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Sample records for aeroassisted flight experiment

  1. Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), an experiment with the objective of investigating critical vehicle design and environmental technologies applicable to the design of aeroassisted space transfer vehicles. Information is given on design, simulation, flight regime, mission requirements and objectives, instrumentation, and the project schedule.

  2. Aeroassist flight experiment guidance, navigation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Timothy J.; Engel, Albert G.

    1986-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment scheduled for the early 1990's will demonstrate the use of a low L/D lifting brake using aerodynamic drag to return a spacecraft from a high energy to a low earth orbit. The experimental vehicle will be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle Orbiter. This paper reviews some of the challenges, problems, and solutions encountered to date during guidance system development, with emphasis on technology advances which will benefit an operational Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). Key factors to be discussed include guidance alternatives, aerodynamic modeling, navigation requirements, the impact of atmospheric uncertainties, and flight profile alternatives considered during initial planning.

  3. Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. The intent of this experiment is to simulate a GEO-to-LEO transfer, where GEO denotes a geosynchronous earth orbit and LEO denotes a low earth orbit. The trajectories of an AFE spacecraft are analyzed in a 3D-space, employing the full system of 6 ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the atmospheric pass. The atmospheric entry conditions are given, and the atmospheric exit conditions are adjusted. Two possible transfers are considered: (1) indirect ascent to a 178 NM perigee via a 197 NM apogee; and (2) direct ascent to a 178 NM apogee.

  4. Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Edwin B.

    1989-01-01

    The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.

  5. Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.

    1989-01-01

    The optimal trajectories of the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) spacecraft are analyzed in a three-dimensional space using the full system of six ODEs describing the atmospheric pass. The optimal trajectories are computed for two possible transfers: indirect ascent to a 178 NM perigee via a 197 NM apogee and direct ascent to a 178 NM apogee. For each transfer, two cases are investigated: (1) the bank angle is continuously variable, and (2) the trajectory is divided into segments along which the bank angle is constant. It is shown that the optimal trajectories for both cases coalesce into a two subarc trajectory, with the bank angle constant in each subarc. It is also shown that, during the atmospheric pass, the peak values of the changes of the orbital inclination and the longitude of the ascending node are nearly zero.

  6. Wall catalysis experiment on AFE. [Aeroassist Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the wall catalysis experiment which is planned as part of the Aeroassist Flight experiments (AFE) that will be flown from the Space Shuttle Orbiter in late 1993. Research on candidate high-catalytic efficiency overcoats for the experiment conducted in an arc-jet air stream are discussed. The temperature distribution over the AFE heat shield is also predicted using a reacting boundary layer solution that includes surface kinetics and optical properties determined from these tests.

  7. Atmospheric guidance concepts for an aeroassist flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Cerimele, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Higgins, J.

    1988-06-01

    Three atmospheric guidance concepts proposed for an aeroassist flight experiment are presented. The flight experiment will simulate a return from geosynchronous orbit by an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle and is proposed to be flown on board the Space Shuttle in 1992. The three guidance concepts include an analytic predictor/corrector, a numeric predictor/corrector, and an energy controller. The algorithms for the three guidance methods are developed and performance results are presented for the nominal case and for several cases dispersed from the nominal conditions.

  8. Aeroassist Flight Experiment Reaction Control System preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, G. K.; Price, D. E.; Gallaher, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) has several different flight modes associated with its mission. The effect the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS) has on the Reaction Control System (RCS) requirements for all the flight modes is discussed. The ACS requirements and their consequences on the design of the RCS is then discussed in detail. Special problems in the RCS design unique to the AFE mission and the design solutions to these problems are presented.

  9. Nominal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of generating good nominal trajectories is considered with particular reference to an AFE type spacecraft flying with constant angle of attack and variable angle of bank. A simulated GEO-to-LEO aeroassisted orbital transfer is considered. It is shown that, for fixed control, the AFE trajectory exhibits strong intrinsic instability in the longitudinal motion and near neutrality in the lateral motion, while stability can be artificially induced via feedback control, the effectiveness of a feedback control scheme depends on control margin availability. The AFE nominal trajectory must be chosen as a compromise between good performance and good control margin.

  10. Navigation systems requirement analysis for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K. H.; Chang, Ho-Pen; Wells, Eugene M.

    1990-01-01

    Navigation requirements for Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft passing through the earth's atmosphere have been studied using a 6-DOF dynamics model, an Inertial Measurement Unit model, a baseline AFE aeropass flight guidance logic, and a baseline AFE aeropass control model. The goal of this study is to determine, in a statistical sense, how much flight path angle error can be tolerated at Entry Interface (EI) and still have acceptable delta-V requirements at exit to position the AFE spacecraft for recovery. Assuming there is fuel available to produce 370 ft/sec of delta-V at atmospheric exit, a 3-sigma standard deviation in flight path angle error of 0.04 degree at EI would result in a 98 percent probability of mission success. In addition to the required delta-V at exit, other aeropass parameters such as maximum aeroheating rate, fuel consumption, and the science requirements affecting mission success are also investigated.

  11. Decomposition technique and optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Deaton, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    An actual geosynchronous Earth orbit-to-low Earth orbit (GEO-to-LEO) transfer is considered with reference to the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) spacecraft, and optimal trajectories are determined by minimizing the total characteristic velocity. The optimization is performed with respect to the time history of the controls (angle of attack and angle of bank), the entry path inclination and the flight time being free. Two transfer maneuvers are considered: direct ascent (DA) to LEO and indirect ascent (IA) to LEO via parking Earth orbit (PEO). By taking into account certain assumptions, the complete system can be decoupled into two subsystems: one describing the longitudinal motion and one describing the lateral motion. The angle of attack history, the entry path inclination, and the flight time are determined via the longitudinal motion subsystem. In this subsystem, the difference between the instantaneous bank angle and a constant bank angle is minimized in the least square sense subject to the specified orbital inclination requirement. Both the angles of attack and the angle of bank are shown to be constant. This result has considerable importance in the design of nominal trajectories to be used in the guidance of AFE and aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) vehicles.

  12. Decomposition technique and optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Deaton, A. W.

    1991-01-01

    An actual geosynchronous earth orbit-to-low earth orbit (GEO-to-LEO) transfer is considered with reference to the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) spacecraft, and optimal trajectories are determined by minimizing the total characteristic velocity. The optimization is performed with respect to the time history of the controls (angle of attack and angle of bank), the entry path inclination and the flight time being free. Two transfer maneuvers are considered: direct ascent (DA) to LEO and indirect ascent (IA) to LEO via parking earth orbit (PEO). By taking into account certain assumptions, the complete system can be decoupled into two subsystems: one describing the longitudinal motion and one describing the lateral motion. The angle of attack history, the entry path inclination, and the flight time are determined via the longitudinal motion subsystem. In this subsystem, the difference between the instantaneous bank angle and a constant bank angle is minimized in the least square sense subject to the specified orbital inclination requirement. Both the angles of attack and the angle of bank are shown to be constant. This result has considerable importance in the design of nominal trajectories to be used in the guidance of AFE and aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) vehicles.

  13. Aerothermodynamic environment predictions in support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, John F.; Kumar, Ganesh N.; Seaford, C. M.

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has been made of the flow past an Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) aerobrake model with a payload and sting. The simulation involves solving the complete Navier-Stokes equations in three dimensions. Comparisons with data taken in a Mach 10 wind tunnel test are made and agreement is shown to be very good. Points of comparison include the aerobrake surface pressure and heat transfer rate, the sting surface streamlines, and the sting heat transfer rate. The dependence of the solution on the grid is also explored. Finally, predictions are made for conditions which correspond to a hypersonic shock tunnel force and moment test to be carried out later this year.

  14. The controllability of the aeroassist flight experiment atmospheric skip trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) will be the first vehicle to simulate a return from geosynchronous orbit, deplete energy during an aerobraking maneuver, and navigate back out of the atmosphere to a low earth orbit It will gather scientific data necessary for future Aeroasisted Orbitl Transfer Vehicles (AOTV's). Critical to mission success is the ability of the atmospheric guidance to accurately attain a targeted post-aeropass orbital apogee while nulling inclination errors and compensating for dispersions in state, aerodynamic, and atmospheric parameters. In typing to satisfy mission constraints, atmospheric entry-interface (EI) conditions, guidance gains, and trajectory. The results of the investigation are presented; emphasizing the adverse effects of dispersed atmospheres on trajectory controllability.

  15. Prediction of the pattern performance for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C.; Rudduck, R.; Torres, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide a set of benchmark flight data for a reusable Aeroassisted Orbit Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) application, NASA undertook the development of an Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE) which will be launched from the Space Shuttle. A representative aeroassist trajectory will be flown and sensor measurements of aerodynamic performance, thermal protection response, and plasma ionization reentry effects will be obtained. Discussed here is the spacecraft antenna. Estimates of signal transmissions from the AFE to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) during the reentry period are given. The computer modeling of the antennas is presented with and without the reentry plasma.

  16. Flight stagnation-point heating calculations on Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. H., II; Gupta, Roop N.; Jones, Jim J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle will be deployed from the Space Shuttle Orbiter in 1994 to make a data-gethering aeropass through the upper atmosphere before returning to orbit for Shuttle pickup. An axisymmetric, chemically-reacting viscous shock-layer code is presently used to calculate AFE heating rates which automatically accounts for the viscous-inviscid interaction and entropy layer-swallowing effects which are ignored by the conventional boundary-layer methods. Results are presented for the stagnation-point heating of the current AFE baseline trajectory.

  17. Pressure Distribution and Air Data System for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Lorelei S.; Siemers, Paul M., III; Kern, Frederick A.

    1989-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is designed to provide critical flight data necessary for the design of future Aeroassist Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTV). This flight experiment will provide aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and environmental data for verification of experimental and computational flow field techniques. The Pressure Distribution and Air Data System (PD/ADS), one of the measurement systems incorporated into the AFE spacecraft, is designed to provide accurate pressure measurements on the windward surface of the vehicle. These measurements will be used to determine the pressure distribution and air data parameters (angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and free-stream dynamic pressure) encountered by the blunt-bodied vehicle over an altitude range of 76.2 km to 94.5 km. Design and development data are presented and include: measurement requirements, measurement heritage, theoretical studies to define the vehicle environment, flush-mounted orifice configuration, pressure transducer selection and performance evaluation data, and pressure tubing response analysis.

  18. A code calibration program in support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code calibration program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm to be used as support for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is discussed. Comparisons between experimental data and numerical simulations are made which focus on perfect-gas tests involving a scale model of the AFE. Aspects of the thermochemical nonequilibrium model are called into question by the results of ground tests performed in a ballistic range and in a shock tunnel.

  19. Measured and predicted aerodynamic coefficients and shock shapes for Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Two scaled models of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle were tested in two air wind tunnels and one CF4 tunnel. The tests were to determine the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, and shock shapes for the configuration in hypersonic continuum flow. The tests were conducted with a range of angle of attack to evaluate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds numbers, and normal shock density ratio.

  20. Three-dimensional flow simulation about the AFE vehicle in the transitional regime. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celenligil, M. Cevdet; Moss, James N.; Blanchard, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The direct-simulation Monte Carlo technique is used to analyze the hypersonic rarefied flow about the three-dimensional NASA Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle. Results are given for typical transitional flows encountered during the vehicle's atmospheric entry from altitudes of 200-100 km with an entry velocity of 9.9 km/s. It is found that dissociation is important at altitudes of 110 km and below, and that transitional effects are significant even at an altitude of 200 km.

  1. Radiometric investigation of the wake flow of the forthcoming Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Park, C.; Davy, W. C.; Craig, R. A.; Babikian, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale for conducting the proposed radiation measurement in the afterbody region of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle, the results of the calculations of expected radiation intensities performed to date, and the instrumentation for the measurement. The experiment, named the Afterbody Radiometry Experiment (ARE), is one of the experiments that will be carried on board the AFE vehicle. The paper collates the existing experimental data to show the possibility that there may be substantial radiative heating of the afterbody region of an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle, which necessitates an experiment of the kind proposed. Calculations of the radiative heating rate to the base of the AFE are, qualitatively, in fair agreement with previous experimental work, which indicated that the radiative heating of the base is about 5 percent of that at the stagnation point.

  2. Simulation of the AFE mission heating in an arc-jet wind tunnel. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Craig, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is presented for simulating a time-varying heating profile in an arc-jet wind tunnel and its application to the testing of a sapphire radiometer window assembly for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The AFE is an experimental mission designed to obtain as much data as possible relative to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic phenomena associated with aeroassisted maneuvering. The developed test procedure ensures satisfactory simulation by avoiding the thermal gradients of a step-function heat exposure by matching the heating/time values and by matching the integrated heat load. Furthermore, this is accomplished in a plasma stream in which enthalpy and pressure ensure a close approximation to the real flight environment.

  3. Wind-tunnel based definition of the AFE aerothermodynamic environment. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles G.; Wells, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), scheduled to be performed in 1994, will serve as a precursor for aeroassisted space transfer vehicles (ASTV's) and is representative of entry concepts being considered for missions to Mars. Rationale for the AFE is reviewed briefly as are the various experiments carried aboard the vehicle. The approach used to determine hypersonic aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics over a wide range of simulation parameters in ground-based facilities is presented. Facilities, instrumentation and test procedures employed in the establishment of the data base are discussed. Measurements illustrating the effects of hypersonic simulation parameters, particularly normal-shock density ratio (an important parameter for hypersonic blunt bodies), and attitude on aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics are presented, and predictions from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer codes are compared with measurement.

  4. Aerobrake aerothermodynamic environment predictions in support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, John F.; Kumar, Ganesh N.; Seaford, C. M.

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of the flow past an Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) aerobrake under wind tunnel test conditions has been made. The Navier-Stokes equations in three dimensions were solved numerically using a finite-volume, implicit approach. Comparisons with experimental data include surface pressures and heat transfer rates and aerodynamic coefficients. Agreement with experiment is shown to be excellent. The dependence of the solution on the computational grid is explored. The present work is preliminary to simulation of the flow past the AFE under flight conditions, which at present cannot be duplicated with ground-based experimental facilities.

  5. Engineering methodology to estimate the aerodynamic heating to the base of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambamurthi, Jay; Warmbrod, John; Seaford, Mark

    1989-01-01

    An engineering methodology has been developed to predict the convective heating and pressure environments to the base surfaces of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle during its earth aeropass. Data obtained from prior flight vehicles, wind tunnel tests, CFD analysis of AFE, and simple one-dimensional isentropic flow expansion relationships along with standard aeroheating methods were employed. With the exception of one corner, the AFE base surfaces are immersed in separated flow and are, therefore, exposed to heating and pressure that are small compared to the front face of the aerobrake.

  6. Aerobrake heating rate sensitivity study for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Ting, P. C.; Mueller, S. R.; Colovin, J. E.; Bouslog, S. A.; Curry, D. M.; Scott, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivities associated with the prediction of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle's aerothermodynamic environment are presently evaluated in order to assess the heating-rate uncertainties of the AFE's aerobrake component, as a function of time in various trajectories, and as a function of distance around the aerobrake. Relative importance is evaluated by means of the Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure for such areas of uncertainty as the trajectory parameters, the catalycity of the thermal-protection tiles, the nose radius variation/surface pressure distribution, and viscous interaction effects.

  7. Calculation of convective and radiative heating on the forebody heatshield of the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Greendyke, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The total (convective and radiative) heating is calculated over the entire forebody heatshield of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle. The convective heating is calculated using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code (LAURA) which includes both chemical and thermal nonequilibrium effects. The flowfield solution is then used to provide inputs to a nonequilibrium air radiation code (NEQAIR) to calculate the nonequilibrium radiative heating. Results are presented at two points on the current Baseline 5A trajectory corresponding to the start of the primary data taking period and peak heating.

  8. Optimal trajectories for the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment. Part 2: Equations of motion in an inertial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Zhao, Z. G.; Lee, W. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. The AFE refers to the study of the free flight of an autonomous spacecraft, shuttle-launched and shuttle-recovered. Its purpose is to gather atmospheric entry environmental data for use in designing aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV). It is assumed that: (1) the spacecraft is a particle of constant mass; (2) the Earth is rotating with constant angular velocity; (3) the Earth is an oblate planet, and the gravitational potential depends on both the radial distance and the latitude (harmonics of order higher than four are ignored); and (4) the atmosphere is at rest with respect to the Earth. Under these assumptions, the equations of motion for hypervelocity atmospheric flight (which can be used not only for AFE problems, but also for AOT problems and space shuttle problems) are derived in an inertial system. Transformation relations are supplied which allow one to pass from quantities computed in an inertial system to quantities computed in an Earth-fixed system and vice versa.

  9. A computational study of the flowfield surrounding the Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Greene, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    A symmetric total variation diminishing (STVD) algorithm has been applied to the solution of the three-dimensional hypersonic flowfield surrounding the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle. Both perfect-gas and chemical nonequilibrium models have been used. The perfect-gas flows were computed at two different Reynolds numbers, including a flight trajectory point at maximum dynamic pressure, and on two different grids. Procedures for coupling the solution of the species continuity equations with the Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of chemical nonequilibrium are reviewed and tested on the forebody of the AFE and on the complete flowfield assuming noncatalytic wall and no species diffusion. Problems with the STVD algorithm unique to flows with variable thermodynamic properties (real gas) are identified and algorithm modifications are suggested. A potential heating problem caused by strong flow impingement on the nozzle lip in the near wake at 0-deg angle of attack has been identified.

  10. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows over the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code development and application program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA), with emphasis directed toward support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) in the near term and Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design in the long term is reviewed. LAURA is an upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for 3-D, viscous, hypersonic flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. The algorithm is derived using a finite volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large, block tri-diagonal systems. A single relaxation step depends only on information from nearest neighbors. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamic coefficients compare well with experimental data for Mach 10 flow over an AFE wind tunnel model. Predictions for the hypersonic flow of air in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium over the full scale AFE configuration obtained on a multi-domain grid are discussed.

  11. Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment. Part 3: Formulation, results, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of optimal trajectories for the aero-assisted flight experiment (AFE) is investigated. The intent of this experiment is to simulate a GEO-to-LEO transfer, where GEO denotes a geosynchronous Earth orbit and LEO denotes a low Earth orbit. The trajectories of an AFE spacecraft are analyzed in a 3D-space, employing the full system of 6 ODEs describing the atmospheric pass. The atmospheric entry conditions are given, and the atmospheric exit conditions are adjusted in such a way that the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the atmospheric velocity depletion is such that, after exiting, the AFE spacecraft first ascends to a specified apogee and then descends to a specified perigee; and (2) the exit orbital plane is identical with the entry orbital plane. The final maneuver, not analyzed here, includes the rendezvous with and the capture by the space shuttle.

  12. Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment. Part 4: Data, tables, and graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Wang, H.; Wu, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. Data, tables, and graphs relative to the following transfers are presented: (IA) indirect ascent to a 178 NM perigee via a 197 NM apogee; and (DA) direct ascent to a 178 NM apogee. For both transfers, two cases are investigated: (1) the bank angle is continuously variable; and (2) the trajectory is divided into segments along which the bank angle is constant. For case (2), the following subcases are studied: two segments, three segments, four segments, and five segments; because the time duration of each segment is optimized, the above subcases involve four, six, eight, and ten parameters, respectively. Presented here are systematic data on a total of ten optimal trajectories (OT), five for Transfer IA and five for Transfer DA. For comparison purposes and only for Transfer IA, a five-segment reference trajectory RT is also considered.

  13. Free-molecule-flow force and moment coefficients of the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Hinson, Edwin W.

    1989-01-01

    Calculated results for the aerodynamic coefficients over the range of + or - 90 deg in both pitch and yaw attitude angles for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle in free molecule flow are presented. The AFE body is described by a large number of small flat plate surface elements whose orientations are established in a wind axes coordinate system through the pitch and yaw attitude angles. Lift force, drag force, and three components of aerodynamic moment about a specified point are computed for each element. The elemental forces and moments are integrated over the entire body, and total force and moment coefficients are computed. The coefficients are calculated for the two limiting gas-surface molecular collision conditions, namely, specular and diffuse, which assume zero and full thermal accommodation of the incoming gas molecules with the surface, respectively. The individual contribution of the shear stress and pressure terms are calculated and also presented.

  14. In flight demonstration of mass property identification and jet plume interaction on the AeroAssist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergmann, Edward V.; Blanchard, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms have been developed for in-flight demonstration of spacecraft mass, center of mass, and inertia matrix which autonomously measure mass properties as they change in-flight due to consumable expenditures, payload deployment/retrieval, and docking. The testing of these algorithms can be conducted by means of a mass-properties estimator, which is a second-order nonlinear filter resembling an extended Kalman filter. The AeroAssist Flight Experiment, which will demonstrate the use of the earth's atmosphere to assist orbital changes, will carry the Rarefied-flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME); data taken by RAME will be used by the mass-properties estimator to ascertain spacecraft mass properties, and estimates from this filter will be compared to predicted values of the mass properties to validate the estimator.

  15. Review of a code development and calibration program in support of the aeroassist flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code development and calibration program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) is reviewed, with emphasis directed toward support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The flight project is designed to obtain data which will be used in the validation of computational fluid dynamic approximation methods. Comparisons between experimental data and numerical simulation focus on perfect-gas tests over a scale model of the AFE and on flight and ground tests which challenge some aspect of the thermochemical nonequilibrium model. In the first case, the gas model is simple, but the grid-related problems of defining the real vehicle are present. In the second case, the vehicle geometries are simple, but thermochemical processes must be modeled correctly in order to compare with the experimental data. These comparisons are described as calibration runs because they test elements of the numerical simulation, but no single data set adequately simulates the full-scale AFE flight conditions. Comparisons between computation and experiment over a broad range of data sets show generally good agreement, though some aspects of the numerical model require further development.

  16. Measured and predicted aerodynamic heating on a cylinder in wake of AFE configuration at incidence. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Thin-film resistance gages were used to measure cylinder surface heat-transfer rates in the near wake of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle configuration, while surface-streamline directions were ascertained by the oil-flow techniques under the same configuration and test conditions. Both heat transfer distributions and flow over the entire cylinder surface were influenced by impingement of that portion of the free shear layer originating at the forebody shoulder in the upper symmetry plane. Heating rate distributions predicted with a Navier-Stokes solver computer code were in general agreement with measurements.

  17. Experimental and predicted pressure and heating distributions for an Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle in air at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    1989-01-01

    The Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle for whose scale model pressure and heat-transfer rate distributions have been measured in air at Mach 10 is a 60-deg elliptic cone, raked off at a 73-percent angle, with an ellipsoid nose and a skirt added to the base of the rake plane to reduce heating. The predictions of both an inviscid flow-field code and a Navier-Stokes solver are compared with measured values. Good agreement is obtained in the case of pressure distributions; the effect of Reynolds number on heat-transfer distributions is noted to be small.

  18. Optimal trajectories for the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment. Part 1: Equations of motion in an Earth-fixed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Zhao, Z. G.; Lee, W. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. The AFE refers to the study of the free flight of an autonomous spacecraft, shuttle-launched and shuttle-recovered. Its purpose is to gather atmospheric entry environmental data for use in designing aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV). It is assumed that: (1) the spacecraft is a particle of constant mass; (2) the Earth is rotating with constant angular velocity; (3) the Earth is an oblate planet, and the gravitational potential depends on both the radial distance and the latitude (harmonics of order higher than four are ignored); and (4) the atmosphere is at rest with respect to the Earth. Under these assumptions, the equations of motion for hypervelocity atmospheric flight (which can be used not only for AFE problems, but also for AOT problems and space shuttle problems) are derived in an Earth-fixed system. Transformation relations are supplied which allow one to pass from quantities computed in an Earth-fixed system to quantities computed in an inertial system, and vice versa.

  19. Upgrade of PARC2D to include real gas effects. [computer program for flowfield surrounding aeroassist flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saladino, Anthony; Praharaj, Sarat C.; Collins, Frank G.; Seaford, C. Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the changes and additions to the perfect gas PARC2D code to include chemical equilibrium effects, resulting in a code called PARCEQ2D. The work developed out of a need to have the capability of more accurately representing the flowfield surrounding the aeroassist flight experiment (AFE) vehicle. Use is made of the partition function of statistical mechanics in the evaluation of the thermochemical properties. This approach will allow the PARC code to be extended to thermal nonequilibrium when this task is undertaken in the future. The transport properties follow from formulae from the kinetic theory of gases. Results are presented for a two-dimensional AFE that compare perfect gas and real gas solutions at flight conditions, showing vast differences between the two cases.

  20. Conjugating binary systems for spacecraft thermal control. Appendix C: Aeroassist Flight Experiment Carrier Vehicle preliminary stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, J. E.; Murray, T. O.

    1989-01-01

    An assessment of the static strength of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) Carrier Vehicle is presented. The Carrier Vehicle is the structural component which provides the mounting platform for the experiments, on-board computers, batteries, and other black boxes. In addition, the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM), the Thrusters, and the Aerobrake are all attached directly to the Carrier Vehicle. The basic approach in this analysis was to develop a NASTRAN Finite Element Model as a parallel effort to the preliminary design, and to use the internal loads from this model to perform the stress analysis. The NASTRAN method of Inertial Relief was employed. This method involves either specifying a set of CG (center of gravity) accelerations or applying forces at the CG and representing the Carrier Vehicle and all its mounted devices with the proper stiffness and mass properties.

  1. Heat flux and shock shape measurements on an Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gai, S. L.; Mudford, N. R.; Hackett, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of heat flux and shock shapes made on a 2.08 percent scale model of the proposed Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel T3 at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. The enthalpy and Reynolds number range covered were 7.5 MJ/kg to 20 MJ/kg and 150,000 to 270,000 per meter respectively. The test Mach number varied between 7.5 and 8. Two test gases, air and nitrogen, were used and the model angle of attack varied from -10 deg to +10 deg to the free stream. The results are discussed and compared to the Mach 10 cold hypersonic air data as obtained in the Langley 31 inch Mach 10 Facility as well as the perfect gas CFD calculations of NASA LaRC.

  2. The Importance of the Measurement of the Unsteady Wake of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment Vehicle: A White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Park, C.; Deiwert, G. S.; Feiereisen, W.; Arnold, J. O.; Davy, W. C.; Craig, R. A.; Venkatapathy, E.

    1990-01-01

    The High Frequency Radiometer (HFR) is the only instrument on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) with sufficient temporal resolution to discern the frequency of unsteady wake oscillations. Determining both the frequency and amplitude of wake unsteadiness during AFE atmospheric entry is essential for reliably predicting the geometry and motion of the wake of future Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTV). These parameters directly affect the location and size of the pay- load and the weight of the required afterbody heat protection. The purpose of the AFE is to validate the technologies required for the design of ASTVs, which will be used to exploit Earth-lunar space. This validation will be conducted at a combination of vehicle size, altitude, and velocity not obtainable in ground-based facilities. The AFE will provide the experimental flight data needed to improve our understanding of hypersonic-wake physics and to validate computational predictions of the aerodynamic and heating loads, including afterbody radiative heating loads, on an ASTV. Reliable prediction of ASTV wake flows will ensure that payloads are located within the shear-layer envelope and will determine the amount of thermal protection the payloads require. Specifically, understanding the temporal nature of the wake unsteadiness is important for two reasons. Most importantly, analysis of ground-based experiments suggests that wake unsteadiness results in a variation of as much as +/- 5 deg in the shear-flow turning angle. This angle must be reliably predicted to avoid shear-layer impingement on the vehicle afterbody, which would result in heating rates of about 10 W/sq cm, of the same order as on the forebody stagnation point. Secondly, the energy associated with wake unsteadiness will reduce the static enthalpy of the wake fluid and cause an error of as much as 30% in the amount of predicted wake radiative heating. Therefore, the HFR flight data, which will quantify the frequency and

  3. A hypersonic shock tunnel test of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle at high altitude test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittliff, C. E.; O'Connor, A. C.; Sweet, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is a 4.26 m-diameter raked and blunted elliptic cone that is intended to obtain aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic data on blunt bodies at velocities near 10 km/s and altitudes above 75 km. Previous wind tunnel tests of this configuration have been at Mach numbers of 10 or lower. The present test program consisted of five test conditions at Mach numbers between 15 and 20 and simulated altitudes from 75 km to 97 km. Static longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients, the lift-to-drag ratio, and the trim angle-of-attack were obtained for angles-of-attack between 7 deg and 27 deg. The effects of angle-of-attack and shock Reynolds number, Re2, have been studied. These results indicate the AFE configuration is longitudinally stable. The variation of normal force slope, CNalpha and lift-to-drag slope, (L/D)alpha as well as the trim angle-of-attack with Re2 are documented. The trim angle-of-attack increases with decreasing values of shock Reynolds number (increasing altitude) while the lift-to-drag ratio at the trimmed conditions is relatively constant.

  4. Surface flow and heating distributions on a cylinder in near wake of Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration at incidence in Mach 10 Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental heat transfer distributions and surface streamline directions are presented for a cylinder in the near wake of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment forebody configuration. Tests were conducted in air at a nominal free stream Mach number of 10, with post shock Reynolds numbers based on model base height of 6,450 to 50,770, and angles of attack of 5, 0, -5, and -10 degrees. Heat transfer data were obtained with thin film resistance gage and surface streamline directions by the oil flow technique. Comparisons between measured values and predicted values were made by using a Navier-Stokes computer code.

  5. Estimates of thermochemical relaxation lengths behind normal shock waves relevant to manned lunar and Mars return missions, the aeroassist flight experiment, and Mars entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Thermochemical relaxation distances behind the strong normal shock waves associated with vehicles that enter the Earth atmosphere upon returning from a manned lunar or Mars mission are estimated. The relaxation distances for a Mars entry are estimated as well, in order to highlight the extent of the relaxation phenomena early in currently envisioned space exploration studies. The thermochemical relaxation length for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment is also considered. These estimates provide an indication as to whether finite relaxation needs to be considered in subsequent detailed analyses. For the Mars entry, relaxation phenomena that are fully coupled to the flow field equations are used. The relaxation-distance estimates can be scaled to flight conditions other than those discussed.

  6. Guidance trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.

    1990-01-01

    Research on aerobraking guidance schemes is presented. The intent is to produce aerobraking guidance trajectories exhibiting many of the desirable characteristics of optimal aerobraking trajectories. Both one-control schemes and two-control schemes are studied. The research is in the interest of aeroassisted flight experiment vehicles (AFE) and aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) vehicles.

  7. Stagnation-point heat-transfer rate predictions at aeroassist flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Jones, Jim J.; Rochelle, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented for the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates used in the design process of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle over its entire aeropass trajectory. The prediction methods used in this investigation demonstrate the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to a wide range of flight conditions and their usefulness in a design process. The heating rates were computed by a viscous-shock-layer (VSL) code at the lower altitudes and by a Navier-Stokes (N-S) code for the higher altitude cases. For both methods, finite-rate chemically reacting gas was considered, and a temperature-dependent wall-catalysis model was used. The wall temperature for each case was assumed to be radiative equilibrium temperature, based on total heating. The radiative heating was estimated by using a correlation equation. Wall slip was included in the N-S calculation method, and this method implicitly accounts for shock slip. The N-S/VSL combination of projection methods was established by comparison with the published benchmark flow-field code LAURA results at lower altitudes, and the direct simulation Monte Carlo results at higher altitude cases. To obtain the design heating rate over the entire forward face of the vehicle, a boundary-layer method (BLIMP code) that employs reacting chemistry and surface catalysis was used. The ratio of the VSL or N-S method prediction to that obtained from the boundary-layer method code at the stagnation point is used to define an adjustment factor, which accounts for the errors involved in using the boundary-layer method.

  8. A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.

  9. Basic Governing Equations for the Flight Regimes of Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jong-Hun

    1985-01-01

    The basic governing equations for the low-density, high-enthalpy flow regimes expected in the shock layers over the heat shields of the proposed aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles are derived by combining and extending existing theories. The conservation equations are derived from gas kinetic principles for a four-component ionized gas consisting of neutral molecules, neutral atoms, singly ionized ions, and electrons, assuming a continuum flow. The differences among translational-rotational, vibrational, and electron temperatures are accounted for, as well as chemical nonequilibrium and electric-charge separation. Expressions for convective and viscous fluxes, transport properties, and the terms representing interactions among various energy modes are explicitly given. The expressions for the rate of electron-vibration energy transfer, which violates the Landau-Teller conditions, are derived by solving the system of master equations accounting for the multiple-level transitions.

  10. Problems of rate chemistry in the flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1984-01-01

    The dissociating and ionizing nonequilibrium flows behind a normal shock wave are calculated for the density and vehicle regimes appropriate for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles; the departure of vibrational and electron temperatures from the gas temperature as well as viscous transport phenomena are accounted for. From the thermodynamic properties so determined, radiative power emission is calculated using an existing code. The resulting radiation characteristics are compared with the available experimental data. Chemical parameters are varied to investigate their effect on the radiation characteristics. It is concluded that the current knowledge of rate chemistry leads to a factor-of-4 uncertainty in nonequilibrium radiation intensities. The chemical parameters that must be studied to improve the accuracy are identified.

  11. Problems of Rate Chemistry in the Flight Regimes of Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul

    1985-01-01

    The dissociating and ionizing nonequilibrium flows behind a normal shock wave are calculated for the density and vehicle regimes appropriate for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles; the departure of vibrational and electron temperatures from the gas temperature as well as viscous transport phenomena are accounted for. From the thermodynamic properties so determined, radiative power emission is calculated using an existing code. The resulting radiation characteristics are compared with the available experimental data. Chemical parameters are varied to Investigate their effect on the radiation characteristics. It is concluded that the current knowledge of rate chemistry leads to a factor-of-4 uncertainty In nonequilibrium radiation intensities. The chemical parameters that must be studied to Improve the accuracy are identified.

  12. Performance aerodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Arrington, J. P.; Mccandless, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    A method for predicting the performance aerodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles was developed based on techniques that were used in the aerodynamic databook of the Space Shuttle orbiter and theories from the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. The method spans the entire flight profile of the aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles from the extreme high altitude non-continuum regime to the highly viscous continuum regime. Results from this method are compared with flight data from the Shuttle orbiter, Apollo Capsule, and the Viking Aeroshell. Finally, performance aerodynamics are estimated for three aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles that range from low to high lift-to-drag ratio configurations.

  13. Flight projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the activities of the Flight Projects Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Information is given on space research and technology strategy, current space flight experiments, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the Orbiter Experiment Program, the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System, the Arcjet Flight Experiment, the Telerobotic Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment, the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment, the Industry/University In-Space Flight Experiments, and the Aeroassist Flight Experiment.

  14. GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC MODELS FOR AEROASSIST APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    Aeroassist is a broad category of advanced transportation technology encompassing aerocapture, aerobraking, aeroentry, precision landing, hazard detection and avoidance, and aerogravity assist. The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere to enable aeroassist technology are Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for five of these targets - Earth, Mars, Titan, Neptune, and Venus - have been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. These models are useful as tools in mission planning and systems analysis studies associated with aeroassist applications. The series of models is collectively named the Global Reference Atmospheric Model or GRAM series. An important capability of all the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analysis in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, for aerothermal design, and for other applications sensitive to atmospheric variability. Recent example applications are discussed.

