; Kelly, M. W.

    1972-01-01

    The structural cost of non-return wind tunnels is significantly less than that of the more conventional closed-circuit wind tunnels. However, because of the effects of external winds, the flow quality of non-return wind tunnels is an area of concern at the low test speeds required for V/STOL testing. The flow quality required at these low speeds is discussed and alternatives to the traditional manner of specifying the flow quality requirements in terms of dynamic pressure and angularity are suggested. The development of a non-return wind tunnel configuration which has good flow quality at low as well as at high test speeds is described.

  5. Aeolian transport of biota with dust: A wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, J. A., Jr.; Gill, T. E.; Van Pelt, R. S.; Walsh, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ephemeral wetlands are ideal sources for dust emission, as well as repositories for dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates. An important component of invertebrate dispersal and colonization to new areas is the ability to be entrained into the atmosphere. Aquatic invertebrate eggs fall within the size of dust and sand grains (30-600μm), are less dense and aerodynamically shaped. We have shown previously that aquatic invertebrates can be dispersed long distances in dust storms but the extent of transport of taxa based on diapausing egg size/morphology has not been investigated. Here, we control the wind erosion process in a wind tunnel to test entrainment of diapausing stages of brine shrimp, clam shrimp, tadpole shrimp, fairy shrimp, Daphnia, and the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and B. calyciflorus into the air by saltation. Diapausing eggs were mixed with sterilized wind-erodible soil. The soil/egg mixture was moistened with distilled water and air dried to form a crust. Dust was generated in a wind tunnel by releasing sand grains that act as saltator material similar to wind-entrained natural sands. Maximum wind velocity was 10m/s and entrained particles were sampled through an isokinetic horizontal intake opening. Aeolian sediment was collected from three points in the system; transfer section for coarse sediment, the pan subtending a settling chamber for finer saltation-sized sediment, and two paper filters for suspension-sized sediment. Samples were then passed through 250 and 350 μm sieves to remove abrader sand and rehydrated with various sterile media depending on the type of organism. We retrieved viable brine, fairy, and tadpole shrimp, ostracods, Daphnia, and diapausing eggs of the rotifers after hydration. This experiment demonstrates that resting stages of many invertebrates can be wind-eroded due to size and egg morphology and remain viable under controlled conditions mimicking dust emission.

  6. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  7. Analysis of the high Reynolds number 2D tests on a wind turbine airfoil performed at two different wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Madsen, J.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    2D wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers have been done within the EU FP7 AVATAR project (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of lArge Rotors) on the DU00-W-212 airfoil and at two different test facilities: the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG) and the LM Wind Power in-house wind tunnel. Two conditions of Reynolds numbers have been performed in both tests: 3 and 6 million. The Mach number and turbulence intensity values are similar in both wind tunnels at the 3 million Reynolds number test, while they are significantly different at 6 million Reynolds number. The paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two wind tunnels, showing good repeatability at 3 million Reynolds number and differences at 6 million Reynolds number that are consistent with the different Mach number and turbulence intensity values.

  8. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or better (e.g., hot-wire anemometry). The mean wind speed in the test section of the wind tunnel... section shall be determined during the tests using an appropriate technique (e.g., hot-wire anemometry... volumetric units. (g) Schematic drawings of the particle delivery system (wind tunnel and blower system)...

  9. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  10. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  11. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  12. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  13. Wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.; Tangler, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to leading-edge roughness effects. The 24 percent thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur at a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. Data were obtained with transition free and transition fixed for Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds number of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 6}, the maximum lift coefficient with transition free is 1.32, which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted maximum lift coefficient of almost 1.6. With transition fixed at the leading edge, the maximum lift coefficient is 1.22. The small difference in maximum lift coefficient between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low maximum-lift-coefficient tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

  14. An experimental study of an adaptive-wall wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celik, Zeki; Roberts, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    A series of adaptive wall ventilated wind tunnel experiments was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of using the side wall pressure distribution as the flow variable for the assessment of compatibility with free air conditions. Iterative and one step convergence methods were applied using the streamwise velocity component, the side wall pressure distribution and the normal velocity component in order to investigate their relative merits. The advantage of using the side wall pressure as the flow variable is to reduce the data taking time which is one the major contributors to the total testing time. In ventilated adaptive wall wind tunnel testing, side wall pressure measurements require simple instrumentation as opposed to the Laser Doppler Velocimetry used to measure the velocity components. In ventilated adaptive wall tunnel testing, influence coefficients are required to determine the pressure corrections in the plenum compartment. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the influence coefficients from side wall pressure distributions, and from streamwise and normal velocity distributions at two control levels. Velocity measurements were made using a two component Laser Doppler Velocimeter system.

  15. The active flexible wing aeroservoelastic wind-tunnel test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Thomas; Perry, Boyd

    1989-01-01

    For a specific application of aeroservoelastic technology, Rockwell International Corporation developed a concept known as the Active Flexible Wing (AFW). The concept incorporates multiple active leading-and trailing-edge control surfaces with a very flexible wing such that wing shape is varied in an optimum manner resulting in improved performance and reduced weight. As a result of a cooperative program between the AFWAL's Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Rockwell, and NASA LaRC, a scaled aeroelastic wind-tunnel model of an advanced fighter was designed, fabricated, and tested in the NASA LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) to validate the AFW concept. Besides conducting the wind-tunnel tests NASA provided a design of an Active Roll Control (ARC) System that was implemented and evaluated during the tests. The ARC system used a concept referred to as Control Law Parameterization which involves maintaining constant performance, robustness, and stability while using different combinations of multiple control surface displacements. Since the ARC system used measured control surface stability derivatives during the design, the predicted performance and stability results correlated very well with test measurements.

  16. The Resistance of Spheres in Wind Tunnels and In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, D L; Reid, E G

    1924-01-01

    To supplement the standardization tests now in progress at several laboratories, a broad investigation of the resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and free air has been carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The subject has been classed in aerodynamic research, and in consequence there is available a great mass of data from previous investigations. This material was given careful consideration in laying out the research, and explanation of practically all the disagreement between former experiments has resulted. A satisfactory confirmation of Reynolds law has been accomplished, the effect of means of support determined, the range of experiment greatly extended by work in the new variable density wind tunnel, and the effects of turbulence investigated by work in the tunnels and by towing and dropping tests in free air. It is concluded that the erratic nature of most of the previous work is due to support interference and differing turbulence conditions. While the question of support has been investigated thoroughly, a systematic and comprehensive study of the effects of scale and quality of turbulence will be necessary to complete the problem, as this phase was given only general treatment.

  17. Materials and construction techniques for cryogenic wind tunnel facilities for instruction/research use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, S. F.; Roper, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the cryogenic wind tunnel program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are presented to provide a starting point for the design of an instructional/research wind tunnel facility. The advantages of the cryogenic concept are discussed, and operating envelopes for a representative facility are presented to indicate the range and mode of operation. Special attention is given to the design, construction and materials problems peculiar to cryogenic wind tunnels. The control system for operation of a cryogenic tunnel is considered, and a portion of a linearized mathematical model is developed for determining the tunnel dynamic characteristics.

  18. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis for Ares I Ascent Aerodynamics Wind Tunnel Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Walker, Eric L.; Houlden, Heather P.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed uncertainty analysis for the Ares I ascent aero 6-DOF wind tunnel database is described. While the database itself is determined using only the test results for the latest configuration, the data used for the uncertainty analysis comes from four tests on two different configurations at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel in St. Louis and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Four major error sources are considered: (1) systematic errors from the balance calibration curve fits and model + balance installation, (2) run-to-run repeatability, (3) boundary-layer transition fixing, and (4) tunnel-to-tunnel reproducibility.

  19. Implementation of a Particle Image Velocimetry System for Wind Tunnel Flowfield Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    conducted to implement Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) as a flow measurement technique in the 8’ x 10’ Subsonic Wind Tunnel at Naval Surface Warfare...discussed and summarized. PIV and SPIV were successfully demonstrated in the wind tunnel , and are now available as powerful flowfield measurement tools...for future test programs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV, SPIV, wind tunnel , airwake, SFS2, flow seeding, flow survey 16

  20. Wind Tunnel Analysis And Flight Test of A Wing Fence On A T-38

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    WIND TUNNEL ANALYSIS AND FLIGHT TEST OF A WING FENCE ON A T-38 THESIS Michael D...GAE/ENY/09-M20 WIND TUNNEL ANALYSIS AND FLIGHT TEST OF A WING FENCE ON A T-38 THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...study and flight tests were performed to examine the effects of a wing fence on the T-38A. Wind tunnel results were based upon force and moment

  1. Current Background Noise Sources and Levels in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen; Soderman, Paul; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Background noise measurements were made of the acoustic environment in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements were acquired subsequent to the 40x80 Aeroacoustic Modernization Project, which was undertaken to improve the anechoic characteristics of the 40x80's closed test section as well as reduce the levels of background noise in the facility. The resulting 40x80 anechoic environment was described by Soderman et. al., and the current paper describes the resulting 40x80 background noise, discusses the sources of the noise, and draws comparisons to previous 40x80 background noise levels measurements. At low wind speeds or low frequencies, the 40x80 background noise is dominated by the fan drive system. To obtain the lowest fan drive noise for a given tunnel condition, it is possible in the 40x80 to reduce the fans' rotational speed and adjust the fans' blade pitch, as described by Schmidtz et. al. This idea is not new, but has now been operationally implemented with modifications for increased power at low rotational speeds. At low to mid-frequencies and at higher wind speeds, the dominant noise mechanism was thought to be caused by the surface interface of the previous test section floor acoustic lining. In order to reduce this noise mechanism, the new test section floor lining was designed to resist the pumping of flow in and out of the space between the grating slats required to support heavy equipment. In addition, the lining/flow interface over the entire test section was designed to be smoother and quieter than the previous design. At high wind speeds or high frequencies, the dominant source of background noise in the 40x80 is believed to be caused by the response of the in-flow microphone probes (required by the nature of the closed test section) to the fluctuations in the freestream flow. The resulting background noise levels are also different for probes of various

  2. Wind tunnel simulation of a wind turbine wake in neutral, stable and unstable wind flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. E.; Zhang, S.; Pascheke, F.; Hayden, P.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, temperature and heat flux have been made in the wake of a model wind turbine in the EnFlo meteorology wind tunnel, for three atmospheric boundary layer states: the base-line neutral case, stable and unstable. The full-to-model scale is approximately 300:1. Primary instrumentation is two-component LDA combine with cold-wire thermometry to measure heat flux. In terms of surface conditions, the stratified cases are weak, but there is a strong 'imposed' condition in the stable case. The measurements were made between 0.5D and 10D, where D is the turbine disk diameter. In the stable case the velocity deficit decreases more slowly; more quickly in the unstable case. Heights at which quantities are maximum or minimum are greater in the unstable case and smaller in the stable case. In the stable case the wake height is suppressed but the width is increased, while in the unstable case the height is increased and the width (at hub height) reaches a maximum and then decreases. The turbulence in the wake behaves in a complex way. Further work needs to be done, to cover stronger levels of surface condition, requiring more extensive measurements to properly capture the wake development.

  3. Control of large thermal distortions in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) is a research wind tunnel capable of operation at temperatures down to 89K (160 R) and pressures up to 900,000 Pa (9 atmospheres) to achieve Reynolds numbers approaching 120,000,000. Wide temperature excursions combined with the precise alignment requirements of the tunnel aerodynamic surfaces imposed constraints on the mechanisms supporting the internal structures of the tunnel. The material selections suitable for this application were also limited. A general design philosophy of utilizing a single fixed point for each linear degree of freedom and guiding the expansion as required was adopted. These support systems allow thermal expansion to take place in a manner that minimizes the development of thermally induced stresses while maintaining structural alignment and resisting high aerodynamic loads. Typical of the support mechanisms are the preload brackets used in the fan shroud system and the Watts linkage used to support the upstream nacelle. The design of these mechanisms along with the basic design requirements and the constraints imposed by the tunnel system are discussed.

  4. Practical application of RINO, a smartphone-based dynamic displacement sensing application for wind tunnel tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Knez, Kyle P.; Min, Jae-Hong; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic displacement is one of the most important measurands in wind tunnel tests of structures. Laser sensors or optical sensors are usually used in wind tunnel tests to measure displacements. However, these commercial sensors have limitations in its use, cost and installation despite of their good performance in accuracy. RINO (Real-time Image- processing for Non-contact monitoring), an iOS software application for dynamic displacement monitoring, has been developed in the previous study. In this study, feasibility of RINO in practical use for wind tunnel tests is explored. Series of wind tunnel tests show that performances of RINO are comparable with those of conventional displacement sensors.

  5. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow.

    PubMed

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben Richard

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled 'A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel' (Calautit et al., 2014) [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section.

  6. Automation&Characterization of US Air Force Bench Top Wind Tunnels - Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2006-03-23

    The United States Air Force Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratories (PMEL) calibrate over 1,000 anemometer probes per year. To facilitate a more efficient calibration process for probe-style anemometers, the Air Force Metrology and Calibration Program underwent an effort to modernize the existing PMEL bench top wind tunnels. Through a joint effort with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the performance of PMEL wind tunnels was improved. The improvement consisted of new high accuracy sensors, automatic data acquisition, and a software-driven calibration process. As part of the wind tunnel upgrades, an uncertainty analysis was completed, laser Doppler velocimeter profiling was conducted to characterize the velocities at probe locations in the wind tunnel, and pitot tube calibrations of the wind tunnel were verified. The bench top wind tunnel accuracy and repeatability has been measured for nine prototype wind tunnel systems and valuable field experience has been gained with these wind tunnels at the PMELs. This report describes the requirements for the wind tunnel improvements along with actual implementation strategies and details. Lessons-learned from the automation, the velocity profiling, and the software-driven calibration process will also be discussed.

  7. A remote millivolt multiplexer and amplifier module for wind tunnel data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juanarena, D. B.; Blumenthal, P. Z.

    1982-01-01

    A 30-channel remotely located multiplexer and amplifier module is developed for the measurement of wind tunnel models, which substantially reduces the amount of wiring necessary and thus provides higher accuracy. The module provides for a wide variety of transducer voltage outputs to be multiplexed and amplified within the model, and all signals are able to exit the module on two wires. The module is self-calibrating, and when coupled with the electronically scanned pressure instrumentation widely used in wind tunnels, it allows the modular wind tunnel models to be fabricated and checked before installation into the wind tunnel.

  8. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions.

  9. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale exit cone looking south from entrance cone, east switchboard, west switchboard, wind vanes at north end looking north through entrance cone, north end looking south through entrance cone, entrance cone looking north from exit cone, wind vanes south end of west exit cone, wind vanes south end of east exit cone, Tow Channel trolley lines looking north, east and west incline braces at north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) exit cone construction and installation of fan motors. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'Forward of the propellers and located on the center line of the tunnel is a smooth fairing which transforms the somewhat elliptic section of the single passage into two circular ones at the propellers. From the propellers aft, the exit cone is divided into two passages and each transforms in the length of 132 feet from a 35-foot 61/2-inch circular section to a 46-foot square. The included angle between the sides of each passage is 6 inches.' (p. 293)

  10. Transonic wind-tunnel tests of a lifting parachute model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Reed, J. F.; Wynne, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been made in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel on a 0.25-scale model of Sandia Laboratories' 3.96-meter (13-foot), slanted ribbon design, lifting parachute. The lifting parachute is the first stage of a proposed two-stage payload delivery system. The lifting parachute model was attached to a forebody representing the payload. The forebody was designed and installed in the test section in a manner which allowed rotational freedom about the pitch and yaw axes. Values of parachute axial force coefficient, rolling moment coefficient, and payload trim angles in pitch and yaw are presented through the transonic speed range. Data are presented for the parachute in both the reefed and full open conditions. Time history records of lifting parachute deployment and disreefing tests are included.

  11. Open Access Wind Tunnel Measurements of a Downwind Free Yawing Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verelst, David; Larsen, Torben; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-09-01

    A series of free yawing wind tunnel experiments was held in the Open Jet Facility (OJF) of the TU Delft. The ≈ 300 W turbine has three blades in a downwind configuration and is optionally free to yaw. Different 1.6m diameter rotor configurations are tested such as blade flexibility and sweep. This paper gives a brief overview of the measurement setup and challenges, and continues with presenting some key results. This wind tunnel campaign has shown that a three bladed downwind wind turbine can operate in a stable fashion under a minimal yaw error. Finally, a description of how to obtain this open access dataset, including the post-processing scripts and procedures, is made available via a publicly accessible website.

  12. Application of Doppler global velocimetry in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willert, C.; Stockhausen, G.; Beversdorff, M.; Klinner, J.; Lempereur, C.; Barricau, P.; Quest, J.; Jansen, U.

    2005-08-01

    A specially designed Doppler global velocimetry system (DGV, planar Doppler velocimetry) was developed and installed in a high-speed cryogenic wind tunnel facility for use at free stream Mach numbers between 0.2 and 0.88, and pressures between 1.2 bar and 3.3 bar. Particle seeding was achieved by injecting a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and water vapor into the dry and cold tunnel flow, which then immediately formed a large amount of small ice crystals. Given the limited physical and optical access for this facility, DGV is considered the best choice for non-intrusive flow field measurements. A multiple branch fiber imaging bundle attached to a common DGV image receiving system simultaneously viewed a common area in the flow field from three different directions through the wind tunnel side walls. The complete imaging system and fiber-fed light sheet generators were installed inside the normally inaccessible pressure plenum surrounding the wind tunnel’s test section. The system control and frequency-stabilized laser system were placed outside of the pressure shell. With a field of view of 300×300 mm2, the DGV system acquired flow maps at a spatial resolution of 3×3 mm2 in the wake of simple vortex generators as well as in the wake of different wing-tip devices on a half-span aircraft model. Although problems mainly relating to light reflections and icing on the observation windows significantly impaired part of the measurements, the remotely controlled hardware operated reliably over the course of three months.