  15. LACE flight dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1989-01-01

    The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purpose of the experiment is to provide on-orbit systems identification of the LACE spacecraft. The structure of the LACE spacecraft is of special interest to the CSI community. It incorporates 3 deployable/retractable booms of maximum length 45.72 m (150 ft) mounted on a rectangular parallelepiped bus of mass 1,200 kg. The zenith directed gravity gradient boom is mounted on the top of the bus; the retroreflector boom is mounted forward and deployed along the velocity vector, the balance boom is mounted and pointed aft. Attitude stabilization is accomplished by means of gravity gradient torques and by a momentum wheel. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is designed to measure modal frequencies, damping ratios, and oscillation amplitudes of the LACE spacecraft, as well as the vibration intensity generated by boom deployments and retractions. It is anticipated that this experiment will provide an opportunity for improvements in the accuracy of computer simulations of flexible structures and multibody dynamics.

  16. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  17. Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Caffrey, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE), a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. It will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The experiment uses networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd (SSTL) is building the small host satellite, CFESat, based upon SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and Topsat mission satellite designs. The CFESat satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as 'piggyback' passengers with larger spacecraft.

  18. The Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Nelson, Anthony; Salazar, Anthony; Roussel - Dupre, Diane; Katko, Kim; Palmer, Joseph; Robinson, Scott; Wirthlin, Michael; Howes, William; Richins, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  19. Vortex attenuation flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.

  20. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  1. Laminar-flow flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Richard D.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Bartlett, D. W.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Braslow, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The flight testing conducted over the past 10 years in the NASA laminar-flow control (LFC) will be reviewed. The LFC program was directed towards the most challenging technology application, the high supersonic speed transport. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.

  2. Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics of aeroassist flight experiment configuration in air and CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.; Wells, William L.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics measured on a 60 deg half-angle elliptical cone, which was raked at an angle of 73 deg from the cone centerline and with an ellipsoid nose (ellipticity equal to 2.0 in the symmetry plane), are presented for angles of attack from -10 to 10 deg. The high normal-shock density ratio of a real gas was simulated by tests at a Mach number of 6 in air and CF4 (density ratio equal to 5.25 and 12.0, respectively). Tests were conducted in air at Mach 6 and 10 and in CF4 at Mach 6 to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and normal-shock density ratio. Changes in Mach number from 6 to 10 in air or in Reynolds number by a factor of 4 at Mach 6 had a negligible effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Variations in normal-shock density ratio had a measurable effect on lateral and directional aerodynamic coefficients, but no significant effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Tests in air and CF4 indicated that the configuration was laterally and directionally stable through the test range of angle of attack.

  3. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+<2 week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  4. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  5. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  6. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  7. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  8. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  9. Optimal aeroassisted guidance using Loh's term approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceneaney, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents three guidance algorithms for aerocapture and/or aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change. All three algorithms are based on the approximate solution of an optimal control problem at each guidance update. The chief assumption is that Loh's term may be modeled as a function of the independent variable only. The first two algorithms maximize exit speed for fixed exit altitude, flight path angle and heading angle. The third minimizes, in one sense, the control effort for fixed exit altitude, flight path angle, heading angle and speed. Results are presented which indicate the near optimality of the solutions generated by the first two algorithms. Results are also presented which indicate the performance of the third algorithm in a simulation with unmodeled atmospheric density disturbances.

  10. Dynamic performance of an aero-assist spacecraft - AFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ho-Pen; French, Raymond A.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic performance of the Aero-assist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft was investigated using a high-fidelity 6-DOF simulation model. Baseline guidance logic, control logic, and a strapdown navigation system to be used on the AFE spacecraft are also modeled in the 6-DOF simulation. During the AFE mission, uncertainties in the environment and the spacecraft are described by an error space which includes both correlated and uncorrelated error sources. The principal error sources modeled in this study include navigation errors, initial state vector errors, atmospheric variations, aerodynamic uncertainties, center-of-gravity off-sets, and weight uncertainties. The impact of the perturbations on the spacecraft performance is investigated using Monte Carlo repetitive statistical techniques. During the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) deorbit phase, a target flight path angle of -4.76 deg at entry interface (EI) offers very high probability of avoiding SRM casing skip-out from the atmosphere. Generally speaking, the baseline designs of the guidance, navigation, and control systems satisfy most of the science and mission requirements.

  11. Coarsening Experiment Prepared for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures-2 (CSLM-2) experiment is a materials science spaceflight experiment whose purpose is to investigate the kinetics of competitive particle growth within a liquid matrix. During coarsening, small particles shrink by losing atoms to larger particles, causing the larger particles to grow. In this experiment, solid particles of tin will grow (coarsen) within a liquid lead-tin eutectic matrix. The following figures show the coarsening of tin particles in a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) eutectic as a function of time. By conducting this experiment in a microgravity environment, we can study a greater range of solid volume fractions, and the effects of sedimentation present in terrestrial experiments will be negligible. The CSLM-2 experiment flew November 2002 on space shuttle flight STS-113 for operation on the International Space Station, but it could not be run because of problems with the Microgravity Science Glovebox in the U.S. Laboratory module. Additional samples will be sent to ISS on subsequent shuttle flights.

  12. Laser docking system flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments necessary in the development of the Laser Docking System (LDS) are described. The LDS would be mounted in the Orbiter payload bay, along with a grid connected by fiber optic link to a computer in the cabin. The tests would be performed to aid in the design of an operational sensor which could track a passive target accurately enough to permit soft docking. Additional data would be gained regarding the LDS performance in space, the effects of Orbiter RCS plume impingement on the target, and refinements needed for the flight hardware. A working model which includes an IR laser steered by galvanometer-driven motors for bouncing beams off retroreflectors mounted on targets is described, together with a 300 ft long indoor test facility. Tests on Orbiter flights would first be in a wholly automatic mode and then in a man-in-the-loop mode.

  13. Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) will evaluate, for the first time in a space environment, the performance of a feedback-controlled variable conductance heat pipe and a heat pipe thermal diode. In addition, the temperature control aspects of a phase-change material (PCM) will be demonstrated. The methanol/stainless steel feedback-controlled heat pipe uses helium control gas that is stored in a wicked reservoir. This reservoir is electrically heated through a solid state controller that senses the temperature of the heat source directly. The ammonia/stainless steel diode heat pipe uses excess liquid to block heat transfer in the reverse direction. The PCM is octadecane. Design tradeoffs, fabrication problems, and performance during qualification and flight acceptance tests are discussed.

  14. Natural Laminar Flow Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A supercritical airfoil section was designed with favorable pressure gradients on both the upper and lower surfaces. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The outer wing panels of the F-111 TACT airplane were modified to incorporate partial span test gloves having the natural laminar, flow profile. Instrumentation was installed to provide surface pressure data as well as to determine transition location and boundary layer characteristics. The flight experiment encompassed 19 flights conducted with and without transition fixed at several locations for wing leading edge sweep angles which varied from 10 to 26 at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85 and altitudes of 7620 meters and 9144 meters. Preliminary results indicate that a large portion of the test chord experienced laminar flow.

  15. Flight experience with a remotely augmented vehicle flight test technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A flight technique which uses the remotely augmented vehicle (RAV) concept is developed to flight test advanced control law concepts. The design, development and flight test validation of a RAV system mechanized on a digital fly-by-wire aircraft are described, and future applications are discussed. Flight experiments investigate complete inner loop, low sample rate, and adaptive control system mechanisms. The technique, which utilizes a ground-based FORTRAN programmable digital computer and up and down telemetry links is found to provide the flexibility necessary to effectively investigate alternate control law mechanisms in flight.

  16. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  17. Flight experience with windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifel, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Windshear alerts resulting from the Honeywell Windshear Detection and Guidance System are presented based on data from approximately 248,000 revenue flights at Piedmont Airlines. The data indicate that the detection system provides a significant benefit to the flight crew of the aircraft. In addition, nuisance and false alerts were found to occur at an acceptably low rate to maintain flight crew confidence in the system. Data from a digital flight recorder is also presented which shows the maximum and minimum windshear magnitudes recorded for a representative number of flights in February, 1987. The effect of the boundary layer of a steady state wind is also discussed.

  18. An approximate atmospheric guidance law for aeroassisted plane change maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyer, Jason L.; Crues, Edwin Z.

    An approximate optimal guidance law for the aeroassisted plane change problem is presented which is based upon an expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation with respect to the small parameter of Breakwell et al. (1985). The present law maximizes the final velocity of the reentry vehicle while meeting terminal constraints on altitude, flight path angle, and heading angle. The integrable zeroth-order solution found when the small parameter is set to zero corresponds to a solution of the problem where the aerodynamic forces dominate the inertial forces. Higher order solutions in the expansion are obtained from the solution of linear partial differential equations requiring only quadrature integration.

  19. Self-tuning guidance applied to aeroassisted plane change problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarsu, Srigouri; Balakrishnan, S. N.

    Nonlinear self-tuning control methods are developed for use as feedback control laws for multivariable control for the atmospheric portion of aeroassisted maneuvers. A nonlinear generalized minimum variance control method and a nonlinear pole-placement method of self-tuning control are used to track the reference trajectories during this period. Flight dynamics equations are formulated in a special form for generating the self-tuned control. Numerical examples from a plane change reentry problems to illustrate the use of these methods are presented. Detailed analysis of the effects of the design parameters is given.

  20. An approximate atmospheric guidance law for aeroassisted plane change maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speyer, Jason L.; Crues, Edwin Z.

    1988-01-01

    An approximate optimal guidance law for the aeroassisted plane change problem is presented which is based upon an expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation with respect to the small parameter of Breakwell et al. (1985). The present law maximizes the final velocity of the reentry vehicle while meeting terminal constraints on altitude, flight path angle, and heading angle. The integrable zeroth-order solution found when the small parameter is set to zero corresponds to a solution of the problem where the aerodynamic forces dominate the inertial forces. Higher order solutions in the expansion are obtained from the solution of linear partial differential equations requiring only quadrature integration.

  1. HyBoLT Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang-Jeng (Frank); Berry, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    HyBoLT was a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition flight experiment funded by the Hypersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program in NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The HyBoLT test article mounted on the top of the ALV X-1 rocket was launched from Virginia's Wallops Island on August 22, 2008. Unfortunately a problem in the rocket's flight control system caused the vehicle to veer off the designed flight course. Launch officials activated a self-destruct mechanism in the rocket's nose cone after 20 seconds into flight. This report is a closeout document about the HyBoLT flight experiment. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with this experimental program as well as the 20 seconds flight data acquired before the vehicle was destroyed.

  2. The NASA Sharp Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.; Salute, Joan; Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    The Slender Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic Research Program (SHARP) was initiated by NASA Ames, and executed in partnership with Sandia National Laboratory and the US Air Force, to demonstrate sharp, passive leading edge designs for hypersonic vehicles, incorporating new ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC's). These new ceramic composites have been undergoing development, characterization and ground testing at NASA Ames for the last nine years. This paper will describe the background, flight objectives, design and pertinent flight results of SHARP, and some of the potential implications for future hypersonic vehicle designs.

  3. Update of Bisphosphonate Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S. M.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Snyder, R. P.; Sibonga, J.; Keyak, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.; Moralez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest indicating that elevated remodeling is a major factor in the etiology of space flight bone loss. In a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies, we are testing whether an antiresorptive drug would provide additional benefit to in-flight exercise to ameliorate bone loss and hypercalciuria during long-duration spaceflight. Measurements of bone loss include DXA, QCT, pQCT, urinary and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of R+1year data from 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight, as well as immediate post flight (R+<2wks) data from 6 of 10 concurrent controls without treatment. The treated astronauts used the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) during their missions. The purpose of this report is twofold: 1) to report the results of inflight, post flight and one year post flight bone measures compared with available controls with and without the use of ARED; and 2) to discuss preliminary data on concurrent controls. The figure below compares the BMD changes in ISS crewmembers exercising with and without the current ARED protocol and the alendronate treated crewmembers also using the ARED. This shows that the use of ARED prevents about half the bone loss seen in early ISS crewmembers and that the addition of an antiresorptive provides additional benefit. Resorption markers and urinary Ca excretion are not impacted by exercise alone but are significantly reduced with antiresorptive treatment. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline. DXA data for the 6 concurrent controls using the ARED device are similar to DXA data shown in the figure below. QCT data for these six indicate that the integral data are consistent with the DXA data, i.e., comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the ARED protocol. Biochemical data of the concurrent

  4. Laser Docking System Radar flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1986-01-01

    Flight experiments to verify the Laser Docking System Radar are discussed. The docking requirements are summarized, and the breadboarded hardware is described, emphasizing the two major scanning concepts being utilized: a mechanical scanning technique employing galvanometer beamsteerers and an electronic scanning technique using an image dissector. The software simulations used to apply hardware solutions to the docking requirements are briefly discussed, the tracking test bed is described, and the objectives of the flight experiment are reviewed.

  5. Extending a Flight Management Computer for Simulation and Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Sugden, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    In modern transport aircraft, the flight management computer (FMC) has evolved from a flight planning aid to an important hub for pilot information and origin-to-destination optimization of flight performance. Current trends indicate increasing roles of the FMC in aviation safety, aviation security, increasing airport capacity, and improving environmental impact from aircraft. Related research conducted at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) often requires functional extension of a modern, full-featured FMC. Ideally, transport simulations would include an FMC simulation that could be tailored and extended for experiments. However, due to the complexity of a modern FMC, a large investment (millions of dollars over several years) and scarce domain knowledge are needed to create such a simulation for transport aircraft. As an intermediate alternative, the Flight Research Services Directorate (FRSD) at LaRC created a set of reusable software products to extend flight management functionality upstream of a Boeing-757 FMC, transparently simulating or sharing its operator interfaces. The paper details the design of these products and highlights their use on NASA projects.

  6. Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Micklos, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS-128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Endeavour for STS-134. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project with emphasis on the STS-131 and STS-133 results. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that empirically correlated predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted surface temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures. A thermocouple anomaly observed on a number of the missions is discussed as are a number of the mitigation actions that will be taken on the final flight, STS-134, including potential alterations of the flight trajectory and changes to the flight instrumentation.

  7. Design and Evaluation of Candidate Pressure Distribution and Air Data System Tile Penetration for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontheumer, Alfred E.

    1990-01-01

    This program objectives were to produce a pressure measurements system that penetrates the thermal protection system of a spacecraft and is able to obtain accurate pressure data. The design was tested vibro-acoustically, aerothermally, and structurally and found to be adequate. This design is a possible replacement of the current pressure system on the orbiter.

  8. Simulation of real-gas effects on pressure distributions for aeroassist flight experiment vehicle and comparison with prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure distributions measured on a 60 degree half-angle elliptic cone, raked off at an angle of 73 degrees from the cone centerline and having an ellipsoid nose (ellipticity equal to 2.0 in the symmetry plane) are presented for angles of attack from -10 degrees to 10 degrees. The high normal shock density ratio aspect of a real gas was simulated by testing in Mach 6 air and CF sub 4 (density ratio equal to 5.25 and 12.0, respectively). The effects of Reynolds number, angle of attack, and normal shock density ratio on these measurements are examined, and comparisons with a three dimensional Euler code known as HALIS are made. A significant effect of density ratio on pressure distributions on the cone section of the configuration was observed; the magnitude of this effect decreased with increasing angle of attack. The effect of Reynolds number on pressure distributions was negligible for forebody pressure distributions, but a measurable effect was noted on base pressures. In general, the HALIS code accurately predicted the measured pressure distributions in air and CF sub 4.

  9. Computational Aerothermodynamics in Aeroassist Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Aeroassisted planetary entry uses atmospheric drag to decelerate spacecraft from super-orbital to orbital or suborbital velocities. Numerical simulation of flow fields surrounding these spacecraft during hypersonic atmospheric entry is required to define aerothermal loads. The severe compression in the shock layer in front of the vehicle and subsequent, rapid expansion into the wake are characterized by high temperature, thermo-chemical nonequilibrium processes. Implicit algorithms required for efficient, stable computation of the governing equations involving disparate time scales of convection, diffusion, chemical reactions, and thermal relaxation are discussed. Robust point-implicit strategies are utilized in the initialization phase; less robust but more efficient line-implicit strategies are applied in the endgame. Applications to ballutes (balloon-like decelerators) in the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Titan, Saturn, and Neptune and a Mars Sample Return Orbiter (MSRO) are featured. Examples are discussed where time-accurate simulation is required to achieve a steady-state solution.

  10. Mobile communications satellite antenna flight experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a NASA-sponsored study to determine the technical feasibility and cost of a Shuttle-based flight experiment specifically intended for the MSAT commercial user community are presented. The experiment will include demonstrations of technology in the areas of radio frequency, sensing and control, and structures. The results of the structural subsystem study summarized here include experiment objective and technical approach, experiment structural description, structure/environment interactions, structural characterization, thermal characterization, structural measurement system, and experiment functional description.

  11. Biostack experiment. [Apollo 17 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cueer, P.; Kaiser, R.; Massue, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 biostack experiment to establish the biological efficiency of individual heavy nuclei particles of galactic cosmic radiation are reported. The experiment theory, interaction of heavy nuclei particles with biologic matter, and the total dose of cosmic ionizing radiation are discussed along with the radiation effects of heavy nuclei on Artemia salina eggs, and Bacillus subtilis.

  12. Laser data transfer flight experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A set of laser communication flight experiments to be performed between a relay satellite, ground terminals, and space shuttles were synthesized and evaluated. Results include a definition of the space terminals, NASA ground terminals, test methods, and test schedules required to perform the experiments.

  13. Minimum-fuel aeroassisted coplanar orbit transfer using lift-modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, K. D.; Vinh, N. X.

    1983-08-01

    Minimum-fuel trajectories and lift controls are computed for aeroassisted coplanar transfer from high orbit to low orbit. The optimal aeroassisted transfer requires less fuel than the all-propulsive Hohmann transfer for a wide range of high orbit to low orbit transfers. The optimal control program for the atmospheric portion of the transfer is to fly at maximum positive L/D initially to recover from the downward plunge, and then, to fly at negative L/D to level off the flight, such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees. To avoid excessive heating rates, the vehicle flies initially at high angle of attack in order to slow down higher in the atmosphere, allowing recovery from the downward plunge, which occurs subsequently using the maximum positive L/D, to take place at a lower atmospheric density, or equivalently, at a higher altitude.

  14. Aero-Assisted Spacecraft Missions Using Hypersonic Waverider Aeroshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Jeremy

    This work examines the use of high-lift, low drag vehicles which perform orbital transfers within a planet's atmosphere to reduce propulsive requirements. For the foreseeable future, spacecraft mission design will include the objective of limiting the mass of fuel required. One means of accomplishing this is using aerodynamics as a supplemental force, with what is termed an aero-assist maneuver. Further, the use of a lifting body enables a mission designer to explore candidate trajectory types wholly unavailable to non-lifting analogs. Examples include missions to outer planets by way of an aero-gravity assist, aero-assisted plane change, aero-capture, and steady atmospheric periapsis probing missions. Engineering level models are created in order to simulate both atmospheric and extra-atmospheric space flight. Each mission is parameterized using discrete variables which control multiple areas of design. This work combines the areas of hypersonic aerodynamics, re-entry aerothermodynamics, spacecraft orbital mechanics, and vehicle shape optimization. In particular, emphasis is given to the parametric design of vehicles known as "waveriders" which are inversely designed from known shock flowfields. An entirely novel means of generating a class of waveriders known as "starbodies" is presented. A complete analysis is performed of asymmetric starbody forms and compared to a better understood parameterization, "osculating cone" waveriders. This analysis includes characterization of stability behavior, a critical discipline within hypersonic flight. It is shown that asymmetric starbodies have significant stability improvement with only a 10% reduction in the lift-to-drag ratio. By combining the optimization of both the shape of the vehicle and the trajectory it flies, much is learned about the benefit that can be expected from lifting aero-assist missions. While previous studies have conceptually proven the viability, this work provides thorough quantification of the

  15. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS): Mathematical specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shank, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Computational models for the flight experiment demonstration system (FEDS) code 580 were developed. The FEDS is a modification of the automated orbit determination system which was developed during 1981 and 1982. The purpose of FEDS is to demonstrate, in a simulated spacecraft environment, the feasibility of using microprocessors to perform onboard orbit determination with limited ground support.

  16. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shank, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) was to show, in a simulated spacecraft environment, the feasibility of using a microprocessor to automate the onboard orbit determination functions. The software and hardware configuration used to support FEDS during the demonstration and the results of the demonstration are discussed.

  17. A high temperature superconductivity communications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, P.; Krishen, K.; Arndt, D.; Raffoul, G.; Karasack, V.; Bhasin, K.; Leonard, R.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) millimeter-wave communications flight experiment from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) in geosynchronous orbit is described. The experiment will use a Ka-band HTSC phased array antenna and front-end electronics to receive a downlink communications signal from the ACTS. The discussion covers the system configuration, a description of the ground equipment, the spacecraft receiver, link performance, thermal loading, and the superconducting antenna array.

  18. A review of shock waves around aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1986-01-01

    Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs) are a proposed type of reusable spacecraft that would be used to transport cargoes from one earth-bound orbit to another. Such vehicles could be based on the proposed space station and used to transport commercial satellites from the space station to geostationary orbits or to polar orbits and return. During a mission, AOTVs would fly through earth's atmosphere, thus generating aerodynamic forces that could be used for decelerating the vehicles or changing their direction. AOTV research findings were concerned with the shock-wave-induced, high-temperature airflows that would be produced around these vehicles during atmospheric flight. Special emphasis was placed on the problems of: (1) the chemical physics of multitemperature, ionizing, nonequilibrium air flows, and (2) the dynamics of the flows in the base region of a blunt body with complex afterbody geometry.

  19. A review of shock waves around aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs) are a proposed type of reusable spacecraft that would be used to transport cargoes from one Earth-bound orbit to another. Such vehicles could be based on the proposed space station and used to transport commercial satellites from the space station to geostationary orbits or to polar orbits and return. During a mission, AOTVs would fly through Earth's atmosphere, thus generating aerodynamic forces that could be used for decelerating the vehicles or changing their direction. AOTV research findings were concerned with the shock-wave-induced, high-temperature airflows that would be produced around these vehicles during atmospheric flight. Special emphasis was placed on the problems of: (1) the chemical physics of multitemperature, ionizing, nonequilibrium air flows, and (2) the dynamics of the flows in the base region of a blunt body with complex afterbody geometry.

  20. Optimal control of aeroassisted plane change maneuver using feedback expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishne, D.; Speyer, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A guidance law for an aeroassisted plane change maneuver is developed by an asymptotic expansion technique using a small parameter which essentially represents the ratio of the inertial forces to the atmospheric forces. This guidance law minimizes the energy loss while meeting terminal constraints on the altitude, flight path angle, and heading angle. By neglecting the inertial forces, the resulting optimization problem is integrable and can be determined in closed form. This zeroth-order solution is the first term in an asymptotic series solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. The remaining terms are determined from the solution of a first-order, linear partial differential equation whose solution requires only quadrature integration. Our initial results in using this guidance scheme are encouraging.

  1. Coarsening Experiment Being Prepared for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures-2 (CSLM-2) experiment is a materials science space flight experiment whose purpose is to investigate the kinetics of competitive particle growth within a liquid matrix. During coarsening, small particles shrink by losing atoms to larger particles, causing the larger particles to grow. In this experiment, solid particles of tin will grow (coarsen) within a liquid lead-tin eutectic matrix. The preceding figures show the coarsening of tin particles in a lead-tin eutectic as a function of time. By conducting this experiment in a microgravity environment, we can study a greater range of solid volume fractions, and the effects of sedimentation present in terrestrial experiments will be negligible. The CSLM-2 experiment is slated to fly onboard the International Space Station. The experiment will be run in the Microgravity Science Glovebox installed in the U.S. Laboratory module.

  2. SLS-1 flight experiments preliminary significant results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) is the first of a series of dedicated life sciences Spacelab missions designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and the subsequent readaptation to 1 gravity (1 G). Hypotheses generated from the physiological effects observed during earlier missions led to the formulation of several integrated experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena. The 18 experiments selected for flight on SLS-1 investigated the cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, regulatory physiology, musculoskeletal, and neuroscience disciplines in both human and rodent subjects. The SLS-1 preliminary results gave insight to the mechanisms involved in the adaptation to the microgravity environment and readaptation when returning to Earth. The experimental results will be used to promote health and safety for future long duration space flights and, as in the past, will be applied to many biomedical problems encountered here on Earth.

  3. Aeroassist Key to Returning From Space and the Case for AFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Putnam, Terrill W.; Morris, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is important in the development of a substantial and cost-competitive space industry. It is a research program to develop the technology base needed to design a new class of advanced entry vehicles that will play a key role in establishing a mature U.S. space presence in the next century. A dynamic and economical space program in the 21st century will include many operations involving the return of satellites, materials, and products from high Earth orbits (HEO), lunar bases, and planetary missions. The common and dominant characteristics of vehicles returning from such missions will be their very high speed as they approach the Earth. This high speed must be reduced substantially before the returning vehicle can be landed safely on Earth or placed in low Earth orbit (LEO), where the Space Shuttle operates now and the Space Station Freedom will operate in the future. LEO is a strategic that will always play a critical role in any space program. Its location just beyond earth's appreciable atmosphere can be reached from earth with the lowest cost in energy, and it is the natural and convenient spaceport location. In the next century LEO will contain a broad complex of assembly, research, repair, and production facilities. Their effective and cost-competitive use will require a class of routine workhorse transportation vehicles whose importance might be over-looked at a time when dramatic space exploration is occurring. Yet it is these vehicles, the Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTV's) that will provide that solid transportation base on which a productive space industry will grow. The ASTV's will be assembled in orbit and will never return to earth's surface. They will be used to transfer people and material from high locations to LEO. They will reduce their high velocities in the outer reaches of the earth's atmosphere where aerodynamic drag will slow them to the appropriate speed for LEO. They will then maneuver out

  4. A review of animal flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive experience with biologic systems was obtained with a variety of vertebrate species over the past 18 years. Subhuman primates were precursors to man in the American space flight program; dogs and mice were animals of choice for the Soviet program. Recent attempts to use heavily instrumented animals for observations of long-term physiological effects indicate problems which must be corrected in future experiments for monitoring the effects of environmental stresses over the longer periods required for accomplishing meaningful habitation in near-Earth orbit or for travel to nearby planets.

  5. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

  6. Large inflatable deployable antenna flight experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Bilyeu, G. D.; Veal, G. R.; Steiner, M. D.; Carson, D. E.

    Large space-based deployable antenna structures are needed for a variety of applications. However, recent reductions of antenna user resources have resulted in a real need for low-cost, large-size, light-weight, and reliable deployable space antenna structures. Fortunately, a new class of deployable space structures, called "inflatable space structures" is under development at L'Garde, Inc. The potential of this new concept was recognized by NASA who selected it for a flight experiment. The objective of the experiment was to develop a large, low-cost inflatable antenna structure and demonstrate its mechanical performance in the space environment. The carrier for this free-flying experiment was the STS-launched and recovered Spartan spacecraft. The experiment hardware consisted of a 14-meter diameter off-set parabolic reflector structure. The Spartan 207/IAE was successfully flown on STS 77, deployed on May 20, 1996 with Spartan recovery on May 21,1996. The basic antenna structure deployed successfully, but in an uncontrolled manner, that clearly demonstrated the robustness of this new type of space structure. The low cost of the flight antenna structure hardware and the outstanding mechanical packaging demonstrated on orbit clearly validated the potential of this new class of space structure for enabling new, low-cost missions.

  7. Trajectory analysis of a low lift/drag aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Robert D.

    This paper presents the results of an undergraduate thesis pertaining to four significant aspects of an aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicle trajectory analysis. The orbital trajectories were simulated by utilizing the computer optimization program POST at the NASA-Langley Research Center. This optimization was based on the spacecraft's known properties and constraints, in particular the vehicle's heating-rate restriction. Through this analysis, the influence of both aerodynamic and astrodynamic parameters on the vehicle's flight path are determined. Additionally, various means of producing the required orbital transfer energy decrement, as well as the tradeoff between the spacecraft's time-of-flight and propellant expended, are studied.

  8. Preliminary Results of Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan J.; Spector, Elisabeth R.; Sibonga, Jean; Matsumoti, Toshio; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Bone loss has been recognized as a potential problem from the beginning of human spaceflight. With the spaceflight missions lasting 6 months to potentially 3 years or longer this issue has assumed increased significance. Detailed measurements from the Mir and ISS long duration missions have documented losses in bone mineral density (BMD) from the total skeleton and critical sub-regions. The most important losses are from the femoral hip averaging about -1.6%/mo integral to -2.3%/mo trabecular BMD. Importantly these studies have documented the wide range in individual response from -0.5 to -5%/mo in BMD. Given the small size of any expedition crew, the wide range of responses has to be considered in the implementation of any countermeasure. Assuming that it is unlikely that the susceptibility for bone loss in any given crewmember will be known, a suite of bone loss countermeasures will likely be needed to insure protection of all crewmembers. The hypothesis for this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus the standard in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect on preventing space flight induced bone loss and strength and will reduce renal stone risk. To date, 4 crewmembers have completed the flight portion of the protocol in which crewmembers take a 70-mg alendronate tablet once a week before and during flight, starting 17 days before launch. Compared to previous ISS crewmembers (n=14) not taking alendronate, DXA measurements of the total hip BMD were significantly changed from -1.1 0.5%/mo to 0.04 0.3%/mo (p<0.01); QCT-determined trabecular BMD of the total hip was significantly changed from -2.3 1.0%/mo to -0.3 1.6%/mo (p<0.01). Significance was calculated from a one-tailed t test. While these results are encouraging, the current n (4) is small, and the large SDs indicate that while the means are improved there is still high variability in individual response. Four additional crewmembers have been recruited to participate

  9. Materials flight experiment carrier capability and future flight experiments on Hitchhiker-M carrier program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D.

    1993-10-01

    The CMSS has designed, fabricated, and qualified a unique Materials FLight EXperiment (MFLEX) carrier. The MFLEX is a reusable materials experiment carrier designed to support a wide array of sensors that measure synergistic effects on candidate space materials in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MFLEX can be integrated on a variety of launch vehicles/carriers and multiple units can be networked to optimize the surface area of carriers such as the Hitchhiker-M currently being built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  10. Materials flight experiment carrier capability and future flight experiments on Hitchhiker-M carrier program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D.

    1993-01-01

    The CMSS has designed, fabricated, and qualified a unique Materials FLight EXperiment (MFLEX) carrier. The MFLEX is a reusable materials experiment carrier designed to support a wide array of sensors that measure synergistic effects on candidate space materials in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MFLEX can be integrated on a variety of launch vehicles/carriers and multiple units can be networked to optimize the surface area of carriers such as the Hitchhiker-M currently being built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  11. Moderate lift-to-drag aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florence, D. E.; Fischer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant performance benefits are realized via aerodynamic braking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low Earth orbit. This approach substantially reduces the mission propellant requirements by using the aerodynamic drag, D, to brake the vehicle to near circular velocity and the aerodynamic lift, L, to null out accumulated errors as well as change the orbital inclination to that required for rendezvous with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for aeroassisted OTV's over a range of vehicle hypersonic L/D from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The aeroassisted OTV is capable of evolving from an initial delivery only system to one eventually capable of supporting manned roundtrip missions to geosynchronous orbit. Concept screening was conducted on numerous configurations spanning the L/D = 0.75 to 1.5 range, and several with attractive features were identified. Initial payload capability was evaluated for a baseline of delivery to GEO, six hour polar, and Molniya (12 hours x 63.4 deg) orbits with return and recovery of the aeroassist orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) at LEO. Evolutionary payload requirements that were assessed include a GEO servicing mission (6K up and 2K return) and a manned GEO mission (14K roundtrip).

  12. Free-Flight Experiments in LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, J. I.; Cutler, C. J.; Hewitson, M.; Jennrich, O.; Maghami, P.; Paczkowski, S.; Russano, G.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission will demonstrate the technology of drag-free test masses for use as inertial references in future space-based gravitational wave detectors. To accomplish this, the Pathfinder spacecraft will perform drag-free flight about a test mass while measuring the acceleration of this primary test mass relative to a second reference test mass. Because the reference test mass is contained within the same spacecraft, it is necessary to apply forces on it to maintain its position and attitude relative to the spacecraft. These forces are a potential source of acceleration noise in the LISA Pathfinder system that are not present in the full LISA configuration. While LISA Pathfinder has been designed to meet it's primary mission requirements in the presence of this noise, recent estimates suggest that the on-orbit performance may be limited by this 'suspension noise'. The drift-mode or free-flight experiments provide an opportunity to mitigate this noise source and further characterize the underlying disturbances that are of interest to the designers of LISA-like instruments. This article provides a high-level overview of these experiments and the methods under development to analyze the resulting data.

  13. Gas Chromatographic Detectors for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Humphry, Donald E.; Takeuchi, Nori; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ chemical analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. Future missions to Mars', comets, or planetary moons such as Europa, will perform experiments with complex analyses. In addition, instrumentation for such missions must perform under severely restricted conditions with limited resources. To meet these analytical requirements, improved methods and highly sensitive yet smaller instruments must continually be developed with increasingly greater capabilities. We describe here efforts to achieve this objective, for past and future missions, through the development of new or the improvement of existing sensitive, miniaturized gas chromatographic detectors.

  14. Design of a water electrolysis flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Grigger, David J.; Thompson, C. Dean; Cusick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Supply of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) by electolyzing water in space will play an important role in meeting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) needs and goals for future space missios. Both O2 and H2 are envisioned to be used in a variety of processes including crew life support, spacecraft propulsion, extravehicular activity, electrical power generation/storage as well as in scientific experiment and manufacturing processes. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment described herein is sponsored by NASA Headquarters as a part of the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP). The objective of the EPICS is to further contribute to the improvement of the SEF technology, specifially by demonstrating and validating the SFE electromechanical process in microgravity as well as investigating perrformance improvements projected possible in a microgravity environment. This paper defines the experiment objective and presents the results of the preliminary design of the EPICS. The experiment will include testing three subscale self-contained SFE units: one containing baseline components, and two units having variations in key component materials. Tests will be conducted at varying current and thermal condition.

  15. Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Trela

    2006-01-01

    Being a member of the Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) Staff is a great experience. I joined the FMC staff 2 years ago when I became part of the Kelsey-Seybold team. The FMC staff consists of Flight Surgeons, Family Clinic Physician, Nursing staff, Wellness Coordinator and Support staff. We serve as the Primary Care Physicians for the astronauts and their families and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. We have approximately 800 patients in the FMC. As the Family Clinic Physician, I care for the astronaut spouses and children and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. Since we have a small patient population, we have the opportunity to spend increased personal time with our patients, which I enjoy. We have a pretty healthy patient population, who are very interested in their overall health and preventive care. In preparation for a shuttle launch, our nursing staff assists the flight surgeons with the astronaut physical exams, which occur 10 days prior to launch and again 3 days after their return. We also provide Primary Contact physicals for the families and guests, who will be in close contact with shuttle crew members. During these physicals, we provide education, emphasizing the importance of preventing the spread of communicable diseases to shuttle crew members. Being a part of the Space Medicine Program is an honor. To know that you contribute in some way to our nation s Space Program is very special. (This article was prepared by Dr. Trela Landry, M.D. for inclusion in a Kelsey-Seybold newsletter on 25 OCT 2006.)

  16. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  17. Sample Acquisition Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Stratton, David M.; Valentin, Jose R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Exobiology Flight Experiments involve complex analyses conducted in environments far different than those encountered in terrestrial applications. A major part of the analytical challenge is often the selection, acquisition, delivery and, in some cases, processing of a sample suitable for the analytical requirements of the mission. The added complications of severely limited resources and sometimes rigid time constraints combine to make sample acquisition potentially a major obstacle for successful analyses. Potential samples come in a wide range including planetary atmospheric gas and aerosols (from a wide variety of pressures), planetary soil or rocks, dust and ice particles streaming off of a comet, and cemetery surface ice and rocks. Methods to collect and process sample are often mission specific, requiring continual development of innovative concepts and mechanisms. These methods must also maintain the integrity of the sample for the experimental results to be meaningful. We present here sample acquisition systems employed from past missions and proposed for future missions.

  18. Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

  19. SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.

    1993-01-01

    Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.

  20. SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.

    1993-04-01

    Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.

  1. Nonequilibrium radiative heating prediction method for aeroassist flowfields with coupling to flowfield solvers. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartung, Lin C.

    1991-01-01

    A method for predicting radiation adsorption and emission coefficients in thermochemical nonequilibrium flows is developed. The method is called the Langley optimized radiative nonequilibrium code (LORAN). It applies the smeared band approximation for molecular radiation to produce moderately detailed results and is intended to fill the gap between detailed but costly prediction methods and very fast but highly approximate methods. The optimization of the method to provide efficient solutions allowing coupling to flowfield solvers is discussed. Representative results are obtained and compared to previous nonequilibrium radiation methods, as well as to ground- and flight-measured data. Reasonable agreement is found in all cases. A multidimensional radiative transport method is also developed for axisymmetric flows. Its predictions for wall radiative flux are 20 to 25 percent lower than those of the tangent slab transport method, as expected, though additional investigation of the symmetry and outflow boundary conditions is indicated. The method was applied to the peak heating condition of the aeroassist flight experiment (AFE) trajectory, with results comparable to predictions from other methods. The LORAN method was also applied in conjunction with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code LAURA to study the sensitivity of the radiative heating prediction to various models used in nonequilibrium CFD. This study suggests that radiation measurements can provide diagnostic information about the detailed processes occurring in a nonequilibrium flowfield because radiation phenomena are very sensitive to these processes.

  2. Gamma guidance of trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization and guidance of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from high Earth orbit (HEO) to low Earth orbit (LEO) are examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that at most three impulses are employed: one at HEO exit, one at atmospheric exit, and one at LEO entry. It is also assumed that, during the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient. The presence of upper and lower bounds on the lift coefficient is considered. First, optimal trajectories are computed by minimizing the total velocity impulse (hence, the propellant consumption) required for AOT transfer. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is used for optimal control problems. The optimal trajectory is shown to include two branches: a relatively short descending flight branch (branch 1) and a long ascending flight branch (branch 2). Next, attention is focused on guidance trajectories capable of approximating the optimal trajectories in real time, while retaining the essential characteristics of simplicity, ease of implementation, and reliability. For the atmospheric pass, a feedback control scheme is employed and the lift coefficient is adjusted according to a two-stage gamma guidance law. Further improvements are possible via a modified gamma guidance which is more stable with respect to dispersion effects arising from navigation errors, variations of the atmospheric density, and uncertainties in the aerodynamic coefficients than gamma guidance trajectory. A byproduct of the studies on dispersion effects is the following design concept. For coplaner aeroassisted orbital transfer, the lift-range-to-weight ratio appears to play a more important role than the lift-to-drag ratio. This is because the lift-range-to-weight ratio controls mainly the minimum

  3. Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langehough, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of this control has been to develop the control technology required to identify the sophistication required for the Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) control system. An angle of attack, bank angle command control technique has been developed which uses either on-off thruster or proportional thruster. An angle of attack adaptive controller was included to minimize the reactor control system (RCS) usage due to payload center of gravity uncertainties. The guidance and control techniques were verified using a detail six degrees-of-freedom simulation. Mission sensitivity was developed for uncertainties in the entry state, mass properties, atmosphere, aerodynamic, and sensor.

  4. Computational chemistry and aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. M.; Jaffe, R. L.; Arnold, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the radiative heating phenomena encountered during a typical aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) trajectory was made to determine the potential impact of computational chemistry on AOTV design technology. Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation mechanisms were considered. This analysis showed that computational chemistry can be used to predict (1) radiative intensity factors and spectroscopic data; (2) the excitation rates of both atoms and molecules; (3) high-temperature reaction rate constants for metathesis and charge exchange reactions; (4) particle ionization and neutralization rates and cross sections; and (5) spectral line widths.

  5. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  6. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  7. Update of the Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is an international collaboration between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential value of antiresorptive drugs to mitigate the well-established bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Our hypothesis is that an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise will ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during long-duration spaceflight. We have completed data analysis for 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and 3 of 10 controls without treatment. We previously reported the pre/postflight changes in bone density and the pre versus in-flight changes in various biomarkers in crewmembers taking alendronate during flight. The purpose of this report is to compare these results with the 12- month follow-up data. The table below presents these data as a percentage change from baseline either immediately postflight or in-flight (biochemical markers) with a 1-year follow-up.

  8. AFTI/F-16 digital flight control system experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Flighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 program is investigating the integration of emerging technologies into an advanced fighter aircraft. The three major technologies involved are the triplex digital flight control system; decoupled aircraft flight control; and integration of avionics, pilot displays, and flight control. In addition to investigating improvements in fighter performance, the AFTI/F-16 program provides a look at generic problems facing highly integrated, flight-crucial digital controls. An overview of the AFTI/F-16 systems is followed by a summary of flight test experience and recommendations.

  9. Solar array flight experiment/dynamic augmentation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leighton E.; Pack, Homer C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the objectives, design, testing, and data analyses of the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE) that was tested aboard Shuttle in September 1984. The SAFE was a lightweight, flat-fold array that employed a thin polyimide film (Kapton) as a substrate for the solar cells. Extension/retraction, dynamics, electrical and thermal tests, were performed. Of particular interest is the dynamic behavior of such a large lightweight structure in space. Three techniques for measuring and analyzing this behavior were employed. The methodology for performing these tests, gathering data, and data analyses are presented. The report shows that the SAFE solar array technology is ready for application and that new methods are available to assess the dynamics of large structures in space.

  10. Liquid Motion Experiment Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato David J.; Dalton, Penni J.; Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), designed to study the effects of liquid motion in rotating tanks, was flown on STS 84. LME was essentially a spin table that created a realistic nutation motion of scale-model tanks containing liquid. TWo spherical and two cylindrical transparent tanks were tested simultaneously, and three sets of such tanks were employed to vary liquid viscosity, fill level, and propellant management device (PMD) design. All the tanks were approximately 4.5 inches diameter. The primary test measurements were the radial and tangential torques exerted on the tanks by the liquid. Resonant frequencies and damping of the liquid oscillations were determined by sine sweep tests. For a given tank shape, the resonant frequency depended on fill level. For the cylindrical tanks, the resonances had somewhat different frequencies for the tangential axis (0.55 to 0.75 times spin rate) and the radial axis (0.73 to 0.78 times spin rate), and the tangential axis resonance agreed more closely with available analytical models. For the spherical tanks, the resonant frequencies were between 0.74 to 0.77 times the spin rate and were the same for the tangential and radial axes. The damping coefficients varied from about I% to 3% of critical, depending on tank shape, fill level, and liquid viscosity. 'Me viscous energy dissipation rates of the liquid oscillations were determined from sine dwell tests. The LME energy dissipation rates varied from 0.3 to 0.5 times the estimates obtained from scaling previous ground tests and spacecraft flight data. The PNDs sometimes enhanced the resonances and energy dissipation rates and sometimes decreased them, which points out the need to understand better the effects of PMD on liquid motion as a function of PMD and tank design.

  11. Experiment 305: Pathophysiology of Mineral Loss During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Claude D.; Cann, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this SLS-2 experiment was to determine the pathophysiology of mineral loss during space flight. This was to be accomplished by (1) determining the concentrations of blood minerals and of calciotropic hormones (parathyroid hormone-PTH, vitamin D metabolites) before, during, and after a 14 day shuttle flight, and (2) determining, by calcium kinetic analysis (using stable calcium isotopes), the influence of space flight on intestinal calcium absorption .

  12. A feasibility study of orbiter flight control experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of orbiter flight control experiments performed are summarized. Feasibility studies were performed on a group of 14 experiments selected from a candidate list of 35 submitted to the study contractor by the flight control community. Concepts and requirements were developed for the 14 selected experiments and they were ranked on a basis of technical value, feasibility, and cost. It was concluded that all the selected experiments can be considered as potential candidates for the Orbiter Experiment program, which is being formulated for the Orbiter Flight Tests and subsequent operational flights, regardless of the relative ranking established during the study. None of the selected experiments has significant safety implications and the cost of most was estimated to be less than $200K.

  13. Flight experiences on board Space Station Mir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehboeck, Franz

    1992-07-01

    A survey of the training in the cosmonaut center 'Yuri Gagarin' near Moscow (U.S.S.R.) and of the preparation for the joint Soviet-Austrian space flight from 2-10 Oct. 1991 is given. The flight in Soyuz-TM 13 with the most important systems, as well as a short description of the Space Station Mir, the life on board the Station with the basic systems, like energy supply, life support, radio, and television are described. The possibilities of exploitation of the Space Station Mir and an outlook to the future is given.

  14. Overview of International Space Station orbital environments exposure flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Schmidl, Danny; Finckenor, Miria; Neish, Michael; Imagawa, Kichiro; Dinguirard, Magdeleine; van Eesbeek, Marc; Naumov, S. F.; Krylov, A. N.; Mishina, L. V.; Gerasimov, Y. I.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit environments exposure flight experiments. International teams are flying, or preparing to fly, externally mounted materials exposure trays and sensor packages. The samples in these trays are exposed to a combination of induced molecular contamination, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Exposed materials samples are analyzed upon return. Typical analyses performed on these samples include optical property measurements, X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface morphology and materials properties measurements. The objective of these studies is to characterize the long-term effects of the natural and induced environments on spacecraft materials. Ongoing flight experiments include the U.S. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) program, the Japanese Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (SM/MPAC&SEED) experiment, the Russian SKK and Kromka experiments from RSC-Energia, and the Komplast flight experiment. Flight experiments being prepared for flight, or in development stage, include the Japanese Space Environment Data Acquisition Attached Payload (SEDA-AP), the Russian BKDO monitoring package from RSC-Energia, and the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET). Results from these ISS flight experiments will be crucial to extending the performance and life of long-duration space systems such as Space Station, Space Transportation System, and other missions for Moon and Mars exploration.

  15. Columbia carries astronomy experiments on third test flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Transportation System 3 flight is discussed. The objectives of the test flight are given as well as an account of launch preparations, in liftoff, reentry; and landing. Numerous astronomy and space science experiments carried in the cargo bay are described.

  16. Atmospheric Models for Aeroentry and Aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    Eight destinations in the Solar System have sufficient atmosphere for aeroentry, aeroassist, or aerobraking/aerocapture: Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, plus Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for Earth, Mars, Titan, and Neptune have been developed for use in NASA's systems analysis studies of aerocapture applications. Development has begun on a similar atmospheric model for Venus. An important capability of these models is simulation of quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analyses in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, and for thermal systems design. Characteristics of these atmospheric models are compared, and example applications for aerocapture are presented. Recent Titan atmospheric model updates are discussed, in anticipation of applications for trajectory and atmospheric reconstruct of Huygens Probe entry at Titan. Recent and planned updates to the Mars atmospheric model, in support of future Mars aerocapture systems analysis studies, are also presented.

  17. Atmospheric Models for Aeroentry and Aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    Eight destinations in the Solar System have sufficient atmosphere for aeroentry, aeroassist, or aerobraking/aerocapture: Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, plus Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for Earth, Mars, Titan, and Neptune have been developed for use in NASA s systems analysis studies of aerocapture applications. Development has begun on a similar atmospheric model for Venus. An important capability of these models is simulation of quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analyses in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, and for thermal systems design. Characteristics of these atmospheric models are compared, and example applications for aerocapture are presented. Recent Titan atmospheric model updates are discussed, in anticipation of applications for trajectory and atmospheric reconstruct of Huygens Probe entry at Titan. Recent and planned updates to the Mars atmospheric model, in support of future Mars aerocapture systems analysis studies, are also presented.

  18. Flight Testing the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Neal, Bradford A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Monaghan, Richard C.; Voelker, Leonard S.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Larson, Richard R.; Powers, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    The design of the next generation of space access vehicles has led to a unique flight test that blends the space and flight research worlds. The new space vehicle designs, such as the X-33 vehicle and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), are powered by linear aerospike rocket engines. Conceived of in the 1960's, these aerospike engines have yet to be flown, and many questions remain regarding aerospike engine performance and efficiency in flight. To provide some of these data before flying on the X-33 vehicle and the RLV, a spacecraft rocket engine has been flight-tested atop the NASA SR-71 aircraft as the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). A 20 percent-scale, semispan model of the X-33 vehicle, the aerospike engine, and all the required fuel and oxidizer tanks and propellant feed systems have been mounted atop the SR-71 airplane for this experiment. A major technical objective of the LASRE flight test is to obtain installed-engine performance flight data for comparison to wind-tunnel results and for the development of computational fluid dynamics-based design methodologies. The ultimate goal of firing the aerospike rocket engine in flight is still forthcoming. An extensive design and development phase of the experiment hardware has been completed, including approximately 40 ground tests. Five flights of the LASRE and firing the rocket engine using inert liquid nitrogen and helium in place of liquid oxygen and hydrogen have been successfully completed.

  19. The role of experience in flight behaviour of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hesselberg, Thomas; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-10-01

    Experience plays a key role in the acquisition of complex motor skills in running and flight of many vertebrates. To evaluate the significance of previous experience for the efficiency of motor behaviour in an insect, we investigated the flight behaviour of the fruit fly Drosophila. We reared flies in chambers in which the animals could freely walk and extend their wings, but could not gain any flight experience. These naive animals were compared with control flies under both open- and closed-loop tethered flight conditions in a flight simulator as well as in a free-flight arena. The data suggest that the overall flight behaviour in Drosophila seems to be predetermined because both groups exhibited similar mean stroke amplitude and stroke frequency, similar open-loop responses to visual stimulation and the immediate ability to track visual objects under closed-loop feedback conditions. In short free flight bouts, peak saccadic turning rate, angular acceleration, peak horizontal speed and flight altitude were also similar in naive and control flies. However, we found significant changes in other key parameters in naive animals such as a reduction in mean horizontal speed (-23%) and subtle changes in mean turning rate (-48%). Naive flies produced 25% less yaw torque-equivalent stroke amplitudes than the controls in response to a visual stripe rotating in open loop around the tethered animal, potentially suggesting a flight-dependent adaptation of the visuo-motor gain in the control group. This change ceased after the animals experienced visual closed-loop feedback. During closed-loop flight conditions, naive flies had 53% larger differences in left and right stroke amplitude when fixating a visual object, thus steering control was less precise. We discuss two alternative hypotheses to explain our results: the ;neuronal experience' hypothesis, suggesting that there are some elements of learning and fine-tuning involved during the first flight experiences in Drosophila

  20. A High Altitude-Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Don; Krake, Keith; Hamory, Phil; Drela, Mark; Lee, Seunghee (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    A sailplane is currently being developed at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to support a high altitude flight experiment. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the performance characteristics of an airfoil at altitudes between 100,000 and 70,000 feet at Mach numbers between 0.65 and 0.5. The airfoil lift and drag are measured from pilot and static pressures. The location of the separation bubble and vortex shedding are measured from a hot film strip. The details of the flight experiment are presented. A comparison of several estimates of the airfoil performance is also presented. The airfoil, APEX-16, was designed by Drela (MIT) with his MSES code. A two dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis has been performed by Tatineni and Zhong (UCLA) and another at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The role these analysis served to define the experiment is discussed.

  1. MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

  2. Space Courier - Return capsule for in-flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Klaus

    1988-12-01

    Space Courier is a returnable capsule for inexpensive space transport of experiments, especially experiments concerned with materials processing. With a total weight of 1400 kg, it can be launched by a variety of available launchers and can transport a payload of 400 kg. The first flight is scheduled for 1991. Space Courier will fill a gap left by the shortage of Shuttle flights. The basic mission length is set at seven days, with a 200 W capacity for the payload. Longer flights will require a reduction in payload.

  3. Preliminary flight test results from the advanced photovoltaic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment is a space flight test designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurement as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of the space environment on solar cells. After a flight of 69 months in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility set of experiments, it was retrieved in January, 1990. The electronic data acquisition system functioned as designed, measuring and recording cell performance data over the first 358 days of flight, limited by battery lifetime. Significant physical changes are also readily apparent, including erosion of front surface paint, micrometeoroid and debris catering and contamination.

  4. Preliminary results from the advanced photovoltaic experiment flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Hickey, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment is a space flight test designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurement as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of the space environment on solar cells. After a flight of 69 months in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility set of experiments, it was retrieved in January, 1990. The electronic data acquisition system functioned as designed, measuring and recording cell performance data over the first 358 days of flight; limited by battery lifetime. Significant physical changes are also readily apparent, including erosion of front surface paint, micrometeoroid and debris catering and contamination.

  5. Preliminary results from the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Hickey, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Phototovoltaic Experiment is a space flight test designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurements and to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of the space environment on solar cells. After a flight of 69 months in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility set of experiments, it was retrieved in January 1990. The electronic data acquisition system functioned as designed, measuring and recording cell performance data over the first 358 days of flight, limited by battery lifetime. Significant physical changes are also readily apparent, including erosion of front surface paint, micrometeoroid and debris cratering, and contamination.

  6. Digital Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Validation Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Jarvis, C. R.; Krier, G. E.; Megna, V. A.; Brock, L. D.; Odonnell, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    The experience gained in digital fly-by-wire technology through a flight test program being conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in an F-8C aircraft is described. The system requirements are outlined, along with the requirements for flight qualification. The system is described, including the hardware components, the aircraft installation, and the system operation. The flight qualification experience is emphasized. The qualification process included the theoretical validation of the basic design, laboratory testing of the hardware and software elements, systems level testing, and flight testing. The most productive testing was performed on an iron bird aircraft, which used the actual electronic and hydraulic hardware and a simulation of the F-8 characteristics to provide the flight environment. The iron bird was used for sensor and system redundancy management testing, failure modes and effects testing, and stress testing in many cases with the pilot in the loop. The flight test program confirmed the quality of the validation process by achieving 50 flights without a known undetected failure and with no false alarms.

  7. Atmosphere control for plant growth flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sudar, Martin; Timm, Marc; Yost, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    An atmosphere exchange system (AES) has been designed to provide a conditioned atmosphere supply to plant specimens in flight without incurring the large weight and volume associated with bottled gases. The paper examines the atmosphere filter cartridge (AFC) designed to remove trace organic atmosphere contaminants from the Space Shuttle cabin and to condition the cabin atmosphere prior to exposure to plant specimens. The AES and AFC are described and illustrated. The AFC design requirements are discussed and results are presented from tests on the performance of the AFC. Also, consideration is given to the potential applications of the AFC and future design concepts for atmosphere control.

  8. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  9. Final Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment was designed to generate laboratory reference standards as well as to explore the durability of a wide variety of space solar cells. In addition to the cells, it was equipped with an absolute cavity radiometer to measure solar intensity, a spectroradiometer to measure the spectral content of this radiation and a sun angle sensor. Data from the solar cells and various sensors was obtained on a daily basis during the first eleven months of the 69 month flight. In this paper pre-flight and post-flight laboratory measurements are compared with on-orbit calibration data. Pre-flight and post-flight calibration data of the cavity radiometer as well as on-orbit data demonstrated the accuracy and durability of the Eppley instrument flown on APEX.

  10. Final results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, D.J.; Hickey, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment was designed to generate laboratory reference standards as well as to explore the durability of a wide variety of space solar cells. In addition to the cells, it was equipped with an absolute cavity radiometer to measure solar intensity, a spectroradiometer to measure the spectral content of this radiation and a sun angle sensor. Data from the solar cells and various sensors was obtained on a daily basis during the first eleven months of the 69 month flight. In this paper pre-flight and post-flight laboratory measurements are compared with on-orbit calibration data. Pre-flight and post-flight calibration data of the cavity radiometer as well as on-orbit data demonstrated the accuracy and durability of the Eppley instrument flown on APEX.

  11. ATS-6 - Flight performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on ATS-6 was designed to demonstrate the thermal control capability of a thermal diode (one-way) heat pipe, a phase-change material for thermal storage, and a feedback-controlled heat pipe. Flight data for the different operational modes are compared to ground test data, and the performance of the components is evaluated on an individual basis and as an integrated temperature-control system.

  12. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center CFD overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutzenhofer, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) activities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been focused on hardware specific and research applications with strong emphasis upon benchmark validation. The purpose here is to provide insight into the MSFC CFD related goals, objectives, current hardware related CFD activities, propulsion CFD research efforts and validation program, future near-term CFD hardware related programs, and CFD expectations. The current hardware programs where CFD has been successfully applied are the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD), and Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). For the future near-term CFD hardware related activities, plans are being developed that address the implementation of CFD into the early design stages of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE), and the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the Space Station. Finally, CFD expectations in the design environment will be delineated.

  14. Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Layout of the Hypersonic Flight Experiment Shefex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Th.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the SHarp Edge Flight EXperiment SHEFEX is the investigation of possible new shapes for future launcher or reentry vehicles [1]. The main focus is the improvement of common space vehicle shapes by application of facetted surfaces and sharp edges. The experiment will enable the time accurate investigation of the flow effects and their structural answer during the hypersonic flight from 90 km down to an altitude of 20 km. The project, being performed under responsibility of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is scheduled to fly on top of a two-stage solid propellant sounding rocket for the first half of 2005. The paper contains a survey of the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic layout of the experimental vehicle. The results are inputs for the definition of the structural layout, the TPS and the flight instrumentation as well as for the preparation of the flight test performed by the Mobile Rocket Base of DLR.

  15. Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.

  16. NASA Bioculture System: From Experiment Definition to Flight Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.; Almeida, Eduardo; Austin, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in 2015, the NASA Bioculture System will be available to the science community to conduct cell biology and microbiology experiments on ISS. The Bioculture System carries ten environmentally independent Cassettes, which house the experiments. The closed loop fluids flow path subsystem in each Cassette provides a perfusion-based method for maintain specimen cultures in a shear-free environment by using a biochamber based on porous hollow fiber bioreactor technology. Each Cassette contains an incubator and separate insulated refrigerator compartment for storage of media, samples, nutrients and additives. The hardware is capable of fully automated or manual specimen culturing and processing, including in-flight experiment initiation, sampling and fixation, up to BSL-2 specimen culturing, and the ability to up to 10 independent cultures in parallel for statistical analysis. The incubation and culturing of specimens in the Bioculture System is a departure from standard laboratory culturing methods. Therefore, it is critical that the PI has an understanding the pre-flight test required for successfully using the Bioculture System to conduct an on-orbit experiment. Overall, the PI will conduct a series of ground tests to define flight experiment and on-orbit implementation requirements, verify biocompatibility, and determine base bioreactor conditions. The ground test processes for the utilization of the Bioculture System, from experiment selection to flight, will be reviewed. Also, pre-flight test schedules and use of COTS ground test equipment (CellMax and FiberCell systems) and the Bioculture System will be discussed.

  17. Properties of the optimal trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Deaton, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from a high Earth orbit (HEO) to a low Earth orbit (LEO) is examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that two impulses are employed, one at HEO exit and one at LEO entry. During the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient in such a way that the total characteristic velocity is minimized. First, an ideal optimal trajectory is determined analytically for lift coefficient unbounded. This trajectory is called grazing trajectory, because the atmospheric pass is made by flying at constant altitude along the edge of the atmosphere until the excess velocity is depleted. For the grazing trajectory, the lift coefficient varies in such a way that the lift, the centrifugal force due to the Earth's curvature, the weight, and the Coriolis force due to the Earth's rotation are in static balance. Also, the grazing trajectory minimizes the total characteristic velocity and simultaneously nearly minimizes the peak values of the altitude drop, dynamic pressure, and heating rate. Next, starting from the grazing trajectory results, a real optimal trajectory is determined numerically for the lift coefficient bounded from both below and above. This trajectory is characterized by atmospheric penetration with the smallest possible entry angle, followed by flight at the lift coefficient lower bound. Consistently with the grazing trajectory behavior, the real optimal trajectory minimizes the total characteristic velocity and simultaneously nearly minimizes the peak values of the altitude drop, the dynamic pressure, and the heating rate.

  18. Commander Mattingly tangles with NOSL experiment on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Mattingly uses Nighttime / Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment on aft flight deck. Cables connecting the data recorder to 16mm data aquisition camera (DAC), electronic package, and optical sensor package become tangled as Mattingly points NOSL instrument out overhead aft flight deck window. His cap is also lost amidst the maze of wiring, tape recorder, and camera equipment onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  19. Design and conduct of a windshear detection flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Yenni, Kenneth R.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Person, Lee H.

    1992-01-01

    A description is presented of the design and conduct of a series of flight experiments that tested the performance of candidate windshear detection devices. A NASA 737 test aircraft with prototype windshear sensors installed flew numerous low altitude penetrations of microburst windshear conditions. These tests were preceded by extensive preparations including piloted simulations, determination of safe operating conditions, and the development of displays, unique flight test hardware, and procedures.

  20. Spaceflight payload design flight experience G-408

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgin, William W.; Looft, Fred J.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert; Dixon, Anthony G.; Roberti, Dino; Labonte, Robert; Moschini, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute's first payload of spaceflight experiments flew aboard Columbia, STS-40, during June of 1991 and culminated eight years of work by students and faculty. The Get Away Special (GAS) payload was installed on the GAS bridge assembly at the aft end of the cargo bay behind the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) laboratory. The Experiments were turned on by astronaut signal after reaching orbit and then functioned for 72 hours. Environmental and experimental measurements were recorded on three cassette tapes which, together with zeolite crystals grown on orbit, formed the basis of subsequent analyses. The experiments were developed over a number of years by undergraduate students meeting their project requirements for graduation. The experiments included zeolite crystal growth, fluid behavior, and microgravity acceleration measurement in addition to environmental data acquisition. Preparation also included structural design, thermal design, payload integration, and experiment control. All of the experiments functioned on orbit and the payload system performed within design estimates.

  1. Thermal control surfaces experiment: Initial flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of materials in the space environment continues to be a limiting technology for spacecraft and experiments. The thermal control surfaces experiment (TCSE) aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is the most comprehensive experiment flown to study the effects of the space environment on thermal control surfaces. Selected thermal control surfaces were exposed to the LDEF orbital environment and the effects of this exposure were measured. The TCSE combined in-space orbital measurements with pre and post-flight analyses of flight materials to determine the effects of long term space exposure. The TCSE experiment objective, method, and measurements are described along with the results of the initial materials analysis. The TCSE flight system and its excellent performance on the LDEF mission is described. A few operational anomalies were encountered and are discussed.

  2. Phonesat In-flight Experience Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attai, Watson; Guillen, Salas Alberto; Oyadomari, Ken Yuji; Priscal, Cedric; Shimmin, Rogan Stuart; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Consumer technology, over the last decade, has begun to encompass devices that enable us to figure out where we are, which way we are pointing, observe the world around us, and store and transmit this information to wherever we want. Once separate consumer products such as GPS units, digital cameras and mobile phones are now combined into the modern day Smartphone. Since these capabilities are remarkably similar to those required for the multi-million dollar satellites - so why not use a multihundred dollar Smartphone instead? The PhoneSat project of NASA Ames Research Center is developing technology demonstrations utilizing these extraordinary advances to show just how simple and cheap Space can be. The style of development revolves around the "release early, release often" Silicon Valley mentality. PhoneSat is a series of 1U CubeSat size spacecrafts that use an off-the-shelf Smartphone as their onboard computer. By doing so, PhoneSat takes advantage of the high computational capability, large memory as well as ultra-tiny sensors like high-resolution cameras and navigation devices that Smartphones offer. Along with a Smartphone, PhoneSat is equipped with other commercially available technology products, such as medical brushless motors that are used as reaction wheels. Over the four years that NASA Ames Research Center has been developing the PhoneSat project, different suborbital and orbital flight activities have proven the validity of this revolutionary approach. In early 2013, the PhoneSat project launched the first triage of PhoneSats into LEO. In the five day orbital life time, the nano-satellites flew the first functioning Smartphone based satellites (using the Nexus One and Nexus S phones), the cheapest satellite (a total parts cost below $3,500) and one of the fastest on-board processors (CPU speed of 1GHz). In late 2013, the PhoneSat project launched an improved version of its bus to a higher altitude orbit which provided data about the overall system

  3. Marshall Amateur Radio Club experiment (MARCE) post flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, Charles C.

    1987-01-01

    The Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment (MARCE) data system, the data recorded during the flight of STS-61C, the manner in which the data was reduced to engineering units, and the performance of the student experiments determined from the data are briefly described.

  4. Optimal trajectories for LEO-to-LEO aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miele, A.; Lee, W. Y.; Mease, K. D.

    This paper considers both classical and minimax problems of optimal control arising in the study of noncoplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer. The maneuver considered involves the transfer from one planetary orbit to another having different orbital inclination, but the same radius. An example is the LEO-to-LEO transfer of a spacecraft with a prescribed plane change, where LEO denotes low Earth orbit. The basic idea is to employ the hybrid combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the sensible atmosphere. Hence, this type of flight is also called synergetic space flight. With reference to the atmospheric part of the maneuver, trajectory control is achieved by modulating the lift coefficient (hence, the angle of attack) and the angle of bank. The presence of upper and lower bounds on the lift coefficient is considered. Three different transfer maneuvers are studied. Type 1 involves four impulses and four space plane changes; Type 2 involves three impulses and three space plane changes; and Type 3 involves three impulses and no space plane change. In Type 1, the initial impulse directs the spacecraft away from Earth, and then is followed by an apogee impulse propelling the spacecraft toward Earth; in Types 2 and 3, the initial impulse directs the spacecraft toward Earth. A common element of these maneuvers is that they all include an atmospheric pass, with velocity depletion coupled with plane change. Within the framework of classical optimal control, the following problems are studied: (P1) minimize the energy required for orbital transfer; (P4) maximize the time of flight during the atmospheric portion of the trajectory; (P5) minimize the time integral of the square of the path inclination. Within the framework of minimax optimal control, the following problem is studied: (Q1) minimize the peak heating rate. Numerical solutions for Problems (P1), (P4), (P5), (Q1) are obtained by means of the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm

  5. Development and Testing of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Stouffer, Charles J.; Hagood, Robert M.; Rich, Michael; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development and ground testing of the CRYOTSU thermal management flight experiment. CRYOTSU incorporates three cryogenic temperature experiments and one ambient temperature experiment into a Hitchhiker (HH) Get Away Special (GAS) Canister that is currently scheduled to fly on STS-95 in October 1998. The cryogenic experiments consist of a nitrogen triple-point cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU), a nitrogen cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL) and a hydrogen gas-gap cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW). The ambient experiment is a carbon-fiber core, paraffin-filled thermal storage unit. Test results of integrated flight canister testing are provided herein for the CTSU and CCPL experiments. Pre-integration laboratory test results are provided for the CTSW. Design information and test results for the ambient experiment are not included.

  6. Development and Testing of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Stouffer, Charles J.; Hagood, Robert M.; Rich, Michael; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development and ground testing of the CRYOTSU thermal management flight experiment. CRYOTSU incorporates three cryogenic temperature experiments and one ambient temperature experiment into a Hitchhiker (HH) Get Away Special (GAS) Canister that is currently scheduled to fly on STS-95 in October 1998. The cryogenic experiments consist of a nitrogen triple-point cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU), a nitrogen cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL), and a hydrogen gas-gap cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW). The ambient experiment is a carbon-fiber core, paraffin-filled thermal storage unit. Test results of integrated flight canister testing are provided herein for the CTSU and CCPL experiments. Pre-integration laboratory test results are provided for the CTSW. Design information and test results for the ambient experiment are not included.

  7. Preparations for CELSS flight experiments with wheat.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, F; Gillespie, L; Bingham, G

    1994-11-01

    We are planning a short-term experiment with Superdwarf wheat on the U.S. Space Shuttle and a seed-to-seed experiment on the Russian Space Station Mir. The goals of both experiments are to observe effects of microgravity on developmental steps in the life cycle and to measure photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration by monitoring gas exchange. This requires somewhat different hardware development for the two experiments. Ground-based research aims to understand plant responses to the environments in the space growth chambers that we will use (after some modification): the Plant Growth Unit (PGU) on the shuttle and units called Svet, Svetoblock 2, or Oasis on Mir. Low irradiance levels (100 to 250 micromoles m-2 s-1 at best) pose a particular problem. Water and nutrient supply are also potentially limiting factors, especially in the long-term experiment. Our ground-based studies emphasize responses to low light levels (50 to 400 micromoles m-2 s-1); results show that all developmental steps are delayed by low light compared with plants at 400 micromoles m-2 s-1. We are also testing various rooting substrates for the shuttle experiment. A 1:1:1 mixture of peat:perlite:vermiculite appears to be the best choice. PMID:11540183

  8. Preparations for CELSS flight experiments with wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, F.; Gillespie, L.; Bingham, G.

    1994-11-01

    We are planning a short-term experiment with Superdwarf wheat on the U.S. Space Shuttle and a seed-to-seed experiment on the Russian Space Station Mir. The goals of both experiments are to observe effects of microgravity on developmental steps in the life cycle and to measure photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration by monitoring gas exchange. This requires somewhat different hardware development for the two experiments. Ground-based research aims to understand plant responses to the environments in the space growth chambers that we will use (after some modification): the Plant Growth Unit (PGU) on the shuttle and units called Svet, Svetoblock 2, or Oasis on Mir. Low irradiance levels (100 to 250 μmol m-2 s-1 at best) pose a particular problem. Water and nutrient supply are also potentially limiting factors, especially in the long-term experiment. Our ground-based studies emphasize responses to low light levels (50 to 400 μmol m-2 s-1) results show that all developmental steps are delayed by low light compared with plants at 400 μmol m-2 s-1. We are also testing various rooting substrates for the shuttle experiment. A 1:1:1 mixture of peat:perlite:vermiculite appears to be the best choice.

  9. Functional design to support CDTI/DABS flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) provide a generalized functional design of CDTI avionics using the FAA developd DABS/ATARS ground system as the 'traffic sensor', (2) specify software modifications and/or additions to the existing DABS/ATARS ground system to support CDTI avionics, (3) assess the existing avionics of a NASA research aircraft in terms of CDTI applications, and (4) apply the generalized functional design to provide research flight experiment capability. DABS Data Link Formats are first specified for CDTI flight experiments. The set of CDTI/DABS Format specifications becomes a vehicle to coordinate the CDTI avionics and ground system designs, and hence, to develop overall system requirements. The report is the first iteration of a system design and development effort to support eventual CDTI flight test experiments.