  13. Water tunnel flow visualization and wind tunnel data analysis of the F/A-18. [leading edge extension vortex effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Six degree of freedom studies were utilized to extract a band of yawing and rolling moment coefficients from the F/A-18 aircraft flight records. These were compared with 0.06 scale model data obtained in a 16T wind tunnel facility. The results, indicate the flight test yawing moment data exhibit an improvement over the wind tunnel data to near neutral stability and a significant reduction in lateral stability (again to anear neutral level). These data are consistent with the flight test results since the motion was characterized by a relatively slo departure. Flight tests repeated the slow yaw departure at M 0.3. Only 0.16 scale model wind tunnel data showed levels of lateral stability similar to the flight test results. Accordingly, geometric modifications were investigated on the 0.16 scale model in the 30x60 foot wind tunnel to improve high angle of attack lateral stability.

  14. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind tunnel experiments with artificial plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Youngjoo; Kim, Dongyeob; Im, Sangjun

    2016-04-01

    Wind erosion causes serious problems and considerable threat in most regions of the world. Vegetation on the ground has an important role in controlling wind erosion by covering soil surface and absorbing wind momentum. A set of wind tunnel experiments was performed to quantitatively examine the effect of canopy structure on wind movement. Artificial plastic vegetations with different porosity and canopy shape were introduced as the model canopy. Normalized roughness length ( Z 0/ H) and shear velocity ratio ( R) were analyzed as a function of roughness density ( λ). Experiments showed that Z 0/ H increases and R decreases as λ reaches a maximum value, λ max, while the values of Z 0/ H and R showed little change with λ value beyond as λ max.

  15. Design and wind tunnel experimentation of a variable blade drag type vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Samuel; Bahr, Behnam

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to propose a novel efficiency boosting design feature in a drag type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), explore practicality through design and fabrication, and test the viability of the design through wind tunnel experiments. Using adaptive control surface design and an improved blade shape can be very useful in harnessing the wind's energy in low wind speed areas. The new design is based on a series of smaller blade elements to make any shape, which changes to reduce a negative resistance as it rotates and thus maximizing the useful torque. As such, these blades were designed into a modified Savonius wind turbine with the goal of improving upon the power coefficient produced by a more conventional design. The experiment yielded some positive observations with regard to starting characteristics. Torque and angular velocity data was recorded for both the conventional configuration and the newly built configuration and the torque and power coefficient results were compared.

  16. Wind-tunnel Tests of a Cyclogiro Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B; Windler, Ray

    1935-01-01

    During an extensive study of all types of rotating wings, the NACA examined the cyclogiro rotor and made an aerodynamic analysis of that system (reference 1). The examination disclosed that such a machine had sufficient promise to justify an experimental investigation; a model with a diameter and span of 8 feet was therefore constructed and tested in the 20-foot wind tunnel during 1934. The experimental work included tests of the effect of the motion upon the rotor forces during the static-lift and forward-flight conditions at several rotor speeds and the determination of the relations between the forces generated by the rotor and the power required by it.

  17. Application of intelligent systems to wind tunnel test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to the application of intelligent-systems technology to the wind tunnel facilities at NASA Ames Research Center is outlined. To help fulfill the long-range goals of improving data quality and increasing personnel efficiency and management effectiveness, three major areas of intelligent systems application are recommended. The available state-of-the-art technology for developing the proposed systems is reviewed including the application of commercial software packages. The initial tasks and effort to develop these systems are recommended. A prototype expert system for selection of internal strain-gage balances has been built and is presented herein as an example model for the future systems.

  18. User Interface Technology Transfer to NASA's Virtual Wind Tunnel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1998-01-01

    Funded by NASA grants for four years, the Brown Computer Graphics Group has developed novel 3D user interfaces for desktop and immersive scientific visualization applications. This past grant period supported the design and development of a software library, the 3D Widget Library, which supports the construction and run-time management of 3D widgets. The 3D Widget Library is a mechanism for transferring user interface technology from the Brown Graphics Group to the Virtual Wind Tunnel system at NASA Ames as well as the public domain.

  19. Calibration Designs for Non-Monolithic Wind Tunnel Force Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.; Parker, Peter A.; Landman, Drew

    2010-01-01

    This research paper investigates current experimental designs and regression models for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances of non-monolithic design. Such calibration methods are necessary for this class of balance because it has an electrical response that is dependent upon the sign of the applied forces and moments. This dependency gives rise to discontinuities in the response surfaces that are not easily modeled using traditional response surface methodologies. An analysis of current recommended calibration models is shown to lead to correlated response model terms. Alternative modeling methods are explored which feature orthogonal or near-orthogonal terms.

  20. Wind tunnel investigation of sound attenuation in turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Tatiana A; Durgin, William W

    2015-08-01

    Wind tunnel investigation of the sound wave attenuation by grid-generated turbulence is performed. The most influential parameters, such as the propagation distance, intensity of turbulent fluctuations and integral scale of the fluctuations are studied using an ultrasonic technique. The results are compared to the theoretical predictions available on the wave statistics. Theoretical predictions are well confirmed and partly extended. It is demonstrated that the ultrasonic technique provides the possibility of reproducing the main effects of atmospheric turbulence on sound propagation while benefiting from isolating the role of various parameters therefore sets of experimental data can be generated under laboratory conditions to benchmark further extensions of theoretical models and numerical simulations.

  1. The role of wind tunnels in predicting sounding rocket aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of sounding rockets, in some cases, may be adequately determined by various estimating procedures, however, there are cases where these procedures fail and wind tunnel studies become necessary. The present paper deals with configurations of the latter type, for which the problems of concern include mismatched diameters between stages, mutual fin interference effects, fin alignment and orientation, body deflections between stages, boundary layer growth, and stability changes that occur as stages are dropped. Some characteristics related to separated flow, interference flow fields, and Reynolds number are examined.

  2. Optical skin friction measurement technique in hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Yao, Dapeng; Wen, Shuai; Pan, Junjie

    2016-10-01

    Shear-sensitive liquid-crystal coatings (SSLCCs) have an optical characteristic that they are sensitive to the applied shear stress. Based on this, a novel technique is developed to measure the applied shear stress of the model surface regarding both its magnitude and direction in hypersonic flow. The system of optical skin friction measurement are built in China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA). A series of experiments of hypersonic vehicle is performed in wind tunnel of CAAA. Global skin friction distribution of the model which shows complicated flow structures is discussed, and a brief mechanism analysis and an evaluation on optical measurement technique have been made.

  3. Infrared radiometer for measuring thermophysical properties of wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corwin, R. R.; Moorman, S. L.; Becker, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    An infrared radiometer is described which was developed to measure temperature rises of wind tunnel models undergoing transient heating over a temperature range of -17.8 C to 260 C. This radiometer interfaces directly with a system which measures the effective thermophysical property square root of rho ck. It has an output temperature fluctuation of 0.26 C at low temperatures and 0.07 C at high temperatures, and the output frequency response of the radiometer is from dc to 400 hertz.

  4. Stochastic Characterization of Flutter using Historical Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Methods for predicting the onset of flutter during an experiment are traditionally applied treating the data as deterministic values. Uncertainty and variation in the data is often glossed over by using best-fit curves to represent the information. This paper applies stochastic treatments to wind tunnel data obtained for the Piezoelectric Aeroelastic Response Tailoring Investigation model. These methods include modal amplitude tracking, modal frequency tracking and several applications of the flutter margin method. The flutter margin method was developed by Zimmerman and Weissenburger, and extended by Poirel, Dunn and Porter to incorporate uncertainty. Much of the current work follows the future work recommendations of Poirel, Dunn and Porter.

  5. Digital Control System For Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Mcgraw, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Multiple functions performed by multiple coordinated processors for real-time control. Multiple input, multiple-output, multiple-function digital control system developed for wind-tunnel model of advanced fighter airplane with actively controlled flexible wings. Digital control system provides flexibility in selection of control laws, sensors, and actuators, plus some redundancy to accommodate failures in some of its subsystems. Implements feedback control scheme providing simultaneously for suppression of flutter, control of roll angle, roll-rate tracking during maximized roll maneuvers, and alleviation of loads during roll maneuvers.

  6. Incompressible viscous flow simulations of the NFAC wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champney, Joelle Milene

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of an existing 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver, INS3D, are extended and improved to solve turbulent flows through the incorporation of zero- and two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation model equations are solved in their high Reynolds number form and utilize wall functions in the treatment of solid wall boundary conditions. The implicit approximate factorization scheme is modified to improve the stability of the two-equation solver. Applications to the 3-D viscous flow inside the 80 by 120 feet open return wind tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) are discussed and described.

  7. The F2 wind tunnel at Fauga-Mauzac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afchain, D.; Broussaud, P.; Frugier, M.; Rancarani, G.

    1984-01-01

    Details on the French subsonic wind-tunnel F2 that becomes operational on July 1983 are presented. Some of the requirements were: (1) installation of models on any wall of the facility, (2) good observation points due to transparent walls, (3) smooth flow, (4) a laser velocimeter, and (5) easy access and handling. The characteristics include a nonpressurized return circuit, dimensions of 5 x 1.4 x 1.8 m, maximum velocity of 100 m/s and a variable speed fan of 683 kW.

  8. Enabling Advanced Wind-Tunnel Research Methods Using the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busan, Ronald C.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Croom, Mark A.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Grafton, Sue B.; O-Neal, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Design of Experiment (DOE) testing methods were used to gather wind tunnel data characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a complex vehicle configuration with 10 motor-driven propellers, 9 control surfaces, a tilt wing, and a tilt tail. This paper describes the potential benefits and practical implications of using DOE methods for wind tunnel testing - with an emphasis on describing how it can affect model hardware, facility hardware, and software for control and data acquisition. With up to 23 independent variables (19 model and 2 tunnel) for some vehicle configurations, this recent test also provides an excellent example of using DOE methods to assess critical coupling effects in a reasonable timeframe for complex vehicle configurations. Results for an exploratory test using conventional angle of attack sweeps to assess aerodynamic hysteresis is summarized, and DOE results are presented for an exploratory test used to set the data sampling time for the overall test. DOE results are also shown for one production test characterizing normal force in the Cruise mode for the vehicle.

  9. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  10. Data correlation and analysis of arc tunnel and wind tunnel tests of RSI joints and gaps. Volume 2: Data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic heating created by gaps in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) for the space shuttle. The effects of various parameters of the RSI on convective heating characteristics are described. The wind tunnel tests provided a data base for accurate assessment of gap heating. Analysis and correlation of the data provide methods for predicting heating in the RSI gaps on the space shuttle.

  11. Reliability of numerical wind tunnels for VAWT simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raciti Castelli, M.; Masi, M.; Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.; Dossena, V.; Persico, G.

    2016-09-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based on the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations have long been widely used to study vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Following a comprehensive experimental survey on the wakes downwind of a troposkien-shaped rotor, a campaign of bi-dimensional simulations is presented here, with the aim of assessing its reliability in reproducing the main features of the flow, also identifying areas needing additional research. Starting from both a well consolidated turbulence model (k-ω SST) and an unstructured grid typology, the main simulation settings are here manipulated in a convenient form to tackle rotating grids reproducing a VAWT operating in an open jet wind tunnel. The dependence of the numerical predictions from the selected grid spacing is investigated, thus establishing the less refined grid size that is still capable of capturing some relevant flow features such as integral quantities (rotor torque) and local ones (wake velocities).

  12. Effect of transient winds on the flow quality of an open-circuit wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breunlin, D. C.; Sargent, N. B.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of a transient wind on the test-section flow quality of an open-circuit wind tunnel was investigated experimentally. The investigation was restricted to transient wind effects associated with the inlet. A small open-circuit wind tunnel was placed outside in the real wind environment. Test-section speed and angularity as well as wind speed and direction was measured by high-response instrumentation. The inlet configuration was varied with a set of screens, a removable honeycomb, and a removable inlet lip. Acceptable flow was obtained at all wind angles and for wind- to test-section-velocity ratios up to 0.4 with an inlet configuration having five screens, a honeycomb, and a lip. With inlet configurations sensitive to winds, a transient wind parallel to the tunnel axis produced local fluctuations in test-section speed and angularity; however, oscillation of the average test-section speed was not evident. The effect of wind direction was negligible up to wind angles of 45 deg relative to the tunnel axis. At larger wind angles, flow distortions occurred primarily on the windward side of the test section.

  13. Propeller aeroacoustic methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The aspects related to propeller performance by means of a review of propeller methodologies are addressed. Preliminary wind tunnel propeller performance data are presented and the predominent limitations of existing propeller performance methodologies are discussed. Airfoil developments appropriate for propeller applications are also reviewed.

  14. Acoustic Modifications of the Ames 40x80 Foot Wind Tunnel and Test Techniques for High-Speed Research Model Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NFAC 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames is being refurbished with a new, deep acoustic lining in the test section which will make the facility nearly anechoic over a large frequency range. The modification history, key elements, and schedule will be discussed. Design features and expected performance gains will be described. Background noise reductions will be summarized. Improvements in aeroacoustic research techniques have been developed and used recently at NFAC on several wind tunnel tests of High Speed Research models. Research on quiet inflow microphones and struts will be described. The Acoustic Survey Apparatus in the 40x80 will be illustrated. A special intensity probe was tested for source localization. Multi-channel, high speed digital data acquisition is now used for acoustics. And most important, phased microphone arrays have been developed and tested which have proven to be very powerful for source identification and increased signal-to-noise ratio. Use of these tools for the HEAT model will be illustrated. In addition, an acoustically absorbent symmetry plane was built to satisfy the HEAT semispan aerodynamic and acoustic requirements. Acoustic performance of that symmetry plane will be shown.

  15. Testing a Parachute for Mars in World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The team developing the landing system for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory tested the deployment of an early parachute design in mid-October 2007 inside the world's largest wind tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

    In this image, two engineers are dwarfed by the parachute, which holds more air than a 280-square-meter (3,000-square-foot) house and is designed to survive loads in excess of 36,000 kilograms (80,000 pounds).

    The parachute, built by Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Connecticut, has 80 suspension lines, measures more than 50 meters (165 feet) in length, and opens to a diameter of nearly 17 meters (55 feet). It is the largest disk-gap-band parachute ever built and is shown here inflated in the test section with only about 3.8 meters (12.5 feet) of clearance to both the floor and ceiling.

    The wind tunnel, which is 24 meters (80 feet) tall and 37 meters (120 feet) wide and big enough to house a Boeing 737, is part of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, operated by the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is building and testing the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft for launch in 2009. The mission will land a roving analytical laboratory on the surface of Mars in 2010. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Further buffeting tests in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabey, D. G.; Boyden, R. P.; Johnson, W. G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Further measurements of buffeting, using wing-root strain gauges, were made in the NASA Langley 0.3 m Cryogenic Wind Tunnel to refine techniques which will be used in larger cryogenic facilities such as the United States National Transonic Facility (NTF) and European Transonic Wind Tunnel (ETW). The questions addressed included the relative importance of variations in frequency parameter and Reynolds number, the choice of model material (considering both stiffness and damping) and the effects of static aeroelastic distortion. The main series of tests was made on half models of slender 65 deg delta wings with a sharp leading edge. The three delta wings had the same planform but widely different bending stiffness and frequencies (obtained by varying both the material and the thickness of the wings). It was known that the flow on this configuration would be insensitive to variations in Reynold number. Additional tests were made on one unswept half-wing of aspect ratio 1.5 with an NPL 9510 aerofoil section, known to be sensitive to variations in Reynolds number at transonic speeds. For brevity the test Mach numbers were restricted to M = 0.21 and 0.35 for the delta wings and to M = 0.30 for the unswept wing.

  17. Engineering and fabrication cost considerations for cryogenic wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, R. M., Jr.; Davenport, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication cost drivers for cryogenic transonic wind tunnel models are defined. The major cost factors for wind tunnel models are model complexity, tolerances, surface finishes, materials, material validation, and model inspection. The cryogenic temperatures require the use of materials with relatively high fracture toughness but at the same time high strength. Some of these materials are very difficult to machine, requiring extensive machine hours which can add significantly to the manufacturing costs. Some additional engineering costs are incurred to certify the materials through mechanical tests and nondestructive evaluation techniques, which are not normally required with conventional models. When instrumentation such as accelerometers and electronically scanned pressure modules is required, temperature control of these devices needs to be incorporated into the design, which requires added effort. Additional thermal analyses and subsystem tests may be necessary, which also adds to the design costs. The largest driver to the design costs is potentially the additional static and dynamic analyses required to insure structural integrity of the model and support system.

  18. Damping insert materials for settling chambers of supersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Radespiel, Rolf

    2017-03-01

    This study describes the application of a novel damping insert material for reducing the flow fluctuations in a tandem nozzle supersonic wind tunnel. This new damping material is composed of multi-layer stainless steel wired meshes. The influences of the multi-layer mesh, such as the quantity of the mesh layer and the installed location in the settling chamber, to the freestream quality have been investigated. A Pitot probe instrumented with a Kulite pressure sensor and a hot-wire probe are employed to monitor the flow fluctuation in the test section of the wind tunnel. Thereafter, a combined modal analysis is applied for the disturbance qualification. Additionally, the transient Mach number in the test section is measured. The disturbance qualification indicates that the multi-layer mesh performs well in providing reduction of vorticity reduction and acoustic fluctuations. Comparable flow quality of the freestream was also obtained using a combination of flexible damping materials. However, the life-span of the new damping materials is much longer. The time transient of the Mach number measured in the test section indicates that the mean flow is rather constant over run time. Furthermore, the time-averaged pressure along the settling chamber is recorded and it shows the distribution of pressure drop by settling chamber inserts.