  10. The prospect of responsive spacecraft using aeroassisted, trans-atmospheric maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinger, Robert A.

    Comprised of exo- and trans-atmospheric trajectory segments, atmospheric re-entry represents a complex dynamical event which traditionally signals the mission end-of-life for low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft, both manned and unmanned. Transcending this paradigm, atmospheric re-entry can be employed as a means of operational maneuver whereby the aerodynamic forces of the upper atmosphere can be exploited to create an aeroassisted maneuver. Utilizing a notional trans-atmospheric, lifting re-entry vehicle with L/D=6, the first phase of research demonstrates the terrestrial reachability potential for skip entry aeroassisted maneuvers. By overflying a geographically diverse set of sample ground targets, comparative analysis indicates a significant savings in DeltaV expenditure for skip entry compared with planar phasing and simple plane change exo-atmospheric maneuvers. In the second phase, the Design of Experiments method of orthogonal arrays provides optimal vehicle and skip entry trajectory designs by employing main effects and Pareto front analysis. Depending on the chosen re-circularization altitude, the coupled optimal design can achieve an inclination change of 19.91 deg with 50-85% less DeltaV than a simple plane change. Finally, the third phase introduces the descent-boost aeroassisted maneuver as an alternative to combined Hohmann and bi-elliptic transfers in order to perform LEO injection. Compared with bi-elliptic transfers, simulations demonstrate that a lifting re-entry vehicle with L/D=6 performing a descent-boost maneuver requires 6-12% less DeltaV for injection into orbits lower than 650 km. In addition, the third phase also introduces the "Maneuver Performance Number" as a dimensionless means of comparative effectiveness analysis for both exo- and trans-atmospheric maneuvers.

  11. Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment, S0014: Preliminary Flight Results and Post-Flight Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Brasted, Donald K.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX) is an LDEF experiment designed to provide reference solar cell standards for laboratory measurements as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effects of long term exposure of solar cells to the LEO environment. Silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells were flown with the appropriate instrumentation to periodically measure cell performance and temperature. The experimental objectives, the design employed to realize these objectives and the solar cells and instrumentation selected for the flight are presented. A discussion of the flight data returned are included. Preliminary results from the post flight analysis of the absolute cavity radiometer, the digital solar angle sensor, and the Barr Associates narrow bandpass optical filters are also presented. The initial findings of work to determine the chemical nature of contamination layers on APEX are also presented.

  12. Orion EFT-1 Catalytic Tile Experiment Overview and Flight Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and results of a surface catalysis flight experiment flown on the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). Similar to previous Space Shuttle catalytic tile experiments, the present test consisted of a highly catalytic coating applied to an instrumented TPS tile. However, the present catalytic tile experiment contained significantly more instrumentation in order to better resolve the heating overshoot caused by the change in surface catalytic efficiency at the interface between two distinct materials. In addition to collecting data with unprecedented spatial resolution of the "overshoot" phenomenon, the experiment was also designed to prove if such a catalytic overshoot would be seen in turbulent flow in high enthalpy regimes. A detailed discussion of the results obtained during EFT1 is presented, as well as the challenges associated with data interpretation of this experiment. Results of material testing carried out in support of this flight experiment are also shown. Finally, an inverse heat conduction technique is employed to reconstruct the flight environments at locations upstream and along the catalytic coating. The data and analysis presented in this work will greatly contribute to our understanding of the catalytic "overshoot" phenomenon, and have a significant impact on the design of future spacecraft.

  13. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Five Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Fran

    1997-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many earthbound applications in steamgeneration power plants, petroleum plants, and other chemical plants. In addition, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  14. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many Earthbound applications, such as steam-generation power plants, petroleum, and other chemical plants. Also, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  15. Instrumentation for space flight experiments. [using nonhuman primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The selection of measurement systems for experiments conducted in the context of a space flight must be guided by the criteria applicable to any scientific study requiring objective measurements of physiological variables. Steps fundamental to the process of choosing the best instrumentation system are identified and the key factors in matching the operational characteristics of the instrumentation to its intended use are discussed. Special problems in obtaining data from nonhuman primates, whether restrained or unrestrained, are explored. Choices for data processing are evaluated as well as the use of prototype flight tests and simulations to assess future life science experiments for spacelab or payloads for the space shuttle biomedical scientific satellite.

  16. Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

  17. Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.

  18. CSI flight experiment projects of the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is involved in an active program of CSI flight experiments. The first CSI flight experiment of the Naval Research Laboratory, the Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) dynamics experiment, has successfully measured vibrations of an orbiting satellite with a ground-based laser radar. The observations, made on January 7, 8 and 10, 1991, represent the first ever measurements of this type. In the tests, a narrowband heterodyne CO2 laser radar, operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, detected vibration induced differential-Doppler signatures of the LACE satellite. Power spectral densities of forced oscillations and modal frequencies and damping rates of free-damped vibrations were obtained and compared with finite element structural models of the LACE system. Another manifested flight experiment is the Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX) designed to demonstrate active and passive damping with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors and actuators. This experiment was developed under the management of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory with integration of the experiment at NRL. It is to ride as a secondary, or 'piggyback,' experiment on a future Navy satellite.

  19. Review of Low Earth Orbital (LEO) flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Santosmason, B.; Visentine, J.; Kuminecz, J.

    1987-01-01

    The atomic oxygen flux exposure experiments flown on Space Shuttle flights STS-5 and STS-8 are described along with the results of measurements made on hardware returned from the Solar Maximum repair mission (Space Shuttle flight 41-C). In general, these experiments have essentially provided for passive exposure of samples to oxygen fluences of approximately 1 to 3.5 x 10(20) atoms/sq cm. Atmospheric density is used to derive fluence and is dependent on solar activity, which has been on the decline side of the 11-year cycle. Thus, relatively low flight altitudes of less than 300 km were used to acquire these exposures. After exposure, the samples were analyzed using various methods ranging from mass loss to extensive scanning electron microscopy and surface analysis techniques. Results are summarized and implications for the space station are discussed.

  20. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this paper is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. The paper will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. The paper also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems will be discussed.

  1. The Coupled Growth in Hypermonotectics flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Barry; Coriell, Sam

    2000-01-01

    The Coupled Growth in Hypermonotectic experiment is scheduled to fly on the International Space Station during UF-3 and is designed to obtain a fundamental understanding of the physics controlling solidification processes in hypermonotectic (immiscible) alloys. The first of three major experimental goals of the project is to demonstrate that steady state coupled growth and the production of an aligned fibrous microstructure is possible in these systems. The second goal is to determine the influence of alloy composition and growth rate on the microstructural features of the alloys. The last major experimental goal is to map out the compositional and growth rate limits of steady state coupled growth. Microgravity processing conditions are necessary to obtain this information which will be utilized for verification and modification of models for monotectic solidification that are being developed as part of the project. This paper discusses the justification for carrying out these experiments and the results obtained from an initial segment of the investigation during the Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission in 1996. .

  2. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  3. TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) flight qualification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, C. J.; Hart, R. C.; Folta, D. C.; Long, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) to provide realtime, autonomous, high-accuracy navigation products to users of TDRSS. A TONS experiment was implemented on the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft, launched June 7, 1992, to flight qualify the TONS operational system using TDRSS forward-link communications services. This paper provides a detailed evaluation of the flight hardware, an ultrastable oscillator (USO) and Doppler extractor (DE) card in one of the TDRSS user transponders and the ground-based prototype flight software performance, based on the 1 year of TONS experiment operation. The TONS experiment results are used to project the expected performance of the TONS 1 operational system. TONS 1 processes Doppler data derived from scheduled forward-link S-band services using a sequential estimation algorithm enhanced by a sophisticated process noise model to provide onboard orbit and frequency determination and time maintenance. TONS 1 will be the prime navigation system on the Earth Observing System (EOS)-AM1 spacecraft, currently scheduled for launch in 1998. Inflight evaluation of the USO and DE short-term and long-term stability indicates that the performance is excellent. Analysis of the TONS prototype flight software performance indicates that realtime onboard position accuracies of better than 25 meters root-mean-square are achievable with one tracking contact every one to two orbits for the EP/EUVE 525-kilometer altitude, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. The success of the TONS experiment demonstrates the flight readiness of TONS to support the EOS-AM1 mission.

  4. Establishing laboratory standards for biological flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Moriarity, Debra M.

    1989-01-01

    The general objective of this research was to assess the effects of exposure to simulated microgravity on ultrastructural aspects of the contractile system in chicken skeletal muscle cells. This general objective had two specific experimental components: (1) the progression of changes in cell morphology, fusion, and patterns of contractile filament organization in muscle cell cultures grown in hollow fibers in the Clinostat were evaluated, with appropriate controls; (2) to initiate experiments in which muscle cells were grown on the surface of microcarrier beads. The ultimate objective of this second portion of the work is to determine if these beads can be rotated in a bioreactor and thereby obtain a more accurate approximation of the effects of simulated microgravity on differentiated muscle cells.

  5. Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.

  6. Advanced photovoltaic experiment, S0014: Preliminary flight results and post-flight findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment is a Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment originally designed to provide reference solar cell standards for laboratory measurements as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effects of long term exposure of space solar cells to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment. The experiment functioned on-orbit as designed, successfully measuring and recording cell performance and solar insolation data over the first 325 days. The objectives and design of the experiment are presented as well as the preliminary flight results and postflight findings.

  7. NASA/DOD Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting held in Monterey California, October 5-9, 1992. Technical sessions 4 through 8 addressing space structures, propulsion, space power systems, space environments and effects, and space operations are covered. Many of the papers are presented in outline and viewgraph form.

  8. Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dean, W. C., II

    1975-01-01

    The concept of a flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest, to be used eventually for investigating and demonstrating ice pack heat sink subsystem physical phenomena during a zero gravity flight experiment, is described.

  9. Development of flight experiments for remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Kopia, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    The status as of February 1973 of several NASA-sponsored development projects is reported concerning flight experiments for remote measurement of pollution. Eight passive multispectral instruments for remotely sensing air and water pollutants are described, as well as two active (laser radar) measuring techniques. These techniques are expected to add some new dimensions to the remote sensing of water quality, oceanographic parameters, and earth resources. Multiple applications in these fields are generally possible. Successful completion of the flight demonstration tests and comparisons with simultaneously obtained surface truth measurements may establish these techniques as valid water quality monitoring tools.

  10. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  11. Thermal control surfaces experiment (SOO69) flight systems performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal control surfaces experiment (TCSE) was the most complex hardware system aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The TCSE system consists of a scanning spectroreflectometer that measured test samples mounted on a rotatable carousel assembly. A microprocessor based data system controlled all aspects of TCSE system operation. Power was provided by four primary batteries. Flight measurement and housekeeping data were stored on a tape recorder for postflight analysis. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed by NASA, DoD, and the aerospace community. The TCSE provides valuable data on the performance of these systems in space. The TCSE flight system and its excellent performance on the LDEF mission are described. A few operational anomalies were encountered and are discussed. Initial post-flight tests show that the TCSE system remains functional although some degradation in the optical measurements were observed. The results of these tests are also presented.

  12. Evolution in HOPE concept and flight experiment plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaba, Hiroshi; Ito, Testsuichi; Takizawa, Yoshisada; Akimoto, Toshio; Inaba, Motoyuki

    1990-10-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan is conducting conceptual design of HOPE, H-II Orbiting Plane. The purpose of the current study is to establish the feasible concept of HOPE and to prepare the technical bases. The primary mission of HOPE is the Space Station Freedom/JEM logistics transportation. Besides previous concept of ten ton class orbiter launched by H-II rocket, extended size orbiter concept has been studied along with enhancement of H-II rocket. An orbiter derived from this study weights 20 tons at lift off and has three to five tons of payload capability. Subsystems design and technology development in such field as aerodynamics, structure and materials, guidance, navigation and control are in progress. In order to acquire the reentry flight data, orbital reentry experiment is planned and under development utilizing orbital flight opportunity of H-II test flight in 1993.

  13. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09 The flight photograph was taken during the LDEF retrieval and provides an on-orbit view of the C09 integrated tray. When comparing this photograph with the prelaunch photograph, very little difference can be seen. A brown stain is visible around some of the fasteners and on mounting plates. The stain has been attributed to outgassing and contamination from the LDEF and experiment related materials being flown. When compared to the prelaunch photograph, the C09 integrated tray seems to be in excellent condition. The Interplanetary Dust Experiment appears to have a thin brown stain around some of the fasteners and also a small rectangular stain, in the center, along the bottom edge of the detector mounting plate. The IDE seems to be in excellent condition with all hardware intact. The colors seen in the detectors is a reflection of the Orbiter's white cargo bay liner.

  14. Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment: Results overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, T.; Buchko, M.; Brennan, P.; Bello, M.; Stoyanof, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the flight results of the Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment (CRYOTP), which was a Hitchhiker based experiment that flew on the space shuttle Columbia in March of 1994 (STS-62). CRYOTP tested two new technologies for advanced cryogenic thermal control; the Space Heat Pipe (SHP), which was a constant conductance cryogenic heat pipe, and the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU), which was a cryogenic phase-change thermal storage device. These two devices were tested independently during the mission. Analysis of the flight data indicated that the SHP was unable to start in either of two attempts, for reasons related to the fluid charge, parasitic heat leaks, and cryocooler capacity. The BETSU test article was successfully operated with more than 250 hours of on-orbit testing including several cooldown cycles and 56 freeze/thaw cycles. Some degradation was observed with the five tactical cryocoolers used as thermal sinks, and one of the cryocoolers failed completely after 331 hours of operation. Post-flight analysis indicated that this problem was most likely due to failure of an electrical controller internal to the unit.

  15. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs is reported. The data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems are described. How the systems were used is described and the challenges encountered to make them work are covered. Examples of raw data and derived results are shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems are discussed. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  16. Canadian medical experiments on Shuttle Flight 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.; Bondar, R. L.; Thirsk, R. B.; Garneau, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the 41-G mission, two payload specialist astronauts took part in six Canadian medical experiments designed to measure how the human nervous system adapts to weightlessness, and how this might contribute to space motion sickness. Similar tests conducted pre-flight provided base-line data, and post-flight experiments examined re-adaptation to the ground. No changes were detected in the vestibulo-ocular reflex during this 8-day mission. Pronounced proprioceptive illusions were experienced, especially immediately post-flight. Tactile acuity was normal in the fingers and toes, but the ability to judge limb position was degraded. Estimates of the locations of familiar targets were grossly distorted in the absence of vision. There were no differences in taste thresholds or olfaction. Despite pre-flight tests showing unusual susceptibility to motion sickness, the Canadian payload specialist turned out to be less susceptible than normal on-orbit. Re-adaptation to the normal gravity environment occurred within the first day after landing.

  17. BIM experiment module and its flight on MASER 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Per; Löfgren, Oscar; Huijser, Ron; Willemsen, Harry

    2005-08-01

    The Biology In Microgravity (BIM) experiment module was flown in microgravity during 6 minutes on the sounding rocket MASER 10 on May 2, 2005. Swedish Space Corporation, Dutch Space and CCM developed the BIM module under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA). Two cell biology experiments were flown in the BIM module: ACTIN, Role of microgravity on actin metabolism in mammalian cells. Investigator: Prof. Dr. Johannes Boonstra, University of Utrecht (NL). AMUSE, Influence of micrograviy on activation of NF-κB, a principal regulator of inflammation and immunity. Investigator: Prof. Dr. Maikel Peppelenbosch, University of Groningen (NL). The BIM experiments were performed in 48 experiment units containing culture chambers and liquid storage reservoirs with additives, which were added to the culture chambers during the microgravity period of six minutes. Cultures in microgravity and on a 1xg reference centrifuge on-board the module were activated simultaneously with a reference on-ground. The experiment units were prepared hours before launch and were integrated in late access insert systems. The flight system was installed in the module via a hatch. The ground system, with the reference experiment units, was placed in an incubator. During the flight, when microgravity was achieved, all actions were performed to activate and, just before end of microgravity, fixate the experiment samples. The thermal control and the centrifuge worked properly. Due to a hard landing the module was severely damaged, nevertheless almost all experiments could be saved.

  18. Capillary pumped loop GAS and Hitchhiker flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, J.; Kroliczek, E. J.; Butler, D.; Schweickart, R. B.; Mcintosh, R.

    1986-01-01

    Flight experiments of a capillary pumped loop (CPL) aboard the Space Shuttle on both the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker-G (H/H-G) carriers are described. These tests have shown that a two-phase heat transfer loop utilizing a wicking material as the system pumping mechanism can operate successfully in a zero-g environment. The CPL operating modes demonstrated were start-up, heat load sharing/natural priming, liquid inventory and temperature control via the reservoir, dryout recovery, and isolation of a single pump deprime. Also investigated were high and low power limits, and inlet subcooling requirements. In these CPL flight experiments, successful system operation was demonstrated at input power levels up to 560 watts and inlet subcooling below 2 C.

  19. Flight equipment supporting metabolic experiments on SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.

    1991-01-01

    Five experiments in different aspects of human metabolism will be performed on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Nine items of equipment from the Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment inventory will be used: the rack-mounted centrifuge, the hematocrit centrifuge, the low-gravity centrifuge, a body-mass measurement device, a urine monitoring system, the Spacelab refrigerator/freezer, the Orbiter refrigerator, an in-flight blood collection system, and a pocket voice recorder. In addition, each experiment will require some specialized equipment such as incubators and culture blocks for an immunology experiment, and tracers for a fluid and electrolyte experiment and a hematology experiment. The equipment for these experiments has been developed over many years, in some cases since the Skylab program in the early 1970s, and has been certified for use on the Space Shuttle.

  20. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The flight/on-orbit photograph of the G10 experi ment tray was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. A light brown stain can be seen on the experiment tray flanges and to a lesser degree on the IDE Chemglaze Z tained their integrity. A light tan stain on the solar sensor base plate, located in the center of the tray, is more easily seen than that on the IDE mounting plate. Surface defects are highly visible due to the lighting conditions existing at the time the photograph was taken. The lighting angle is such that many impact craters can be seen. Two (2) detectors, located in the twenty (20) detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, seem to have defects. A triangular shaped discoloration appears on the second detector from the left and in the second row from the bottom. Another irregular shaped discoloration can be seen on the fourth detector from the left and in the third row from the bottom. These discolorations appear to be due to material and/or fabrication defects and not reflected light. The blue colors on the detector's mirror like surface are caused by reflections of the LDEF surroundings.

  1. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  2. Flight control system development and flight test experience with the F-111 mission adaptive wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The wing on the NASA F-111 transonic aircraft technology airplane was modified to provide flexible leading and trailing edge flaps. This wing is known as the mission adaptive wing (MAW) because aerodynamic efficiency can be maintained at all speeds. Unlike a conventional wing, the MAW has no spoilers, external flap hinges, or fairings to break the smooth contour. The leading edge flaps and three-segment trailing edge flaps are controlled by a redundant fly-by-wire control system that features a dual digital primary system architecture providing roll and symmetric commands to the MAW control surfaces. A segregated analog backup system is provided in the event of a primary system failure. This paper discusses the design, development, testing, qualification, and flight test experience of the MAW primary and backup flight control systems.

  3. ITEL Experiment Module and its Flight on MASER9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löth, K.; Schneider, H.; Larsson, B.; Jansson, O.; Houltz, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The ITEL (Interfacial Turbulence in Evaporating Liquid) module is built under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) and is scheduled to fly onboard a Sounding Rocket (MASER 9) in March 2002. The project is conducted by Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) with Lambda-X as a subcontractor responsible for the optical system. The Principle Investigator is Pierre Colinet from Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). The experiment in ITEL on Maser 9 is part of a research program, which will make use of the International Space Station. The purpose of the flight on Maser 9 is to observe the cellular convection (Marangoni-Bénard instability) which arise when the surface tension varies with temperature yielding thermocapillary instabilities. During the 6 minutes of microgravity of the ITEL experiment, a highly volatile liquid layer (ethyl alcohol) will be evaporated, and the convection phenomena generated by the evaporation process will be visualized. Due to the cooling by latent heat consumption at the level of the evaporating free surface, a temperature gradient is induced perpendicularly to it. The flight experiment module contains one experiment cell, including a gas system for regulation of nitrogen flow over the evaporating surface and an injection unit that is used for injection of liquid into the cell both initially and during surface regulation. The experiment cell is equipped with pressure and flow sensors as well as thermocouples both inside the liquid and at different positions in the cell. Two optical diagnostic systems have been developed around the experiment cell. An interferometric optical tomograph measures the 3-dimensional distribution of temperature in the evaporating liquid and a Schlieren system visualizes the temperature gradients inside the liquid together with the liquid surface deformation. A PC/104 based electronic system is used for management and control of the experiment. The electronic system handles measurements, housekeeping, image

  4. System design concepts and requirements for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. E.; Cruz, M. I.; French, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is an advanced upper stage concept which will deliver spacecraft from operating systems at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) such as Space Shuttle, Earth-To-Orbit (ETO) vehicles, and Space Operations Center (SOC), to High Earth Orbit (HEO) and planetary excursions. The OTV will be driven by the need to achieve significant reductions in the operational costs for delivering payloads to Geostationary Equatorial Orbit (GEO). Aeroassist is a technological capability that has a potential for OTV's ranging from mission enhancing (reusable OTV for payload delivery) to mission enabling (manned GEO and some DOD). It is shown that the use of aeroassist for OTV's is a high leverage technology which can potentially reduce space transportation costs and enable a number of highly desirable missions.

  5. Convectively Induced Turbulence Encountered During NASA's Fall-2000 Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    Aircraft encounters with atmospheric turbulence are a leading cause of in-flight injuries aboard commercial airliners and cost the airlines millions of dollars each year. Most of these injuries are due to encounters with turbulence in and around convection. In a recent study of 44 turbulence accident reports between 1990 and 1996, 82% of the cases were found to be near or within convective activity (Kaplan et al. 1999). According to NTSB accident reports, pilots' descriptions of these turbulence encounters include 'abrupt', 'in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)', 'saw nothing on the weather radar', and 'the encounter occurred while deviating around' convective activity. Though the FAA has provided guidelines for aircraft operating in convective environments, turbulence detection capability could decrease the number of injuries by alerting pilots of a potential encounter. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, through its Aviation Safety Program, is addressing turbulence hazards through research, flight experiments, and data analysis. Primary focus of this program element is the characterization of turbulence and its environment, as well as the development and testing of hazard estimation algorithms for both radar and in situ detection. The ultimate goal is to operationally test sensors that will provide ample warning prior to hazardous turbulence encounters. In order to collect data for support of these activities, NASA-Langley's B-757 research aircraft was directed into regions favorable for convectively induced turbulence (CIT). On these flights, the airborne predictive wind shear (PWS) radar, augmented with algorithms designed for turbulence detection, was operated in real time to test this capability. In this paper, we present the results of two research flights when turbulence was encountered. Described is an overview of the flights, the general radar performance, and details of four encounters with severe turbulence.

  6. Flight Performance of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; Gsell, Valerie; Miller, Nathanael; Olds, Aaron; Bruce, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on a Black Brant XI suborbital sounding rocket and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) in the reentry heating environment and also illustrating the effect of an offset center of gravity on the HIAD's lift-to-drag ratio. IRVE-3 was a follow-on to 2009's IRVE-II mission, which demonstrated exo-atmospheric inflation, reentry survivability - without significant heating - and the aerodynamic stability of a HIAD down to subsonic flight conditions. NASA Langley Research Center is leading the development of HIAD technology for use on future interplanetary and Earth reentry missions.

  7. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  8. Sodium-sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Rebecca; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    NaS batteries have been identified as the most likely successor to space Ni-H2 or Ni-Cd batteries, primarily due to a mass reduction by a factor 2 to 3 over Ni-H2 and by a factor of 4 over Ni-Cd. This yields major launch cost reductions or payload mass improvements. NaS batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft 2000 initiative. Since Ni-H2 and Ni-Cd batteries have been space flight proven, it is essential to have the flight experiment to establish a national space technology base to demonstrate the operation of the NaS battery for space applications.

  9. Numerical Simulations of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chun Y.; Trumble, Kerry A.; Campbell, Charles H.; Lessard, Victor R.; Wood, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to study the possible effects that the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiments may have on the heating environment of the Space Shuttle during its entry to Earth. To investigate this issue, hypersonic calculations using the Data-Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) and Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation (LAURA) CFD codes were computed for a 0.75 tall protuberance at flight conditions of Mach 15 and 18. These initial results showed high surface heating on the BLT trip and the areas surrounding the protuberance. Since the predicted peak heating rates would exceed the thermal limits of the materials selected to construct the BLT trip, many changes to the geometry were attempted in order to reduce the surface heat flux. The following paper describes the various geometry revisions and the resulting heating environments predicted by the CFD codes.

  10. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  11. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-09-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  12. Transition Flight Experiments on a Swept Wing With Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Montoya, L. C.; Land, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on a 30 degree swept wing with a perforated leading edge by systematically varying the location and amount of suction over a range of Mach number and Reynolds number. Suction was varied chordwise ahead of the front spar from either the front or rear direction by sealing spanwise perforated strips. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow was due to leading edge turbulence contamination or crossflow disturbance growth and/or Tollmien-Schlichting disturbance growth-depending on the test configuration, flight condition, and suction location. A state-of-the-art linear stability theory which accounts for body and streamline curvature and compressibility was used to study the boundary layer stability as suction location and magnitude varied. N-factor correlations with transition location were made for various suction configurations.

  13. Disruption Tolerant Networking Flight Validation Experiment on NASA's EPOXI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Jay; Burleigh, Scott; Jones, Ross; Torgerson, Leigh; Wissler, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions. This activity was part of a larger NASA space DTN development program to mature DTN to flight readiness for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. This paper describes the DTN protocols, the flight demo implementation, validation metrics which were created for the experiment, and validation results.

  14. Transition Analysis for the HIFiRE-1 Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Kimmel, Roger; Adamczak, David; Smith, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    The HIFiRE-1 flight experiment provided a valuable database pertaining to boundary layer transition over a 7-degree half-angle, circular cone model from supersonic to hypersonic Mach numbers, and a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of incidence. This paper reports the initial findings from the ongoing computational analysis pertaining to the measured in-flight transition behavior. Transition during the ascent phase at nearly zero degree angle of attack is dominated by second mode instabilities except in the vicinity of the cone meridian where a roughness element was placed midway along the length of the cone. The first mode instabilities were found to be weak at all trajectory points analyzed from the ascent phase. For times less than approximately 18.5 seconds into the flight, the peak amplification ratio for second mode disturbances is sufficiently small because of the lower Mach numbers at earlier times, so that the transition behavior inferred from the measurements is attributed to an unknown physical mechanism, potentially related to step discontinuities in surface height near the locations of a change in the surface material. Based on the time histories of temperature and/or heat flux at transducer locations within the aft portion of the cone, the onset of transition correlated with a linear PSE N-factor of approximately 14.

  15. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: I. Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daehan; Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Heesu; Ahn, Eunhye; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we construct a model of a ski jumper by using three-dimensional surface data obtained by scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). An experiment on this model is conducted in a wind tunnel. We consider four posture parameters (forward leaning angle, ski opening angle, ski rolling angle, and ski spacing) and measure the drag and lift forces for various flight postures at various angles of attack (α = 0° - 40°) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 5.4 × 105 - 1.6 × 106) based on the length of the jump ski. Then, we derive optimum values of posture parameters for maximum lift-to-drag ratio using a response surface method. We also conduct a full-scale wind tunnel experiment with members of the Korean national team and confirm the results obtained from the experiment on the model. Supported by the NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848).

  16. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) functional description and interface document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, R. C.; Shank, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a functional description of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) and of interfaces between FEDS and external hardware and software. FEDS is a modification of the Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS). FEDS has been developed to support a ground demonstration of microprocessor-based onboard orbit determination. This document provides an overview of the structure and logic of FEDS and details the various operational procedures to build and execute FEDS. It also documents a microprocessor interface between FEDS and a TDRSS user transponder and describes a software simulator of the interface used in the development and system testing of FEDS.

  17. A variable conductance heat pipe flight experiment - Performance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanous, D. J.; Marcus, B. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE) is a variable conductance heat pipe/radiator system which was launched aboard the OAO-C spacecraft in August, 1972. All available flight data was reviewed and those from a few orbits were selected for correlation with predictions from an analytical model of the system. The principal conclusion of this study is that gas controlled variable conductance heat pipes can perform reliably for long time periods in the space environment and can effectively provide temperature stabilization for spacecraft electronics. Furthermore, the performance of such systems can be adequately predicted using existing analysis tools.

  18. 14 CFR 135.97 - Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience. 135.97 Section 135.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Operations § 135.97 Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience. Each certificate...

  19. 14 CFR 135.97 - Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience. 135.97 Section 135.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Operations § 135.97 Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience. Each certificate...

  20. Planetary/DOD entry technology flight experiments. Volume 2: Planetary entry flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Krieger, R. J.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Vetter, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The technical feasibility of launching a high speed, earth entry vehicle from the space shuttle to advance technology for the exploration of the outer planets' atmospheres was established. Disciplines of thermodynamics, orbital mechanics, aerodynamics propulsion, structures, design, electronics and system integration focused on the goal of producing outer planet environments on a probe shaped vehicle during an earth entry. Major aspects of analysis and vehicle design studied include: planetary environments, earth entry environment capability, mission maneuvers, capabilities of shuttle upper stages, a comparison of earth entry planetary environments, experiment design and vehicle design.

  1. Preparing normal tissue cells for space flight experiments.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Kohn, Florian P M; Bauer, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of health is a problem in modern space flight business. In order to develop countermeasures, research has been done on human bodies and also on single cells. Relevant experiments on human cells in vitro are feasible when microgravity is simulated by devices such as the Random Positioning Machine or generated for a short time during parabolic flights. However, they become difficult in regard to performance and interpretation when long-term experiments are designed that need a prolonged stay on the International Space Station (ISS). One huge problem is the transport of living cells from a laboratory on Earth to the ISS. For this reason, mainly rapidly growing, rather robust human cells such as cancer cells, embryonic cells, or progenitor cells have been investigated on the ISS up to now. Moreover, better knowledge on the behavior of normal mature cells, which mimic the in vivo situation, is strongly desirable. One solution to the problem could be the use of redifferentiable cells, which grow rapidly and behave like cancer cells in plain medium, but are reprogrammed to normal cells when substances like retinoic acid are added. A list of cells capable of redifferentiation is provided, together with names of suitable drugs, in this review.

  2. Flight test experience with pilot-induced-oscillation suppression filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, M. F.; Smith, R. E.; Stewart, J. F.; Bailey, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Digital flight control systems are popular for their flexibility, reliability, and power; however, their use sometimes results in deficient handling qualities, including pilot-induced oscillation (PIO), which can require extensive redesign of the control system. When redesign is not immediately possible, temporary solutions, such as the PIO suppression (PIOS) filter developed for the Space Shuttle, have been proposed. To determine the effectiveness of such PIOS filters on more conventional, high-performance aircraft, three experiments were performed using the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire and USAF/Calspan NT-33 variable-stability aircraft. Two types of PIOS filters were evaluated, using high-gain, precision tasks (close formation, probe-and-drogue refueling, and precision touch-and-go landing) with a time delay or a first-order lag added to make the aircraft prone to PIO. Various configurations of the PIOS filter were evaluated in the flight programs, and most of the PIOS filter configurations reduced the occurrence of PIOs and improved the handling qualities of the PIO-prone aircraft. These experiments also confirmed the influence of high-gain tasks and excessive control system time delay in evoking pilot-induced oscillations.

  3. Flight test experience with pilot-induced-oscillation suppressor filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, M. F.; Smith, R. E.; Stewart, J. F.; Bailey, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Digital flight control systems are popular for their flexibility, reliability, and power; however, their use sometimes results in deficient handling qualities, including pilot-induced oscillation (PIO), which can require extensive redesign of the control system. When redesign is not immediately possible, temporary solutions, such as the PIO suppression (PIOS) filter developed for the Space Shuttle, have been proposed. To determine the effectiveness of such PIOS filters on more conventional, high-performance aircraft, three experiments were performed using the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire and USAF/Calspan NT-33 variable-stability aircraft. Two types of PIOS filters were evaluated, using high-gain, precision tasks (close formation, probe-and-drogue refueling, and precision touch-and-go landing) with a time delay or a first-order lag added to make the aircraft prone to PIO. Various configurations of the PIOS filter were evaluated in the flight programs, and most of the PIOS filter configurations reduced the occurrence of PIOs and improved the handling qualities of the PIO-prone aircraft. These experiments also confirmed the influence of high-gain tasks and excessive control system time delay in evoking pilot-induced oscillations.

  4. Ion beam plume and efflux characterization flight experiment study. [space shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Cole, A.; Rosiak, G.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    A flight experiment and flight experiment package for a shuttle-borne flight test of an 8-cm mercury ion thruster was designed to obtain charged particle and neutral particle material transport data that cannot be obtained in conventional ground based laboratory testing facilities. By the use of both ground and space testing of ion thrusters, the flight worthiness of these ion thrusters, for other spacecraft applications, may be demonstrated. The flight experiment definition for the ion thruster initially defined a broadly ranging series of flight experiments and flight test sensors. From this larger test series and sensor list, an initial flight test configuration was selected with measurements in charged particle material transport, condensible neutral material transport, thruster internal erosion, ion beam neutralization, and ion thrust beam/space plasma electrical equilibration. These measurement areas may all be examined for a seven day shuttle sortie mission and for available test time in the 50 - 100 hour period.

  5. Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

  6. Results of the REFLEX (Return Flux Experiment) Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Mauersberger, Konrad; Johnson, Bradford W.; Manning, Heidi K.

    1997-01-01

    The numerous problems occurring in this first flight of the REFLEX experiment, both in the spacecraft and with the instrument package, seriously constrained the acquisition and analysis of data and severely limited the interpretation of the data that were obtained. Of these, the ambient helium measurements appear to be the most promising. They are summarized and discussed in Appendix A. Further analyses could be attempted to establish the correct values for the energy centers as they varied during the mission. In addition, an extensive laboratory recalibration on a high-speed beam system could in principle provide corrections to be used in analyzing and interpreting the returned data set. The unknown malfunction which generated the energy drift needs to be understood and corrected before the REFLEX experiment is reflown; some hardware modification, or at least retuning, is likely to be required.

  7. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  8. A flight experiment to determine GPS photochemical contamination accumulation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tribble, A. C.; Haffner, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    It was recently suggested that photochemically deposited contamination, originating from volatiles outgassed by a spacecraft, may be responsible for the anomalous degradation in power seen on the GPS Block 1 vehicles. In an attempt to confirm, or deny, the photochemical deposition rates predicted, a study was undertaken to design a flight experiment to be incorporated on the GPS vehicles currently in production. The objective was to develop an inexpensive, light weight instrument package that would give information on the contamination levels within a few months of launch. Three types of apparatus were studied, Quartz Crystal Microbalances, (QCM's), modified solar cells, and calorimeters. A calorimeter was selected due primarily to its impact on the production schedule of the GPS vehicles. An analysis of the sensitivity of the final design is compared to the predicted contamination accumulation rates in order to determine how long after launch it will take the experiment to show the effects of photochemical contamination.

  9. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  10. On-orbit flight results from the reconfigurable cibola flight experiment satellite (CFEsat)

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Michael; Morgan, Keith; Roussel-dupre, Diane; Robinson, Scott; Nelson, Anthony; Salazar, Anthony; Wirthlin, Michael; Howes, William; Richins, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of using FPGA-based reconfigurable computing for sensor processing in a space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  11. Results of NASA/FAA ground and flight simulation experiments concerning helicopter IFR airworthiness criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Weber, J. M.; Forrest, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A sequence of ground and flight simulation experiments was conducted to investigate helicopter instrument-flight-rules airworthiness criteria. The first six of these experiments and major results are summarized. Five of the experiments were conducted on large-amplitude motion base simulators. The NASA-Army V/STOLAND UH-1H variable-stability helicopter was used in the flight experiment. Artificial stability and control augmentation, longitudinal and lateral control, and in pitch and roll attitude augmentation were investigated.

  12. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recent flight experience: Pilot in command....57 Recent flight experience: Pilot in command. (a) General experience. (1) Except as provided in... instrument recent experience in a glider. (i) Within the 6 calendar months preceding the month of the...

  13. Avoiding Human Error in Mission Operations: Cassini Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Operating spacecraft is a never-ending challenge and the risk of human error is ever- present. Many missions have been significantly affected by human error on the part of ground controllers. The Cassini mission at Saturn has not been immune to human error, but Cassini operations engineers use tools and follow processes that find and correct most human errors before they reach the spacecraft. What is needed are skilled engineers with good technical knowledge, good interpersonal communications, quality ground software, regular peer reviews, up-to-date procedures, as well as careful attention to detail and the discipline to test and verify all commands that will be sent to the spacecraft. Two areas of special concern are changes to flight software and response to in-flight anomalies. The Cassini team has a lot of practical experience in all these areas and they have found that well-trained engineers with good tools who follow clear procedures can catch most errors before they get into command sequences to be sent to the spacecraft. Finally, having a robust and fault-tolerant spacecraft that allows ground controllers excellent visibility of its condition is the most important way to ensure human error does not compromise the mission.

  14. The Dynamics of Miscible Fluids: A Space Flight Experiment (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.; Meiburg, E.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.; Lauver, R.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a space flight experiment to study the dynamics of miscible interfaces. A less viscous fluid displaces one of higher viscosity within a tube. The two fluids are miscible in all proportions. An intruding "finger" forms that occupies a fraction of the tube. As time progresses diffusion at the interface combined with flow induced straining between the two fluids modifies the concentration and velocity distributions within the whole tube. Also, under such circumstances it has been proposed that the interfacial stresses could depend on the local concentration gradients (Korteweg stresses) and that the divergence of the velocity need not be zero, even though the flow is incompressible. We have obtained reasonable agreement for the tip velocity between numerical simulations (that ignored the Korteweg stress and divergence effects) and physical experiments only at high Peelet Numbers. However at moderate to low Pe agreement was poor. As one possibility we attributed this lack of agreement to the disregard of these effects. We propose a space experiment to measure the finger shape, tip velocity, and the velocity and concentration fields. From intercomparisons between the experiment and the calculations we can then extract values for the coefficients of the Korteweg stress terms and confirm or deny the importance of these stresses.

  15. The Dynamics of Miscible Fluids: A Space Flight Experiment (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.; Meiburg, E.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.; Lauver, R.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a space flight experiment to study the dynamics of miscible interfaces. A less viscous fluid displaces one of higher viscosity within a tube. The two fluids are miscible in all proportions. An intruding "finger" forms that occupies a fraction of the tube. As time progresses diffusion at the interface combined with flow induced straining between the two fluids modifies the concentration and velocity distributions within the whole tube. Also, under such circumstances it has been proposed that the interfacial stresses could depend on the local concentration gradients (Korteweg stresses) and that the divergence of the velocity need not be zero, even though the flow is incompressible. We have obtained reasonable agreement for the tip velocity between numerical simulations (that ignored the Korteweg stress and divergence effects) and physical experiments only at high Peclet Numbers. However at moderate to low Pe agreement was poor. As one possibility we attributed this lack of agreement to the disregard of these effects. We propose a space experiment to measure the finger shape, tip velocity, and the velocity and concentration fields. From intercomparisons between the experiment and the calculations we can then extract values for the coefficients of the Korteweg stress terms and confirm or deny the importance of these stresses.

  16. Fundamental Mixing and Combustion Experiments for Propelled Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Diskin, G. S.; Danehy, P. M.; Drummond, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments have been conducted to acquire data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used in the design of supersonic combustors. The first experiment is a study of a supersonic coaxial jet into stagnant air in which the center jet is of a light gas, the coflow jet is of air, and the mixing layer between them is compressible. The jet flow field is characterized using schlieren imaging, surveys with Pitot, total temperature and gas sampling probes, and RELIEF velocimetry. VULCAN, a structured grid CFD code, is used to solve for the nozzle and jet flow. The second experiment is a study of a supersonic combustor consisting of a diverging duct with single downstream-angled wall injector. Entrance Mach number is 2 and enthalpy is nominally that of Mach 7 flight. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been used to obtain nitrogen temperature in planes of the flow, and surface pressures and temperatures have also been acquired. Modern-design-of-experiment techniques have been used to maximize the quality of the data set.

  17. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  18. Neighboring optimal guidance for aeroassisted orbital plane change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Hsu, Fu-Kuo

    1990-10-01

    The neighboring extremal method is used here to develop the neighboring optimal guidance laws for aeroassisted orbital plane change. The space vehicle is assumed to enter the earth's atmosphere from GEO. The nominal optimal trajectory for maximizing the orbital plane change is computed with specified initial and final conditions. Two cases are investigated, both having the same initial conditions but with different final exit speeds, one for a supercircular exit and the other for a circular exit. In both cases, the perturbed trajectories converge to their corresponding nominal optimal trajectories in a not too long time.

  19. Apollo experience report: Flight planning for manned space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, J. W.; Cotter, J. B.; Holloway, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    The history of flight planning for manned space missions is outlined, and descriptions and examples of the various evolutionary phases of flight data documents from Project Mercury to the Apollo Program are included. Emphasis is given to the Apollo flight plan. Time line format and content are discussed in relationship to the manner in which they are affected by the types of flight plans and various constraints.

  20. Examining the Effect of Instructor Experience on Flight Training Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polstra, Philip A., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    Maximizing training efficiency is desirable in many areas of business. The ever increasing costs of flight training combined with a predicted shortage of pilots have resulted in steps being taken to improve flight training efficiency. In the past, the majority of airline pilots received their flight training in the military. Over time a growing…

  1. Enhanced reduction of velocity data obtained during CETA flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  2. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  3. Sodium-sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Rebecca; Minck, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries are considered to be one of the most likely battery systems for space applications. Compared with the Ni-H2 or Ni-Co battery systems, Na-S batteries offer a mass reduction by a factor of 2 to 4, representing significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. The Na-S battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte; the transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. This paper describes five tests identified for the Na-S battery flight experiment definition study, which include the cell characterization test, the reactant distribution test, the current/temperature distribution test, the freeze/thaw test, and the multicell LEO test. A schematic diagram of Na-S cell is included.

  4. Spacecraft and mission design for the SP-100 flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, William D.; Vondra, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The design and performance of a spacecraft employing arcjet nuclear electric propulsion, suitable for use in the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) Flight Experiment, are outlined. The vehicle design is based on a 93 kW(e) ammonia arcjet system operating at an experimentally measured specific impulse of 1031 s and an efficiency of 42.3 percent. The arcjet/gimbal assemblies, power conditioning subsystem, propellant feed system, propulsion system thermal control, spacecraft diagnostic instrumentation, and the telemetry requirements are described. A 100 kW(e) SRPS is assumed. The spacecraft mass is baselined at 5675 kg excluding the propellant and propellant feed system. Four mission scenarios are described which are capable of demonstrating the full capability of the SRPS. The missions considered include spacecraft deployment to possible surveillance platform orbits, a spacecraft storage mission, and an orbit raising round trip corresponding to possible orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) missions.

  5. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 2: Experiment system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ribarich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed technical description of the 30/20 GHz flight experiment system is presented. The overall communication system is described with performance analyses, communication operations, and experiment plans. Hardware descriptions of the payload are given with the tradeoff studies that led to the final design. The spacecraft bus which carries the payload is discussed and its interface with the launch vehicle system is described. Finally, the hardwares and the operations of the terrestrial segment are presented.

  6. Development and flight test experiences with a flight-crucial digital control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.

    1988-01-01

    Engineers and scientists in the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16 program investigated the integration of emerging technologies into an advanced fighter aircraft. AFTI's three major technologies included: flight-crucial digital control, decoupled aircraft flight control, and integration of avionics, flight control, and pilot displays. In addition to investigating improvements in fighter performance, researchers studied the generic problems confronting the designers of highly integrated flight-crucial digital control. An overview is provided of both the advantages and problems of integration digital control systems. Also, an examination of the specification, design, qualification, and flight test life-cycle phase is provided. An overview is given of the fault-tolerant design, multimoded decoupled flight control laws, and integrated avionics design. The approach to qualifying the software and system designs is discussed, and the effects of design choices on system qualification are highlighted.

  7. Flight control systems development and flight test experience with the HiMAT research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Earls, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    Two highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted vehicles were flown a total of 26 flights. These subscale vehicles were of advanced aerodynamic configuration with advanced technology concepts such as composite and metallic structures, digital integrated propulsion control, and ground (primary) and airborne (backup) relaxed static stability, digital fly-by-wire control systems. Extensive systems development, checkout, and flight qualification were required to conduct the flight test program. The design maneuver goal was to achieve a sustained 8-g turn at Mach 0.9 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. This goal was achieved, along with the acquisition of high-quality flight data at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers. Control systems were modified in a variety of ways using the flight-determined aerodynamic characteristics. The HiMAT program was successfully completed with approximately 11 hours of total flight time.

  8. The isothermal dendritic growth experiment: Scientific status of a USMP-2 space flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Hahn, R. C.; Rojas, A.; Karthikeyan, M.; Winsa, E. A.

    1993-07-01

    The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), to be performed on three of the USMP flights, starting with United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2), is designed to provide microgravity data on dendritic growth for a critical test of theory. Ground based test data using succinontrile (SCN), from both a flight capable growth chamber and a laboratory growth chamber, are compared to theoretical estimates of dendritic tip radii and velocities at several microgravity levels. The comparison shows that the data from the flight chamber are consistent with the historical data and that dendritic growth in a microgravity environment of 10-3 g0 or lower should exhibit significant differences from the dendritic growth of SCN at go.

  9. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques developed for measuring stagnation-point radiation in NASA's cancelled Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). It specifies the need for such a measurement; the types and requirements for the needed instruments; the Radiative Heating Experiment (RHE) developed for the AFE; the requirements, design parameters, and performance of the window developed for the RHE; the procedures and summary of the technique; and results of the arc-jet wind tunnel experiment conducted to demonstrate the overall concept. Subjects emphasized are the commercial implications of the knowledge to be gained by this experiment in connection with the Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV), the nonequilibrium nature of the radiation, concerns over the contribution of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation to the overall radiation, and the limit on the flight environment of the vehicle imposed by the limitations on the window material. Results show that a technique exists with which the stagnation-point radiation can be measured in flight in an environment of interest to commercial ASTV applications.

  10. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  11. Minimum fuel coplanar aeroassisted orbital transfer using collocation and nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yun Yuan; Young, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel optimal control problem arising in coplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) without plane change. The basic approach here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the coplanar aeroassisted HEO to LEO orbit transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into a elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and drag modulation to satisfy heating constraints and to exit the atmosphere with the desired flight path angle and velocity so that the apogee of the exit orbit is the altitude of the desired LEO. Finally, the second impulse is required to circularize the orbit at LEO. The performance index is maximum final mass. Simulation results show that the coplanar aerocapture is quite different from the case where orbital plane changes are made inside the atmosphere. In the latter case, the vehicle has to penetrate deeper into the atmosphere to perform the desired orbital plane change. For the coplanar case, the vehicle needs only to penetrate the atmosphere deep enough to reduce the exit velocity so the vehicle can be captured at the desired LEO. The peak heating rates are lower and the entry corridor is wider. From the thermal protection point of view, the coplanar transfer may be desirable. Parametric studies also show the maximum peak heating rates and the entry corridor width are functions of maximum lift coefficient. The problem is solved using a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the states and controls and collocation to represent the differential equations. This converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem

  12. Temperature prediction of space flight experiments by computer thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birdsong, M. B.; Luttges, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences experiments are especially sensitive to temperature. A small temperature difference between otherwise identical samples can cause various differences in biological reaction rates. Knowledge of experimental temperatures and temperature histories help to distinguish the effects of microgravity and temperature on spaceflight experiments compared to ground based studies, and allow appropriate controls and sensitivity tests. Up to the present time, the Orbiter (Space Shuttle) has not generally provided temperature measurement instrumentation inside ambient lockers located in the Mid-deck of the Orbiter, or inside similar facilities such as Spacehab and Spacelab, but many pieces of hardware do have temperature recording capability. Most of these temperatures, however, have only been roughly measured or estimated. Such reported experimental temperatures, while accurate within a range of several degrees Celsius, are of limited utility to biological researchers. The temperature controlled lockers used in spaceflight, such as Commerical-Refrigeration Incubation Modules (C-R/IMs), severely reduce the mass and volume available for test samples and do not necessarily provide uniform thermal environments. While these test carriers avoid some of the experimental temperature variations of the ambient lockers, the number of samples which can be accommodated in these temperature controlled units is limited. In the present work, improved models of thermal prediction and control were sought. Temperatures are predicted by thermal analysis software using empirical temperatures recorded during STS-57. These temperatures are compared to data recorded throughout the mission using Ambient Temperature Recorders (ATRs) located within several payload lockers. Additional test cases are undertaken using controlled ground experiments to more precisely determine the reliability of the thermal model. The approach presented should increase the utility of various spaceflight carriers in

  13. Temperature prediction of space flight experiments by computer thermal analysis.

    PubMed

    Birdsong, M B; Luttges, M W

    1995-02-01

    Life sciences experiments are especially sensitive to temperature. A small temperature difference between otherwise identical samples can cause various differences in biological reaction rates. Knowledge of experimental temperatures and temperature histories help to distinguish the effects of microgravity and temperature on spaceflight experiments compared to ground based studies, and allow appropriate controls and sensitivity tests. Up to the present time, the Orbiter (Space Shuttle) has not generally provided temperature measurement instrumentation inside ambient lockers located in the Mid-deck of the Orbiter, or inside similar facilities such as Spacehab and Spacelab, but many pieces of hardware do have temperature recording capability. Most of these temperatures, however, have only been roughly measured or estimated. Such reported experimental temperatures, while accurate within a range of several degrees Celsius, are of limited utility to biological researchers. The temperature controlled lockers used in spaceflight, such as Commercial-Refrigeration Incubation Modules (C-R/IMs), severely reduce the mass and volume available for test samples and do not necessarily provide uniform thermal environments. While these test carriers avoid some of the experimental temperature variations of the ambient lockers, the number of samples which can be accommodated in these temperature controlled units is limited. In the present work, improved models of thermal prediction and control were sought. Temperatures are predicted by thermal analysis software using empirical temperatures recorded during STS-57. These temperatures are compared to data recorded throughout the mission using Ambient Temperature Recorders (ATRs) located within several payload lockers. Additional test cases are undertaken using controlled ground experiments to more precisely determine the reliability of the thermal model. The approach presented should increase the utility of various spaceflight carriers in

  14. Development of the Packed Bed Reactor ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Martin O.; Bruzas, Anthony E.; Rame, Enrique; Motil, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Packed bed reactors are compact, require minimum power and maintenance to operate, and are highly reliable. These features make this technology a leading candidate as a potential unit operation in support of long duration human space exploration. On earth, this type of reactor accounts for approximately 80% of all the reactors used in the chemical process industry today. Development of this technology for space exploration is truly crosscutting with many other potential applications (e.g., in-situ chemical processing of planetary materials and transport of nutrients through soil). NASA is developing an ISS experiment to address this technology with particular focus on water reclamation and air revitalization. Earlier research and development efforts funded by NASA have resulted in two hydrodynamic models which require validation with appropriate instrumentation in an extended microgravity environment. The first model developed by Motil et al., (2003) is based on a modified Ergun equation. This model was demonstrated at moderate gas and liquid flow rates, but extension to the lower flow rates expected in many advanced life support systems must be validated. The other model, developed by Guo et al., (2004) is based on Darcy s (1856) law for two-phase flow. This model has been validated for a narrow range of flow parameters indirectly (without full instrumentation) and included test points where the flow was not fully developed. The flight experiment presented will be designed with removable test sections to test the hydrodynamic models. The experiment will provide flexibility to test additional beds with different types of packing in the future. One initial test bed is based on the VRA (Volatile Removal Assembly), a packed bed reactor currently on ISS whose behavior in micro-gravity is not fully understood. Improving the performance of this system through an accurate model will increase our ability to purify water in the space environment.

  15. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  16. Life science experiments during parabolic flight: The McGill experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D. G. D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past twelve years, members of the Aerospace Medical Research Unit of McGill University have carried out a wide variety of tests and experiments in the weightless condition created by parabolic flight. This paper discusses the pros and cons of that environment for the life scientist, and uses examples from the McGill program of the types of activities which can be carried out in a transport aircraft such as the NASA KC-135.

  17. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 4: Experiment system development plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Riberich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-07-01

    The development plan for the 30/20 GHz flight experiment system is presented. A master program schedule with detailed development plans for each subsystem is planned with careful attention given to how technology items to ensure a minimal risk. The work breakdown structure shows the organization of the program management with detailed task definitions. The ROM costs based on the development plan are also given.

  18. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 4: Experiment system development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Riberich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development plan for the 30/20 GHz flight experiment system is presented. A master program schedule with detailed development plans for each subsystem is planned with careful attention given to how technology items to ensure a minimal risk. The work breakdown structure shows the organization of the program management with detailed task definitions. The ROM costs based on the development plan are also given.

  19. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  20. Chemical Detection and Identification Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Khromov, Nikolai A.

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical Instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. Advances in technology may be achieved by increasing the amount of information acquired by a given technique with greater analytical capabilities and miniaturization of proven terrestrial technology. We describe here methods to develop analytical instruments for the detection and identification of a wide range of chemical species using Gas Chromatography. These efforts to expand the analytical capabilities of GC technology are focused on the development of detectors for the GC which provide sample identification independent of the GC retention time data. A novel new approach employs Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES).

  1. Musing over Microbes in Microgravity: Microbial Physiology Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickart, Randolph; McGinnis, Michael; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New York City, the most populated city in the United States, is home to over 8 million humans. This means over 26,000 people per square mile! Imagine, though, what the view would be if you peeked into the world of microscopic organisms. Scientists estimate that a gram of soil may contain up to 1 billion of these microbes, which is as much as the entire human population of China! Scientists also know that the world of microbes is incredibly diverse-possibly 10,000 different species in one gram of soil - more than all the different types of mammals in the world. Microbes fill every niche in the world - from 20 miles below the Earth's surface to 20 miles above, and at temperatures from less than -20 C to hotter than water's boiling point. These organisms are ubiquitous because they can adapt quickly to changing environments, an effective strategy for survival. Although we may not realize it, microbes impact every aspect of our lives. Bacteria and fungi help us break down the food in our bodies, and they help clean the air and water around us. They can also cause the dark, filmy buildup on the shower curtain as well as, more seriously, illness and disease. Since humans and microbes share space on Earth, we can benefit tremendously from a better understanding of the workings and physiology of the microbes. This insight can help prevent any harmful effects on humans, on Earth and in space, as well as reap the benefits they provide. Space flight is a unique environment to study how microbes adapt to changing environmental conditions. To advance ground-based research in the field of microbiology, this STS-107 experiment will investigate how microgravity affects bacteria and fungi. Of particular interest are the growth rates and how they respond to certain antimicrobial substances that will be tested; the same tests will be conducted on Earth at the same times. Comparing the results obtained in flight to those on Earth, we will be able to examine how microgravity induces

  2. Supporting flight data analysis for Space Shuttle Orbiter experiments at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. J.; Budnick, M. P.; Yang, L.; Chiasson, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter experiments program is responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The infrared imagery of shuttle (IRIS), catalytic surface effects, and tile gap heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The software required to process the flight data which support these experiments is described. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques provide information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third shuttle mission.

  3. Supporting flight data analysis for Space Shuttle Orbiter Experiments at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. J.; Budnick, M. P.; Yang, L.; Chiasson, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Experiments program in responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The Infrared Imagery of Shuttle (IRIS), Catalytic Surface Effects, and Tile Gap Heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The paper describes the software required to process the flight data which support these experiments. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques have provided information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third Shuttle mission.

  4. Flight Experiments for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS-SET): Relationship to Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana A.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on flight validation experiments for technologies to determine solar effects. The experiments are intended to demonstrate tolerance to a solar variant environment. The technologies tested are microelectronics, photonics, materials, and sensors.

  5. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, and it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flowfield properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of 2 were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  6. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, an< it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flow-field properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  7. Volatile Removal Assembly Flight Experiment and KC-135 Packed Bed Experiment: Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holder, Donald W.; Parker, David

    2000-01-01

    The Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA) is a high temperature catalytic oxidation process that will be used as the final treatment for recycled water aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The multiphase nature of the process had raised concerns as to the performance of the VRA in a microgravity environment. To address these concerns, two experiments were designed. The VRA Flight Experiment (VRAFE) was designed to test a full size VRA under controlled conditions in microgravity aboard the SPACEHAB module and in a 1 -g environment and compare the performance results. The second experiment relied on visualization of two-phase flow through small column packed beds and was designed to fly aboard NASA's microgravity test bed plane (KC-135). The objective of the KC-135 experiment was to understand the two-phase fluid flow distribution in a packed bed in microgravity. On Space Transportation System (STS) flight 96 (May 1999), the VRA FE was successfully operated and in June 1999 the KC-135 packed bed testing was completed. This paper provides an overview of the experiments and a summary of the results and findings.

  8. In-space technology flight experiments: Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) and Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, Samuel L.

    1991-01-01

    The topics addressed are covered in viewgraph form. The objective of the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) programs is to study gravity dependent nonlinearities associated with fluid slosh and truss structure dynamics. MODE provides a reusable facility for on-orbit dynamics testing of small scale test articles in the shirt sleeve environment on the Shuttle middeck. Flight program objective of Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is to study gravity effects on the performance and stability of controlled structures.

  9. STEP flight experiments Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Flight testing plans for a large deployable infrared reflector telescope to be tested on a space platform are discussed. Subsystem parts, subassemblies, and whole assemblies are discussed. Assurance of operational deployability, rigidization, alignment, and serviceability will be sought.

  10. Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview and In-Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for the flights of STS-119, STS-128 and STS-131. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project. Significant efforts were made to place the protuberance at an appropriate location on the Orbiter and to design the protuberance to withstand the expected environments. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures.

  11. Limited flight test experience with a laser transit velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Limited flight testing of a laser transit velocimeter provided insight into the problems associated with the use of such instruments for flight research. Although the device tested was not designed for flight application, it had certain features such as fiber optics and low laser power which are attractive in the airborne environment. During these tests, operation of the velocimeter was limited by insufficient concentrations of light-scattering particles and background light interference. Normal operation was observed when these conditions were corrected by utilizing cloud particles and flying at night. A comparison between the laser flow velocity measurements and corresponding pressure measurements is presented and shows a coarse correlation. Statistical bias due to turbulence in the flow is suspected to have affected the laser measurements.

  12. Scientific experiments in the flight of the 1977 biological satellite (draft plan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The physiological, biological, radiobiological and radiophysical experiments planned for the 1977 biological satellite are described. The biological experiments will involve rats, higher and lower plants, insects and other biological specimens carried on the biosatellite. The responses of these organisms to weightlessness, artificial gravity, cosmic radiation particles and general flight factors will be studied. The radiophysical experiments will investigate certain properties of cosmic radiation as well as the possibility of creating electrostatic and dielectric radiation shields under actual space-flight conditions.

  13. Apollo experience report: Communications system flight evaluation and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, D.; Royston, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Flight tests of the synergetic operation of the spacecraft and earth based communications equipment were accomplished during Apollo missions AS-202 through Apollo 12. The primary goals of these tests were to verify that the communications system would adequately support lunar landing missions and to establish the inflight communications system performance characteristics. To attain these goals, a communications system flight verification and evaluation team was established. The concept of the team operations, the evolution of the evaluation processes, synopses of the team activities associated with each mission, and major conclusions and recommendations resulting from the performance evaluation are represented.

  14. Apollo experience report: Systems and flight procedures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    This report describes the process of crew procedures development used in the Apollo Program. The two major categories, Systems Procedures and Flight Procedures, are defined, as are the forms of documentation required. A description is provided of the operation of the procedures change control process, which includes the roles of man-in-the-loop simulations and the Crew Procedures Change Board. Brief discussions of significant aspects of the attitude control, computer, electrical power, environmental control, and propulsion subsystems procedures development are presented. Flight procedures are subdivided by mission phase: launch and translunar injection, rendezvous, lunar descent and ascent, and entry. Procedures used for each mission phase are summarized.

  15. Flight experience with manually controlled unconventional aircraft motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfield, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    A modified YF-16 aircraft was used to flight demonstrate decoupled modes under the USAF Fighter Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) Program. The direct force capabilities were used to implement seven manually controlled unconventional modes on the aircraft, allowing flat turns, decoupled normal acceleration control, independent longitudinal and lateral translations, uncoupled elevation and azimuth aiming, and blended direct lift. This paper describes the design, development, and flight testing of these control modes. The need for task-tailored mode authorities, gain-scheduling and selected closed-loop design is discussed.

  16. Ground-based experiments complement microgravity flight opportunities in the investigation of the effects of space flight on the immune response: is protein kinase C gravity sensitive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews ground-based and flight experiments, discusses how those experiments complement each other, and details how those experiments lead us to speculate about the gravity-sensitive nature of protein kinase C.

  17. MSFC Doppler Lidar Science experiments and operations plans for 1981 airborne test flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.

  18. Flight experiments with a slender cone at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Fisher, D. F.; Mcrae, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The three-dimensional leeward separation about a 5 deg semi-angle cone at an 11 deg angle of attack was investigated in flight, in the wind tunnel, and by numerical computations. The test conditions were Mach numbers of 0.6, 1.5, and 1.8 at Reynolds numbers between 7 and 10 million based on free-stream conditions and a 30-inch wetted length or surface. The surface conditions measured included mean static and fluctuating pressures; skin friction magnitudes and separation line positions were obtained using obstacle blocks. The mean static pressures from flight and wind tunnel were in good agreement. The computed results gave the same distributions, but were slightly more positive in magnitude. The experimentally measured primary and secondary separation line locations compared closely with computed results. There were substantial differences in level and in trend between the surface root-mean-square pressure fluctuations obtained in flight and in the wind tunnel, due, it is thought, to a relatively high acoustic disturbance level in the tunnel compared with the quiescent conditions in flight.

  19. The High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) flight experiment summary for the first 10 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, K. T.; Barrett, M.

    1992-01-01

    The High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) instrument is a triaxial, orthogonal system of gas damped accelerometers with a resolution of 1 x 10(exp -6) g (1 micro-g). The purpose of HiRAP is to measure the low frequency component of the total acceleration along the orbiter vehicle (OV) body axes while the OV descends through the rarefied flow flight regime. Two HiRAP instruments have flown on a total of 10 Space Transport System (STS) missions. The aerodynamic component of the acceleration measurements was separated from the total acceleration. Instrument bias and orbiter mechanical system acceleration effects were incorporated into one bulk bias. The bulk bias was subtracted from the acceleration measurements to produce aerodynamic descent data sets for all 10 flights. The aerodynamic acceleration data sets were input to an aerodynamic coefficient model. The aerodynamic acceleration data and coefficient model were used to estimate the atmospheric density for the altitude range of 140 to 60 km and a downrange distance of 600 km. For 8 of 10 flights results from this model agree with expected results. For the results that do not agree with expected results, a variety of error sources have been explored.

  20. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  1. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  2. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort response data from TIFS ride-quality flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft motion data and passenger comfort response data obtained during ride-quality flight experiments using the USAD Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) are given. During each of 40 test flights, 10 passenger subjects individually assessed the ride comfort of various types of aircraft motions. The 115 individuals who served as passenger subjects were selected to be representative of air travelers in general. Aircraft motions tested consisted of both random and sinusoidal oscillations in various combinations of five degrees of freedom (transverse, normal, roll, pitch, and yaw), as well as of terminal-area flight maneuvers. The data are sufficiently detailed to allow analysis of passenger reactions to flight environments, evaluation of the use of a portable environment measuring/recording system and comparison of the in-flight simulator responses with input commands.

  3. Flutter Clearance of the F-14A Variable-Sweep Transition Flight Experiment Airplane, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Kehoe, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    An F-14A aircraft was modified for use as the test-bed aircraft for the variable-sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE) program. The VSTFE program was a laminar flow research program designed to measure the effects of wing sweep on laminar flow. The airplane was modified by adding an upper surface foam and fiberglass glove to the right wing. An existing left wing glove had been added for the previous phase of the program. Ground vibration and flight flutter testing were accomplished to verify the absence of aeroelastic instabilities within a flight envelope of Mach 0.9 or 450 knots, calibrated airspeed, whichever was less. Flight test data indicated satisfactory damping levels and trends for the elastic structural modes of the airplane. Ground vibration test data are presented along with in-flight frequency and damping estimates, time histories and power spectral densities of in-flight sensors, and pressure distribution data.

  4. Coupled Simulations, Ground-Based Experiments and Flight Experiments for Astrodynamics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, R.; Brown, M.; Lorrain, P.; Capon, C.; Lambert, A.; Benson, C.; Tuttle, S.; Griffin, D.

    Near-Earth satellites undergo complex and poorly understood interactions with their environment, leading to large uncertainties in predicting orbits and an associated risk of collision with other satellites and with space debris. The nature, evolution and behaviour of the growing cloud of space debris in that environment is even less well understood. Significant effort and expenditure is currently being made by governments in Australia, UK, USA, Europe and elsewhere in space surveillance and tracking, in order to mitigate the risk. However, a major gap exists with respect to the science of in-orbit behaviour. Research is underway in Australia to enable the prediction of the orbits of near-Earth space objects with order(s) of magnitude greater fidelity than currently possible. This is being achieved by coupling together the necessary parts of the puzzle - the physics of rarefied space object “aerodynamics” and the space physics and space weather that affects it - and employing our capabilities in ground-based and in-orbit experiments, ground-based observations and high performance computing to do so. As part of the effort, UNSW Canberra is investing $10M to develop a sustainable university-led program to develop and fly affordable in-orbit missions for space research. In the coming 6 years, we will fly a minimum of four cubesat missions, some in partnership with DSTO, which will include flight experiments for validating Space Situational Awareness astrodynamics simulation and observation capabilities. The flights are underpinned by ground-based experimental research employing space test chambers, advanced diagnostics, and supercomputer simulations that couple DSMC and Particle-in-Cell methods for modelling space object interactions with the ionosphere. This paper will describe the research both underway and planned, with particular emphasis on the coupled numerical/experimental/flight approach.

  5. Physiological Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE): 04 Flight Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burden, Hubert W.

    1997-01-01

    Rats were shipped to Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, on day 2 of gestation [(G2) (day 1 = morning on which spermatozoa are present in the vagina)] and laparotomized on G7 to determine the number of implantation sites in each uterine horn. On G8, ten pregnant rats meeting flight criteria (at least five implantation sites each horn) were placed into NASA flight cages (animal enclosure modules, AEMS, five rats per cage), loaded onto the mid-deck of the space shuttle Atlantis, and on G9 (November 3, 1994) they were launched into orbit. On gestation day 20, (November 14, 1994) the shuttle returned to Edwards Air Force Base, California and the flight animals were recovered from the shuttle and subjected to unilateral hysterectomy to provide fetal material from one horn to investigators identified by NASA to study selected fetal parameters. After unilateral hysterectomy, the animals were allowed to recover and deliver vaginally. There were three groups (n = 10 each group) of control animals housed at KSC in the study. A synchronous control group, delayed 24 hours with reference to the flight group, received the same surgeries and was housed five rats per AEM and exposed to all flight conditions (identical temperatures, lighting and humidity) except microgravity. Vivarium control group I did not receive any surgery and was housed in the vivarium in clear polycarbonate cages. Vivarium control group 2 received only a unilateral hysterectomy on day 20 of gestation but otherwise was housed like the vivarium control group 1. Control groups were allowed to complete their pregnancy and deliver fetuses from the remaining horn (Synchronous control and vivarium control group 2) or horns (Vivarium control group 1). After surgery, the dams were euthanized and tissues recovered, and the neonates were assigned to foster dams.

  6. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  7. Discussion of flight experiments with an entry research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The focus of interest is the maneuvering flight of advanced entry vehicles operating at altitudes above 50 km and at velocities of 5 to 8 km/s. Information resulting in more accurate aerodynamic analysis is sought and measurement techniques that appear to be applicable are identified. Measurements discussed include: shock layer or boundary layer profiles of velocity, temperature, species mass fractions, and other gas properties associated with aerodynamic heating; surface energy transfer process; nonequilibrium flow processes and pressure distribution; separated, vortic leeside flow of nonequilibrium fluid; boundary layer transition on highly swept configurations; and shock and surface slip and gas/surface interaction. Further study should focus on evolving measurement techniques, installation requirements, and on identification of the portions of flights where successful results seem probable.

  8. Shuttle flight pressure instrumentation: Experience and lessons for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Bradley, P. F.; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.; Weilmuenster, K. J.; Kern, F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Flight data obtained from the Space Transportation System orbiter entries are processed and analyzed to assess the accuracy and performance of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) pressure measurement system. Selected pressure measurements are compared with available wind tunnel and computational data and are further used to perform air data analyses using the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) computation technique. The results are compared to air data from other sources. These comparisons isolate and demonstrate the effects of the various limitations of the DFI pressure measurement system. The effects of these limitations on orbiter performance analyses are addressed, and instrumentation modifications are recommended to improve the accuracy of similar fight data systems in the future.

  9. Miniature metastable ionization detectors for exobiology flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Metastable Ionization Detector (MID) is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the thermal conductivity detectors used on previous flight instruments. The miniature MID provides scientists with a much smaller and highly sensitive detector for flight gas chromatographs. A miniature MID featuring an unconventional triaxial electrode configuration was developed and used routinely in the laboratory. Although much smaller and lighter than the commercial MID, its performance characteristics parallel those of the traditional design. The detector is compatible with the modulated voltage circuitry, also developed here, and thus can perform over an expanded response range of more than 7 orders magnitude. A micro volume version of a miniature MID, with an internal volume of less than 8 microliter, was recently designed is now being tested. The micro volume MID uses carrier gas flow rates of approx. 2cc/min thus eliminating the need for makeup gas when capillary columns are used.

  10. Flutter clearance flight tests of an OV-10A airplane modified for wake vortex flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Stewart, Eric C.