  19. Wind Tunnel Testing for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenberger, Deborah; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is pursuing the development of SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy. SOFIA will consist of a 2.5 meter telescope mounted aft of the wing of a Boeing 747 aircraft. Since a large portion of the infrared spectrum is not visible at ground level due to absorption by water vapor in the atmosphere below 40,000 feet, it is highly desirable to make observations above this altitude. SOFIA will provide the opportunity for astronomers to conduct high-altitude research for extended periods of time. Current study is focused on wind tunnel testing for the open cavity. If not controlled, air would create resonance and damage the telescope. For this reason, SOFIA will design a boundary layer control device to achieve laminar flow over the cavity. This also provides a clearer flow for seeing, thus improving resolution on infrared sources. Other effects being tested in the wind tunnel are aerodynamic torque loads on the telescope, and flutter loads on the tail.

  20. Wind tunnel test IA300 analysis and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, P. B.; Beaufait, W. B.; Kitchens, L. L.; Pace, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of wind tunnel pressure data from the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test IA300 are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) plumes on the integrated vehicle forebody pressure distributions, the elevon hinge moments, and wing loads. The results of this test will be combined with flight test results to form a new data base to be employed in the IVBC-3 airloads analysis. A secondary objective was to obtain solid plume data for correlation with the results of gaseous plume tests. Data from the power level portion was used in conjunction with flight base pressures to evaluate nominal power levels to be used during the investigation of changes in model attitude, eleveon deflection, and nozzle gimbal angle. The plume induced aerodynamic loads were developed for the Space Shuttle bases and forebody areas. A computer code was developed to integrate the pressure data. Using simplified geometrical models of the Space Shuttle elements and components, the pressure data were integrated to develop plume induced force and moments coefficients that can be combined with a power-off data base to develop a power-on data base.

  1. Propulsion simulator for magnetically-suspended wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, P. B.; Malonson, M. R.; Sacco, G. P.; Goldey, C. L.; Garbutt, Keith; Goodyer, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the measurement of aerodynamic forces/moments, including the effects of exhaust jets in Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) wind tunnels, two propulsion simulator models were developed at Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI). Both the small-scale model (1 in. diameter X 8 in. long) and the large-scale model (2.5 in. diameter X 15 in. long) employed compressed, liquefied carbon dioxide as a propellant. The small-scale simulator, made from a highly magnetizable iron alloy, was demonstrated in the 7 in. MSBS wind tunnel at the University of Southampton. It developed a maximum thrust of approximate 1.3 lbf with a 0.098 in. diameter nozzle and 0.7 lbf with a 0.295 in. diameter nozzle. The Southampton MSBS was able to control the simulator at angles-of attack up to 20 deg. The large-scale simulator was demonstrated to operate in both a steady-state and a pulse mode via a miniaturized solinoid valve. It developed a stable and repeatable thrust of 2.75 lbf over a period of 4s and a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 5.

  2. Wind tunnel measurements for dispersion modelling of vehicle wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Kumar, Prashant; Robins, Alan

    2012-12-01

    Wind tunnel measurements downwind of reduced scale car models have been made to study the wake regions in detail, test the usefulness of existing vehicle wake models, and draw key information needed for dispersion modelling in vehicle wakes. The experiments simulated a car moving in still air. This is achieved by (i) the experimental characterisation of the flow, turbulence and concentration fields in both the near and far wake regions, (ii) the preliminary assessment of existing wake models using the experimental database, and (iii) the comparison of previous field measurements in the wake of a real diesel car with the wind tunnel measurements. The experiments highlighted very large gradients of velocities and concentrations existing, in particular, in the near-wake. Of course, the measured fields are strongly dependent on the geometry of the modelled vehicle and a generalisation for other vehicles may prove to be difficult. The methodology applied in the present study, although improvable, could constitute a first step towards the development of mathematical parameterisations. Experimental results were also compared with the estimates from two wake models. It was found that they can adequately describe the far-wake of a vehicle in terms of velocities, but a better characterisation in terms of turbulence and pollutant dispersion is needed. Parameterised models able to predict velocity and concentrations with fine enough details at the near-wake scale do not exist.

  3. Effect of Turbulence in Wind-Tunnel Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, H L; Kuethe, A M

    1931-01-01

    This paper gives some quantitative measurements of wind tunnel turbulence and its effect on the air resistance of spheres and airship models, measurements made possible by the hot wire anemometer and associated apparatus in its original form was described in Technical Report no. 320 and some modifications are presented in an appendix to the present paper. One important result of the investigation is a curve by means of which measurements of the air resistance of spheres can be interpreted to give the turbulence quantitatively. Another is the definite proof that the discrepancies in the results on the N. P. L. Standard airship models are due mainly to differences in the turbulences of the wind tunnels in which the tests were made. An attempt is made to interpret the observed results in terms of the boundary layer theory and for this purpose a brief account is given of the physical bases of this theory and of conceptions that have been obtained by analogy with the laws of flow in pipes.

  4. Application of Oil Film Interferometry Skin-Friction to Large Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The oil film interferometry skin-friction technique is described and applied to flows in some of the NASA Ames large wind tunnel facilities. Various schemes for applying the technique are discussed. Results are shown for tests in several wind tunnels which illustrate the oil film's ability to measure a variety of flow features such as shock waves separation, and 3D flow.

  5. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  6. Comparison of flight and wind tunnel measurements of jet noise for the XV-5B aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.; Kirk, J. V.; Soderman, P. T.; Hall, L. P.

    1972-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests to determine noise data from scale model research aircraft are discussed. Comparisons are made between data obtained in wind tunnels and results of full scale flight tests. The acoustic measurements for the XV-5B V/STOL fan research aircraft are presented.

  7. Application of Neural Networks to Wind tunnel Data Response Surface Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Zhao, J. L.; DeLoach, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The integration of nonlinear neural network methods with conventional linear regression techniques is demonstrated for representative wind tunnel force balance data modeling. This work was motivated by a desire to formulate precision intervals for response surfaces produced by neural networks. Applications are demonstrated for representative wind tunnel data acquired at NASA Langley Research Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma, TN.

  8. 10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  9. 3. VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST (1991). WrightPatterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  10. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  11. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  12. 6. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  13. Development of a process control computer device for the adaptation of flexible wind tunnel walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barg, J.

    1982-01-01

    In wind tunnel tests, the problems arise of determining the wall pressure distribution, calculating the wall contour, and controlling adjustment of the walls. This report shows how these problems have been solved for the high speed wind tunnel of the Technical University of Berlin.

  14. A numerical study of the effects of wind tunnel wall proximity on an airfoil model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potsdam, Mark; Roberts, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    A procedure was developed for modeling wind tunnel flows using computational fluid dynamics. Using this method, a numerical study was undertaken to explore the effects of solid wind tunnel wall proximity and Reynolds number on a two-dimensional airfoil model at low speed. Wind tunnel walls are located at varying wind tunnel height to airfoil chord ratios and the results are compared with freestream flow in the absence of wind tunnel walls. Discrepancies between the constrained and unconstrained flows can be attributed to the presence of the walls. Results are for a Mach Number of 0.25 at angles of attack through stall. A typical wind tunnel Reynolds number of 1,200,000 and full-scale flight Reynolds number of 6,000,000 were investigated. At this low Mach number, wind tunnel wall corrections to Mach number and angle of attack are supported. Reynolds number effects are seen to be a consideration in wind tunnel testing and wall interference correction methods. An unstructured grid Navier-Stokes code is used with a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The numerical method is described since unstructured flow solvers present several difficulties and fundamental differences from structured grid codes, especially in the area of turbulence modeling and grid generation.

  15. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  16. NEW VERSATILE AEROSOL GENERATION SYSTEM DEVELOPED FOR USE IN A LARGE WIND TUNNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new aerosol generation system was developed to accommodate a variety of research activities performed within a large wind tunnel. Because many of the velocity measurements are taken in the wind tunnel with a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA), it is necessary to maintain an aero...

  17. Build a Wind Tunnel that Won't Blow Your Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author gives basic information on constructing a wind tunnel that teachers can use for instructional activities with their students for many years to come. He illustrates and describes the procedure and materials that he developed in constructing his own wind tunnel. This information should be viewed as a guide. (Contains 1…

  18. Effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC flux rates from CAFO manure and wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often used to estimate volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC emission ...

  19. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  20. Aspects of investigating STOL noise using large scale wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.; Soderman, P. T.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of the NASA Ames 40- by 80-ft wind tunnel for acoustic research on STOL concepts has been investigated. The acoustic characteristics of the wind tunnel test section has been studied with calibrated acoustic sources. Acoustic characteristics of several large-scale STOL models have been studied both in the free-field and wind tunnel acoustic environments. The results indicate that the acoustic characteristics of large-scale STOL models can be measured in the wind tunnel if the test section acoustic environment and model acoustic similitude are taken into consideration. The reverberant field of the test section must be determined with an acoustically similar noise source. Directional microphone and extrapolation of near-field data to far-field are some of the techniques being explored as possible solutions to the directivity loss in a reverberant field. The model sound pressure levels must be of sufficient magnitude to be discernable from the wind tunnel background noise.

  1. Comparison of wind tunnel and flyover noise measurements of the YOV-10A STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.; Soderman, P. T.

    1972-01-01

    The YOV-10A Research Aircraft was flown to obtain flyover noise data that could be compared to noise data measured in the 40- by 80- foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The flyover noise measurements were made during the early morning hours on runway 32L at Moffett Field, California. A number of passes were made at 50 ft altitude in level flight with an airplane configuration closely matching that tested in the wind tunnel. Two passes were selected as prime and were designated for full data reduction. The YOV-10A was flown over a microphone field geometrically similar to the microphone array set up in the wind tunnel. An acoustic center was chosen as a matching point for the data. Data from the wind tunnel and flyover were reduced and appropiate corrections were applied to compare the data. Results show that wind tunnel and flight test acoustic data agreed closely.

  2. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow

    PubMed Central

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben Richard

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled ‘A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel’ (Calautit et al., 2014) [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section. PMID:26958641

  3. The 6-foot-4-inch Wind Tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmond, G L; Mccrary, J A

    1935-01-01

    The 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel and its auxiliary equipment has proven itself capable of continuous and reliable output of data. The real value of the tunnel will increase as experience is gained in checking the observed tunnel performance against full-scale performance. Such has been the case of the 8- by 8-foot tunnel, and for that reason the comparison in the calibration tests have been presented.

  4. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Ground Wind Loads for Ares Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Donald F.; Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    A three year program was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Aeroelasticity Branch (AB) and Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) with the primary objective to acquire scaled steady and dynamic ground-wind loads (GWL) wind-tunnel data for rollout, on-pad stay, and on-pad launch configurations for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV). The experimental effort was conducted to obtain an understanding of the coupling of aerodynamic and structural characteristics that can result in large sustained wind-induced oscillations (WIO) on such a tall and slender launch vehicle and to generate a unique database for development and evaluation of analytical methods for predicting steady and dynamic GWL, especially those caused by vortex shedding, and resulting in significant WIO. This paper summarizes the wind-tunnel test program that employed two dynamically-aeroelastically scaled GWL models based on the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The first model tested, the GWL Checkout Model (CM), was a relatively simple model with a secondary objective of restoration and development of processes and methods for design, fabrication, testing, and data analysis of a representative ground wind loads model. In addition, parametric variations in surface roughness, Reynolds number, and protuberances (on/off) were investigated to determine effects on GWL characteristics. The second windtunnel model, the Ares I-X GWL Model, was significantly more complex and representative of the Ares I-X FTV and included the addition of simplified rigid geometrically-scaled models of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) and Launch Complex 39B primary structures. Steady and dynamic base bending moment as well as model response and steady and unsteady pressure data was acquired during the testing of both models. During wind-tunnel testing of each model, flow conditions (speed and azimuth) where significant WIO occurred, were identified and thoroughly investigated. Scaled data from

  5. Wind tunnel measurements of wake structure and wind farm power for actuator disk model wind turbines in yaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Kang, Justin; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm control approach. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the nonrotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make observations of what is termed a "curled wake," displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. Through the use of a 100 porous disk micro-wind farm, total wind farm power output is studied for a variety of yaw configurations. Strain gages on the tower of the porous disk models are used to measure the thrust force as a substitute for turbine power. The frequency response of these measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model and allows studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of the power output under the effects of yawing. This work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (Grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JB and JM are supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No. 306471).

  6. Linear and Nonlinear Analyses of a Wind-Tunnel Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkehabadi, R.; Rhew, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gauge balances for utilization in wind tunnels since its inception. The utilization of balances span a wide variety of aerodynamic tests. A force balance is an inherently critically stressed component due to the requirements of measurement sensitivity. Force balance stress analysis and acceptance criteria are under review due to LaRC wind tunnel operational safety requirements. This paper presents some of the analyses done at NASA LaRC. Research and analyses were performed in order to investigate the structural integrity of the balances and better understand their performance. The analyses presented in this paper are helpful in understanding the overall behavior of an existing balance and can also be used in design of new balances to enhance their performance. As a first step, maximum load combination is used for linear structural analysis. When nonlinear effects are encountered, the analysis is extended to include the nonlinearities. Balance 1621 is typical for LaRC designed balances and was chosen for this study due to its traditional high load capacity, Figure 1. Maximum loading occurs when all 6 components are applied simultaneously with their maximum value allowed (limit load). This circumstance normally will not occur in the wind tunnel. However, if it occurs, is the balance capable of handling the loads with an acceptable factor of safety? Preliminary analysis using Pro/Mechanica indicated that this balance might experience nonlinearity. It was decided to analyze this balance by using NASTRAN so that a nonlinear analysis could be conducted. Balance 1621 was modeled and meshed in PATRAN for analysis in NASTRAN. The model from PATRAN/NASTRAN is compared to the one from Pro/Mechanica. For a complete analysis, it is necessary to consider all the load cases as well as use a dense mesh near all the edges. Because of computer limitations, it is not feasible to analyze model with the dense mesh near

  7. Transonic wind tunnel test of a supersonic nozzle installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, J. A.; Evelyn, G. B.; Mercer, C.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the propulsion system installation affects strongly the total drag and overall performance of an aircraft, and the concept, placement, and integration details of the exhaust nozzle are major considerations in the configuration definition. As part of the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program, a wind tunnel test program has been conducted to investigate exhaust nozzle-airframe interactions at transonic speeds. First phase testing is to establish guidelines for follow-on testing. A summary is provided of the results of first phase testing, taking into account the test approach, the effect of nozzle closure on aircraft aerodynamic characteristics, nozzle installation effects and nacelle interference drag, and an analytical study of the effects of nozzle closure on the aircraft.

  8. Wind-tunnel studies of roughness effects in gas dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. T.; Fryer-Taylor, R. E. J.; Hall, D. J.

    A programme of work has been carried out using wind-tunnel modelling to investigate the effect of surface roughness on dense-gas dispersion from ground-level sources where the roughness height is large compared with the cloud depth. Neutrally buoyant gas releases were included as control experiments. The results are compared with results of a 1:100 scale simulation of dispersion in high roughness conducted by CPP Inc. for the American Petroleum Institute (API). For surface roughness lengths, z0, smaller than about 0.5 cm (0.5 m full scale), dispersion is shown to be well described by a Gaussian plume model. Plume width and depth increase with z0 and are simple functions of distance from the source. For larger roughness, dispersion depends on the arrangement of the roughness elements, plume width, σy, can be restricted by channelling and plume depth, σz, becomes sensitive to run conditions.

  9. Impact of Thermal Gradients on Wind Tunnel Force Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Parker, Peter A.; Rhew, Ray D.

    1999-01-01

    In a wind tunnel facility, the direct measurement of forces and moments induced on the model are performed by a force measurement balance. The measurement balance is a precision-machined device that has strain gages at strategic locations to measure the strain (i.e., deformations) due to applied forces and moments. The strain gages convert the strain (and hence the applied force) to an electrical voltage that is measured by external meters. Thermal gradients can complicate the process, however. Thermal gradients on the balance cause differential expansion (or contraction) of various parts of the balance that induce a strain that is detected by the strain gages and is indistinguishable from an external applied force. The thermal gradients can result when testing is done at elevated temperatures or at cryogenic temperatures such as at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  10. Building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Power System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Larry X.

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the characterization and analysis of a high current power supply for the building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The system described in this report became operational in 2013, replacing the original 1968 system which employed an induction voltage regulator. This analysis and testing was completed to help the parent organization understand why an updated and redesigned power system was not delivering adequate power to resistive heater elements in the HWT. This analysis led to an improved understanding of the design and operation of the revised 2013 power supply system and identifies several reasons the revised system failed to achieve the performance of the original power supply installation. Design modifications to improve the performance of this system are discussed.

  11. Atmospheric Probe Model: Construction and Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Jerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The material contained in this document represents a summary of the results of a low speed wind tunnel test program to determine the performance of an atmospheric probe at low speed. The probe configuration tested consists of a 2/3 scale model constructed from a combination of hard maple wood and aluminum stock. The model design includes approximately 130 surface static pressure taps. Additional hardware incorporated in the baseline model provides a mechanism for simulating external and internal trailing edge split flaps for probe flow control. Test matrix parameters include probe side slip angle, external/internal split flap deflection angle, and trip strip applications. Test output database includes surface pressure distributions on both inner and outer annular wings and probe center line velocity distributions from forward probe to aft probe locations.