    1995-01-01

    The envelope expansion, flight flutter tests of a modified OV-10A aircraft are described. For the wake vortex research program, the airplane was modified to incorporate three forward-extending instrumentation booms, one extending forward from each wing tip and one from the right side of the fuselage. The booms were instrumented with sensors to measure the velocity and direction of local air flow. The flutter test results show that the modified OV-10A aircraft is free from flutter at speeds up to 330 KEAS at 5000 feet altitude.

  11. Advanced IR System For Supersonic Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a preferred method investigating transition in flight: a) Global and non-intrusive; b) Can also be used to visualize and characterize other fluid mechanic phenomena such as shock impingement, separation etc. F-15 based system was updated with new camera and digital video recorder to support high Reynolds number transition tests. Digital Recording improves image quality and analysis capability and allows for accurate quantitative (temperature) measurements and greater enhancement through image processing allows analysis of smaller scale phenomena.

  12. Guidance simulation and test support for differential GPS flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geier, G. J.; Loomis, P. V. W.; Cabak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Three separate tasks which supported the test preparation, test operations, and post test analysis of the NASA Ames flight test evaluation of the differential Global Positioning System (GPS) are presented. Task 1 consisted of a navigation filter design, coding, and testing to optimally make use of GPS in a differential mode. The filter can be configured to accept inputs from external censors such as an accelerometer and a barometric or radar altimeter. The filter runs in real time onboard a NASA helicopter. It processes raw pseudo and delta range measurements from a single channel sequential GPS receiver. The Kalman filter software interfaces are described in detail, followed by a description of the filter algorithm, including the basic propagation and measurement update equations. The performance during flight tests is reviewed and discussed. Task 2 describes a refinement performed on the lateral and vertical steering algorithms developed on a previous contract. The refinements include modification of the internal logic to allow more diverse inflight initialization procedures, further data smoothing and compensation for system induced time delays. Task 3 describes the TAU Corp participation in the analysis of the real time Kalman navigation filter. The performance was compared to that of the Z-set filter in flight and to the laser tracker position data during post test analysis. This analysis allowed a more optimum selection of the parameters of the filter.

  13. F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment was part of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate extensive laminar flow, to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and design methodology, and to establish laminar flow control design criteria. Topics include the flight test hardware and design, airplane modification, the pressure and suction distributions achieved, the laminar flow achieved, and the data analysis and code correlation.

  14. Flight test experience with the F-8 digital fly-by-wire system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly by wire control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.

  15. Flight test experience with the F-8 digital fly-by-wire system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology (ACT) are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.

  16. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  17. A Base Drag Reduction Experiment on the X-33 Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Drag reduction tests were conducted on the LASRE/X-33 flight experiment. The LASRE experiment is a flight test of a roughly 20% scale model of an X-33 forebody with a single aerospike engine at the rear. The experiment apparatus is mounted on top of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper suggests a method for reducing base drag by adding surface roughness along the forebody. Calculations show a potential for base drag reductions of 8-14%. Flight results corroborate the base drag reduction, with actual reductions of 15% in the high-subsonic flight regime. An unexpected result of this experiment is that drag benefits were shown to persist well into the supersonic flight regime. Flight results show no overall net drag reduction. Applied surface roughness causes forebody pressures to rise and offset base drag reductions. Apparently the grit displaced streamlines outward, causing forebody compression. Results of the LASRE drag experiments are inconclusive and more work is needed. Clearly, however, the forebody grit application works as a viable drag reduction tool.

  18. Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview and In-Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Berger, Karen T.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLTFE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for the flights of STS-119 and STS-128. Additional instrumentation was also installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLTFE Project, including the project history, organizations involved, and motivations for the flight experiment. Significant efforts were made to place the protuberance at an appropriate location on the Orbiter and to design the protuberance to withstand the expected environments. Efforts were also extended to understand the as-fabricated shape of the protuberance and the thermal protection system tile configuration surrounding the protuberance. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures.

  19. Flight experience and the likelihood of U.S. Navy aircraft mishaps.

    PubMed

    Yacavone, D W; Borowsky, M S; Bason, R; Alkov, R A

    1992-01-01

    Although the flight experience level of U.S. Navy pilots has not declined in recent years, current budget constraints will eventually lead to reductions in flight hours per pilot. This implies an eventual shifting of the distribution of flight hours. Analyses show that the rate of aircrew factor and pilot error mishaps tends to decrease as pilots' flight experience in model increases. Aviation loss rates are higher during a pilot's first 500 hours in model. This seems to be true no matter if the pilot is simply inexperienced overall or a highly experienced aviator transitioning to a different aircraft. These data suggest, therefore, that if the in-model experience levels of naval aviators decline sufficiently, the mishap rate will increase. PMID:1550538

  20. Flight experience and the likelihood of U.S. Navy aircraft mishaps.

    PubMed

    Yacavone, D W; Borowsky, M S; Bason, R; Alkov, R A

    1992-01-01

    Although the flight experience level of U.S. Navy pilots has not declined in recent years, current budget constraints will eventually lead to reductions in flight hours per pilot. This implies an eventual shifting of the distribution of flight hours. Analyses show that the rate of aircrew factor and pilot error mishaps tends to decrease as pilots' flight experience in model increases. Aviation loss rates are higher during a pilot's first 500 hours in model. This seems to be true no matter if the pilot is simply inexperienced overall or a highly experienced aviator transitioning to a different aircraft. These data suggest, therefore, that if the in-model experience levels of naval aviators decline sufficiently, the mishap rate will increase.

  1. Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Timothy A.; Metcalf, Jordan L.; Asuncion, Carmelo

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the design of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) constructed for providing the vehicle and payload cooling during all phases of a mission and during ground turnaround operations. The operation of the Shuttle ATCS and some of the problems encountered during the first 39 flights of the Shuttle program are described, with special attention given to the major problems encountered with the degradation of the Freon flow rate on the Orbiter Columbia, the Flash Evaporator Subsystem mission anomalies which occurred on STS-26 and STS-34, and problems encountered with the Ammonia Boiler Subsystem. The causes and the resolutions of these problems are discussed.

  2. Understanding macrophage differentiation during space flight: The importance of ground-based experiments before space flight.

    PubMed

    Chapes, Stephen K; Ortega, M Teresa

    2013-06-01

    In preparation for a space flight on STS-126, two in vitro culture systems were used to investigate macrophage colony stimulating factor-dependent macrophage differentiation from mouse primary bone marrow cells. The patented Techshot Cell Cult Bioreactor and the BioServe Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) were operated in different orientations to determine their impact on macrophage growth and differentiation. Bone marrow cell parameters were determined after cells were grown in FPAs incubated at 37°C in vertical or horizontal orientations, and macrophage cell recovery was significantly higher from FPAs that were incubated in the horizontal orientation compared to "vertical" FPAs. Similarly, when bone marrow cells were grown in the Techshot bioreactor, there were significant differences in the numbers of macrophages recovered after 7 days, depending on movement and orientation of the bioreactor. Macrophage recovery was highest when the patented bioreactor was rotated in the horizontal, x-axis plane (merry-go-round fashion) compared to static and vertically, y-axis plane rotated (Ferris wheel fashion) bioreactors. In addition, the expression of F4/80 and other differentiation markers varied depending on whether macrophages differentiated in FPAs or in bioreactors. After 7 days, significant differences in size, granularity and molecule expression were seen even when the same primary bone marrow cells were used to seed the cultures. These data show that culture outcomes are highly dependent on the culture device and device orientation. Moreover, the impact of the culture system needs to be understood in order to interpret space flight data.

  3. Understanding macrophage differentiation during space flight: The importance of ground-based experiments before space flight

    PubMed Central

    Chapes, Stephen K.; Ortega, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a space flight on STS-126, two in vitro culture systems were used to investigate macrophage colony stimulating factor-dependent macrophage differentiation from mouse primary bone marrow cells. The patented Techshot Cell Cult Bioreactor and the BioServe Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA)1 were operated in different orientations to determine their impact on macrophage growth and differentiation. Bone marrow cell parameters were determined after cells were grown in FPAs incubated at 37°C in vertical or horizontal orientations, and macrophage cell recovery was significantly higher from FPAs that were incubated in the horizontal orientation compared to “vertical” FPAs. Similarly, when bone marrow cells were grown in the Techshot bioreactor, there were significant differences in the numbers of macrophages recovered after 7 days, depending on movement and orientation of the bioreactor. Macrophage recovery was highest when the patented bioreactor was rotated in the horizontal, x-axis plane (merry-go-round fashion) compared to static and vertically, y-axis plane rotated (Ferris wheel fashion) bioreactors. In addition, the expression of F4/80 and other differentiation markers varied depending on whether macrophages differentiated in FPAs or in bioreactors. After 7 days, significant differences in size, granularity and molecule expression were seen even when the same primary bone marrow cells were used to seed the cultures. These data show that culture outcomes are highly dependent on the culture device and device orientation. Moreover, the impact of the culture system needs to be understood in order to interpret space flight data. PMID:24432200

  4. Optimal aeroassisted coplanar orbital transfer using an energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-05-01

    The atmospheric portion of the trajectories for the aeroassisted coplanar orbit transfer was investigated. The equations of motion for the problem are expressed using reduced order model and total vehicle energy, kinetic plus potential, as the independent variable rather than time. The order reduction is achieved analytically without an approximation of the vehicle dynamics. In this model, the problem of coplanar orbit transfer is seen as one in which a given amount of energy must be transferred from the vehicle to the atmosphere during the trajectory without overheating the vehicle. An optimal control problem is posed where a linear combination of the integrated square of the heating rate and the vehicle drag is the cost function to be minimized. The necessary conditions for optimality are obtained. These result in a 4th order two-point-boundary-value problem. A parametric study of the optimal guidance trajectory in which the proportion of the heating rate term versus the drag varies is made. Simulations of the guidance trajectories are presented.

  5. Optimal aeroassisted coplanar orbital transfer using an energy model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    The atmospheric portion of the trajectories for the aeroassisted coplanar orbit transfer was investigated. The equations of motion for the problem are expressed using reduced order model and total vehicle energy, kinetic plus potential, as the independent variable rather than time. The order reduction is achieved analytically without an approximation of the vehicle dynamics. In this model, the problem of coplanar orbit transfer is seen as one in which a given amount of energy must be transferred from the vehicle to the atmosphere during the trajectory without overheating the vehicle. An optimal control problem is posed where a linear combination of the integrated square of the heating rate and the vehicle drag is the cost function to be minimized. The necessary conditions for optimality are obtained. These result in a 4th order two-point-boundary-value problem. A parametric study of the optimal guidance trajectory in which the proportion of the heating rate term versus the drag varies is made. Simulations of the guidance trajectories are presented.

  6. GRAM Series of Atmospheric Models for Aeroentry and Aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere for either aeroentry or aeroassist, including aerocapture, are: Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn; Uranus. and Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for four of these (Earth, Mars, Titan, and Neptune) have been developed for use in NASA's systems analysis studies of aerocapture applications in potential future missions. Work has recently commenced on development of a similar atmospheric model for Venus. This series of MSFC-sponsored models is identified as the Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) series. An important capability of all of the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analyses in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, and for thermal systems design. Example applications for Earth aeroentry and Mars aerocapture systems analysis studies are presented and illustrated. Current and planned updates to the Earth and Mars atmospheric models, in support of NASA's new exploration vision, are also presented.

  7. Aircraft flight simulation of spacelab experiment using an implanted telemetry system to obtain cardiovascular data from the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.; Miranda, R.; Fryer, T. B.; Hodges, G.; Newson, B. D.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    The utility of a multichannel implantable telemetry system for obtaining cardiovascular data was tested in a monkey with a CV-990 aircraft flight simulation of a space flight experiment. Valuable data were obtained to aid planning and execution of flight experiments using chronically instrumented animals.

  8. PhoneSat In-flight Experience Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Alberto Guillen; Attai, Watson; Oyadomari, Ken Y.; Priscal, Cedric; Schimmin, Rogan S.; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, consumer technology has vastly improved its performances, become more affordable and reduced its size. Modern day smartphones offer capabilities that enable us to figure out where we are, which way we are pointing, observe the world around us, and store and transmit this information to wherever we want. These capabilities are remarkably similar to those required for multi-million dollar satellites. The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center is building a series of CubeSat-size spacecrafts using an off-the-shelf smartphone as its on-board computer with the goal of showing just how simple and cheap space can be. Since the PhoneSat project started, different suborbital and orbital flight activities have proven the viability of this revolutionary approach. In early 2013, the PhoneSat project launched the first triage of PhoneSats into LEO. In the five day orbital life time, the nano-satellites flew the first functioning smartphone-based satellites (using the Nexus One and Nexus S phones), the cheapest satellite (a total parts cost below $3,500) and one of the fastest on-board processors (CPU speed of 1GHz). In this paper, an overview of the PhoneSat project as well as a summary of the in-flight experimental results is presented.

  9. Analytical and Experimental Verification of a Flight Article for a Mach-8 Boundary-Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Monaghan, Richard C.

    1996-01-01

    Preparations for a boundary-layer transition experiment to be conducted on a future flight mission of the air-launched Pegasus(TM) rocket are underway. The experiment requires a flight-test article called a glove to be attached to the wing of the Mach-8 first-stage booster. A three-dimensional, nonlinear finite-element analysis has been performed and significant small-scale laboratory testing has been accomplished to ensure the glove design integrity and quality of the experiment. Reliance on both the analysis and experiment activities has been instrumental in the success of the flight-article design. Results obtained from the structural analysis and laboratory testing show that all glove components are well within the allowable thermal stress and deformation requirements to satisfy the experiment objectives.

  10. New experiments selected for 1980 operational shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Experiments selected for NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility mission are described. Technical areas represented by the experiments include materials, thermal control coatings, detectors, power, micrometeoroids, electronics, lubrication, optics, and space debris detection.

  11. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) dumps water after first in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold flow flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold flow flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the linear aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-flow tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. 'I think all in all we had a good mission today,' Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew 'thought it was a really good flight.' Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, 'We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE.' The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous

  12. Rarefied aerodynamics and upper atmospheric flight results from the Orbiter High Resolution Accelerometer Package experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Larman, K. T.

    1987-01-01

    Data from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment on the Space Shuttle Orbiter have been analyzed for 10 flights to produce lift-drag (L/D) ratios in the free molecule, transition, and continuum flow flight regimes. Freestream density is also obtained in the altitude range from 60 km to 160 km using an aerodynamic model based upon earlier flight analysis of accelerometer data. The results of the L/D analysis of the latest four flights have been compared with the aerodynamic model developed from the first six HiRAP missions. The new data agree with the established flight-derived model, thereby validating earlier analysis. However, the arithmetic mean of the 10 flight-derived L/D values in the free molecular flow regime is 0.053 (+ or - 0.1) as compared to the initial value of 0.10 (+ or - 0.3), determined from STS-6. Updates to the Orbiter aerodynamic model values and calibration factors have been incorporated into the density calculations for all 10 flights to provide realistic absolute density. The derived density altitude profiles, which have been normalized to the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976, are characterized by a large amplitude wave pattern relative to the standard as seen in the initial flight analysis.

  13. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Darin C.; Frederick, Michael; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2009-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using one of Dryden s F-15B research testbed aircraft. Propulsion Flight Test Fixture is a modular, pylon-based platform for flight testing propulsion system components, such as the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment, an innovative, variable-geometry, mixed compression supersonic inlet under development at NASA Dryden. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flowfield angularity and local Mach number profile of the aerodynamic interface plane that is defined by the planned location of the tip of the inlet centerbody. Knowledge of the flowfield characteristics at this location underneath will be essential to computational modeling of the new inlet as well as future propulsion systems flight testing using the test fixture. This paper describes the preparation for and execution of the flight test, as well as results and validation of the algorithm used to calculate local Mach number and angularity from the rake's pressure measurements.

  14. Advanced application flight experiment breadboard pulse compression radar altimeter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design, development and performance of the pulse compression radar altimeter is described. The high resolution breadboard system is designed to operate from an aircraft at 10 Kft above the ocean and to accurately measure altitude, sea wave height and sea reflectivity. The minicomputer controlled Ku band system provides six basic variables and an extensive digital recording capability for experimentation purposes. Signal bandwidths of 360 MHz are obtained using a reflective array compression line. Stretch processing is used to achieve 1000:1 pulse compression. The system range command LSB is 0.62 ns or 9.25 cm. A second order altitude tracker, aided by accelerometer inputs is implemented in the system software. During flight tests the system demonstrated an altitude resolution capability of 2.1 cm and sea wave height estimation accuracy of 10%. The altitude measurement performance exceeds that of the Skylab and GEOS-C predecessors by approximately an order of magnitude.

  15. Flutter clearance of the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment airplane, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.

    1987-01-01

    An F-14 airplane was modified to become the test bed aircraft for the variable sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE) program. The latter is a laminar flow program designed to measure the effects of wing sweep on boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The airplane was modified by adding an upper surface foam-fiberglass glove over a portion of the left wing. Ground vibration and flight flutter testing were accomplished to clear a sufficient flight envelope to conduct the laminar flow experiments. Flight test data indicated satisfactory damping levels and damping trends for the elastic structural modes of the airplane. The data presented include frequency and damping as functions of Mach number.

  16. High voltage surface-charged environment test results from space flight and ground simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grier, N. T.

    1979-01-01

    Surface-charged particle interactions were investigated for a small 100 sq cm conventionally constructed solar cell panel in ground facilities and in a flight experiment. The flight data substantiated preflight ground test results showing that at high positive biases the cover glass over each solar cell enhances the coupling current and that, at high negative biases, arcs create large transients in the coupling current.

  17. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Prediction and Validation for Space Shuttle GPS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Adkins, Antha A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Brown, Lisa C.; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2002-01-01

    A deterministic method for Space Station Global Positioning System (GPS) Signal-To- Noise Ratio (SNR) predictions is proposed. The complex electromagnetic interactions between GPS antennas and surrounding Space Station structures are taken into account by computational electromagnetic technique. This computer simulator is capable of taking into account multipath effects from dynamically changed solar panels and thermal radiators. A comparison with recent collected Space Station GPS system flight experiment data is presented. The simulation results are in close agreement with flight data.

  18. Scientific experiments on the flight of the 1979 biological satellite, draft plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The various physiological, biological, radiobiological, and radiation physics experiments to be conducted onboard the 1979 biological satellite are described. These experiments deal with the effects of space flight on living organisms, measurement of radiation, and possible methods of shielding spacecraft against such radiation.

  19. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael; Ratnayake, Nalin

    2011-01-01

    The results are described of the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment (RAGE), which was designed and fabricated to support the flight test of a new supersonic inlet design using Dryden's Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF) and F-15B testbed airplane (see figure). The PFTF is a unique pylon that was developed for flight-testing propulsion-related experiments such as inlets, nozzles, and combustors over a range of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions. The objective of the RAGE program was to quantify the local flowfield at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment (CCIE). The CCIE is a fixed representation of a conceptual mixed-compression supersonic inlet with a translating biconic centerbody. The primary goal of RAGE was to identify the relationship between free-stream and local Mach number in the low supersonic regime, with emphasis on the identification of the particular free-stream Mach number that produced a local Mach number of 1.5. Measurements of the local flow angularity, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure over the interface plane were also desired. The experimental data for the RAGE program were obtained during two separate research flights. During both flights, local flowfield data were obtained during straight and level acceleration segments out to steady-state test points. The data obtained from the two flights showed small variations in Mach number, flow angularity, and dynamic pressure across the interface plane at all flight conditions. The data show that a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 will produce the desired local Mach number of 1.5 for CCIE. The local total pressure distortion over the interface plane at this condition was approximately 1.5%. At this condition, there was an average of nearly 2 of downwash over the interface plane. This small amount of downwash is not expected to adversely affect the performance of the CCIE inlet.

  20. Flight Testing of the Capillary Pumped Loop 3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Cheung, Kwok; Baldauff, Robert; Hoang, Triem

    2002-01-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop 3 (CAPL 3) experiment was a multiple evaporator capillary pumped loop experiment that flew in the Space Shuttle payload bay in December 2001 (STS-108). The main objective of CAPL 3 was to demonstrate in micro-gravity a multiple evaporator capillary pumped loop system, capable of reliable start-up, reliable continuous operation, and heat load sharing, with hardware for a deployable radiator. Tests performed on orbit included start-ups, power cycles, low power tests (100 W total), high power tests (up to 1447 W total), heat load sharing, variable/fixed conductance transition tests, and saturation temperature change tests. The majority of the tests were completed successfully, although the experiment did exhibit an unexpected sensitivity to shuttle maneuvers. This paper describes the experiment, the tests performed during the mission, and the test results.

  1. Hardware of the flight experiment "Quail-SK" transport incubator.

    PubMed

    Sabo, V; Zongor, J; Majek, S; Bod'a, K; Guryeva, T S; Pakhomov, A I; Bella, I

    2001-07-01

    The transportation of quail eggs in various stages of incubation was used in an experiment at the orbital station MIR by the Slovak astronaut, Bella in February 1999. Device description, diagrams, and experimental results are presented in this paper.

  2. The Meduza experiment: An orbital complex ten weeks in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovcharov, V.

    1979-01-01

    The newspaper article discusses the contribution of space research to understanding the origin of life on Earth. Part of this basic research involves studying amino acids, ribonucleic acid and DNA molecules subjected to cosmic radiation. The results from the Meduza experiment are not all analyzed as yet. The article also discusses the psychological changes in cosmonauts as evidenced by their attitude towards biology experiments in space.

  3. Solar array shuttle flight experiment - hardware development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Elms, R.V.; Hill, H.C.; Young, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and ground testing of a large area, light-weight, flexible substrate developmental solar array wing that has been built for NASA-MSFC (Contract NAS8-31352) and of the supporting structure and data acquisition system (DAS) which, with the wing will be flown in the shuttle as an experiment in 1984. The experiment will verify the dynamics, thermodynamic, and electrical performance predictions of the array wing and will demonstrate the structural capability of the array wing for Orbiter launch and re-entry environments. The accomodation of the Shuttle payload requirements has resulted in several array wing and operation modifications since the ground demonstration of the array wing in the technology development program. The experiment hardware verification program was designed to minimize costs and risk of experiment performance degradation while maintaining shuttle and crew safety. The previous full-scale wing hardware tests included an extension mast water table test and wing testing for random vibration, thermal vacuum, and acoustic environments. The results of these tests were used to define wing design modifications and to scope the test program for the experiment hardware. The experiment hardware acceptance test program will be completed in October 1982.

  4. Project SPARC: Space-Based Aeroassisted Reusable Craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Future United States' space facilities include a Space Station in low Earth orbit (LEO) and a Geosynchronous Operations Support Center, or GeoShack, in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). One possible mode of transfer between the two orbits is an aerobraking vehicle. When traveling from GEO to LEO, the Earth's atmosphere can be used to aerodynamically reduce the velocity of the vehicle, which reduces the amount of propulsive change in velocity required for the mission. An aerobrake is added to the vehicle for this purpose, but the additional mass increases propellant requirements. This increase must not exceed the amount of propellant saved during the aeropass. The design and development of an aerobraking vehicle that will transfer crew and cargo between the Space Station and GeoShack is examined. The vehicle is referred to as Project SPARC, a SPace-based Aeroassisted Reusable Craft. SPARC consists of a removable 45 ft diameter aerobrake, two modified Pratt and Whitney Advanced Expander Engines with a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellant, a removable crew module with a maximum capacity of five, and standard sized payload bays providing a maximum payload capacity of 28,000 lbm. The aerobrake, a rigid, ellipsoidally blunted elliptical cone, provides lift at zero angle-of-attack due to a 73 deg rake angle, and is covered with a flexible multi-layer thermal protection system. Maximum dry mass of the vehicle without payload is 20,535 lbm, and the maximum propellant requirement is 79,753 lbm at an oxidizer to fuel ratio of 6/1. Key advantages of SPARC include its capability to meet mission changes, and its removable aerobrake and crew module.

  5. Flight Test Results from Real-Time Relative Global Positioning System Flight Experiment on STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young W.; Brazzel, Jack P., Jr.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Hinkel, Heather D.; Newman, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time global positioning system (GPS) Kalman filter has been developed to support automated rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). The filter is integrated with existing Shuttle rendezvous software running on a 486 laptop computer under Windows. In this work, we present real-time and postflight results achieved with the filter on STS-69. The experiment used GPS data from an Osborne/Jet propulsion Laboratory TurboRouge receiver carried on the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) free flyer and a Rockwell Collins 3M receiver carried on the Orbiter. Real time filter results, processed onboard the Shuttle and replayed in near-time on the ground, are based on single vehicle mode operation and on 5 to 20 minute snapshots of telemetry provided by WSF for dual-vehicle mode operation. The Orbiter and WSF state vectors calculated using our filter compare favorably with precise reference orbits determined by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. The lessons learned from this experiment will be used in conjunction with future experiments to mitigate the technology risk posed by automated rendezvous and docking to the ISS.

  6. Results of the Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment (VCD-FE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy; Graves, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is the chosen technology for urine processing aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Key aspects of the VCD design have been verified and significant improvements made throughout the ground;based development history. However, an important element lacking from previous subsystem development efforts was flight-testing. Consequently, the demonstration and validation of the VCD technology and the investigation of subsystem performance in micro-gravity were the primary goals of the VCD-FE. The Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment (VCD-E) was a flight experiment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. The VCD-FE was a full-scale developmental version of the Space Station Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and was designed to test some of the potential micro-gravity issues with the design. This paper summarizes the experiment results.

  7. Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.

  8. Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.

  9. A disturbance isolation controller for the solar electric propulsion system flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waites, H. B.

    1982-03-01

    A disturbance isolation controller (DIC) is developed for a simplified model of the solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) flight experiment which consists of a rigid Sperry gimbal torquer (AGS) mounted to a rigid orbiter and the SEPS solar array (rigid) end mounted to the AGS. The main purpose of the DIC is to reduce the effects of orbiter disturbances which are transmitted to the flight experiment. The DIC uses an observer, which does not require the direct measurement of the plant inputs, to obtain estimates of the plant states and the rate of the plant states. The state and rate of state information is used to design a controller which isolates disturbances from specified segments of the plant, and for the flight experiment, the isolated segment is the SEPS solar array.

  10. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Roy; McCreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1993-04-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a low-temperature (182 K) phase change material. A total of 390 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe and an axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the data acquisition system's batteries lost power. Each heat pipe had approximately 1 watt applied throughout this period. The HEPP was not able to cool below 188.6 K during the mission. As a result, the preprogrammed transport test sequence which initiates when the PCM temperature drops below 180 K was never exercised, and transport tests with both pipes and the diode reverse mode test could not be run in flight. Also, because the melt temperature of the n-heptane PCM is 182 K, its freeze/thaw behavior could not be tested. Post-flight thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses have indicated that there was an apparent error in the original thermal analyses that led to this unfortunate result. Post-flight tests have demonstrated that the performance of both heat pipes and the PCM has not changed since being fabricated more than 14 years ago. A summary of HEPP's flight data and post-flight test results are presented.

  11. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a low-temperature (182 K) phase change material. A total of 390 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe and an axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the data acquisition system's batteries lost power. Each heat pipe had approximately 1 watt applied throughout this period. The HEPP was not able to cool below 188.6 K during the mission. As a result, the preprogrammed transport test sequence which initiates when the PCM temperature drops below 180 K was never exercised, and transport tests with both pipes and the diode reverse mode test could not be run in flight. Also, because the melt temperature of the n-heptane PCM is 182 K, its freeze/thaw behavior could not be tested. Post-flight thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses have indicated that there was an apparent error in the original thermal analyses that led to this unfortunate result. Post-flight tests have demonstrated that the performance of both heat pipes and the PCM has not changed since being fabricated more than 14 years ago. A summary of HEPP's flight data and post-flight test results are presented.

  12. Design and Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Kroliczek, Edward J.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Ted; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the flight configuration and pre-flight performance test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5). This device will fly on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight represents the first in-space demonstration of a CCPL, a miniaturized two-phase fluid circulator for thermally linking cryogenic cooling sources to remote cryogenic components. CCPL-5 utilizes N2 as the working fluid and has a practical operating range of 75-110 K. Test results indicate that CCPL-5, which weighs about 200 grams, can transport over 10 W of cooling a distance of 0.25 m (or more) with less than a 5 K temperature drop.

  13. Design and Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Kroliczek, Edward J.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Ted; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the flight configuration and pre-flight performance test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5). This device will fly on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight represents the first in-space demonstration of a CCPL; a miniaturized two-phase fluid circulator for thermally linking cryogenic components. CCPL-5 utilizes N2 as the working fluid and has a practical operating range of 75-110 K. Test results indicate that CCPL-5, which weighs about 200 grams, can transport over 10 W of cooling a distance of 0.25 m (or more) with less than a 5 K temperature drop.

  14. Operational experience and design recommendations for teleoperated flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, T. W.; Kuban, D. P.; Hankins, W. W.; Mixon, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Teleoperation (remote manipulation) will someday supplement/minimize astronaut extravehicular activity in space to perform such tasks as satellite servicing and repair, and space station construction and servicing. This technology is being investigated by NASA with teleoperation of two space-related tasks having been demonstrated at the Oak Ridge National Lab. The teleoperator experiments are discussed and the results of these experiments are summarized. The related equipment design recommendations are also presented. In addition, a general discussion of equipment design for teleoperation is also presented.

  15. 14 CFR 61.411 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.411 Section 61.411 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating... sport pilot rating? Use the following table to determine the experience you must have for each...

  16. 14 CFR 61.411 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.411 Section 61.411 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating... sport pilot rating? Use the following table to determine the experience you must have for each...

  17. 14 CFR 61.411 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.411 Section 61.411 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating... sport pilot rating? Use the following table to determine the experience you must have for each...

  18. 14 CFR 61.411 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.411 Section 61.411 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating... sport pilot rating? Use the following table to determine the experience you must have for each...

  19. 14 CFR 61.411 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.411 Section 61.411 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating... sport pilot rating? Use the following table to determine the experience you must have for each...

  20. Traveling-wave tube reliability estimates, life tests, and space flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Speck, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Infant mortality, useful life, and wearout phase of twt life are considered. The performance of existing developmental tubes, flight experience, and sequential hardware testing are evaluated. The reliability history of twt's in space applications is documented by considering: (1) the generic parts of the tube in light of the manner in which their design and operation affect the ultimate reliability of the device, (2) the flight experience of medium power tubes, and (3) the available life test data for existing space-qualified twt's in addition to those of high power devices.

  1. Physics of Colloids in Space--Plus (PCS+) Experiment Completed Flight Acceptance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space--Plus (PCS+) experiment successfully completed system-level flight acceptance testing in the fall of 2003. This testing included electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing, vibration testing, and thermal testing. PCS+, an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack payload will deploy a second set of colloid samples within the PCS flight hardware system that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) from April 2001 to June 2002. PCS+ is slated to return to the ISS in late 2004 or early 2005.

  2. Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

  3. Coronagraph particulate measurements. Skylab flight experiment T025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. M.; Schuerman, D. W.; Giovane, F.; Wang, R. T.; Hardy, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Major results of the Skylab T025 Coronagraph experiment designed to monitor the particulate contamination about the spacecraft and to study the earth's atmospheric aerosol distribution are presented. A model for comet outbursts based on the properties of amorphous ice and ground based narrow-band and white light photography of comet Kohoutek ten days to perihelion are included. The effect of atmospheric refraction on the analysis of the T025 atmospheric data was also investigated.

  4. A Flight Experiment of Automated Payload Recovery by Parafoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Satoshi

    elements such as avionics that have potential to be reused. In this paper, methods of recycling them are studied. This study is not based on the fully reusable vehicle, but it intends to add the partially reusable function to the conventional expendable vehicles by using parafoil. A parafoil-based system is expected to have advantages in weight and controllability compared with the other systems, including winged shape vehicles, parachute-based vehicles and the vehicles which use engines for retrieval. But unfortunately, there are only few examples of parafoil systems with heavy payloads. There are some studies of reusable vehicle that is not equipped with wings, but with parafoils. The parafoil is the wing shaped parachute, which is called as `paraglider' in sky sport. By using the parafoil at landing, we can expect the better performance than the conventional parachute. It can control the landing point by deforming the wing shaped canopy. To evaluate the controllability of the parafoil based vehicle, the author conducted the automatic landing experiments. This paper summarizes these results. parafoil based vehicle. So, it is needed to verify its feasibility under the realistic environment. The author had the experiment using the larger model of 10[m] wide canopy. The experiment is summarized and the results of tests are mentioned. The test vehicle is equipped with some sensors, including the optical navigation camera, GPS receiver, gyroscope sensor and geomagnetic sensor. And also LINUX-based PC is on-board for navigation and guidance.

  5. Experiments to investigate the effect of flight path on direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M.M.; Griffith, R.O.; Nichols, R.T. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that the limited flight path experiments investigate the effect of reactor subcompartment flight path length on direct containment heating (DCH) in a severe reactor accident. The test series consists of eight experiments with nominal flight paths of 1, 2, or 8 m. A thermitically generated mixture of iron, chromium, and alumina simulates the corium melt of a severe accident in a light water reactor. After thermite ignition, superheated steam forcibly ejects the molten debris into a 1:10 linear scale model of either the Surry or Zion reactor cavity. The blowdown steam entrains the molten debris and disperses it into a 103-m[sup 3] containment model. The vessel pressure, gas temperature, debris temperature, hydrogen produced by steam/metal reactions, debris velocity, mass dispersed into the Surtsey vessel, and debris particle size are measured for each experiment. The measured peak pressure for each experiment is normalized by the total amount of energy introduced into the Surtsey vessel and increases with lengthened flight path. These experiments indicate that the bulk of DCH interactions occur below the subcompartment structure, no in the upper dome of Surtsey. The effect of deentrainment by reactor subcompartments may significantly reduce the peak containment load in a severe reactor accident.

  6. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conclusions from the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Flight Experiment which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal conditions. The SATS HVO concept improves efficiency at non-towered, non-radar airports in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while achieving a level of safety equal to today s system. Reported are results from flight experiment data that indicate that the SATS HVO concept is viable. The success of the SATS HVO concept is based on acceptable pilot workload, performance, and subjective criteria when compared to the procedural control operations in use today at non-towered, non-radar controlled airfields in IMC. The HVO Flight Experiment, flown on NASA's Cirrus SR22, used a subset of the HVO Simulation Experiment scenarios and evaluation pilots in order to validate the simulation experiment results. HVO and Baseline (today s system) scenarios flown included: single aircraft arriving for a GPS non-precision approach; aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft; and aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft and then conducting a missed approach. Results reveal that all twelve low-time instrument-rated pilots preferred SATS HVO when compared to current procedural separation operations. These pilots also flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently without additional workload in comparison to today s system (Baseline). Detailed results of pilot flight technical error, and their subjective assessments of workload and situation awareness are presented in this paper.

  7. Passive exposure of Earth radiation budget experiment components. LDEF experiment AO-147: Post-flight examinations and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The flight spare sensors of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment of the Nimbus 6 and 7 missions were flown aboard the LDEF. The preliminary post retrieval examination and test results are presented here for the sensor windows and filters, the thermopile sensors and a cavity radiometer.

  8. SHEFEX - the vehicle and sub-systems for a hypersonic re-entry flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Hörschgen, Marcus; Turner, Peter; Ettl, Josef; Jung, Wolfgang; Stamminger, Andreas

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the Sharp Edge Flight Experiment (SHEFEX) is to investigate the aerodynamic behaviour and thermal problems of an unconventional shape for re-entry vehicles, comprising multi-facetted surfaces with sharp edges. The main object of this experiment is the correlation of numerical analysis with real flight data in terms of the aerodynamic effects and structural concept for the thermal protection system (TPS). The Mobile Rocket Base of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is responsible for the test flight of SHEFEX on a two stage unguided solid propellant sounding rocket which is required to provide a velocity of the order of March 7 for more than 30 seconds during atmospheric re-entry. This paper discusses the problems associated with the mission requirements and the solutions developed for the vehicle and sub-systems.

  9. Polaris Experiment: Data Collected During the Stratospheric Flight on the Balloon BEXUS 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganini, D.; Cacco, C.; Cipriani, F.; Cocco, F.; Cortese, T.; Vecchia, R. D.; La Grassa, M.; Lora, M.; Zorzan, M.; Branz, F.; Olivieri, L.; Sansone, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    POLARIS experiment, POLymer-Actuated Radiator with Independent Surfaces, is a technology demonstrator based on a new concept of heat radiator, conceived for space and planetary applications. This innovative radiator, named “multi-plate”, is able to influence actively the heat amount dissipated towards the environment through a simple geometry change, varying its equivalent thermal resistance. In order to better understand the potentialities of this radiator concept in one of its most likely scenario of application, POLARIS flew into stratosphere on the BEXUS1 8 balloon, in the framework of the REXUS-BEXUS programme; the flight took place from the ESRANGE Space Center on October 12th, 2014. The conditions that the experiment experienced during the flight allowed to evaluate the radiator in a realistic context, giving an extraordinary opportunity to characterize its capabilities. In this paper, POLARIS architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from the stratospheric balloon flight are presented and discussed.

  10. Experimental Results from the Thermal Energy Storage-1 (TES-1) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Tolbert, Carol; Jacqmin, David

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage-1 (TES-1) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62), in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. TES-1 is the first experiment in a four experiment suite designed to provide data for understanding the long duration microgravity behavior of thermal energy storage fluoride salts that undergo repeated melting and freezing. Such data have never been obtained before and have direct application for the development of space-based solar dynamic (SD) power systems. These power systems will store solar energy in a thermal energy salt such as lithium fluoride or calcium fluoride. The stored energy is extracted during the shade portion of the orbit. This enables the solar dynamic power system to provide constant electrical power over the entire orbit. Analytical computer codes have been developed for predicting performance of a spaced-based solar dynamic power system. Experimental verification of the analytical predictions is needed prior to using the analytical results for future space power design applications. The four TES flight experiments will be used to obtain the needed experimental data. This paper will focus on the flight results from the first experiment, TES-1, in comparison to the predicted results from the Thermal Energy Storage Simulation (TESSIM) analytical computer code. The TES-1 conceptual development, hardware design, final development, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA lewis Research Center (LeRC). TES-1 was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  11. Spacelab 1 hematology experiment (INS103): Influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Chen, J. P.; Crosby, W.; Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.; Larkin, E.; Tavassoli, M.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment conducted on the 10-day Spacelab 1 mission aboard the ninth Space Shuttle flight in November to December 1983 was designed to measure factors involved in the control of erythrocyte turnover that might be altered during weightlessness. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the flight. Immediately after landing, red cell mass showed a mean decrease of 9.3 percent in the four astronauts. Neither hyperoxia nor an increase in blood phosphate was a cause of the decrease. Red cell survival time and iron incorporation postflight were not significantly different from their preflight levels. Serum haptoglobin did not decrease, indicating that intravascular hemolysis was not a major cause of red cell mass change. An increase in serum ferritin after the second day of flight may have been caused by red cell breakdown early in flight. Erythropoietin levels decreased during and after flight, but preflight levels were high and the decrease was not significant. The space flight-induced decrease in red cell mass may result from a failure of erythropoiesis to replace cells destroyed by the spleen soon after weightlessness is attained.

  12. The Shuttle Orbiter high resolution accelerometer package experiment - Preliminary flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Rutherford, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    A description of the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment, designed to measure rarefied flow aerodynamic accelerations, is given. The ground test calibration factors, as well as post-flight data processing techniques to extract aerodynamic accelerations, are discussed and applied to the recorded reentry data of the recent STS-6 Shuttle Orbiter flight. The ratio of the measured normal-to-axial aerodynamic accelerations during reentry is used to obtain the first flight measurement of the lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) of a winged entry vehicle in the rarefied flow flight regime. The preliminary result for the free-molecule flow L/D is 0.10 + or - 0.03. The initial flight results on L/D are compared with current predictions which are based upon theoretical and empirical considerations. The measured free-molecule flow L/D value is higher than predicted by a factor of about three, indicating that surface reflection is not completely diffuse as currently assumed. In the rarefied flow transition regime, the Shuttle data book-bridging formula fits the flight data adequately. Upper altitude density profiles are also deduced from the measurements and presented. The density profiles show a wave phenomena with amplitude of about 60 percent, relative to a standard model.

  13. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  14. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment Completes a Series of Eight Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) was the first combustion experiment to fly in the space shuttle and the first such experiment in the NASA spaceflight program since Skylab. SSCE was actually a series of experiments designed to begin to characterize flame spreading over solid fuels in microgravity and the differences of this flame spreading from normal gravity behavior. These experiments should lead to a better understanding of the physical processes involved--increasing our understanding of fire behavior, both in space and on Earth. SSCE results will help researchers evaluate spacecraft fire hazards. These experiments were conceived by the principal investigator, Professor Robert A. Altenkirch, Dean of Engineering at Washington State University. In the first five flights, the fuel sample--ashless filter paper instrumented with three thermocouples--was mounted in a sealed chamber filled with a 50-percent or 35-percent mixture of oxygen in nitrogen at pressures of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 atm. In the next three flights, a polymethyl methacrylate (plexiglass) fuel was instrumented with three thermocouples and tested in a 70-percent or 50-percent mixture of oxygen and nitrogen at pressures of 1.0 and 2.0 atm. SSCE is a self-contained, battery-operated experiment that can be flown either in the shuttle middeck or in the Spacelab module. More information about the hardware configuration have been published. This past year, the final two of eight flights were completed on STS-64 and STS-63. The NASA Lewis Research Center designed and built the SSCE payload and performed engineering, testing, scientific, and flight operations support. The SSCE project was supported in some way by nearly every major sector of Lewis' organization. Professor Altenkirch developed a numerical simulation of the flame-spreading process from first principles (of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics). The spread rates, flame shape, and thermodynamic data from the SSCE

  15. Vented Tank Resupply Experiment--Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Martin, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE) which was flown as a payload on STS 77. VTRE looks at the ability of vane Propellant Management Devices (PMD) to separate liquid and gas in low gravity. VTRE used two clear 0.8 cubic foot tanks one spherical and one with a short barrel section and transferred Refrigerant 113 between them as well as venting it to space. Tests included retention of liquid during transfer, liquid free venting, and recovery of liquid into the PMD after thruster firing. Liquid was retained successfully at the highest flow rate tested (2.73 gpm). Liquid free vents were achieved for both tanks, although at a higher flow rate (0.1591 cfm) for the spherical tank than the other (0.0400 cfm). Recovery from a thruster firing which moved the liquid to the opposite end of the tank from the PMD was achieved in 30 seconds.

  16. Experience with custom processors in space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraeman, M. E.; Hayes, J. R.; Lohr, D. A.; Ballard, B. W.; Williams, R. L.; Henshaw, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a magnetometer instrument for a swedish satellite named Freja with launch scheduled for August 1992 on a Chinese Long March rocket. The magnetometer controller utilized a custom microprocessor designed at APL with the Genesil silicon compiler. The processor evolved from our experience with an older bit-slice design and two prior single chip efforts. The architecture of our microprocessor greatly lowered software development costs because it was optimized to provide an interactive and extensible programming environment hosted by the target hardware. Radiation tolerance of the microprocessor was also tested and was adequate for Freja's mission -- 20 kRad(Si) total dose and very infrequent latch-up and single event upset events.

  17. Remote Manipulator System (RMS)-based Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) flight experiment feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demeo, Martha E.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of an experiment which will provide an on-orbit validation of Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology, was investigated. The experiment will demonstrate the on-orbit characterization and flexible-body control of large flexible structure dynamics using the shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with an attached payload as a test article. By utilizing existing hardware as well as establishing integration, operation and safety algorithms, techniques and procedures, the experiment will minimize the costs and risks of implementing a flight experiment. The experiment will also offer spin-off enhancement to both the Shuttle RMS (SRMS) and the Space Station RMS (SSRMS).

  18. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a n-Heptane Phase Change Material (PCM) canister. A total of 388 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe of axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the EDS batteries lost power. The inability of the HEPP's radiator to cool below 190 K in flight prevented freezing of the PCM and the opportunity to conduct transport tests with the heat pipes. Post flight tests showed that the heat pipes and the PCM are still functioning. This paper presents a summary of the flight data analysis for the HEPP and its related support systems. Pre and post-flight thermal vacuum tests results are presented for the HEPP thermal control system along with individual heat pipe performance and PCM behavior. Appropriate SIG related systems data will also be included along with a 'lessons learned' summary.

  19. Some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that impacted the advancement of aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamar, John E.

    2009-08-01

    This paper highlights the three aerodynamic pillars of aeronautics; namely, theory/CFD, wind-tunnel experiments and flight tests, and notes that at any given time these three are not necessarily at the same level of maturity. After an initial history of these three pillars, the focus narrows to a brief history of some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that have impacted the advancement of aeronautics in recent decades. They include the F-106, Concorde, SR-71, light-weight fighters (F-16, F/A-18), and F-16XL. These aircraft share in common the utilization of vortical flow and have flown at transonic speeds during a part of the flight envelope. Due to the vast amount of information from flight and CFD that has recently become available for the F-16XL, this aircraft is highlighted and its results detailed. Lastly, it is interesting to note that, though complicated, vortical flows over the F-16XL aircraft at subsonic speeds can be reliably and generally well-predicted with the current CFD flow solvers. However, these solvers still have some problems in matching flight pressure data at transonic speeds. That this problem has been highlighted is both an advancement in aeronautics and a tempting prize to those who would seek its solution.

  20. Space shuttle descent flight control design requirements and experiments Learned, Pt. 1 p 617-628

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafer, G.; Wilson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the lessons learned during the development of the Space Shuttle descent flight control system (FCS) are reviewed. Examples confirm the importance for requirements definition, systems level analyses, and testing. In sounding these experiences may have implication for future designs or suggest the discipline required in this engineering art.

  1. Thermal design, analysis, and testing of the CETA Space Shuttle Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witsil, Amy K.; Foss, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Space Shuttle flight experiment designed to demonstrate techniques and equipment for propelling and restraining crew during EVA. Emphasis is placed on the thermal analysis of the CETA hardware, including thermal design trade-offs, modeling assumptions, temperature predictions, and testing activities.

  2. STS-46 MS Ivins and PLC Hoffman with TOP experiment on OV-104's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) Marsha S. Ivins (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman mount a camera, image intensifiers, and window shade covering in overhead window W7 on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The crewmembers, in front of the onorbit station, are conducting the Tether Optical Phenomena (TOP) experiment.

  3. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... represent the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise. (f) Night vision goggle operating experience. (1) A person may act as pilot in command in a night vision goggle operation with... and logs the following tasks as the sole manipulator of the controls on a flight during a night...

  4. Colour polymeric paints research under atomic oxygen in flight and ground-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, V. N.; Naumov, S. F.; Sokolova, S. P.; Gerasimova, T. I.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Poruchikova, Ju. V.; Novikova, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    Three types of colour coatings were tested to atomic oxygen resistance on ground-based and in-flight experiments. The epoxy enamels colouring change and significant mass losses are observed. The effect of atomic oxygen on silicone enamels almost does not change their colouring and mass. Protection of the epoxy enamels by a layer of silicone varnish increases paints resistance.

  5. Time-of-Flight Experiments in Molecular Motion and Electron-Atom Collision Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Denis P.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Describes a set of experiments for an undergraduate laboratory which demonstrates the relationship between velocity, mass, and temperature in a gas. The experimental method involves time-of-flight measurements on atoms excited to metastable states by electron impact. Effects resulting from recoil in the electron-atom collision can also be…

  6. Development of the Lens Antenna Deployment Demonstration (LADD) shuttle-attached flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, H.; Johnston, D.; Frauenberger, H.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the LADD Program is to develop a technology demonstration test article that can be used for both ground and flight tests to demonstrate the structural and mechanical feasibility and reliability of the single-axis roll-out space based radar (SBR) approach. As designed, the LADD will essentially be a generic strucutural experiment which incorporates all critical technology elements of the operational satellite and is applicable to a number of future antenna systems. However, to fully determine its design integrity for meeting the lens flatness and constant geometry requirements in a zero g environment under extreme thermal conditions, the LADD must be space flight tested. By accurately surveying the structure under varying conditions the membrane tolerance-holding capabilities of the structure will be demonstrated. The flight test will provide data to verify analytical tools used to predict thermal and structural behavior. Most important, the experiment will provide an initial indication of structural damping in a zero g vacuum environment. The recently completed Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) showed orbital damping greater than that experienced during ground testing. From the experience and the information obtained from LADD it is hoped that designs can be confidently extrapolated to operational satellites with apertures in the 20 m by 60 m size range.

  7. Pilot Searfoss in experiment measuring effects space flight and pilot ability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Richard A. Searfoss, pilot, participates in an experiment that measures the effects of space flight on pilot proficiency. Searfoss is conducting one of the first tests of the Portable Inflight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT), a laptop computer loaded with software designed to create landing simulations.

  8. In-Space Structural Validation Plan for a Stretched-Lens Solar Array Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Jones, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes in-space structural validation plans for a proposed Space Shuttle-based flight experiment. The test article is an innovative, lightweight solar array concept that uses pop-up, refractive stretched-lens concentrators to achieve a power/mass density of at least 175 W/kg, which is more than three times greater than current capabilities. The flight experiment will validate this new technology to retire the risk associated with its first use in space. The experiment includes structural diagnostic instrumentation to measure the deployment dynamics, static shape, and modes of vibration of the 8-meter-long solar array and several of its lenses. These data will be obtained by photogrammetry using the Shuttle payload-bay video cameras and miniature video cameras on the array. Six accelerometers are also included in the experiment to measure base excitations and small-amplitude tip motions.

  9. Inflated concepts for the earth science geostationary platform and an associated flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friese, G.

    1992-01-01

    Large parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are of great interest for microwave transmission, solar powered rockets, and Earth observations. Collector subsystems have been under slow development for a decade. Inflated paraboloids have a great weight and package volume advantage over mechanically erected systems and, therefore, have been receiving greater attention recently. The objective of this program was to produce a 'conceptual definition of an experiment to assess in-space structural damping characteristics and effects of the space meteoroid environment upon structural integrity and service life of large inflatable structures.' The flight experiment was to have been based upon an inflated solar concentration, but much of that was being done on other programs. To avoid redundancy, the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) was selected as a focus mission for the experiment. Three major areas were studied: the ESGP reflector configuration; flight experiment; and meteoroids.

  10. Analysis of Crossflow Transition Flight Experiment aboard the Pegasus Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Li, Fei; Choudhan, Meelan

    2007-01-01

    The Pegasus wing-glove flight experiment was designed to provide crossflow transition data at high Mach numbers, specifically to help validate stability based predictions for transition onset in a flight environment. This paper provides an analysis of the flight experiment, with emphasis on computational results for crossflow disturbances and the correlation of disturbance growth factors with in-flight transition locations via the e(sup N) method. Implications of the flight data for attachment line stability are also examined. Analysis of the thermocouple data reveals that transition (from turbulent to laminar flow) was first detected during the ascending flight of the rocket when the free stream Mach number exceeded about 4. Therefore, computations have been performed for flight Mach numbers of 4.13, 4.35, 4.56 and 4.99. Due to continually decreasing unit Reynolds number at higher altitudes, the entire wing-glove boundary layer became laminar at the highest flight Mach number computed above. In contrast, the boundary layer flow over the inboard tile region remained transitional up to and somewhat beyond the time of laminarization over the instrumented glove region. Linear stability predictions confirmed that the tile boundary layer is indeed more unstable to crossflow disturbances than the much colder stainless steel glove boundary layer. The transition locations based on thermocouple data from both the glove and the tile regions are found to correlate with stationary-crossflow N-factors within the range of 7 to 12.4 and with traveling mode N-factors between 7.6 and 14.1. Data from the thermocouples and hot film sensors indicates that transition from turbulent to laminar flow (i.e., laminarization) at a fixed point over the glove is generally completed within a flight time interval of 3 seconds. However, the times at which transition begins and ends as inferred from the hot film sensors are found to differ by about 2 seconds from the corresponding estimates based

  11. Flight experiment of pilot display for search-and-rescue helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabiki, Kohei; Tsuda, Hiroka; Iijima, Tomoko; Nojima, Takuya; Tawada, Kazuho; Yoshida, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), together with Shimadzu Corporation and NEC, has initiated a research project named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) that aims at inventing method of presenting suitable pilot information to support helicopter search and rescue missions. As the initial stage of this research, a series of flight experiments was conducted to investigate the feasibility of operations enhanced by an E/SVS (Enhanced / Synthetic Vision System) and to clarify system issues. An integrated system comprising an HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) and a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) sensor were installed in a JAXA research helicopter, and Tunnel-in-the-Sky symbology and a Synthetic Terrain image combined with the FLIR image were presented on the HMD and/or on a Head Down Display (HDD). Through a total of 17 flights including night flights, the potential capability of the system was demonstrated while many issues for further investigation were identified.

  12. Development of flight experiment task requirements. Volume 2: Technical Report. Part 1: Program report and Appendices A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatterick, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Activities are documented of the study to determine skills required of on-orbit crew personnel of the space shuttle. The material is presented in four sections that include: (1) methodology for identifying flight experiment task-skill requirements, (2) task-skill analysis of selected flight experiments, (3) study results and conclusions, and (4) new technology.

  13. Hypersonic Research Vehicle (HRV) real-time flight test support feasibility and requirements study. Part 1: Real-time flight experiment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Herman A.; Ramnath, Rudrapatna V.; Vrable, Daniel L.; Hirvo, David H.; Mcmillen, Lowell D.; Osofsky, Irving B.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify potential real time remote computational applications to support monitoring HRV flight test experiments along with definitions of preliminary requirements. A major expansion of the support capability available at Ames-Dryden was considered. The focus is on the use of extensive computation and data bases together with real time flight data to generate and present high level information to those monitoring the flight. Six examples were considered: (1) boundary layer transition location; (2) shock wave position estimation; (3) performance estimation; (4) surface temperature estimation; (5) critical structural stress estimation; and (6) stability estimation.

  14. Space Flight Effects on Antioxidant Molecules in Dry Tardigrades: The TARDIKISS Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Montorfano, Gigliola

    2015-01-01

    The TARDIKISS (Tardigrades in Space) experiment was part of the Biokon in Space (BIOKIS) payload, a set of multidisciplinary experiments performed during the DAMA (Dark Matter) mission organized by Italian Space Agency and Italian Air Force in 2011. This mission supported the execution of experiments in short duration (16 days) taking the advantage of the microgravity environment on board of the Space Shuttle Endeavour (its last mission STS-134) docked to the International Space Station. TARDIKISS was composed of three sample sets: one flight sample and two ground control samples. These samples provided the biological material used to test as space stressors, including microgravity, affected animal survivability, life cycle, DNA integrity, and pathways of molecules working as antioxidants. In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences. TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research. PMID:25654086

  15. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment is to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer concept as well as investigate the effect of microgravity on water electrolysis performance. The scope of the experiment includes variations in microstructural characteristics of electrodes and current densities in a static feed electrolysis cell configuration. The results of the flight experiment will be used to improve efficiency of the static feed electrolysis process and other electrochemical regenerative life support processes by reducing power and expanding the operational range. Specific technologies that will benefit include water electrolysis for propulsion, energy storage, life support, extravehicular activity, in-space manufacturing and in-space science in addition to other electrochemical regenerative life support technologies such as electrochemical carbon dioxide and oxygen separation, electrochemical oxygen compression and water vapor electrolysis. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment design incorporates two primary hardware assemblies: the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly and the Control/Monitor Instrumentation. The Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly contains three separate integrated electrolysis cells along with supporting pressure and temperature control components. The Control/Monitor Instrumentation controls the operation of the experiment via the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly components and provides for monitoring and control of critical parameters and storage of experimental data.

  16. Space flight effects on antioxidant molecules in dry tardigrades: the TARDIKISS experiment.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Montorfano, Gigliola; Guidetti, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The TARDIKISS (Tardigrades in Space) experiment was part of the Biokon in Space (BIOKIS) payload, a set of multidisciplinary experiments performed during the DAMA (Dark Matter) mission organized by Italian Space Agency and Italian Air Force in 2011. This mission supported the execution of experiments in short duration (16 days) taking the advantage of the microgravity environment on board of the Space Shuttle Endeavour (its last mission STS-134) docked to the International Space Station. TARDIKISS was composed of three sample sets: one flight sample and two ground control samples. These samples provided the biological material used to test as space stressors, including microgravity, affected animal survivability, life cycle, DNA integrity, and pathways of molecules working as antioxidants. In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences. TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research.

  17. Space flight effects on antioxidant molecules in dry tardigrades: the TARDIKISS experiment.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Montorfano, Gigliola; Guidetti, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The TARDIKISS (Tardigrades in Space) experiment was part of the Biokon in Space (BIOKIS) payload, a set of multidisciplinary experiments performed during the DAMA (Dark Matter) mission organized by Italian Space Agency and Italian Air Force in 2011. This mission supported the execution of experiments in short duration (16 days) taking the advantage of the microgravity environment on board of the Space Shuttle Endeavour (its last mission STS-134) docked to the International Space Station. TARDIKISS was composed of three sample sets: one flight sample and two ground control samples. These samples provided the biological material used to test as space stressors, including microgravity, affected animal survivability, life cycle, DNA integrity, and pathways of molecules working as antioxidants. In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences. TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research. PMID:25654086

  18. Neighboring optimal guidance for aeroassisted orbital plane change with G-value constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Hsu, Fu-Kuo; Lin, Ching-Chyuan

    In the last decade, the optimal aeroassisted trajectories, either for reentry or orbital transfer, have been investigated extensively. At the same time, the guidance and control problems for these missions are attracting scientists gradually. The purpose of this paper is to develop a neighboring optimal guidance for aeroassisted orbital plane change with G-value constraint. The normal optimal trajectory for maximizing the orbital plane change with G-value constraint is computed with specified initial and final conditions. We then assume that there are small variations in initial values of the state variables, and try to guide the vehicle back to the nominal optimal trajectory under G-value constraint of 2.5 by using the neighboring optimal guidance law developed in this paper. The displacements of the switching points are calculated and discussed.

  19. Development of a Closed-Loop Strap Down Attitude System for an Ultrahigh Altitude Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Fife, Mike; Brashear, Logan

    1997-01-01

    A low-cost attitude system has been developed for an ultrahigh altitude flight experiment. The experiment uses a remotely piloted sailplane, with the wings modified for flight at altitudes greater than 100,000 ft. Mission requirements deem it necessary to measure the aircraft pitch and bank angles with accuracy better than 1.0 deg and heading with accuracy better than 5.0 deg. Vehicle cost restrictions and gross weight limits make installing a commercial inertial navigation system unfeasible. Instead, a low-cost attitude system was developed using strap down components. Monte Carlo analyses verified that two vector measurements, magnetic field and velocity, are required to completely stabilize the error equations. In the estimating algorithm, body-axis observations of the airspeed vector and the magnetic field are compared against the inertial velocity vector and a magnetic-field reference model. Residuals are fed back to stabilize integration of rate gyros. The effectiveness of the estimating algorithm was demonstrated using data from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) flight tests. The algorithm was applied with good results to a maximum 10' pitch and bank angles. Effects of wind shears were evaluated and, for most cases, can be safely ignored.

  20. Aerocapture and aeroassisted orbital transfer - A high performance leverage space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, M. I.

    1983-01-01

    Single pass aerocapture and aeroassisted orbital transfer designs are discussed for modifying spacecraft orbits using planetary atmospheres. Aerodynamic drag can be used to shift a hyperbolic flyby trajectory to a planetary orbit by having the spacecraft altering its in-plane L/D ratio to maintain constant drag until the desired velocity is attained. The spacecraft would then move out of the atmosphere, sometimes with a small propulsive assist. Sample missions to Uranus, Jupiter, and Titan are mentioned, with mission scenarios commencing with a Shuttle launch. Biconic-shaped spacecraft are cited as having the best L/D for insertion accuracy, a low hypersonic ballistic coefficient, and volumeric efficiency. Aeroassisted orbital transfer involves atmospheric braking in order to shed velocity on a return trip from higher orbits. No decision has yet been made as to the spacecraft shape, but calculations indicate that aeroassist braking before return to LEO for rendezvous with the Shuttle has the potential for the lowest cost/mass to GEO of any delivery system currently under consideration.

  1. Laboratory and in-flight experiments to evaluate 3-D audio display technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mckinley, Richard; Kibbe, Marion; Francis, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and in-flight experiments were conducted to evaluate 3-D audio display technology for cockpit applications. A 3-D audio display generator was developed which digitally encodes naturally occurring direction information onto any audio signal and presents the binaural sound over headphones. The acoustic image is stabilized for head movement by use of an electromagnetic head-tracking device. In the laboratory, a 3-D audio display generator was used to spatially separate competing speech messages to improve the intelligibility of each message. Up to a 25 percent improvement in intelligibility was measured for spatially separated speech at high ambient noise levels (115 dB SPL). During the in-flight experiments, pilots reported that spatial separation of speech communications provided a noticeable improvement in intelligibility. The use of 3-D audio for target acquisition was also investigated. In the laboratory, 3-D audio enabled the acquisition of visual targets in about two seconds average response time at 17 degrees accuracy. During the in-flight experiments, pilots correctly identified ground targets 50, 75, and 100 percent of the time at separation angles of 12, 20, and 35 degrees, respectively. In general, pilot performance in the field with the 3-D audio display generator was as expected, based on data from laboratory experiments.

  2. LDEF Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment post-flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaung, J. Y.; Blakkolb, B. K.; Wong, W. C.; Ryan, L. E.; Schurig, H. J.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment (SP-HVDE) was comprised of two identical experimental trays. With one tray located on the leading (ram facing, B10) edge and the other located on the trailing (wake facing, D4) edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), it was possible to directly compare the effects of ram and wake spacecraft environments on charged dielectric materials. Six arrays of Kapton dielectric samples of 2 mil, 3 mil, and 5 mil thicknesses maintained at +/- 300, +/- 500, and +/- 1000 voltage bias formed the experimental matrix of each tray. In addition, each tray carried two solar cell strings, one biased at +300 volts and the other at -300 volts, to study current leakage from High Voltage Solar Arrays (HVSA). The SP-HVDE provides the first direct, long-term, in-flight measurements of average leakage current through dielectric materials under electric stress. The experiment also yields information on the long term stability of the bulk dielectric properties of such materials. Data and findings of the SP-HVDE are an extension of those from shorter term flight experiments such as the PIX-1 (Plasma Interaction Experiment) and PIX-2 and are therefore valuable in the design and evaluation of long-lived space systems with high voltage systems exposed to the low earth orbital environment. A summary of the SP-HVDE post flight analysis final report delivered to the LDEF Project Office under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is presented.

  3. Flight Validation of On-Demand Operations: The Deep Space One Beacon Monitor Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Jay; Sherwood, Rob; Sue, Miles; Szijjarto, John

    2000-01-01

    After a brief overview of the operational concept, this paper will provide a detailed description of the _as-flown_ flight software components, the DS1 experiment plan, and experiment results to date. Special emphasis will be given to experiment results and lessons learned since the basic system design has been previously reported. Mission scenarios where beacon operations is highly applicable will be described. Detailed cost savings estimates for a sample science mission will be provided as will cumulative savings that are possible over the next fifteen years of NASA missions.

  4. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    PubMed

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  5. Open-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Daniel M.

    1997-01-01

    During the third quarter of 1996, the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory was established at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to study the effects of High Intensity Radiated Fields on complex avionic systems and control system components. This new facility provided a link and expanded upon the existing capabilities of the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory at LaRC that were constructed and certified during 1995-96. The scope of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory is to place highly integrated avionics instrumentation into a high intensity radiated field environment, interface the avionics to a real-time flight simulation that incorporates aircraft dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators and atmospheric turbulence, and collect, analyze, and model aircraft performance. This paper describes the layout and functionality of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory, and the open-loop calibration experiments that led up to the commencement of closed-loop real-time flight experiments.

  6. Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

  7. Experimenting Maintenance of Flight Software in an Integrated Modular Avionics for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Johan; Laroche, Thomas; Creten, Philippe; Parisis, Paul; Hiller, Martin

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an experiment of Flight Software partitioning in an Integrated Modular Avionics for Space (IMA-SP) system. This experiment also tackles the maintenance aspects of IMA-SP systems. The presented case study is PROBA-2 Flight Software. The paper addresses and discusses the following subjects: On-Board Software Maintenance in IMA-SP, boot strategy for Time and Space Partitioning, considerations about the ground segment related to On-Board Software Maintenance in IMA-SP, and architectural impacts of Time and Space Partitioning for PROBA software's. Finally, this paper presents the results and the achievements of the study and it appeals at further perspectives for IMA-SP and Time and Space Partitioning.

  8. The role of HZE particles in space flight: results from spaceflight and ground-based experiments.

    PubMed

    Bucker, H; Facius, R

    1981-01-01

    Selected results from experiments investigating the potentially specific radiobiological importance of the cosmic HZE (= high Z, energetic) particles are discussed. Results from the Biostack space flight experiments, which were designed to meet the experimental requirements imposed by the microdosimetric nature of this radiation field, clearly indicate the existence of radiation mechanisms which become effective only at higher values of LET (linear energy transfer). Accelerator irradiation studies are reviewed which conform with this conjecture. The recently discovered production of "micro-lesions" in mammalian tissues by single HZE particles is possibly the most direct evidence. Open questions concerning the establishment of radiation standards for manned spaceflight, such as late effects, interaction with flight dynamic parameters, and weightlessness, are indicated. PMID:11543100

  9. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Unified Stability System (USS). Description and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.; Behbehani, Roxanna

    1990-01-01

    NASA initiated the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) to establish a boundary layer transition database for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper surface gloves were fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The development of an improved laminar boundary layer stability analysis system called the Unified Stability System (USS) is documented and results of its use on the VSTFE flight data are shown. The USS consists of eight computer codes. The theoretical background of the system is described, as is the input, output, and usage hints. The USS is capable of analyzing boundary layer stability over a wide range of disturbance frequencies and orientations, making it possible to use different philosophies in calculating the growth of disturbances on sweptwings.

  10. Rigidity Spectra of Protons and Helium as Measured in the First Flight of the ATIC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsepin, V. I.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from 30 GeV to near 100 TeV. It is comprised of a fully active BGO calorimeter, a carbon interaction target, scintillator hodoscopes, and a silicon matrix that is used as a charge detector in the experiment. ATIC had two successful balloon flights in Antarctica: from 28 Dec 2000 to 13 Jan 2001 (ATIC-1) and from 29 Dec 2002 to 18 Jan 2003 (ATIC-2). Preliminary rigidity spectra of protons and helium nuclei and their ratio are presented for the test flight (ATIC-1). Particular attention is given to problems associated with measuring energy.

  11. Flight Experience from Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Arrays and its Implication on Terrestrial Concentrator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all photovoltaic solar arrays flown in space have used a planar (non- concentrating) design. However, there have been a few notable exceptions where photovoltaic concentrators have been tested and used as the mission s primary power source. Among these are the success experienced by the SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) concept used to power NASA's Deep Space 1 mission and the problems encountered by the original Boeing 702 reflective trough concentrator design. This presentation will give a brief overview of past photovoltaic concentrator systems that have flown in space, specifically addressing the valuable lessons learned from flight experience, and other viable concentrator concepts that are being proposed for the future. The general trends of this flight experience will be noted and discussed with regard to its implications on terrestrial photovoltaic concentrator designs.

  12. Test results and flight experience of ball bearing momentum and reaction wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, W.

    1990-01-01

    The required satellite mission durations and levels of reliability have been considerably increased: While in the beginning of the 70's 3 to 5 year missions were planned, the standard is now 10 years with an expansion to 15 years and more for such programs as INTELSAT VII. Based on a 20 year test and flight experience with basically the same design, ball bearing momentum and reaction wheels with the required 15 year mission capability can be provided.

  13. Mineral balance, experiment M071. [space flight effects on human mineral metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whedon, G. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the long term metabolic consequences of weightless flight was the basis for the conception of the Skylab medical experiment to measure mineral balance. Proper interpretation of obtained data that diminished atmospheric pressure has no appreciable effect, or at least no protective effect, on calcium metabolism. The absence of changes in calcium metabolism indicates that a stable baseline observation has been made for Skylab as far as the effects of atmosphere or calcium metabolism are concerned.

  14. Electro-science Requirements for Shuttle-attached Antenna Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. L.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schroeder, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The activities of an in-house electro-science task group organized to conduct studies of shuttle-attached flight experiments using the 15-meter hoop-column antennas as a research tool for developing both improved sensor technology and LSA technology are described. Some experiments could provide significant amounts of scientific data such as radio star mapping and definition of ocean current eddies over limited geographic regions. The experiments originate from the microwave remote sensing community and other areas which require the inherently higher resolution and boresite gain of large space antennas. Technology experiments are also being studied which would use the 15-meter antenna experiments as a stepping stone to 50 to 100 meter class reflector technology in the future. An antenna technology experiment using the 15-meter antenna in a shuttle-attached mission is discussed. Electromagnetic modeling is correct for each major subsystem and also to verify the interrelations of the subsystems.

  15. LDEF (Flight), P0004-02 : Space-Exposed Experiment Developed for Students, Tray F02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), P0004-02 : Space-Exposed Experiment Developed for Students, Tray F02 EL-1994-00132 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval and prior to the berthing of LDEF in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P0004-02 is one of three passive experiments located in a 6-inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The experiment consist of 12.5 million Rutgers tomato seeds, five sealed canisters and a silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. Two other experiments, the Seeds in Space Experiment (P0004-01) and the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment (P0006), were companion experiments in the tray. The experiment hardware was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The paint dots, originally white, located on experiment tray clamp blocks now appear brown. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be discolored. The sealed SEEDS canisters, 5 bases and 5 domes, were machined from aluminum plate material and assembled together with a butyl rubber o-ring seal. The machined interior was approximately 4 inches deep with a 12 inch internal diameter, providing an open volume of approximately 1/3 cubic foot in each canister. The 5 canisters were were mounted in the experiment tray along with a similar canister containing the Seeds in Space Experiment. The exterior surfaces of all canisters were painted white with Chemglaze II A-276 and surfaces facing the LDEF interior were coated with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 primer. Thermal control was accomplished by placing the canisters on fiberglass isolators and covering the experiment tray with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® specular cover secured with Velcro pads located on each of the canister domes and on clips attached to the tray sidewalls. The silvered TEFLON® thermal cover appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The three dark spots appearing in a vertical

  16. The astrocultureTM flight experiment series, validating technologies for growing plants in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Bula, R. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Dinauer, W. R.