  12. Planar Doppler Velocimetry for Large-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, Planar Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has been shown by several laboratories to offer an attractive means for measuring three-dimensional velocity vectors everywhere in a light sheet placed in a flow. Unlike other optical means of measuring flow velocities, PDV is particularly attractive for use in large wind tunnels where distances to the sample region may be several meters, because it does not require the spatial resolution and tracking of individual scattering particles or the alignment of crossed beams at large distances. To date, demonstrations of PDV have been made either in low speed flows without quantitative comparison to other measurements, or in supersonic flows where the Doppler shift is large and its measurement is relatively insensitive to instrumental errors. Moreover, most reported applications have relied on the use of continuous-wave lasers, which limit the measurement to time-averaged velocity fields. This work summarizes the results of two previous studies of PDV in which the use of pulsed lasers to obtain instantaneous velocity vector fields is evaluated. The objective has been to quantitatively define and demonstrate PDV capabilities for applications in large-scale wind tunnels that are intended primarily for the production testing of subsonic aircraft. For such applications, the adequate resolution of low-speed flow fields requires accurate measurements of small Doppler shifts that are obtained at distances of several meters from the sample region. The use of pulsed lasers provides the unique capability to obtain not only time-averaged fields, but also their statistical fluctuation amplitudes and the spatial excursions of unsteady flow regions such as wakes and separations. To accomplish the objectives indicated, the PDV measurement process is first modeled and its performance evaluated computationally. The noise sources considered include those related to the optical and electronic properties of Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays and to

  13. Incremental wind tunnel testing of high lift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Pricop Mihai; Mircea, Boscoianu; Daniel-Eugeniu, Crunteanu

    2016-06-01

    Efficiency of trailing edge high lift systems is essential for long range future transport aircrafts evolving in the direction of laminar wings, because they have to compensate for the low performance of the leading edge devices. Modern high lift systems are subject of high performance requirements and constrained to simple actuation, combined with a reduced number of aerodynamic elements. Passive or active flow control is thus required for the performance enhancement. An experimental investigation of reduced kinematics flap combined with passive flow control took place in a low speed wind tunnel. The most important features of the experimental setup are the relatively large size, corresponding to a Reynolds number of about 2 Million, the sweep angle of 30 degrees corresponding to long range airliners with high sweep angle wings and the large number of flap settings and mechanical vortex generators. The model description, flap settings, methodology and results are presented.

  14. Wind Tunnel Test of Mach 5 Class Hypersonic Airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Hiroki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Shindo, Shigemi; Honami, Shinji

    JAXA is currently performing studies on a Hypersonic Turbojet Experimental Vehicle, which involve a hypersonic flight test of a Small Pre-cooled Turbojet Engine. The aerodynamic performance of this airplane was examined at the JAXA hypersonic, supersonic, and transonic wind tunnel facilities. The 6-degrees-of-freedom forces and pressure distribution around the model were measured and evaluated. This airplane satisfies the lift-to-drag ratio requirement for a flight test at Mach 5. In addition, the results indicate that this airplane has longitudinal and directional static stability if the moment reference point is x/l smaller than 0.35. A separation occurs at the external expanding nozzle. Therefore, a redesign is necessary to solve these problems.

  15. Wind Tunnel Force Balance Calibration Study - Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel force balance calibration is preformed utilizing a variety of different methods and does not have a direct traceable standard such as standards used for most calibration practices (weights, and voltmeters). These different calibration methods and practices include, but are not limited to, the loading schedule, the load application hardware, manual and automatic systems, re-leveling and non-re-leveling. A study of the balance calibration techniques used by NASA was undertaken to develop metrics for reviewing and comparing results using sample calibrations. The study also includes balances of different designs, single and multi-piece. The calibration systems include, the manual, and the automatic that are provided by NASA and its vendors. The results to date will be presented along with the techniques for comparing the results. In addition, future planned calibrations and investigations based on the results will be provided.

  16. Monitoring dynamic loads on wind tunnel force balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T.; White, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Two devices have been developed at NASA Langley to monitor the dynamic loads incurred during wind-tunnel testing. The Balance Dynamic Display Unit (BDDU), displays and monitors the combined static and dynamic forces and moments in the orthogonal axes. The Balance Critical Point Analyzer scales and sums each normalized signal from the BDDU to obtain combined dynamic and static signals that represent the dynamic loads at predefined high-stress points. The display of each instrument is a multiplex of six analog signals in a way that each channel is displayed sequentially as one-sixth of the horizontal axis on a single oscilloscope trace. Thus this display format permits the operator to quickly and easily monitor the combined static and dynamic level of up to six channels at the same time.

  17. Hyper-X Storage Separation Wind Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, William C.; Holland, Scott D.; Difulvio, Michael

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Hyper-X research program was developed primarily to flight demonstrate a supersonic combustion ramjet engine, fully integrated with a forebody designed to tailor inlet flow, conditions and a free expansion nozzle/afterbody to produce positive thrust at design flight conditions. With a point-designed propulsion system, the vehicle must depend upon some other means for boost to its design flight condition. Clean separation from this initial propulsion system stage within less than a second is critical to the success of the flight. This paper discusses the early planning activity, background, and chronology that developed the series of wind tunnel tests to support multi degree of freedom simulation of the separation process. Representative results from each series of tests are presented and issues and concerns during the process and current status will be highlighted.

  18. Hyper-X Stage Separation Wind-Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, William C.; Holland, Scott D.; DiFulvio, Michael

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Hyper-X research program was developed primarily to flight demonstrate a supersonic combustion ramjet engine, fully integrated with a forebody designed to tailor inlet flow conditions and a free expansion nozzle/afterbody to produce positive thrust at design flight conditions. With a point-designed propulsion system the vehicle must depend on some other means for boost to its design flight condition. Clean separation from this initial propulsion system stage within less than a second is critical to the success of the flight. This paper discusses the early planning activity, background, and chronology that developed the series of wind-tunnel tests to support multi-degree-of-freedom simulation of the separation process. Representative results from each series of tests are presented, and issues and concerns during the process and current status are highlighted.

  19. Hyper-X Stage Separation Wind Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, W. C.; Holland, S. D.; DiFulvio, M.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Hyper-X research program was developed primarily to flight demonstrate a supersonic combustion ramjet engine, fully integrated with a forebody designed to tailor inlet flow conditions and a free expansion nozzle/afterbody to produce positive thrust at design flight conditions. With a point-designed propulsion system, the vehicle must depend upon some other means for boost to its design flight condition. Clean separation from this initial propulsion system stage within less than a second is critical to the success of the flight. This paper discusses the early planning activity, background, and chronology that developed the series of wind tunnel tests to support multi degree of freedom simulation of the separation process. Representative results from each series of tests are presented and issues and concerns during the process and current status will be highlighted.

  20. Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Calibration Using the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Matthew N.; DeLoach, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A calibration of a hypersonic wind tunnel has been conducted using formal experiment design techniques and response surface modeling. Data from a compact, highly efficient experiment was used to create a regression model of the pitot pressure as a function of the facility operating conditions as well as the longitudinal location within the test section. The new calibration utilized far fewer design points than prior experiments, but covered a wider range of the facility s operating envelope while revealing interactions between factors not captured in previous calibrations. A series of points chosen randomly within the design space was used to verify the accuracy of the response model. The development of the experiment design is discussed along with tactics used in the execution of the experiment to defend against systematic variation in the results. Trends in the data are illustrated, and comparisons are made to earlier findings.

  1. Low Speed PSP Testing in Production Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James; Mehta, Rabi; Schairer, Ed; Hand, Larry; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The brightness signal from a pressure-sensitive paint varies inversely with absolute pressure. Consequently high signal-to-noise ratios are required to resolve aerodynamic pressure fields at low speeds, where the pressure variation around an object might only be a few percent of the mean pressure. This requirement is unavoidable, and implies that care must be taken to minimize noise sources present in the measurement. This paper discusses and compares the main noise sources in low speed PSP testing using the "classical" intensity-based single-luminophore technique. These are: temperature variation, model deformation, and lamp drift/paint degradation. Minimization of these error sources from the point of view of operation in production wind tunnels is discussed, with some examples from recent tests in NASA Ames facilities.

  2. Laser velocimeter measurements in a large transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. F.; Couch, L. M.; Feller, W. V.; Walsh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A two-component fringe type laser velocimeter operated in the backscatter mode was used to measure the free-stream velocity in an undisturbed flow field in a wind-tunnel test section from Mach 0.2 to Mach 1.0 and to measure the velocity along the stagnating streamline of a hemisphere model from Mach 0.2 to Mach 0.8. Burst signals from the laser velocimeter were processed by high-speed burst counters, and histograms of the number of occurrences of a particular counter output were collected by means of a pulse height analyzer. Arithmetic means of the histograms were calculated, and the results were compared with predicted local gas velocities with allowance for the lag of the scattering particles with respect to the gas flow. The free-stream measurements were accurate to within 2% of the calibration measurements. The stagnation streamline measurements show trends similar to theoretical predictions.

  3. Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Flow Quality Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    39 a. Pressure Rake installation ......................................................39 b. Instrument Setup and Tunnel Warmup ...43 b. Instrument Setup and Tunnel Warmup .................................44 2. Conduct of Testing...55 b. Instrument Setup and Tunnel Warmup .................................57 3. CTA Calibration Coefficient Determination

  4. Forced Oscillation Wind Tunnel Testing for FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoe, Garrison; Owens, Donald B.; Denham, Casey

    2012-01-01

    As unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) continue to expand their flight envelopes into areas of high angular rate and high angle of attack, modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation in these regimes has become more difficult using traditional methods. The goal of this experiment was to improve the current six degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model of a small UAV by replacing the analytically derived damping derivatives with experimentally derived values. The UAV is named the Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, FASER, and was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 12- Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. The forced oscillation wind tunnel test technique was used to measure damping in the roll and yaw axes. By imparting a variety of sinusoidal motions, the effects of non-dimensional angular rate and reduced frequency were examined over a large range of angle of attack and side-slip combinations. Tests were performed at angles of attack from -5 to 40 degrees, sideslip angles of -30 to 30 degrees, oscillation amplitudes from 5 to 30 degrees, and reduced frequencies from 0.010 to 0.133. Additionally, the effect of aileron or elevator deflection on the damping coefficients was examined. Comparisons are made of two different data reduction methods used to obtain the damping derivatives. The results show that the damping derivatives are mainly a function of angle of attack and have dependence on the non-dimensional rate and reduced frequency only in the stall/post-stall regime

  5. Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav

    2011-01-01

    Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.

  6. Programmable controller system for wind tunnel diversion vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A programmable controller (PC) system automatic sequence control, which acts as a supervisory controller for the servos, selects the proper drives, and automatically sequences the vanes, was developed for use in a subsonic wind tunnel. Tunnel modifications include a new second test section (80 ft x 100 ft with a maximum air speed capability of 110 knots) and an increase in maximum velocity flow from 200 knots to 300 knots. A completely automatic sequence control is necessary in order to allow intricate motion of the 14 triangularly arranged vanes which can be as large as 70 ft high x 35 ft wide and which require precise acceleration and deceleration control. Rate servos on each drive aid in this control, and servo cost was minimized by using four silicon controlled rectifier controllers to control the 20 dc drives. The PC has a programming capacity which facilitated the implementation of extensive logic design. A series of diagrams sequencing the vanes and a block diagram of the system are included.

  7. Comparison of Angle of Attack Measurements for Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas, W.; Hoppe, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Two optical systems capable of measuring model attitude and deformation were compared to inertial devices employed to acquire wind tunnel model angle of attack measurements during the sting mounted full span 30% geometric scale flexible configuration of the Northrop Grumman Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) installed in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The overall purpose of the test at TDT was to evaluate smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. The optical techniques that were compared to inertial devices employed to measure angle of attack for this test were: (1) an Optotrak (registered) system, an optical system consisting of two sensors, each containing a pair of orthogonally oriented linear arrays to compute spatial positions of a set of active markers; and (2) Video Model Deformation (VMD) system, providing a single view of passive targets using a constrained photogrammetric solution whose primary function was to measure wing and control surface deformations. The Optotrak system was installed for this test for the first time at TDT in order to assess the usefulness of the system for future static and dynamic deformation measurements.

  8. Exploratory flutter test in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model consisting of a rigid wing with an integral, flexible beam support that was cantilever mounted from the wall in the NASA LaRC 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel was used in a flutter analysis study. The wing had a rectangular planform of aspect ratio 1.5 and a 64A010 airfoil. Various considerations and procedures for conducting flutter tests in a cryogenic wind tunnel were evaluated. Flutter onset conditions were established from extrapolated subcritical response measurements. A flutter boundary was determined at cryogenic temperatures over a Mach number M range from 0.5 to 0.9. Flutter was obtained at two different Reynolds numbers R at M = 0.5 (R = 4.4 and 18.4 x 10 to the 6th power) and at M = 0.8 (R = 5.0 and 10.4 x 10 to the 6th power). Flutter analyses using subsonic lifting surface (kernel function) aerodynamics were made over the range of test conditions. To evaluate the Reynolds number effects at M = 0.5 and 0.8, the experimental results were adjusted using analytical trends to account for differences in the model test temperatures and mass ratios. The adjusted experimental results indicate that increasing Reynolds number from 5.0 to 20.0 x 10 to the 6th power decreased the dynamic pressure by 4.0 to 6.5 percent at M = 0.5 and 0.8.

  9. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction progress, studding in Tow Channel office area, Full Scale motor fairing in west exit cone, motor fairing in east exit cone. Propeller and motor fairing for west exit cone. Smith DeFrance described the propellers and motors in NACA TR No. 459. ' The propellers are located side by side and 48 feet aft of the throat of the exit-cone bell. The propellers are 35 feet 5 inches in diameter and each consists of four cast aluminum alloy blades screwed into a cast steel hub.' 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the full-scale wind tunnel it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4,000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed. In order to obtain the range of speed one pole change was provided and the other variations are obtained by the introduction of resistance in the rotor circuit. This control permits a variation in air speed from 25 to 118 miles per hour. The two motors are connected through an automatic switchboard to one drum-type controller located in the test chamber. All the control equipment is interlocked and connected through time-limit relays, so that regardless of how fast the controller handle is moved the motors will increase in speed at regular intervals.' (p. 294-295)

  10. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  11. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John; Saunders, John

    2014-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  12. Full Scale Rotor Aeroacoustic Predictions and the Link to Model Scale Rotor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Conner, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Aeroacoustic Prediction System (NAPS) is used to establish a link between model-scale and full-scale rotor predictions and is partially validated against measured wind tunnel and flight aeroacoustic data. The prediction approach of NAPS couples a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with acoustic source noise and propagation codes. The comprehensive analysis selected for this study is CAMRAD-II, which provides the performance/trim/wake solution for a given rotor or flight condition. The post-trim capabilities of CAMRAD-II are used to compute high-resolution sectional airloads for the acoustic tone noise analysis, WOPMOD. The tone noise is propagated to observers on the ground with the propagation code, RNM (Rotor Noise Model). Aeroacoustic predictions are made with NAPS for an isolated rotor and compared to results of the second Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART-II) program, which tested a 40% dynamically and Mach-scaled BO-105 main rotor at the DNW. The NAPS is validated with comparisons for three rotor conditions: a baseline condition and two Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) conditions. To establish a link between model and full-scale rotor predictions, a full-scale BO-105 main rotor input deck for NAPS is created from the 40% scale rotor input deck. The full-scale isolated rotor predictions are then compared to the model predictions. The comparisons include aerodynamic loading, acoustic levels, and acoustic pressure time histories for each of the three conditions. With this link established, full-scale predictions are made for a range of descent flight conditions and compared with measured trends from the recent Rotorcraft Operational Noise Abatement Procedures (RONAP) flight test conducted by DLR and ONERA. Additionally, the effectiveness of two HHC conditions from the HART-II program is demonstrated for the full-scale rotor in flight.

  13. Self streamlining wind tunnel: Further low speed testing and final design studies for the transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Work was continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes (perhaps through changes in Reynold's number and freestream turbulence levels) on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self-streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility, which will eventually allow on-line computer operation of the wind tunnel, was outlined.

  14. The role of wind-tunnel studies in integrative research on migration biology.

    PubMed

    Engel, Sophia; Bowlin, Melissa S; Hedenström, Anders

    2010-09-01

    Wind tunnels allow researchers to investigate animals' flight under controlled conditions, and provide easy access to the animals during flight. These increasingly popular devices can benefit integrative migration biology by allowing us to explore the links between aerodynamic theory and migration as well as the links between flight behavior and physiology. Currently, wind tunnels are being used to investigate many different migratory phenomena, including the relationship between metabolic power and flight speed and carry-over effects between different seasons. Although biotelemetry is also becoming increasingly common, it is unlikely that it will be able to completely supplant wind tunnels because of the difficulty of measuring or varying parameters such as flight speed or temperature in the wild. Wind tunnels and swim tunnels will therefore continue to be important tools we can use for studying integrative migration biology.

  15. Comparison of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Similar Models in Two Size Wind Tunnels at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Anthony M.

    1998-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of two similar models of a lifting body configuration were run in two transonic wind tunnels, one a 16 foot the other a 14-inch and are compared. The 16 foot test used a 2% model while the 14-inch test used a 0.7% scale model. The wind tunnel model configurations varied only in vertical tail size and an aft sting shroud. The results from these two tests compare the effect of tunnel size, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure and blockage on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The data accuracy and uncertainty are also presented. It was concluded from these tests that the data resultant from a small wind tunnel compares very well to that of a much larger wind tunnel in relation to total vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.

  16. Current wind tunnel capability and planned improvements at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    As the propulsion and power generation center of NASA, Lewis has designed its wind tunnels for propulsion research. Therefore, the 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel and the 10 by 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel provide the capability to test operating propulsion systems from Mach 0.4 to 3.5. The 9 by 15 Foot Wind Tunnel can investigate propulsion installation problems at the lower takeoff and landing speeds and provides an excellent anechoic environment to measure propeller and fan noise. The Lewis Central Air System provides steady air supplies to 450 psi, and exhaust to 3 in. of mercury absolute, which are available to the wind tunnels for simulation of jets and engine induced flows. The Lewis Icing Research Tunnel is the largest in the free world that can produce icing conditions throughout the year. Rehabilitation of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at Lewis would allow testing of propulsion systems in the upper left hand corner which would be a unique capability. Also, in a mothballed state at Lewis, the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility could provide the best simulation of nonvitiated Mach 5-7 test conditions available. Studies are currently being made of the Lewis facilities to identify enhancements of their research potential for the 1990's and beyond.

  17. Wind tunnel experimental study on the effect of PAM on soil wind erosion control.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Tang, Ze-Jun

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, high-molecular-weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) have been widely tested on a variety of soils, primarily in water erosion control. However, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of PAM on preventing soil loss from wind erosion. The research adopted room wind tunnel experiment, two kinds of soils were used which were from the agro-pastoral area of Inner Mongolia, the northwest of China, the clay content of soils were 22.0 and 13.7%, respectively. For these tests, all the treatments were performed under the condition of wind velocity of 14 m s(-1) and a blown angle of 8.75%, according to the actual situation of experimented area. The study results indicated that using PAM on the soil surface could enhance the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, at the same time, the effect of controlling wind soil erosion with 4 g m(-2) PAM was better than 2 g m(-2) PAM's. Economically, the 2 g m(-2) PAM used in soil surface can control wind erosion effectively in this region. The prophase PAM accumulated in soil could not improve the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, owing to the degradation of PAM in the soil and the continual tillage year after year. The texture of soil is a main factor influencing the capability of soil avoiding wind erosion. Soil with higher clay content has the higher capability of preventing soil from wind erosion than one with the opposite one under the together action of PAM and water.

  18. Study of the integration of wind tunnel and computational methods for aerodynamic configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Lindsey E.; Ashby, Dale L.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of using a low-order panel code to estimate wind tunnel wall corrections. The corrections were found by two computations. The first computation included the test model and the surrounding wind tunnel walls, while in the second computation the wind tunnel walls were removed. The difference between the force and moment coefficients obtained by comparing these two cases allowed the determination of the wall corrections. The technique was verified by matching the test-section, wall-pressure signature from a wind tunnel test with the signature predicted by the panel code. To prove the viability of the technique, two cases were considered. The first was a two-dimensional high-lift wing with a flap that was tested in the 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The second was a 1/32-scale model of the F/A-18 aircraft which was tested in the low-speed wind tunnel at San Diego State University. The panel code used was PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center). Results of this study indicate that the proposed wind tunnel wall correction method is comparable to other methods and that it also inherently includes the corrections due to model blockage and wing lift.

  19. Turbine endwall two-cylinder program. [wind tunnel and water tunnel investigation of three dimensional separation of fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in an effort to study the three dimensional separation of fluid flow around two isolated cylinders mounted on an endwall. The design and performance of a hydrogen bubble generator for water tunnel tests to determine bulk flow properties and to measure main stream velocity and boundary layer thickness are described. Although the water tunnel tests are behind schedule because of inlet distortion problems, tests are far enough along to indicate cylinder spacing, wall effects and low Reynolds number behavior, all of which impacted wind tunnel model design. The construction, assembly, and operation of the wind tunnel and the check out of its characteristics are described. An off-body potential flow program was adapted to calculate normal streams streamwise pressure gradients at the saddle point locations.

  20. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of an interim quiet (low-disturbance) supersonic wind tunnel for the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML). This is a result of the need to bring the full-scale tunnel on-line as rapidly as possible to impact the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The development of a cryogenic adaptive nozzle and other sophisticated features of the tunnel will now happen later, after the full scale wind tunnel is in operation.

  1. Initial Assessment of Acoustic Source Visibility with a 24-Element Microphone Array in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of background noise were recently obtained with a 24-element phased microphone array in the test section of the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by120-Foot Wind Tunnel at speeds of 50 to 100 knots (27.5 to 51.4 m/s). The array was mounted in an aerodynamic fairing positioned with array center 1.2m from the floor and 16 m from the tunnel centerline, The array plate was mounted flush with the fairing surface as well as recessed in. (1.27 cm) behind a porous Kevlar screen. Wind-off speaker measurements were also acquired every 15 on a 10 m semicircular arc to assess directional resolution of the array with various processing algorithms, and to estimate minimum detectable source strengths for future wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies. The dominant background noise of the facility is from the six drive fans downstream of the test section and first set of turning vanes. Directional array response and processing methods such as background-noise cross-spectral-matrix subtraction suggest that sources 10-15 dB weaker than the background can be detected.

  2. Check-Standard Testing Across Multiple Transonic Wind Tunnels with the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an analysis of wind tunnel data acquired in support of the Facility Analysis Verification & Operational Reliability (FAVOR) project. The analysis uses methods referred to collectively at Langley Research Center as the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE). These methods quantify the total variance in a sample of wind tunnel data and partition it into explained and unexplained components. The unexplained component is further partitioned in random and systematic components. This analysis was performed on data acquired in similar wind tunnel tests executed in four different U.S. transonic facilities. The measurement environment of each facility was quantified and compared.

  3. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  4. Advances in Projection Moire Interferometry Development for Large Wind Tunnel Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Soto, Hector L.; South, Bruce W.; Bartram, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument development program aimed at using Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) for acquiring model deformation measurements in large wind tunnels was begun at NASA Langley Research Center in 1996. Various improvements to the initial prototype PMI systems have been made throughout this development effort. This paper documents several of the most significant improvements to the optical hardware and image processing software, and addresses system implementation issues for large wind tunnel applications. The improvements have increased both measurement accuracy and instrument efficiency, promoting the routine use of PMI for model deformation measurements in production wind tunnel tests.

  5. Roughness Effects on Wind-Turbine Wake Dynamics in a Boundary-Layer Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlas, E.; Buckingham, S.; van Beeck, J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand in wind energy has resulted in increasingly clustered wind farms, and raised the interest in wake research dramatically in the last couple of years. To this end, the present work employs an experimental approach with scaled three-bladed wind-turbine models in a large boundary-layer wind-tunnel. Time-resolved measurements are carried out with a three-component hot-wire anemometer in the mid-vertical plane of the wake up to a downstream distance of eleven turbine diameters. The major issue addressed is the wake dynamics i.e. the flow and turbulence characteristics as well as spectral content under two different neutral boundary-layer inflow conditions. The wind tunnel is arranged with and without roughened surfaces in order to mimic moderately rough and smooth conditions. The inflow characterization is carried out by using all three velocity components, while the rest of the study is focused on the streamwise component's evolution. The results show an earlier wake recovery, i.e. the velocity deficit due to the turbine is less persistent for the rough case due to higher incoming turbulence levels. This paves the way for enhanced mixing from higher momentum regions of the boundary layer towards the centre of the wake. The investigation on the turbulent shear stresses is in line with this observation as well. Moreover, common as well as distinguishing features of the turbulent-scales evolution are detected for rough and smooth inflow boundary-layer conditions. Wake meandering disappears for rough inflow conditions but persists for smooth case with a Strouhal number similar to that of a solid disk wake.

  6. Documentation and archiving of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test data base. Volume 1: Background and description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, Paul O.; Brown, Steve Wesley

    1995-01-01

    Development of the space shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of space shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the space shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers evolution of space shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.

  7. Arrays of Miniature Microphones for Aeroacoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Humphreys, William M.; Sealey, Bradley S.; Bartram, Scott M.; Zuckewar, Allan J.; Comeaux, Toby; Adams, James K.

    2007-01-01

    A phased-array system comprised of custom-made and commercially available microelectromechanical system (MEMS) silicon microphones and custom ancillary hardware has been developed for use in aeroacoustic testing in hard-walled and acoustically treated wind tunnels. Recent advances in the areas of multi-channel signal processing and beam forming have driven the construction of phased arrays containing ever-greater numbers of microphones. Traditional obstacles to this trend have been posed by (1) the high costs of conventional condenser microphones, associated cabling, and support electronics and (2) the difficulty of mounting conventional microphones in the precise locations required for high-density arrays. The present development overcomes these obstacles. One of the hallmarks of the new system is a series of fabricated platforms on which multiple microphones can be mounted. These mounting platforms, consisting of flexible polyimide circuit-board material (see left side of figure), include all the necessary microphone power and signal interconnects. A single bus line connects all microphones to a common power supply, while the signal lines terminate in one or more data buses on the sides of the circuit board. To minimize cross talk between array channels, ground lines are interposed as shields between all the data bus signal lines. The MEMS microphones are electrically connected to the boards via solder pads that are built into the printed wiring. These flexible circuit boards share many characteristics with their traditional rigid counterparts, but can be manufactured much thinner, as small as 0.1 millimeter, and much lighter with boards weighing as much as 75 percent less than traditional rigid ones. For a typical hard-walled wind-tunnel installation, the flexible printed-circuit board is bonded to the tunnel wall and covered with a face sheet that contains precise cutouts for the microphones. Once the face sheet is mounted, a smooth surface is established over

  8. Computation of wind tunnel wall effects for complex models using a low-order panel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale L.; Harris, Scott H.

    1994-01-01

    A technique for determining wind tunnel wall effects for complex models using the low-order, three dimensional panel method PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) has been developed. Initial validation of the technique was performed using lift-coefficient data in the linear lift range from tests of a large-scale STOVL fighter model in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) facility. The data from these tests served as an ideal database for validating the technique because the same model was tested in two wind tunnel test sections with widely different dimensions. The lift-coefficient data obtained for the same model configuration in the two test sections were different, indicating a significant influence of the presence of the tunnel walls and mounting hardware on the lift coefficient in at least one of the two test sections. The wind tunnel wall effects were computed using PMARC and then subtracted from the measured data to yield corrected lift-coefficient versus angle-of-attack curves. The corrected lift-coefficient curves from the two wind tunnel test sections matched very well. Detailed pressure distributions computed by PMARC on the wing lower surface helped identify the source of large strut interference effects in one of the wind tunnel test sections. Extension of the technique to analysis of wind tunnel wall effects on the lift coefficient in the nonlinear lift range and on drag coefficient will require the addition of boundary-layer and separated-flow models to PMARC.

  9. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise. [NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise was refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy. This theory was then verified by carrying out extensive data/theory comparisons. The resulting model computer program was then employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line on rotor/turbulence noise for outdoor test stand. NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  10. TWINTAN: A program for transonic wall interference assessment in two-dimensional wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, W. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A method for assessing the wall interference in transonic two dimensional wind tunnel test was developed and implemented in a computer program. The method involves three successive solutions of the transonic small disturbance potential equation to define the wind tunnel flow, the perturbation attriburable to the model, and the equivalent free air flow around the model. Input includes pressure distributions on the model and along the top and bottom tunnel walls which are used as boundary conditions for the wind tunnel flow. The wall induced perturbation fields is determined as the difference between the perturbation in the tunnel flow solution and the perturbation attributable to the model. The methodology used in the program is described and detailed descriptions of the computer program input and output are presented. Input and output for a sample case are given.

  11. Analysis of high Reynolds numbers effects on a wind turbine airfoil using 2D wind tunnel test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The aerodynamic behaviour of a wind turbine airfoil has been measured in a dedicated 2D wind tunnel test at the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG), Germany. The tests have been performed on the DU00W212 airfoil at different Reynolds numbers: 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 million, and at low Mach numbers (below 0.1). Both clean and tripped conditions of the airfoil have been measured. An analysis of the impact of a wide Reynolds number variation over the aerodynamic characteristics of this airfoil has been performed.

  12. A lumped parameter mathematical model for simulation of subsonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krosel, S. M.; Cole, G. L.; Bruton, W. M.; Szuch, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Equations for a lumped parameter mathematical model of a subsonic wind tunnel circuit are presented. The equation state variables are internal energy, density, and mass flow rate. The circuit model is structured to allow for integration and analysis of tunnel subsystem models which provide functions such as control of altitude pressure and temperature. Thus the model provides a useful tool for investigating the transient behavior of the tunnel and control requirements. The model was applied to the proposed NASA Lewis Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) circuit and included transfer function representations of the tunnel supply/exhaust air and refrigeration subsystems. Both steady state and frequency response data are presented for the circuit model indicating the type of results and accuracy that can be expected from the model. Transient data for closed loop control of the tunnel and its subsystems are also presented, demonstrating the model's use as a control analysis tool.

  13. Simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer in the wind tunnel for modeling of wind loads on low-rise structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tieleman, H. W.; Reinhold, T. A.; Marshall, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer (strong wind conditions) was simulated in low speed wind tunnel for the modeling of wind loads on low-rise structures. The turbulence characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer in the wind tunnel are compared with full scale measurements and with measurements made at NASA Wallops Flight Center. Wind pressures measured on roofs of a 1:70 scale model of a small single family dwelling were compared with results obtained from full scale measurements. The results indicate a favorable comparison between full scale and model pressure data as far as mean, r.m.s. and peak pressures are concerned. In addition, results also indicate that proper modeling of the turbulence is essential for proper simulation of the wind pressures.

  14. Wind tunnel data of the analysis of heat pipe and wind catcher technology for the built environment

    PubMed Central

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Chaudhry, Hassam Nasarullah; Hughes, Ben Richard

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled ‘Climate responsive behaviour heat pipe technology for enhanced passive airside cooling’ by Chaudhry and Hughes [10] which presents the passive airside cooling capability of heat pipes in response to gradually varying external temperatures and related to the research article “CFD and wind tunnel study of the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher with heat transfer devices” by Calautit and Hughes [1] which compares the ventilation performance of a standard roof mounted wind catcher and wind catcher incorporating the heat pipe technology. Here, we detail the wind tunnel test set-up and inflow conditions and the methodologies for the transient heat pipe experiment and analysis of the integration of heat pipes within the control domain of a wind catcher design. PMID:26958604

  15. Wind tunnel data of the analysis of heat pipe and wind catcher technology for the built environment.

    PubMed

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Chaudhry, Hassam Nasarullah; Hughes, Ben Richard

    2015-12-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled 'Climate responsive behaviour heat pipe technology for enhanced passive airside cooling' by Chaudhry and Hughes [10] which presents the passive airside cooling capability of heat pipes in response to gradually varying external temperatures and related to the research article "CFD and wind tunnel study of the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher with heat transfer devices" by Calautit and Hughes [1] which compares the ventilation performance of a standard roof mounted wind catcher and wind catcher incorporating the heat pipe technology. Here, we detail the wind tunnel test set-up and inflow conditions and the methodologies for the transient heat pipe experiment and analysis of the integration of heat pipes within the control domain of a wind catcher design.

  16. Single-Vector Calibration of Wind-Tunnel Force Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. A.; DeLoach, R.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of calibrating a wind-tunnel force balance involves the use of a unique load application system integrated with formal experimental design methodology. The Single-Vector Force Balance Calibration System (SVS) overcomes the productivity and accuracy limitations of prior calibration methods. A force balance is a complex structural spring element instrumented with strain gauges for measuring three orthogonal components of aerodynamic force (normal, axial, and side force) and three orthogonal components of aerodynamic torque (rolling, pitching, and yawing moments). Force balances remain as the state-of-the-art instrument that provide these measurements on a scale model of an aircraft during wind tunnel testing. Ideally, each electrical channel of the balance would respond only to its respective component of load, and it would have no response to other components of load. This is not entirely possible even though balance designs are optimized to minimize these undesirable interaction effects. Ultimately, a calibration experiment is performed to obtain the necessary data to generate a mathematical model and determine the force measurement accuracy. In order to set the independent variables of applied load for the calibration 24 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 experiment, a high-precision mechanical system is required. Manual deadweight systems have been in use at Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the 1940s. These simple methodologies produce high confidence results, but the process is mechanically complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four weeks to complete. Over the past decade, automated balance calibration systems have been developed. In general, these systems were designed to automate the tedious manual calibration process resulting in an even more complex system which deteriorates load application quality. The current calibration approach relies on a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) methodology, where each independent variable is

  17. Gliding flight in a jackdaw: a wind tunnel study.

    PubMed

    Rosén, M; Hedenström, A

    2001-03-01

    We examined the gliding flight performance of a jackdaw Corvus monedula in a wind tunnel. The jackdaw was able to glide steadily at speeds between 6 and 11 m s(-1). The bird changed its wingspan and wing area over this speed range, and we measured the so-called glide super-polar, which is the envelope of fixed-wing glide polars over a range of forward speeds and sinking speeds. The glide super-polar was an inverted U-shape with a minimum sinking speed (V(ms)) at 7.4 m s(-1) and a speed for best glide (V(bg)) at 8.3 m s(-)). At the minimum sinking speed, the associated vertical sinking speed was 0.62 m s(-1). The relationship between the ratio of lift to drag (L:D) and airspeed showed an inverted U-shape with a maximum of 12.6 at 8.5 m s(-1). Wingspan decreased linearly with speed over the whole speed range investigated. The tail was spread extensively at low and moderate speeds; at speeds between 6 and 9 m s(-1), the tail area decreased linearly with speed, and at speeds above 9 m s(-1) the tail was fully furled. Reynolds number calculated with the mean chord as the reference length ranged from 38 000 to 76 000 over the speed range 6-11 m s(-1). Comparisons of the jackdaw flight performance were made with existing theory of gliding flight. We also re-analysed data on span ratios with respect to speed in two other bird species previously studied in wind tunnels. These data indicate that an equation for calculating the span ratio, which minimises the sum of induced and profile drag, does not predict the actual span ratios observed in these birds. We derive an alternative equation on the basis of the observed span ratios for calculating wingspan and wing area with respect to forward speed in gliding birds from information about body mass, maximum wingspan, maximum wing area and maximum coefficient of lift. These alternative equations can be used in combination with any model of gliding flight where wing area and wingspan are considered to calculate sinking rate with

  18. Design and Development of Low-Cost Wind Tunnel for Educational Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, T. H.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    The presence of wind tunnel is undoubtedly bringing infinite possibilities to studying and understanding complex fluid flows. However, commercial wind tunnel is expensive and only limited to highly-focus researchers or exclusive institutions. This paper discusses the design and development of a low-cost, educational-purposed, open-typed subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, an open-typed subsonic wind tunnel is designed with the aim of achieving turbulent intensity (in the working section) below or equal to 5%, within the budget of RM 1500 and a working speed of 6 m/s - 8 m/s to meet the Reynolds number in the order of 105. The conceptual design was studied using Ansys Fluent 14.5 and the optimal design was then developed and experimentally verified.

  19. The use of NASTRAN in the design of wind tunnel research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between NASTRAN and the wind tunnel model design process is discussed. Specific cases illustrating the use of NASTRAN for static, heat transfer, dynamic, and aeroelastic analyses are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of using NASTRAN are summarized.

  20. Real-Gas Flow Properties for NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    A computational algorithm has been developed which can be employed to determine the flow properties of an arbitrary real (virial) gas in a wind tunnel. A multiple-coefficient virial gas equation of state and the assumption of isentropic flow are used to model the gas and to compute flow properties throughout the wind tunnel. This algorithm has been used to calculate flow properties for the wind tunnels of the Aerothermodynamics Facilities Complex at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which air, CF4. He, and N2 are employed as test gases. The algorithm is detailed in this paper and sample results are presented for each of the Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex wind tunnels.

  1. Data Fusion in Wind Tunnel Testing; Combined Pressure Paint and Model Deformation Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2004-01-01

    As the benefit-to-cost ratio of advanced optical techniques for wind tunnel measurements such as Video Model Deformation (VMD), Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP), and others increases, these techniques are being used more and more often in large-scale production type facilities. Further benefits might be achieved if multiple optical techniques could be deployed in a wind tunnel test simultaneously. The present study discusses the problems and benefits of combining VMD and PSP systems. The desirable attributes of useful optical techniques for wind tunnels, including the ability to accommodate the myriad optical techniques available today, are discussed. The VMD and PSP techniques are briefly reviewed. Commonalties and differences between the two techniques are discussed. Recent wind tunnel experiences and problems when combining PSP and VMD are presented, as are suggestions for future developments in combined PSP and deformation measurements.

  2. Role of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Wind Tunnels in Aeronautics R and D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Murjeeb R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the status and future projections for the question of supplantation of wind tunnels by computation in design and to intuit the potential impact of computation approaches on wind-tunnel utilization all with an eye toward reducing the infrastructure cost at aeronautics R&D centers. Wind tunnels have been closing for myriad reasons, and such closings have reduced infrastructure costs. Further cost reductions are desired, and the work herein attempts to project which wind-tunnel capabilities can be replaced in the future and, if possible, the timing of such. If the possibility exists to project when a facility could be closed, then maintenance and other associated costs could be rescheduled accordingly (i.e., before the fact) to obtain an even greater infrastructure cost reduction.

  3. Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads from Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads From Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests Hyeonsoo Yeo Mark Potsdam US Army Aviation Development Directorate... Aviation & Missile Research, Development & Engineering Center Research, Development, and Engineering Command Ames Research Center, Moffett Field

  4. Hot-bench simulation of the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Carey S.; Houck, Jacob A.

    1990-01-01

    Two simulations, one batch and one real-time, of an aeroelastically-scaled wind-tunnel model were developed. The wind-tunnel model was a full-span, free-to-roll model of an advanced fighter concept. The batch simulation was used to generate and verify the real-time simulation and to test candidate control laws prior to implementation. The real-time simulation supported hot-bench testing of a digital controller, which was developed to actively control the elastic deformation of the wind-tunnel model. Time scaling was required for hot-bench testing. The wind-tunnel model, the mathematical models for the simulations, the techniques employed to reduce the hot-bench time-scale factors, and the verification procedures are described.

  5. Wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic balancing of upper-surface ailerons and split flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effectiveness of various methods of reducing the high control forces of unbalanced upper-surface ailerons and of unbalanced split flaps.

  6. CFD comparisons with wind tunnel and flight data for the X-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Richard W.; Dilley, Arthur D.

    1992-01-01

    The wind tunnel and flight data from the X-15 program have been evaluated for utilization in CFD calibration research. From the analysis, experimental data suitable for CFD code calibration are identified.

  7. Technique for the integral casting of pressure instrumentation in wind-tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. M., Jr.; Summerfield, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    Wind tunnel models are cast around core consisting of array of tubing. Principal advantage of technique is that greater number of pressure orifices are easily installed, without compromising aerodynamic shape of model. Technique reduces construction cost by about 50 percent.

  8. Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities: An Assessment of NASA's Capabilities to Serve National Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Gritton, Eugene C.; Mesic, Richard; Steinberg, Paul; Johnson, Dana J.

    2004-01-01

    This monograph reveals and discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) wind tunnel and propulsion test facility management issues that are creating real risks to the United States' competitive aeronautics advantage.

  9. Unsteady two dimensional airloads acting on oscillating thin airfoils in subsonic ventilated wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromme, J.; Golberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The numerical calculation of unsteady two dimensional airloads which act upon thin airfoils in subsonic ventilated wind tunnels was studied. Neglecting certain quadrature errors, Bland's collocation method is rigorously proved to converge to the mathematically exact solution of Bland's integral equation, and a three way equivalence was established between collocation, Galerkin's method and least squares whenever the collocation points are chosen to be the nodes of the quadrature rule used for Galerkin's method. A computer program displayed convergence with respect to the number of pressure basis functions employed, and agreement with known special cases was demonstrated. Results are obtained for the combined effects of wind tunnel wall ventilation and wind tunnel depth to airfoil chord ratio, and for acoustic resonance between the airfoil and wind tunnel walls. A boundary condition is proposed for permeable walls through which mass flow rate is proportional to pressure jump.

  10. Methodology Development for Measurement of Agent Fate in an Environmental Wind Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF AGENT FATE IN AN ENVIRONMENTAL WIND TUNNEL Wendel Shuely, Robert Nickol, GEO-Centers, and...managerial support by Dr. H. Durst , Mr. L. Bickford and Dr. J. Savage, ECBC, and Mr. Tim Bauer, NSWC.

  11. Application of fuzzy logic to the control of wind tunnel settling chamber temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Humphreys, Gregory L.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC's) to the control of nonlinear processes, typically controlled by a human operator, is a topic of much study. Recent application of a microprocessor-based FLC to the control of temperature processes in several wind tunnels has proven to be very successful. The control of temperature processes in the wind tunnels requires the ability to monitor temperature feedback from several points and to accommodate varying operating conditions in the wind tunnels. The FLC has an intuitive and easily configurable structure which incorporates the flexibility required to have such an ability. The design and implementation of the FLC is presented along with process data from the wind tunnels under automatic control.

  12. Investigation of Low-temperature Solders for Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.; Watkins, V. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of high Reynolds number cryogenic wind tunnels has forced alteration of manufacturing and assembly techniques and eliminated usage of many materials associated with conventional wind tunnel models. One of the techniques affected is soldering. Solder alloys commonly used for wind tunnel models are susceptible to low-temperature embrittlement and phase transformation. The low-temperature performance of several solder alloys is being examined during research and development activities being conducted in support of design and fabrication of cryogenic wind tunnel models. Among the properties examined during these tests are shear strength, surface quality, joint stability, and durability when subjected to dynamic loading. Results of these tests and experiences with recent models are summarized.

  13. Numerical simulation of flows around deformed aircraft model in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenkov, A. V.; Bosnyakov, S. M.; Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Kuzmina, S. I.; Kursakov, I. A.; Matyash, S. V.; Ishmuratov, F. Z.

    2016-10-01

    To obtain accurate data of calculation method error requires detailed simulation of the experiment in wind tunnel with keeping all features of the model, installation and gas flow. Two examples of such detailed data comparison are described in this paper. The experimental characteristics of NASA CRM model obtained in the ETW wind tunnel (Cologne, Germany), and CFD characteristics of this model obtained with the use of EWT-TsAGI application package are compared. Following comparison is carried out for an airplane model in the T-128 wind tunnel (TsAGI, Russia). It is seen that deformation influence on integral characteristics grows with increasing Re number and, accordingly, the dynamic pressure. CFD methods application for problems of experimental research in the wind tunnel allows to separate viscosity and elasticity effects.

  14. The effect of wind erosion on toxic element content of soils based on wind tunnel trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatárvári, Károly; Négyesi, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    Wind erosion causes enormous problems in many parts of the world. It damages the fertile layer of soils, and eventually wind erosion can transport materials, pathogens and these may cause medical problems in the respiratory system. Numerous international and Hungarian surveys have proved, that wind erosion not only affects loose textured soils. During droughts wind erosion may cause great damage in bound soils of clay in case these are over-cultivated and dusty. As an effect of climate change the duration and frequency of drought periods shall grow. In our investigation samples were taken from the upper 10 cms of soils of 5 various types of mechanical compounds (according to physical characteristics sand, clay, clay loam, loam, sandy loam) in Györ-Moson-Sopron County Hungary. According to the map of Hungary of the areas potentially affected by wind erosion the sand physical soil type is strongly endangered by wind erosion, other areas are moderatly endangered. According to most recent international classification areas belonging to the sand physical soil type are categorized as "endangered by wind erosion", and others belong to the category "not endangered by wind erosion", but these data were not based on local trials. When selecting the sampling areas it was taken to account that opencast sand and gravel mines are in operation in the area. Because of these recently significant wind erosion related phenomena were observed. The area is the most windy in the country. The mechanical composition, CaCO3 content, pH value (H2O,Kcl), humus content of the samples were defined. The wind erosion experiments were conducted in the wind tunnel of the University of Debrecen. The threshold velocities of the soils were measured, and the quantity of the soil transported by the wind was analyzed at four wind velocity value ranges. The transported material intercepted at different wind velocities at the height of 0-10 cm and 10-35 cm. The As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn

  15. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  16. Engineering changes to the 0.1m cryogenic wind tunnel at Southampton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The more important changes to the 0.1 m cryogenic wind tunnel since its completion in 1977 are outlined. These include detailed improvements in the fan drive to allow higher speeds, and the provision of a test section leg suitable for use with a magnetic suspension and balance system. The instrumentation, data logging, data reduction and tunnel controls were also improved and modernized. A tunnel performance summary is given.

  17. Overview of the Space Launch System Ascent Aeroacoustic Environment Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Crosby, William A.; Reed, Darren K.

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of accurate flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is critical for component and secondary structure vibroacoustic design. The Aerosciences Branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a test at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels (UPWT) to determine such ascent aeroacoustic environments for the Space Launch System (SLS). Surface static pressure measurements were also collected to aid in determination of local environments for venting, CFD substantiation, and calibration of the flush air data system located on the launch abort system. Additionally, this test supported a NASA Engineering and Safety Center study of alternate booster nose caps. Testing occurred during two test campaigns: August - September 2013 and December 2013 - January 2014. Four primary model configurations were tested for ascent aeroacoustic environment definition. The SLS Block 1 vehicle was represented by a 2.5% full stack model and a 4% truncated model. Preliminary Block 1B payload and manned configurations were also tested, using 2.5% full stack and 4% truncated models respectively. This test utilized the 11 x 11 foot transonic and 9 x 7 foot supersonic tunnel sections at the ARC UPWT to collect data from Mach 0.7 through 2.5 at various total angles of attack. SLS Block 1 design environments were developed primarily using these data. SLS Block 1B preliminary environments have also been prepared using these data. This paper discusses the test and analysis methodology utilized, with a focus on the unsteady data collection and processing.

  18. Modeling and control of a LN2-GN2 operated closed circuit cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Thibodeaux, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    An explicit but simple lumped parameter nonlinear multivariable model of a LN2-GN2-operated closed circuit cryogenic wind tunnel has been developed and its basic features have been experimentally validated. The model describes the mass-energy interaction involved in the cryogenic tunnel process and includes the real gas properties of nitrogen gas.

  19. The 7 by 10 Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Thomas A

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a description of the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel and associated apparatus of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Included also are calibration test results and characteristic test data of both static force tests and autorotation tests made in the tunnel.

  20. Portable wind tunnels for field testing of soils and natural surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large stationary wind tunnels have been used to test the erodibility of soils and to study in detail the processes controlling erosion rates. These tunnels require the use of disturbed soil samples which may result in parameter estimations that are not consistent with the natural surface. Several ...

  1. Evaluation of the EPA Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) low-speed wind tunnel protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EPA’s proposed Drift Reduction Technology low-speed wind tunnel evaluation protocol was tested across a series of modified ASAE reference nozzles. Both droplet size and deposition and flux volume measurements were made downwind from the nozzles operating in the tunnel at airspeeds of 1 and 2.5 ...

  2. High velocity wind tunnels : their application to ballistics, aerodynamics, and aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenard, E

    1925-01-01

    The object of this article is to set forth the particular properties of swiftly-moving air, how these affect the installation of a wind tunnel, the experimental results already obtained, the possible applications of such a tunnel, and what can be easily accomplished at the present time.

  3. Correction factors for wind tunnels of elliptic section with partly open and partly closed test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegels, Fritz W

    1951-01-01

    Jet boundary corrections for partly open and partly closed elliptical wind tunnels for the cases of one and two solid wall segments are presented. Also presented are the combinations of model span and extent of the solid portion of the tunnel wall for which the average correction factor is zero.

  4. General purpose interface bus for personal computers used in wind tunnel data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puram, Chith K.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the general purpose interface bus IEEE-488 to met the special requirements of wind tunnel testing involving PCs is discussed. The gearing of instrumentation to minimize test time, the choice of software to meet computer memory constraints, the use of graphics for improved use of tunnel run time, and the choice of data acquisition equipment to remove bottlenecks are addressed.

  5. Force instrumentation for cryogenic wind tunnels using one-piece strain-gage balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    The use of cryogenic temperatures in wind tunnels to achieve high Reynolds numbers has imposed a harsh operating environment on the force balance. Laboratory tests were conducted to study the effect cryogenic temperatures have on balance materials, gages, wiring, solder, adhesives, and moisture proofing. Wind tunnel tests were conducted using a one piece three component balance to verify laboratory results. These initial studies indicate that satisfactory force data can be obtained under steady state conditions.

  6. Wind tunnel results of the high-speed NLF(1)-0213 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sewall, William G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Hahne, David E.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate a natural laminar flow airfoil designed for the high speed jet aircraft in general aviation. The airfoil, designated as the High Speed Natural Laminar Flow (HSNLF)(1)-0213, was tested in two dimensional wind tunnels to investigate the performance of the basic airfoil shape. A three dimensional wing designed with this airfoil and a high lift flap system is also being evaluated with a full size, half span model.

  7. Acoustic Survey of a 3/8-Scale Automotive Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Romberg, Gary; Hansen, Larry; Lutz, Ron

    1996-01-01

    An acoustic survey that consists of insertion loss and flow noise measurements was conducted at key locations around the circuit of a 3/8-scale automotive acoustic wind tunnel. Descriptions of the test, the instrumentation, and the wind tunnel facility are included in the current report, along with data obtained in the test in the form of 1/3-octave-band insertion loss and narrowband flow noise spectral data.

  8. Viscous effects on the resonance of a slotted wind tunnel using finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, IN

    1988-01-01

    Prompted by the fact that wind tunnel flutter and oscillatory airload measurements are affected by acoustic vibration mode coupling when the model frequency lies near a wind tunnel resonance frequency, a numerical method has been developed for design sensitivity analysis. Solid curves represent the resonant frequency for the slot, without considering the slot's viscosity. While the viscosity effect decreases with increasing slot width, the viscosity effect also decreases as the slot width approaches zero.

  9. CFD in Support of Wind Tunnel Testing for Aircraft/Weapons Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    freestream loads, or the store carriage (and near store separation analysis has decreased by an order of carriage) loads. The use of both CFD and wind tunnel...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP023837 TITLE: CFD in Support of Wind Tunnel Testing for Aircraft/Weapons...alone technical report. The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP023820 thru ADP023869 UNCLASSIFIED CFD in Support of

  10. An efficient supersonic wind tunnel drive system for Mach 2.5 flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; King, Lyndell S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel efficient drive system has been developed which provides for the continuous operation of a pitot Mach 2.5 wind tunnel at compression ratios down to 0.625:1. The drive system does not require an overpressure to start, and no hysteresis has been observed. The general design of the proof-of-concept wind tunnel using the new drive system and its modifications are described.

  11. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to develop an interim Quiet (low-disturbance) supersonic wind tunnel for the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML). The main emphasis is to bring on-line a full-scale Mach 1.6 tunnel as rapidly as possible to impact the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The development of a cryogenic adaptive nozzle and other sophisticated features of the tunnel will now happen later, after the full scale wind tunnel is in operation. The work under this contract for the period of this report can be summarized as follows: provide aerodynamic design requirements for the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML) Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT); research design parameters for a unique Mach 1.6 drive system for the LFSWT using an 1/8th-scale Proof-of-Concept (PoC) supersonic wind tunnel; carry out boundary layer transition studies in PoC to aid the design of critical components of the LFSWT; appraise the State of the Art in quiet supersonic wind tunnel design; and help develop a supersonic research capability within the FML particularly in the areas of high speed transition measurements and schlieren techniques. The body of this annual report summarizes the work of the Principal Investigator.

  12. Wind-tunnel investigation of the thrust augmentor performance of a large-scale swept wing model. [in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. G.; Falarski, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were made in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel to determine the forward speed effects on wing-mounted thrust augmentors. The large-scale model was powered by the compressor output of J-85 driven viper compressors. The flap settings used were 15 deg and 30 deg with 0 deg, 15 deg, and 30 deg aileron settings. The maximum duct pressure, and wind tunnel dynamic pressure were 66 cmHg (26 in Hg) and 1190 N/sq m (25 lb/sq ft), respectively. All tests were made at zero sideslip. Test results are presented without analysis.

  13. Field Wind Tunnel Assessment of the Potential for Wind Transport of Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Nicholas; Metzger, Steve

    2005-02-01

    This report documents a series of field experiments carried out in the Double Tracks area of the Tonopah Test Range in June, July, and August 1996 and March and July 1997. The aim of the experiments was to: (1) determine the wind speeds necessary to entrain surface particles from excavated surfaces in the study area and (2) determine dust emissions from surfaces that had been stabilized permanently by planted natural vegetation. This investigation assessed the potential for wind transport of surface soils, including resuspension and emission of dust sized particles from areas of surface heavy metal contamination, following site remediation, as well as the actual emissions from these areas. The remediation site is located in Area 73 of the Tonopah Test Range. The goal of the field experiments was to measure the velocities with which boundary layer winds might initiate dust emissions from the affected site, and to gage the effectiveness of surface stabilization procedures to prevent such emissions. Particle movement measurements were generated through the use of a portable wind tunnel laid directly on the excavated surface.

  14. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  15. The Variable Density Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M; Miller, Elton W

    1926-01-01

    This report contains an exact description of the new wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. This is the first american type wind tunnel. It differs from ordinary wind tunnels by its being surrounded by a strong steel shell, 35 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. A compressor system is provided to fill this shell - and hence the entire wind tunnel - with air compressed to a density up to 25 times the ordinary atmospheric density. It is demonstrated in the report that the increase of the air density makes up for a corresponding decrease in the scale of the model. Hence such american type wind tunnel is free from scale effect. The report is illustrated by many drawings and photographs. All construction details are described, and many dimensions given. The method of conducting tests is also described and some preliminary results given in the report. So far, the tests have confirmed the chief feature of this wind tunnel - absence of scale effect.

  16. Slow ions in plasma wind tunnels. [satellite-ionosphere interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, W. A.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1976-01-01

    One of the limitations of simulation experiments for the study of interaction between a satellite and its space environment is the background of slow ions in the plasma chamber. These ions appear to be created by charge exchange between the beam ions and residual neutral gas and may affect measurements of the current and potential in the wake. Results are presented for a plasma wind tunnel experiment to study the effect of slow ions on both the ion and electron current distribution and the electron temperature in the wake of a body in a streaming plasma. It is shown that the effect of slow ions for beam ion density not exceeding 3 is not significant for measurements of ion current variations in the wake zone. This is not the case when studies are aimed at the quantitative examination of electron current and temperature variations in the near wake zone. In these instances, the measurements of electron properties in the wake should be done at very low system pressures or over a range of system pressures in order to ascertain the influence of slow ions.

  17. Turbulence and selective decay in the SSX plasma wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Tim; Brown, Michael; Dandurand, Dan; Fisher, Mike; Flanagan, Ken; Weinhold, Darren; Lukin, V.

    2011-10-01

    A helical, relaxed plasma state has been observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder has dimensions L = 1 m and R = 0 . 08 m. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v >= 50 km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. Typical plasma parameters are Ti = 25 eV, ne >=1015 cm-3, and B = 0 . 25 T. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1-2 axial Alfvén times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data is favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibits broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement to the minimum energy eigenstate of ∇ × B --> = λ B --> . While the global structure roughly corresponds to the minimum energy eigenstate for the wind tunnel geometry, the plasma is high beta (β = 0 . 5) and does not have a flat λ profile. Merging with plasma plumes injected from both ends of the cylinder will be compared to the non-merging plasmas. Supported by US DOE and NSF.

  18. Computer program for plotting and fairing wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed description of the Langley computer program PLOTWD which plots and fairs experimental wind-tunnel data is presented. The program was written for use primarily on the Langley CDC computer and CALCOMP plotters. The fundamental operating features of the program are that the input data are read and written to a random-access file for use during program execution, that the data for a selected run can be sorted and edited to delete duplicate points, and that the data can be plotted and faired using tension splines, least-squares polynomial, or least-squares cubic-spline curves. The most noteworthy feature of the program is the simplicity of the user-supplied input requirements. Several subroutines are also included that can be used to draw grid lines, zero lines, axis scale values and lables, and legends. A detailed description of the program operational features and each sub-program are presented. The general application of the program is also discussed together with the input and output for two typical plot types. A listing of the program code, user-guide, and output description are presented in appendices. The program has been in use at Langley for several years and has proven to be both easy to use and versatile.

  19. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

    The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

  20. Ares I Upper Stage Pressure Tests in Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

  1. Wind-Tunnel Balance Characterization for Hypersonic Research Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind-tunnel research was recently conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Hypersonic Facility in support of the Mars Science Laboratory s aerodynamic program. Researchers were interested in understanding the interaction between the freestream flow and the reaction control system onboard the entry vehicle. A five-component balance, designed for hypersonic testing with pressurized flow-through capability, was used. In addition to the aerodynamic forces, the balance was exposed to both thermal gradients and varying internal cavity pressures. Historically, the effect of these environmental conditions on the response of the balance have not been fully characterized due to the limitations in the calibration facilities. Through statistical design of experiments, thermal and pressure effects were strategically and efficiently integrated into the calibration of the balance. As a result of this new approach, researchers were able to use the balance continuously throughout the wide range of temperatures and pressures and obtain real-time results. Although this work focused on a specific application, the methodology shown can be applied more generally to any force measurement system calibration.

  2. A voice-actuated wind tunnel model leak checking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.

    1989-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that improves the efficiency of wind tunnel model leak checking. The program uses a voice recognition unit to relay a technician's commands to the computer. The computer, after receiving a command, can respond to the technician via a voice response unit. Information about the model pressure orifice being checked is displayed on a gas-plasma terminal. On command, the program records up to 30 seconds of pressure data. After the recording is complete, the raw data and a straight line fit of the data are plotted on the terminal. This allows the technician to make a decision on the integrity of the orifice being checked. All results of the leak check program are stored in a database file that can be listed on the line printer for record keeping purposes or displayed on the terminal to help the technician find unchecked orifices. This program allows one technician to check a model for leaks instead of the two or three previously required.

  3. The aerodynamics of a wind-tunnel fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W

    1941-01-01

    The vortex blade-element theory modified to apply to an axial fan working in a duct is reviewed. Thrust and power coefficients for a fan are identified with the corresponding coefficients for airplane propellers. The relation of pressure produced by the fan to the blade-element coefficients is developed. The distribution of axial velocity of fluid through a fan is assumed to be controlled by the fan itself. The radial distribution of tangential velocity imported by the fan to fluid moving through the fan is shown to be independent of the axial-velocity distribution. A nondimensional coefficient, designated the rotation constant, is introduced. This constant is based solely upon design information. The use of the rotation constant in simplifying the design of a fan for a specific operating condition is demonstrated. Based on the use of the rotation constant, a graphical method is outlined by which the performance of a given fan in a given wind tunnel may be predicted and by which the distributions of axial velocity of the fluid through the fan under various operating conditions may be established.

  4. Wind tunnel measurements of pollutant turbulent fluxes in urban intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have been carried out at the EnFlo laboratory to measure mean and turbulent tracer fluxes in geometries of real street canyon intersections. The work was part of the major DAPPLE project, focussing on the area surrounding the intersection between Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place in Central London, UK. Understanding flow and dispersion in urban streets is a very important issue for air quality management and planning, and turbulent mass exchange processes are important phenomena that are very often neglected in urban modelling studies. The adopted methodology involved the combined use of laser Doppler anemometry and tracer concentration measurements. This methodology was applied to quantify the mean and turbulent flow and dispersion fields within several street canyon intersections. Vertical profiles of turbulent tracer flux were also measured. The technique, despite a number of limitations, proved reliable and allowed tracer balance calculations to be undertaken in the selected street canyon intersections. The experience gained in this work will enable much more precise studies in the future as issues affecting the accuracy of the experimental technique have been identified and resolved.

  5. The cryogenic wind tunnel for high Reynolds number testing. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments performed at the NASA Langley Research Center in a cryogenic low-speed continuous-flow tunnel and in a cryogenic transonic continuous-flow pressure tunnel have demonstrated the predicted changes in Reynolds number, drive power, and fan speed with temperature, while operating with nitrogen as the test gas. The experiments have also demonstrated that cooling to cryogenic temperatures by spraying liquid nitrogen directly into the tunnel circuit is practical and that tunnel temperature can be controlled within very close limits. Whereas most types of wind tunnel could operate with advantage at cryogenic temperatures, the continuous-flow fan-driven tunnel is particularly well suited to take full advantage of operating at these temperatures. A continuous-flow fan-driven cryogenic tunnel to satisfy current requirements for test Reynolds number can be constructed and operated using existing techniques. Both capital and operating costs appear acceptable.

  6. Static Aeroelastic Analysis of Transonic Wind Tunnel Models Using Finite Element Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John R.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Valla, Robert

    1997-01-01

    A computational method for accurately predicting the static aeroelastic deformations of typical transonic transport wind tunnel models is described. The method utilizes a finite element method (FEM) for predicting the deformations. Extensive calibration/validation of this method was carried out using a novel wind-off wind tunnel model static loading experiment and wind-on optical wing twist measurements obtained during a recent wind tunnel test in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA LaRC. Further validations were carried out using a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver to calculate wing pressure distributions about several aeroelastically deformed wings and comparing these predictions with NTF experimental data. Results from this aeroelastic deformation method are in good overall agreement with experimentally measured values. Including the predicted deformations significantly improves the correlation between CFD predicted and experimentally measured wing & pressures.

  7. Wind Tunnel Testing of Microtabs and Microjets for Active Load Control of Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, Aubryn Murray

    Increases in wind turbine size have made controlling loads on the blades an important consideration for future turbine designs. One approach that could reduce extreme loads and minimize load variation is to incorporate active control devices into the blades that are able to change the aerodynamic forces acting on the turbine. A wind tunnel model has been constructed to allow testing of different active aerodynamic load control devices. Two such devices have been tested in the UC Davis Aeronautical Wind Tunnel: microtabs and microjets. Microtabs are small surfaces oriented perpendicular to an airfoil surface that can be deployed and retracted to alter the lift coefficient of the airfoil. Microjets produce similar effects using air blown perpendicular to the airfoil surface. Results are presented here for both static and dynamic performance of the two devices. Microtabs, located at 95% chord on the lower surface and 90% chord on the upper surface, with a height of 1% chord, produce a change in the lift coefficient of 0.18, increasing lift when deployed on the lower surface and decreasing lift when deployed on the upper surface. Microjets with a momentum coefficient of 0.006 at the same locations produce a change in the lift coefficient of 0.19. The activation time for both devices is less than 0.3 s, which is rapid compared to typical gust rise times. The potential of active device to mitigate changes in loads was tested using simulated gusts. The gusts were produced in the wind tunnel by accelerating the test section air speed at rates of up to 7 ft/s 2. Open-loop control of microtabs was tested in two modes: simultaneous and sequential tab deployment. Activating all tabs along the model span simultaneously was found to produce a change in the loads that occurred more rapidly than a gust. Sequential tab deployment more closely matched the rates of change due to gusts and tab deployment. A closed-loop control system was developed for the microtabs using a simple

  8. Wind tunnel measurements of the power output variability and unsteady loading in a micro wind farm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    To optimize wind farm layouts for a maximum power output and wind turbine lifetime, mean power output measurements in wind tunnel studies are not sufficient. Instead, detailed temporal information about the power output and unsteady loading from every single wind turbine in the wind farm is needed. A very small porous disc model with a realistic thrust coefficient of 0.75 - 0.85, was designed. The model is instrumented with a strain gage, allowing measurements of the thrust force, incoming velocity and power output with a frequency response up to the natural frequency of the model. This is shown by reproducing the -5/3 spectrum from the incoming flow. Thanks to its small size and compact instrumentation, the model allows wind tunnel studies of large wind turbine arrays with detailed temporal information from every wind turbine. Translating to field conditions with a length-scale ratio of 1:3,000 the frequencies studied from the data reach from 10-4 Hz up to about 6 .10-2 Hz. The model's capabilities are demonstrated with a large wind farm measurement consisting of close to 100 instrumented models. A high correlation is found between the power outputs of stream wise aligned wind turbines, which is in good agreement with results from prior LES simulations. Work supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no. 306471) and by NSF (grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  9. The theory of wind-tunnel wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore

    1933-01-01

    This report outlines the development of a general theory for the calculation of the effect of the boundaries of the air stream on the flow past an airfoil. Analytical treatments are given for tunnels with horizontal boundaries only, with vertical boundaries only, and with a bottom boundary only. Formulas are developed for the tunnel wall interference in each case for an airfoil located at the center of the tunnel. The correction is given as a function of the width to height ratio of the tunnel. The formulas are exact for infinitely small airfoils only, but give good approximation for spans up to about three-quarters of the tunnel width.

  10. Acoustic measurement study 40 by 80 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An acoustical study conducted during the period from September 1, 1973 to April 30, 1974 measured sound pressure levels and vibration amplitudes inside and outside of the subsonic tunnel and on the tunnel structure. A discussion of the technical aspects of the study, the field measurement and data reduction procedures, and results are presentd, and conclusions resulting from the study which bear upon near field and far field tunnel noise, upon the tunnel as an acoustical enclosure, and upon the sources of noise within the tunnel drive system are given.

  11. Planning Image-Based Measurements in Wind Tunnels by Virtual Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Schairer, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual imaging is routinely used at NASA Ames Research Center to plan the placement of cameras and light sources for image-based measurements in production wind tunnel tests. Virtual imaging allows users to quickly and comprehensively model a given test situation, well before the test occurs, in order to verify that all optical testing requirements will be met. It allows optimization of the placement of cameras and light sources and leads to faster set-up times, thereby decreasing tunnel occupancy costs. This paper describes how virtual imaging was used to plan optical measurements for three tests in production wind tunnels at NASA Ames.

  12. Design and Performance Evaluation of Slotted Walls for Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure for designing slotted walls for two dimensional wind tunnels is is presented. The design objective is the minimization of blockage of streamline curvature or the reduction of both. The slotted wall boundary condition is derived both for flow from the tunnel into the plenum and vice versa, and the procedure for evaluating wall interference is described. A correlation of experimental data for the slotted wall boundary condition is given. Results are given for several designs and evaluations of slotted wind tunnel walls.

  13. Simultaneous Global Pressure and Temperature Measurement Technique for Hypersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature luminescent coatings are being developed and applied for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping in conventional-type hypersonic wind tunnels, providing global pressure as well as Global aeroheating measurements. Together, with advanced model fabrication and analysis methods, these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles. The current status in development of simultaneous pressure- and temperature-sensitive coatings and measurement techniques for hypersonic wind tunnels at Langley Research Center is described. and initial results from a feasibility study in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel are presented.

  14. Hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles B.; Carraway, Debra L.; Stainback, P. Calvin; Fancher, M. F.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the determination of the location of boundary-layer transition is necessary for the correct interpretation of aerodynamic data in transonic wind tunnels. In the late 1970s the Douglas Aircraft Company developed a vapor deposition hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels. Tests of the hot-films in a low-speed tunnel demonstrated the ability to obtain on-line transition data with an enhanced simultaneous hot-film data acquisition system. The equipment design and specifications are described.

  15. Jet-boundary corrections for reflection-plane models in rectangular wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Robert S; Toll, Thomas A

    1943-01-01

    A detailed method for determining the jet-boundary corrections for reflection-plane models in rectangular wind tunnels is presented. The method includes the determination of the tunnel span local distribution and the derivation of equations for the corrections to the angle of attack, the lift and drag coefficients, and the pitching-, rolling-, yawing-, and hinge-moment coefficients. The principle effects of aerodynamic induction and of the boundary-induced curvature of the streamlines have been considered. An example is included to illustrate the method. Numerical values of the more important corrections for reflection-plane models in 7 by 10-foot closed wind tunnels are presented.

  16. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of this work is to demonstrate the potential of a cryogenic adaptive nozzle to generate quiet (low disturbance) supersonic flow. A drive system was researched for the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML) Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) using a pilot tunnel. A supportive effort for ongoing Proof of Concept (PoC) research leading to the design of critical components of the LFSWT was maintained. The state-of-the-art in quiet supersonic wind tunnel design was investigated. A supersonic research capability was developed within the FML.

  17. Finite-rate water condensation in combustion-heated wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Wayne D.; Mall, Gerald H.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1988-01-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional method for computing finite rate nucleation and droplet growth of water in a supersonic expansion of combustion products is presented. Sample computations are included for the Langley 8 foot High Temperature Tunnel, but the method can also be applied to other combustion heated wind tunnels. The sample results indicate that the free stream static pressure can be in the range of 25 to 60 percent greater than that computed for isentropic nozzle flow without water condensation. The method provides a tool for examining the effects of water condensation on static state properties and velocity of the supersonic stream in combustion heated wind tunnels.

  18. Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics (AMELIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtwardt, Jonathan; Paciano, Eric; Jameson, Tina; Fong, Robert; Marshall, David

    2012-01-01

    tunnel model design would be completed, manufactured, and calibrated. During the fifth year the large scale wind tunnel test was conducted. This technical memo will describe all phases of the Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics (AMELIA) project and provide a brief summary of the background and modeling efforts involved in the NRA. The conceptual designs considered for this project and the decision process for the selected configuration adapted for a wind tunnel model will be briefly discussed. The internal configuration of AMELIA, and the internal measurements chosen in order to satisfy the requirements of obtaining a database of experimental data to be used for future computational model validations. The external experimental techniques that were employed during the test, along with the large-scale wind tunnel test facility are covered in great detail. Experimental measurements in the database include forces and moments, and surface pressure distributions, local skin friction measurements, boundary and shear layer velocity profiles, far-field acoustic data and noise signatures from turbofan propulsion simulators. Results and discussion of the circulation control performance, over-the-wing mounted engines, and the combined performance are also discussed in great detail.

  19. Wind Tunnel Testing of Various Disk-Gap-Band Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Keller, Donald F.; Bobskill, Maria V.

    2003-01-01

    Two Disk-Gap-Band model parachute designs were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The purposes of these tests were to determine the drag and static stability coefficients of these two model parachutes at various subsonic Mach numbers in support of the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The two model parachute designs were designated 1.6 Viking and MPF. These model parachute designs were chosen to investigate the tradeoff between drag and static stability. Each of the parachute designs was tested with models fabricated from MIL-C-7020 Type III or F-111 fabric. The reason for testing model parachutes fabricated with different fabrics was to evaluate the effect of fabric permeability on the drag and static stability coefficients. Several improvements over the Viking-era wind tunnel tests were implemented in the testing procedures and data analyses. Among these improvements were corrections for test fixture drag interference and blockage effects, and use of an improved test fixture for measuring static stability coefficients. The 1.6 Viking model parachutes had drag coefficients from 0.440 to 0.539, while the MPF model parachutes had drag coefficients from 0.363 to 0.428. The 1.6 Viking model parachutes had drag coefficients 18 to 22 percent higher than the MPF model parachute for equivalent fabric materials and test conditions. Model parachutes of the same design tested at the same conditions had drag coefficients approximately 11 to 15 percent higher when manufactured from F-111 fabric as compared to those fabricated from MIL-C-7020 Type III fabric. The lower fabric permeability of the F-111 fabric was the source of this difference. The MPF model parachutes had smaller absolute statically stable trim angles of attack as compared to the 1.6 Viking model parachutes for equivalent fabric materials and test conditions. This was attributed to the MPF model parachutes larger band height to nominal diameter ratio. For both designs, model parachutes

  20. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. Part 1: Evolution, theory, and advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    An improved way to increase the Reynolds number capability of wind tunnels has been developed in the United States at the NASA Langley Research Center through the application of cryogenic technology. Cooling the test gas in the wind tunnel to cryogenic temperatures by spraying liquid nitrogen into the tunnel circuit increases the test Reynolds number by as much as a factor of 7 with no increase in dynamic pressure and with a reduction in drive power. Part 1 of this two-part review covers the evolution, theory, and major advantages of cryogenic wind tunnels. Part 2 will describe the development and early application of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept in the United States and some of the major cryogenic wind tunnel activities around the world, the most significant of which is a large fan-driven transonic cryogenic tunnel recently completed at the Langley Research Center.

  1. Simulation of pressure and temperature responses for the 20 Inch Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation of the pressure and temperature responses of the 20 inch Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) is developed. The simulation models the tunnel system as a set of lumped parameter volumes connected by flow regulating elements such as valves and nozzles. Simulated transient responses of temperature and pressure for the five boundary points of the 20 inch SWT operating map are produced from their respective initial conditions, tunnel operating conditions, heater input power, and valve positions. Upon reaching steady state, a linearized model for each operating point is determined. Both simulated and actual tunnel responses are presented for comparison.

  2. Ceramic and coating applications in the hostile environment of a high temperature hypersonic wind tunnel. [Langley 8-foot high temperature structures tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, R. L.; Karns, J. R.; Vasquez, P.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    A Mach 7, blowdown wind tunnel was used to investigate aerothermal structural phenomena on large to full scale high speed vehicle components. The high energy test medium, which provided a true temperature simulation of hypersonic flow at 24 to 40 km altitude, was generated by the combustion of methane with air at high pressures. Since the wind tunnel, as well as the models, must be protected from thermally induced damage, ceramics and coatings were used extensively. Coatings were used both to protect various wind tunnel components and to improve the quality of the test stream. Planned modifications for the wind tunnel included more extensive use of ceramics in order to minimize the number of active cooling systems and thus minimize the inherent operational unreliability and cost that accompanies such systems. Use of nonintrusive data acquisition techniques, such as infrared radiometry, allowed more widespread use of ceramics for models to be tested in high energy wind tunnels.

  3. A preliminary comparison between the SR-6 propeller noise in flight and in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Lasagna, P. L.; Mackall, K. G.

    High speed turboprops offer an attractive candidate for aircraft because of their high propulsive efficiency. However, one of the possible problems associated with these propellers is their high noise level at cruise condition that may create a cabin environment problem. Models of these propellers were tested for acoustics in the 8 by 6-foot wind tunnel and on the Jet Star airplane. Comparisons between the airplane and wind tunnel data for the SR-6 propeller are shown. The comparison of maximum blade passing tone variation with helical tip Mach number between the tunnel and flight data was good when corrected to the same test conditions. Directivity comparisons also showed fairly good agreement. These good comparisons indicate that the wind tunnel is a viable location for measuring the blade passage tone noise of these propellers.

  4. A preliminary comparison between the SR-6 propeller noise in flight and in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Lasagna, P. L.; Mackall, K. G.

    1983-01-01

    High speed turboprops offer an attractive candidate for aircraft because of their high propulsive efficiency. However, one of the possible problems associated with these propellers is their high noise level at cruise condition that may create a cabin environment problem. Models of these propellers were tested for acoustics in the 8 by 6-foot wind tunnel and on the Jet Star airplane. Comparisons between the airplane and wind tunnel data for the SR-6 propeller are shown. The comparison of maximum blade passing tone variation with helical tip Mach number between the tunnel and flight data was good when corrected to the same test conditions. Directivity comparisons also showed fairly good agreement. These good comparisons indicate that the wind tunnel is a viable location for measuring the blade passage tone noise of these propellers.

  5. Self streamlining wind tunnel: Further low speed testing and final design studies for the transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Work has continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility is outlined.

  6. Plans and Status of Wind-Tunnel Testing Employing an Aeroservoelastic Semispan Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Boyd, III; Silva, Walter A.; Florance, James R.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Scott, Robert C.; Keller, Donald F.; Cole, Stanley R.; Coulson, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the research objectives, summarizes the pre-wind-tunnel-test experimental results to date, summarizes the analytical predictions to date, and outlines the wind-tunnel-test plans for an aeroservoelastic semispan wind-tunnel model. The model is referred to as the Supersonic Semispan Transport (S4T) Active Controls Testbed (ACT) and is based on a supersonic cruise configuration. The model has three hydraulically-actuated surfaces (all-movable horizontal tail, all-movable ride control vane, and aileron) for active controls. The model is instrumented with accelerometers, unsteady pressure transducers, and strain gages and will be mounted on a 5-component sidewall balance. The model will be tested twice in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The first entry will be an "open-loop" model-characterization test; the second entry will be a "closed-loop" test during which active flutter suppression, gust load alleviation and ride quality control experiments will be conducted.

  7. Evaluation of flow quality in two large NASA wind tunnels at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.; Owen, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing of low drag airfoils and basic transition studies at transonic speeds are designed to provide high quality aerodynamic data at high Reynolds numbers. This requires that the flow quality in facilities used for such research be excellent. To obtain a better understanding of the characteristics of facility disturbances and identification of their sources for possible facility modification, detailed flow quality measurements were made in two prospective NASA wind tunnels. Experimental results are presented of an extensive and systematic flow quality study of the settling chamber, test section, and diffuser in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel and the Ames 12 foot pressure wind tunnel. Results indicate that the free stream velocity and pressure fluctuation levels in both facilities are low at subsonic speeds and are so high as to make it difficult to conduct meaningful boundary layer control and transition studies at transonic speeds.

  8. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanism, or tunnel shutdown.

  9. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanisms, or tunnel shutdown.

  10. Investigation of Condensation/Clustering Effects on Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering, a nonintrusive measurement technique for the measurement of density in a hypersonic wind tunnel, is under investigation at Wright Laboratory's Mach 6 wind tunnel. Several adverse effects, i.e., extraneous scatter off walls and windows, hinder Rayleigh scattering measurements. Condensation and clustering of flow constituents also present formidable obstacles. Overcoming some of these difficulties, measurements have been achieved while the Mach 6 test section was pumped down to a vacuum, as well as for actual tunnel operation for various stagnation pressures at fixed stagnation temperatures. Stagnation pressures ranged from 0.69 MPa to 6.9 MPa at fixed stagnation temperatures of 511, 556, and 611 K. Rayleigh scatter results show signal levels much higher than expected for molecular scattering in the wind tunnel. Even with higher than expected signals, scattering measurements have been made in the flowfield of an 8-degree half-angle blunt nose cone with a nose radius of 1.5 cm.

  11. Estimation of spaceplane longitudinal stability and control derivatives from dynamic wind tunnel test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, Masaaki; Sasa, Shuichi; Shimomura, Takashi; Takizawa, Minoru; Suzuki, Seizo; Nagayasu, Masahiko

    Dynamic wind tunnel tests using a 5-percent cable-mounted model of the NAL spaceplane have been conducted in the NAL low-speed large scale wind tunnel. A parameter identification study of the recorded data was undertaken to extract longitudinal stability and control derivatives. The following three estimation methods were adopted: (1) estimate all the derivatives simultaneously; (2) estimate the stability and control derivatives separately; and (3) estimate the dynamic derivatives only while the static derivatives are fixed in results from static wind tunnel tests. The estimated derivatives were evaluated by comparing mathematically simulated time histories based on them with tunnel test data. As a result, all major derivatives were estimated well and the effectiveness of the dynamic test was shown.

  12. Combating wind erosion of sandy soils and crop damage in the coastal deserts: Wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genis, Arthur; Vulfson, Leonid; Ben-Asher, Jiftah

    2013-06-01

    In the western Negev desert of Israel frequent sandstorms cause heavy damage to young lettuce, carrot, peanut and potato plants during the planting season. The damage of plants is based mainly on the mechanical impact of saltating sand particles, which causes irreversible injuries to the plant leaves. Current agro-technique measures taken to prevent wind damage to crop in Israel are based on high frequency irrigation. Although the high-frequency irrigation helps bind soil particles together by forming a soil crust, it is associated with the large waste of water, which is not practical under the arid conditions. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a chemical stabilizer has proved to be effective for prevention of soil erosion, saving irrigation water and a stable growth of plants in the early stages. Although the technique of PAM application is not yet used commercially in Israel, the preliminary studies suggested that it might have the potential to reduce the damage to the plant leaves by sandstorms, providing both environmental and agricultural benefits. In this study the effectiveness of PAM for preventing sandstorms in the western Negev was also investigated. Optimal concentration and volume of PAM solution per hectare of bare sandy soil were determined. For this purpose a wind tunnel was used to determine wind velocities of the first and continuous detachment of particles. The ability of PAM application to minimize the damage of plants by sandstorms was experimentally verified using image analysis tools.

  13. Wind-tunnel tests and modeling indicate that aerial dispersant delivery operations are highly accurate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture’s high-speed wind tunnel facility in College Station, Texas, USA was used to determine droplet size distributions generated by dispersant delivery nozzles at wind speeds comparable to those used in aerial dispersant application. A laser particle size anal...

  14. Characterization of pollutant dispersion near elongated buildings based on wind tunnel simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a wind tunnel study of the effects of elongated rectangular buildings on the dispersion of pollutants from nearby stacks. The study examines the influence of source location, building aspect ratio, and wind direction on pollutant dispersion with the goal of de...

  15. Analysis of heat-transfer measurements from 2 AEDC wind tunnels on the Shuttle external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    Previous aerodynamic heating tests have been conducted in the AEDC/VKF Supersonic Wind Tunnel (A) to aid in defining the design thermal environment for the space shuttle external tank. The quality of these data has been under discussion because of the effects of low tunnel enthalpy and slow model injection rates. Recently the AEDC/VKF Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (C) has been modified to provide a Mach 4 capability that has significantly higher tunnel enthalpy with more rapid model injection rates. Tests were conducted in Tunnel C at Mach 4 to obtain data on the external tank for comparison with Tunnel A results. Data were obtained on a 0.0175 scale model of the Space Shuttle Integrated Vehicle at Re/ft = 4 x 10 to the 6th power with the tunnel stagnation temperature varying from 740 to 1440 R. Model attitude varied from an angle of attack of -5 to 5 deg and an angle of sideslip of -3 to 3 deg. One set of data was obtained in Tunnel C at Re/ft = 6.9 x 10 to the 6th for comparison with flight data. Data comparisons between the two tunnels for numerous regions on the external tank are given.

  16. Control of Wind Tunnel Operations Using Neural Net Interpretation of Flow Visualization Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, Alvin E.; Decker, Arthur J.

    1994-01-01

    Neural net control of operations in a small subsonic/transonic/supersonic wind tunnel at Lewis Research Center is discussed. The tunnel and the layout for neural net control or control by other parallel processing techniques are described. The tunnel is an affordable, multiuser platform for testing instrumentation and components, as well as parallel processing and control strategies. Neural nets have already been tested on archival schlieren and holographic visualizations from this tunnel as well as recent supersonic and transonic shadowgraph. This paper discusses the performance of neural nets for interpreting shadowgraph images in connection with a recent exercise for tuning the tunnel in a subsonic/transonic cascade mode of operation. That mode was operated for performing wake surveys in connection with NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) noise reduction program. The shadowgraph was presented to the neural nets as 60 by 60 pixel arrays. The outputs were tunnel parameters such as valve settings or tunnel state identifiers for selected tunnel operating points, conditions, or states. The neural nets were very sensitive, perhaps too sensitive, to shadowgraph pattern detail. However, the nets exhibited good immunity to variations in brightness, to noise, and to changes in contrast. The nets are fast enough so that ten or more can be combined per control operation to interpret flow visualization data, point sensor data, and model calculations. The pattern sensitivity of the nets will be utilized and tested to control wind tunnel operations at Mach 2.0 based on shock wave patterns.

  17. Design and validation of a wind tunnel system for odour sampling on liquid area sources.

    PubMed

    Capelli, L; Sironi, S; Del Rosso, R; Céntola, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the methods adopted for the design and the experimental validation of a wind tunnel, a sampling system suitable for the collection of gaseous samples on passive area sources, which allows to simulate wind action on the surface to be monitored. The first step of the work was the study of the air velocity profiles. The second step of the work consisted in the validation of the sampling system. For this purpose, the odour concentration of some air samples collected by means of the wind tunnel was measured by dynamic olfactometry. The results of the air velocity measurements show that the wind tunnel design features enabled the achievement of a uniform and homogeneous air flow through the hood. Moreover, the laboratory tests showed a very good correspondence between the odour concentration values measured at the wind tunnel outlet and the odour concentration values predicted by the application of a specific volatilization model, based on the Prandtl boundary layer theory. The agreement between experimental and theoretical trends demonstrate that the studied wind tunnel represents a suitable sampling system for the simulation of specific odour emission rates from liquid area sources without outward flow.

  18. Design and optimization of resistance wire electric heater for hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khurram; Malik, Afzaal M.; Khan, I. J.; Hassan, Jehangir

    2012-06-01

    The range of flow velocities of high speed wind tunnels varies from Mach 1.0 to hypersonic order. In order to achieve such high speed flows, a high expansion nozzle is employed in the converging-diverging section of wind tunnel nozzle. The air for flow is compressed and stored in pressure vessels at temperatures close to ambient conditions. The stored air is dried and has minimum amount of moisture level. However, when this air is expanded rapidly, its temperature drops significantly and liquefaction conditions can be encountered. Air at near room temperature will liquefy due to expansion cooling at a flow velocity of more than Mach 4.0 in a wind tunnel test section. Such liquefaction may not only be hazardous to the model under test and wind tunnel structure; it may also affect the test results. In order to avoid liquefaction of air, a pre-heater is employed in between the pressure vessel and the converging-diverging section of a wind tunnel. A number of techniques are being used for heating the flow in high speed wind tunnels. Some of these include the electric arc heating, pebble bed electric heating, pebble bed natural gas fired heater, hydrogen burner heater, and the laser heater mechanisms. The most common are the pebble bed storage type heaters, which are inefficient, contaminating and time consuming. A well designed electrically heating system can be efficient, clean and simple in operation, for accelerating the wind tunnel flow up to Mach 10. This paper presents CFD analysis of electric preheater for different configurations to optimize its design. This analysis has been done using ANSYS 12.1 FLUENT package while geometry and meshing was done in GAMBIT.

  19. Improvement of a wind-tunnel sampling system for odour and VOCs.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Jiang, J; Kaye, R

    2001-01-01

    Wind-tunnel systems are widely used for collecting odour emission samples from surface area sources. Consequently, a portable wind-tunnel system was developed at the University of New South Wales that was easy to handle and suitable for sampling from liquid surfaces. Development work was undertaken to ensure even air-flows above the emitting surface and to optimise air velocities to simulate real situations. However, recovery efficiencies for emissions have not previously been studied for wind-tunnel systems. A series of experiments was carried out for determining and improving the recovery rate of the wind-tunnel sampling system by using carbon monoxide as a tracer gas. It was observed by mass balance that carbon monoxide recovery rates were initially only 37% to 48% from a simulated surface area emission source. It was therefore apparent that further development work was required to improve recovery efficiencies. By analysing the aerodynamic character of air movement and CO transportation inside the wind-tunnel, it was determined that the apparent poor recoveries resulted from uneven mixing at the sample collection point. A number of modifications were made for the mixing chamber of the wind-tunnel system. A special sampling chamber extension and a sampling manifold with optimally distributed sampling orifices were developed for the wind-tunnel sampling system. The simulation experiments were repeated with the new sampling system. Over a series of experiments, the recovery efficiency of sampling was improved to 83-100% with an average of 90%, where the CO tracer gas was introduced at a single point and 92-102% with an average of 97%, where the CO tracer gas was introduced along a line transverse to the sweep air. The stability and accuracy of the new system were determined statistically and are reported.

  20. Evaluation of a micro-scale wind model's performance over realistic building clusters using wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Du, Yunsong; Miao, Shiguang; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-08-01

    The simulation performance over complex building clusters of a wind simulation model (Wind Information Field Fast Analysis model, WIFFA) in a micro-scale air pollutant dispersion model system (Urban Microscale Air Pollution dispersion Simulation model, UMAPS) is evaluated using various wind tunnel experimental data including the CEDVAL (Compilation of Experimental Data for Validation of Micro-Scale Dispersion Models) wind tunnel experiment data and the NJU-FZ experiment data (Nanjing University-Fang Zhuang neighborhood wind tunnel experiment data). The results show that the wind model can reproduce the vortexes triggered by urban buildings well, and the flow patterns in urban street canyons and building clusters can also be represented. Due to the complex shapes of buildings and their distributions, the simulation deviations/discrepancies from the measurements are usually caused by the simplification of the building shapes and the determination of the key zone sizes. The computational efficiencies of different cases are also discussed in this paper. The model has a high computational efficiency compared to traditional numerical models that solve the Navier-Stokes equations, and can produce very high-resolution (1-5 m) wind fields of a complex neighborhood scale urban building canopy (~ 1 km ×1 km) in less than 3 min when run on a personal computer.