    1994-11-01

    A flight experiment, ASTROCULTURETM-1 (ASC-1), to evaluate the operational characteristics and hardware performance of a porous tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) was flown on STS-50 as part of the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission, 25 June to 9 July, 1992. This experiment is the first in a series of planned ASTROCULTURETM flights to validate the performance of subsystems required to grow plants in microgravity environments. Results indicated that the PTNDS was capable of supplying water and nutrients to plants in microgravity and that its performance was similar in microgravity to that in 1g on Earth. The data demonstrated that water transfer rates through a rooting matrix are a function of pore size of the tubes, the degree of negative pressure on the `supply' fluid, and the pressure differential between the `supply' and `recovery' fluid loops. A slightly greater transfer rate was seem in microgravity than in 1g, but differences were likely related to the presence of hydrostatic pressure effects at 1g. Thus, this system can be used to support plant growth in microgravity or in partial gravity as on a lunar or Mars base. Additional subsystems to be evaluated in the ASTROCULTURETM flight series of experiments include lighting, humidity control and condensate recovery, temperature control, nutrient composition control, CO2 and O2 control, and gaseous contaminant control.

  17. The ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight experiment series, validating technologies for growing plants in space.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Bula, R J; Tibbitts, T W; Dinauer, W R

    1994-11-01

    A flight experiment, ASTROCULTURE(TM)-1 (ASC-1), to evaluate the operational characteristics and hardware performance of a porous tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) was flown on STS-50 as part of the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission, 25 June to 9 July, 1992. This experiment is the first in a series of planned ASTROCULTURE(TM) flights to validate the performance of subsystems required to grow plants in microgravity environments. Results indicated that the PTNDS was capable of supplying water and nutrients to plants in microgravity and that its performance was similar in microgravity to that in 1g on Earth. The data demonstrated that water transfer rates through a rooting matrix are a function of pore size of the tubes, the degree of negative pressure on the 'supply' fluid, and the pressure differential between the 'supply' and 'recovery' fluid loops. A slightly greater transfer rate was seen in microgravity than in 1g, but differences were likely related to the presence of hydrostatic pressure effects at 1g. Thus, this system can be used to support plant growth in microgravity or in partial gravity as on a lunar or Mars base. Additional subsystems to be evaluated in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight series of experiments include lighting, humidity control and condensate recovery, temperature control, nutrient composition control, CO2 and O2 control, and gaseous contaminant control. PMID:11540195

  18. The ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight experiment series, validating technologies for growing plants in space.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Bula, R J; Tibbitts, T W; Dinauer, W R

    1994-11-01

    A flight experiment, ASTROCULTURE(TM)-1 (ASC-1), to evaluate the operational characteristics and hardware performance of a porous tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) was flown on STS-50 as part of the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission, 25 June to 9 July, 1992. This experiment is the first in a series of planned ASTROCULTURE(TM) flights to validate the performance of subsystems required to grow plants in microgravity environments. Results indicated that the PTNDS was capable of supplying water and nutrients to plants in microgravity and that its performance was similar in microgravity to that in 1g on Earth. The data demonstrated that water transfer rates through a rooting matrix are a function of pore size of the tubes, the degree of negative pressure on the 'supply' fluid, and the pressure differential between the 'supply' and 'recovery' fluid loops. A slightly greater transfer rate was seen in microgravity than in 1g, but differences were likely related to the presence of hydrostatic pressure effects at 1g. Thus, this system can be used to support plant growth in microgravity or in partial gravity as on a lunar or Mars base. Additional subsystems to be evaluated in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight series of experiments include lighting, humidity control and condensate recovery, temperature control, nutrient composition control, CO2 and O2 control, and gaseous contaminant control.

  19. Ground-facilities at the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine for preparation of flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Hauslage, Jens; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Baerwalde, Sven; Schuber, Marianne

    In order to investigate the influence of altered gravity on biological systems and to identify gravisensitive processes, various experimental platforms have been developed, which are useful to simulate weightlessness or are able to produce hypergravity. At the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, DLR Cologne, a broad spectrum of applications is offered to scientists: clinostats with one rotation axis and variable rotation speeds for cultivation of small objects (including aquatic organisms) in simulated weightlessness conditions, for online microscopic observations and for online kinetic measurements. Own research concentrates on comparative studies with other kinds of methods to simulate weightlessness, also available at the institute: Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) for aquatic studies, Random Positioning Machine (RPM; manufactured by Dutch Space, Leiden, The Netherlands). Correspondingly, various centrifuge devices are available to study different test objects under hypergravity conditions -such as NIZEMI, a slow rotating centrifuge microscope, and MUSIC, a multi-sample centrifuge. Mainly for experiments with human test subjects (artificial gravity), but also for biological systems or for testing various kinds of (flight-) hardware, the SAHC, a short arm human centrifuge -loaned by ESA -was installed in Cologne and completes our experimental scenario. Furthermore, due to our specific tasks such as providing laboratories during the German Parabolic Flight Experiments starting from Cologne and being the Facility Responsible Center for BIOLAB, a science rack in the Columbus module aboard the ISS, scientists have the possibility for an optimal preparation of their flight experiments.

  20. [Experiment with rats on a 22-day flight on the "Kosmos-605" biological satellite (objectives and methods)].

    PubMed

    Il'in, E A; Serova, L V; Noskin, A D

    1976-01-01

    In 1974 a rat experiment was carried out onboard the Cosmos-605 biosatellite. Inflight Wistar rats were kept unrestrained in small cages. The cages were equipped with a feeder, water supply, light source and a ventilation device. The state of the animals was assessed with respect to their motor activity. The flight experiment was preceded by a number of preparatory runs and testinns that were completed with an end-to-end experiment in a biosatellite mockup. The flight experiment was paralleled by the ground-based synchroneous experiment which simulated almost entirely the flight profile. For each experiment rats were selected and trained during a month's observation. Postflight rats were exposed to clinical, physiological, morphological, cytochemical and biochemical investigations. Tissue examinations were performed on the 2nd-3rd day (20 rats) and 26-27th day (12 rats) after flight. Four rats were kept to study remote aftereffects.

  1. Insect gravitational biology: ground-based and shuttle flight experiments using the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.

  2. Development of a low-aspect ratio fin for flight research experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richwine, David M.; Delfrate, John H.

    1994-01-01

    A second-generation flight test fixture, developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, offers a generic testbed for aerodynamic and fluid mechanics research. The new fixture, a low-aspect ratio vertical fin shape mounted on the centerline of an F-15B aircraft lower fuselage, is designed for flight research at Mach numbers up to 2.0. The new fixture is a composite structure with a modular configuration and removable components for functional flexibility. This report describes the multidisciplinary design and analysis approach used to develop the fixture. The approach integrates conservative assumptions with simple analysis techniques to minimize the time and cost associated with its development. Presented are the principal disciplines required for this effort, which include aerodynamics, structures, stability, and operational considerations. In addition, preliminary results from the first phase of flight testing are presented. Acceptable directional stability and flow quality are documented and show agreement with predictions. Future envelope expansion activities will minimize current limitations so that the fixture can be used for a wide variety of high-speed aerodynamic and fluid mechanics research experiments.

  3. Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiments on Space Shuttle Flights STS-53 and STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, S. M.; Tegart, J. R.; Driscoll, S. L.; Sledd, J. D.; Hastings, L. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE) program, managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center Space Propulsion Branch with Martin Marietta Civil Space and Communications as the contractor, consisted of two flights designated FARE I and FARE II. FARE I flew in December 1992 on STS-53 with a screen channel liquid acquisition device (LAD) and FARE II flew in June 1993 on STS-57 with a vane-type LAD. Thus, the FARE I and II flights represent the two basic LAD categories usually considered for in-space fluid management. Although both LAD types have been used extensively, the usefulness of the on-orbit data has been constrained by the lack of experimentation beyond predicted performance limits, including both propellant fill and expulsion. Therefore, the FARE tests were designed to obtain data that would satisfy two primary objectives: (1) Demonstrate the performance of the two types of LADs, screen channel and vane, and (2) support the anchoring of analytical models. Both flights were considered highly successful in meeting these two primary objectives.

  4. Relationship between Recent Flight Experience and Pilot Error General Aviation Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Sarah J.

    Aviation insurance agents and fixed-base operation (FBO) owners use recent flight experience, as implied by the 90-day rule, to measure pilot proficiency in physical airplane skills, and to assess the likelihood of a pilot error accident. The generally accepted premise is that more experience in a recent timeframe predicts less of a propensity for an accident, all other factors excluded. Some of these aviation industry stakeholders measure pilot proficiency solely by using time flown within the past 90, 60, or even 30 days, not accounting for extensive research showing aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness training decrease the likelihood of a pilot error accident. In an effort to reduce the pilot error accident rate, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has seen the need to shift pilot training emphasis from proficiency in physical airplane skills to aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness skills. However, current pilot training standards still focus more on the former than on the latter. The relationship between pilot error accidents and recent flight experience implied by the FAA's 90-day rule has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. The intent of this research was to relate recent flight experience, in terms of time flown in the past 90 days, to pilot error accidents. A quantitative ex post facto approach, focusing on private pilots of single-engine general aviation (GA) fixed-wing aircraft, was used to analyze National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation archival data. The data were analyzed using t-tests and binary logistic regression. T-tests between the mean number of hours of recent flight experience of tricycle gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (TPE) and non-pilot error accidents (TNPE), t(202) = -.200, p = .842, and conventional gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (CPE) and non-pilot error accidents (CNPE), t(111) = -.271, p = .787, indicate there is no

  5. Design and test of a mechanically pumped two-phase thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grote, M. G.; Stark, J. A.; Butler, C. D.; Mcintosh, R.

    1987-01-01

    A flight experiment of a mechanically pumped two-phase ammonia thermal control system, incorporating a number of new component designs, has been assembled and tested in a 1-g environment. Additional microgravity tests are planned on the Space Shuttle when Shuttle flights are resumed. The primary purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the operation of a mechanically pumped two-phase ammonia system, with emphasis on determining the performance of an evaporative Two-Phase Mounting Plate. The experiment also evaluates the performance of other specially designed components, such as the two-phase reservoir for temperature control, condensing radiator/heat sink, spiral tube boiler, and pressure drop experiment. The 1-g tests have shown that start-up of the two-phase experiment is easily accomplished with only a partial fill of ammonia. The experiment maintained a constant mounting plate temperature without flow rate controls over a very wide range of heat loads, flow rates, inlet flow conditions and exit qualities. The tests also showed the successful operation of the mounting plate in the heat sharing condensing mode.

  6. Design and Implementation of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment on Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, Theodoros A.; Micklos, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to better the understanding of high speed aerodynamics, a series of flight experiments were installed on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-119 and STS-128 missions. This experiment, known as the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLTFE), provided the technical community with actual entry flight data from a known height protuberance at Mach numbers at and above Mach 15. Any such data above Mach 15 is irreproducible in a laboratory setting. Years of effort have been invested in obtaining this valuable data, and many obstacles had to be overcome in order to ensure the success of implementing an Orbiter modification. Many Space Shuttle systems were involved in the installation of appropriate components that revealed 'concurrent engineering' was a key integration tool. This allowed the coordination of all various parts and pieces which had to be sequenced appropriately and installed at the right time. Several issues encountered include Orbiter configuration and access, design requirements versus current layout, implementing the modification versus typical processing timelines, and optimizing the engineering design cycles and changes. Open lines of communication within the entire modification team were essential to project success as the team was spread out across the United States, from NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas, to Boeing Huntington Beach, California among others. The forum permits the discussion of processing concerns from the design phase to the implementation phase, which eventually saw the successful flights and data acquisition on STS-119 in March 2009 and on STS-128 in September 2009.

  7. Soviet experiments aimed at investigating the influence of space flight factors on the physiology of animals and man.

    PubMed

    Parin, V V; Gazenko, O G

    1963-01-01

    Results are given of biological experiments on space ship-satellites II, III, IV and V, and of scientific investigations made during the flights of Cosmonauts Gagarin and Titov aboard space ships Vostok I and Vostok II. Physiological reactions to the action of the flight stress-factors are not of a pathological character. In the post-flight period no alterations in health conditions of either cosmonauts or animals were observed. At the same time some peculiarities which were revealed while analyzing physiological reactions and a number of biological indices require further investigations. The most important tasks remaining are to study the influence of protracted weightlessness, of the biological action of space radiation, of the action of acceleration stresses after prolonged stay under zero-gravity conditions and also to analyze the influence on the organism of the whole combination of spaceflight factors, including emotional strain. In the Soviet Union, a great number of biological experiments have been conducted with a view to elucidating the action of space flight factors on living organisms and the design of systems necessary to ensure healthy activity during flight aboard rocket space vehicles. The first flight experiments with animals were conducted by means of geophysical rockets. The next step in this direction was made by the launching of Sputnik II in 1957 and by experiments on space ship-satellites in 1960-61. The main purpose of flight and laboratory investigations was to obtain the objective scientific criteria essential for ensuring the safety of manned space flight.

  8. A landmark recognition and tracking experiment for flight on the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an experiment for landmark recognition and tracking from the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory is described. It makes use of parallel coherent optical processing to perform correlation tests between landmarks observed passively with a telescope and previously made holographic matched filters. The experimental equipment including the optics, the low power laser, the random access file of matched filters and the electro-optical readout device are described. A real time optically excited liquid crystal device is recommended for performing the input non-coherent optical to coherent optical interface function. A development program leading to a flight experiment in 1981 is outlined.

  9. Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment NASA Electra Boundary Layer Flights Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Melfi, S. H.; Boers, Reinout

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain high resolution measurements of the height of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) during cold air outbreaks using an Airborne Lidar System. The research was coordinated with other investigators participating in the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE). An objective computerized scheme was developed to obtain the Boundary Layer Height from the Lidar Data. The algorithm was used on each of the four flight days producing a high resolution data set of the MABL height over the GALE experiment area. Plots of the retrieved MABL height as well as tabular data summaries are presented.

  10. The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.

  11. Design and Preparation of a Particle Dynamics Space Flight Experiment, SHIVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James; L'Esperance, Drew; Rangel, Roger; Coimbra, Carlos; Wiltherow, William

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the flight experiment, supporting ground science, and the design rationale for project SHIVA (Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus). SHIVA is a fundamental study of particle dynamics in fluids in microgravity. Gravity often dominates the equations of motion of a particle in a fluid, so microgravity provides an ideal environment to study the other forces, such as the pressure and viscous drag and especially the Basset history force. We have developed diagnostic recording methods using holography to save all of the particle field optical characteristics, essentially allowing the experiment to be transferred from space back to earth in what we call the "virtual apparatus" for on-earth microgravity experimentation. We can quantify precisely the three-dimensional motion of sets of particles, allowing us to test and apply new analytical solutions developed by members of the team as reported in the 2001 Conference (Banff, Canada). In addition to employing microgravity to augment the fundamental study of these forces, the resulting data will allow us to quantify and understand the ISS environment with great accuracy. This paper shows how we used both experiment and theory to identify and resolve critical issues and produce an optimal the study. We examined the response of particles of specific gravity from 0.1 to 20, with radii from 0.2 to 2mm. to fluid oscillation at frequencies up to 80 Hz with amplitudes up to 200 microns. To observe some of the interesting effects predicted by the new solutions requires the precise location of the position of a particle in three dimensions. To this end we have developed digital holography algorithms that enable particle position location to a small fraction of a pixel in a CCD array. The spaceflight system will record holograms both on film and electronically. The electronic holograms can be downlinked providing real time data, essentially acting like a remote window into the ISS

  12. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiative Heating Experiment, RHE, aboard the Aeroassist Flight Experiment, AFE, (now cancelled) was to make in-situ measurements of the stagnation region shock layer radiation during an aerobraking maneuver from geosynchronous to low earth orbit. The measurements were to provide a data base to help develop and validate aerothermodynamic computational models. Although cancelled, much work was done to develop the science requirements and to successfully meet RHE technical challenges. This paper discusses the RHE scientific objectives and expected science performance of a small sapphire window for the RHE radiometers. The spectral range required was from 170 to 900 nm. The window size was based on radiometer sensitivity requirements including capability of on-orbit solar calibration.

  13. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

  14. NASA Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Flight Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Moore, R.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D. L.; Brown, A.; Beaton, B.; Schlager, H.

    2014-12-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of ~2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground-test venues.

  15. Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Tillman, J.; Conley, C. A.; Granger, L.; Segalat, L.; Higashitani, A.; Honda, S.; Honda, Y.; Kagawa, H.; Adachi, R.; Higashibata, A.; Fujimoto, N.; Kuriyama, K.; Ishioka, N.; Fukui, K.; Baillie, D.; Rose, A.; Gasset, G.; Eche, B.; Chaput, D.; Viso, M.

    2008-09-01

    Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. In addition, space provides a unique laboratory to study how life and physiologic functions adapt from the cellular level to that of the entire organism. Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetic model organism used to study physiology on Earth. Here we provide a description of the rationale, design, methods, and space culture validation of the ICE-FIRST payload, which engaged C. elegans researchers from four nations. Here we also show C. elegans growth and development proceeds essentially normally in a chemically defined liquid medium on board the International Space Station (10.9 day round trip). By setting flight constraints first and bringing together established C. elegans researchers second, we were able to use minimal stowage space to successfully return a total of 53 independent samples, each containing more than a hundred individual animals, to investigators within one year of experiment concept. We believe that in the future, bringing together individuals with knowledge of flight experiment operations, flight hardware, space biology, and genetic model organisms should yield similarly successful payloads.

  16. Flight Test Measurements From The Tu-144LL Structure/Cabin Noise Follow-On Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Rackl, Robert G.; Andrianov, Eduard V.

    2000-01-01

    This follow-on flight experiment on the TU-144LL Supersonic Flying Laboratory, conducted during the period September 1998 to April 1999, was a continuation of previous Structure/Cabin Noise Experiment 2.1. Data was obtained over a wide range of altitudes and Mach numbers. Measured were: turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations on the fuselage over its length; structural response on skin panels using accelerometers; and flow direction over three windows using 'flow cones'. The effect of steps in the flow was also measured using two window blank pairs; each pair bridged by a plate which created small sharp forward and aft facing steps. The effect of transducer flushness with the exterior surface was also measured during flight. Height test points were chosen to cover much of the TU-144's flight envelope, as well as to obtain as large a unit Reynolds number range as possible at various Mach numbers: takeoff, subsonic, transonic, and supersonic cruise conditions up to Mach 2. Data on engine runups and background noise were acquired on the ground. The data in the form of time histories of the acoustic signals, together with auxiliary data and basic MATLAB processing modules, are available on CD-R disks.

  17. Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST).

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, N J; Tillman, J; Conley, C A; Granger, L; Segalat, L; Higashitani, A; Honda, S; Honda, Y; Kagawa, H; Adachi, R; Higashibata, A; Fujimoto, N; Kuriyama, K; Ishioka, N; Fukui, K; Baillie, D; Rose, A; Gasset, G; Eche, B; Chaput, D; Viso, M

    2008-09-15

    Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. In addition, space provides a unique laboratory to study how life and physiologic functions adapt from the cellular level to that of the entire organism. Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetic model organism used to study physiology on Earth. Here we provide a description of the rationale, design, methods, and space culture validation of the ICE-FIRST payload, which engaged C. elegans researchers from four nations. Here we also show C. elegans growth and development proceeds essentially normally in a chemically defined liquid medium on board the International Space Station (10.9 day round trip). By setting flight constraints first and bringing together established C. elegans researchers second, we were able to use minimal stowage space to successfully return a total of 53 independent samples, each containing more than a hundred individual animals, to investigators within one year of experiment concept. We believe that in the future, bringing together individuals with knowledge of flight experiment operations, flight hardware, space biology, and genetic model organisms should yield similarly successful payloads.

  18. Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST)

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, N.J.; Tillman, J.; Conley, C.A.; Granger, L.; Segalat, L.; Higashitani, A.; Honda, S.; Honda, Y.; Kagawa, H.; Adachi, R.; Higashibata, A.; Fujimoto, N.; Kuriyama, K.; Ishioka, N.; Fukui, K.; Baillie, D.; Rose, A.; Gasset, G.; Eche, B.; Chaput, D.; Viso, M.

    2008-01-01

    Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. In addition, space provides a unique laboratory to study how life and physiologic functions adapt from the cellular level to that of the entire organism. Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetic model organism used to study physiology on Earth. Here we provide a description of the rationale, design, methods, and space culture validation of the ICE-FIRST payload, which engaged C. elegans researchers from four nations. Here we also show C. elegans growth and development proceeds essentially normally in a chemically defined liquid medium on board the International Space Station (10.9 day round trip). By setting flight constraints first and bringing together established C. elegans researchers second, we were able to use minimal stowage space to successfully return a total of 53 independent samples, each containing more than a hundred individual animals, to investigators within one year of experiment concept. We believe that in the future, bringing together individuals with knowledge of flight experiment operations, flight hardware, space biology, and genetic model organisms should yield similarly successful payloads. PMID:22146801

  19. Overview of the LaNCETS Flight Experiment and CFD Analysis. Supplemental Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Bui, Trong

    2008-01-01

    This presentation focuses on nearfield airborne pressure signatures from the Lift and Nozzle Change Effect on Tail Shocks (LaNCETS) flight test experiment. The primary motivation for nearfield probing in the supersonic regime is to measure the shock structure of aircraft in an ongoing effort to overcome the overland sonic boom barrier for commercial supersonic transportation. LaNCETS provides the opportunity to investigate lift distribution and engine plume effects. During Phase 1 flight testing an F-15B was used to probe the F-15 LaNCETS aircraft in order to validate CFD and pre-flight prediction tools. A total of 29 probings were taken at 40,000 ft. altitude at Machs 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6. LaNCETS Phase 1 flight data are presented as a detailed pressure signature superimposed over a picture of the LaNCETS aircraft. The attenuation of the Inlet-Canard shocks with distance as well as its forward propagation and the coalescence of the noseboom shock are illustrated. A detailed CFD study on a simplified LaNCETS aircraft jet nozzle was performed providing the ability to more accurately capture the shocks from the propulsion system and emphasizing how under- and over-expanding the nozzle affects the existence of shock trains inside the jet plume. With Phase 1 being a success preparations are being made to move forward to Phase 2. Phase 2 will fly similar flight conditions, but this time changing the aircraft's lift distribution by biasing the canard positions, and changing the plume shape by under- and over-expanding the nozzle. Nearfield probing will again be completed in the same manner as in Phase 1. An additional presentation focuses on LaNCETS CFD solution methodology. Discussions highlight grid preprocessing, grid shearing and stretching, flow solving and contour plots. Efforts are underway to better capture the flow features via grid modification and flow solution methodology, which will help to achieve better agreement with flight data. An included CD-ROM provides

  20. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  1. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  2. Integration and Test Flight Validation Plans for the Pulsed Plasma Thruster Experiment on EO- 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, Charles; Benson, Scott; Sanneman, Paul; Hoskins, Andy; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. The PPT is a small, self-contained pulsed electromagnetic propulsion system capable of delivering high specific impulse (900-1200 s), very small impulse bits (10-1000 uN-s) at low average power (less than 1 to 100 W). Teflon fuel is ablated and slightly ionized by means of a capacitative discharge. The discharge also generates electromagnetic fields that accelerate the plasma by means of the Lorentz Force. EO-1 has a single PPT that can produce thrust in either the positive or negative pitch direction. The flight validation has been designed to demonstrate of the ability of the PPT to provide precision pointing accuracy, response and stability, and confirmation of benign plume and EMI effects. This paper will document the success of the flight validation.

  3. NASA GL-10 Tilt-Wing VTOL UAS Flight Validation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; North, David D.; Agate, Mark A.; Johns, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    Greased Lightning (GL-10) is an aircraft configuration that combines the characteristics of a cruise efficient airplane with the ability to perform vertical takeoffs and landings (VTOL). This presentation will summarize the results of the flight test experiments. Two key technologies have been utilized in this aircraft design. Namely, distributed electric propulsion and closed loop control laws to be able to fly an inherently unstable aircraft. For many decades we as an aviation industry have been attempting to build a vehicle that can combine the speed and efficiency of an airplane with the vertical takeoff and landing of a rotorcraft. Overall it has been determined thru flight test that a design that leverages these new technologies can yield a useful VTOL cruise efficient aircraft.

  4. The time-of-flight TOFW detector of the HARP experiment: construction and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Barichello, G.; Bobisut, F.; Bonesini, M.; De Min, A.; Ferri, A. F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Laveder, M.; Menegolli, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Pepato, A.; Tonazzo, A.; Vascon, M.

    2004-10-01

    The construction and performance of a large area scintillator-based time-of-flight detector for the HARP experiment at CERN are reported. An intrinsic counter time resolution of ∼160 ps was achieved. The precision on the time calibration and monitoring of the detector was maintained at better than 100 ps by using dedicated cosmic rays runs, a fast laser-based system and calibrations with beam particles. The detector was operated on the T9 PS beamline during 2001 and 2002. A time-of-flight resolution of ∼200 ps was obtained, providing π/p discrimination at more than 3σ up to 4.0 GeV/c momentum.

  5. Analysis procedures and subjective flight results of a simulator validation and cue fidelity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Peter C.; Mckissick, Burnell T.

    1988-01-01

    A joint experiment to investigate simulator validation and cue fidelity was conducted by the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and NASA Langley Research Center. The primary objective was to validate the use of a closed-loop pilot-vehicle mathematical model as an analytical tool for optimizing the tradeoff between simulator fidelity requirements and simulator cost. The validation process includes comparing model predictions with simulation and flight test results to evaluate various hypotheses for differences in motion and visual cues and information transfer. A group of five pilots flew air-to-air tracking maneuvers in the Langley differential maneuvering simulator and visual motion simulator and in an F-14 aircraft at Ames-Dryden. The simulators used motion and visual cueing devices including a g-seat, a helmet loader, wide field-of-view horizon, and a motion base platform.

  6. Development of Experiment Kits for Processing Biological Samples In-Flight on SLS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaquez, R.; Savage, P. D.; Hinds, W. E.; Evans, J.; Dubrovin, L.

    1994-01-01

    The design of the hematology experiment kits for SLS-2 has resulted in a modular, flexible configuration which maximizes crew efficiency and minimizes error and confusion when dealing with over 1200 different components over the course of the mission. The kit layouts proved to be very easy to use and their packaging design provided for positive, secure containment of the many small components. The secondary Zero(Tm) box enclosure also provided an effective means for transport of the kits within the Spacelab and for grouping individual kits by flight day usage. The kits are readily adaptable to use on future flights by simply replacing the inner components as required and changing the labelling scheme to match new mission requirements.

  7. Previous experience in manned space flight: A survey of human factors lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience in manned space flight programs can be used to compile a data base of human factors lessons learned for the purpose of developing aids in the future design of inhabited spacecraft. The objectives are to gather information available from relevant sources, to develop a taxonomy of human factors data, and to produce a data base that can be used in the future for those people involved in the design of manned spacecraft operations. A study is currently underway at the Johnson Space Center with the objective of compiling, classifying, and summarizing relevant human factors data bearing on the lessons learned from previous manned space flights. The research reported defines sources of data, methods for collection, and proposes a classification for human factors data that may be a model for other human factors disciplines.

  8. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) flight characterization experiments performed using an F/A-18 (TN 853). AAC was designed and developed specifically for launch vehicles, and is currently part of the baseline autopilot design for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The scope covered here includes a brief overview of the algorithm (covered in more detail elsewhere), motivation and benefits of flight testing, top-level SLS flight test objectives, applicability of the F/A-18 as a platform for testing a launch vehicle control design, test cases designed to fully vet the AAC algorithm, flight test results, and conclusions regarding the functionality of AAC. The AAC algorithm developed at Marshall Space Flight Center is a forward loop gain multiplicative adaptive algorithm that modifies the total attitude control system gain in response to sensed model errors or undesirable parasitic mode resonances. The AAC algorithm provides the capability to improve or decrease performance by balancing attitude tracking with the mitigation of parasitic dynamics, such as control-structure interaction or servo-actuator limit cycles. In the case of the latter, if unmodeled or mismodeled parasitic dynamics are present that would otherwise result in a closed-loop instability or near instability, the adaptive controller decreases the total loop gain to reduce the interaction between these dynamics and the controller. This is in contrast to traditional adaptive control logic, which focuses on improving performance by increasing gain. The computationally simple AAC attitude control algorithm has stability properties that are reconcilable in the context of classical frequency-domain criteria (i.e., gain and phase margin). The algorithm assumes that the baseline attitude control design is well-tuned for a nominal trajectory and is designed to adapt only when necessary. Furthermore, the adaptation is attracted to the nominal design and adapts only on an as-needed basis

  9. A Post-Flight Comparison Between GPS Signal Generator and On-Orbit Testing Results from the STS-101 and STS-106 SOAR Shuttle Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James; Gomez, Susan; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The use of a GPS Signal Generator (GPSSG) prior to launch for verification of a GPS subsystem and GN&C system on a spacecraft is becoming a very common practice. The level of confidence in the verification created by running a receiver with a GPSSG can greatly impact both schedule and cost of spacecraft development. This paper addresses the comparison of the Space Shuttle STS-101 and STS-106 Space Integrated GPS/INS (SIGI) Orbital Attitude Readiness (SOAR) flight experiments on-orbit performance with the performance from the same receiver on a Global Simulation Systems (GSS) GPSSG. The SOAR flight experiment was designed to demonstrate on-orbit performance of the International Space Station Force-19 GPS receiver. This paper discusses the process involved in getting the post-flight Best Estimate of Trajectory and Best Estimate of Attitude into the GPSSG such that the Force-19 receiver will experience the same trajectory and environmental conditions as observed during the SOAR flight experiment. Results of the comparison conclude with recommendations of how better to construct and interpret results from receiver tests using a GSS GPSSG.

  10. Experimental Results from the Thermal Energy Storage-2 (TES-2) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage-2 (TES-2) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-72), in January 1996. TES-2 originally flew with TES-1 as part of the OAST-2 Hitchhiker payload on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in early 1994. The two experiments, TES-1 and TES-2 were identical except for the fluoride salts to be characterized. TES-1 provided data on lithium fluoride (LiF), TES-2 provided data on a fluoride eutectic (LiF/CaF2). Each experiment was a complex autonomous payload in a Get-Away-Special payload canister. TES-1 operated flawlessly for 22 hr. Results were reported in a paper entitled, Effect of Microgravity on Materials Undergoing Melting and Freezing-The TES Experiment, by David Namkoong et al. A software failure in TES-2 caused its shutdown after 4 sec of operation. TES-1 and 2 were the first experiments in a four experiment suite designed to provide data for understanding the long duration microgravity behavior of thermal energy storage salts that undergo repeated melting and freezing. Such data have never been obtained before and have direct application for the development of space-based solar dynamic (SD) power systems. These power systems will store energy in a thermal energy salt such as lithium fluoride or a eutectic of lithium fluoride/calcium difluoride. The stored energy is extracted during the shade portion of the orbit. This enables the solar dynamic power system to provide constant electrical power over the entire orbit. Analytical computer codes were developed for predicting performance of a space-based solar dynamic power system. Experimental verification of the analytical predictions were needed prior to using the analytical results for future space power design applications. The four TES flight experiments were to be used to obtain the needed experimental data. This paper will address the flight results from the first and second experiments, TES-1 and 2, in comparison to the predicted results from the Thermal

  11. Preliminary Flight Data From the Materials Exposure and Degradation experiment (MEDET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tighe, A. P.; van Eesbeek, M.; Duzellier, S.; Dinguirard, M.; Falguere, D.; Pons, C.; Inguimbert, V.; Durin, C.; Gabriel, S.; Goulty, D.; Roberts, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET) was recently launched to the ISS on Space Shuttle Flight IE, as part of the EuTEF payload on the external payload facility of ESA's Columbus module. The experiment will operate in-orbit for at least 1.5 years, and has the overall objectives of evaluating the effects of the complex low Earth orbit space environment on material properties, investigating material degradation due to contamination, characterising the local ISS environment and measuring the local micro-particle flux. This paper gives a brief overview of the experiment function and the material samples which are being exposed, before presenting some of the early flight data. In this phase of the mission, all of the instruments are operating successfully, and continuously acquiring data. The preliminary results mainly concern the environmental sensors, which are operating at relatively high acquisition rates (e.g. one reading every few seconds). It has been shown that the docking of the Space Shuttle to the ISS has a significant effect on the local pressure environment. The more complex degradation experiments are acquiring at much slower rates (e.g. one reading per day) and several more months of space exposure will be required before sufficient data is generated to reach conclusions about the behaviour of the materials. However, preliminary data is presented.

  12. A Helium GC/IMS for the Analysis of Extraterrestrial Volatiles in Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Humphry, Donald E.; Shao, Maxine; Takeuchi, Nori

    1995-01-01

    For exobiology experiments on board spacecraft or space probes, a wide range of chemical species often must be detected and identified. The limited amount of power and space available for flight instruments severely limits the number of instruments that can be flown on any given mission. It is important then, that these experiments utilize instrumentation with universal response, so that all species of interest can be analyzed. Instrumentation to fulfill the analytical requirements of exobiology experiments has been developed utilizing Gas Chromatography - Ion Mobility Spectrometry. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) combines columns developed specifically for the complex mixtures anticipated with highly sensitive Metastable Ionization Detectors (a type of Helium Ionization Detector). To satisfy the limitations placed on resources, the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) uses the same ultra high purity helium as the GC. This GC-MS provides the analytical capability to fulfill a wide range of exobiology flight experiment applications and has been included on a proposed Discovery Mission and proposals for both Lander and Orbiter of the European Space Agency's Rosetta Comet Mission. A data base of helium IMS spectra is now being built for these future applications.

  13. LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 EL-1994-00666 LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay and shows the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE) on the LDEF. Six (6) plates of passive components, provided by various experiment organizations and designated plate I thru plate VI, are shown mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. All six plates are aluminum and attach to the LDEF experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Plate I, located in the upper left corner, consist of a combination of solar cells with and without covers, solar cell modules and solar arrays assembled on the baseplate. Two of the four solar arrays are missing and one appears to be attached at only one corner. Other components appear to be secure. Plate II in the left center section, has twenty-seven (27) composite samples, carbon fiber and glass fiber, mounted on the baseplate. The composites appear to be intact with no physical damage. Plate III, in the lower left corner, consist mostly of metallized and thin polymeric films (Kapton, Mylar, TEFLON® , white Tedlar,etc.). The thin films without protective coatings sustained significant damage and most were destroyed. The metallized film apparently survived with minimum damage. Plate IV located in the upper right corner consist of metals and coatings mounted in an aluminum baseplate and covered with a thin aluminum coverplate that partially mask the specimen. Several of the coatings appear to have changed to a darker color and a light brown discoloration appears around the outer edges of the mounting plate and along the right edge of the coverplates. Plate V, in the right center section, contained thermal plastics and structural film configured into tensile and shear specimen. All

  14. Development of a Dynamically Scaled Generic Transport Model Testbed for Flight Research Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas; Langford, William; Belcastro, Christine; Foster, John; Shah, Gautam; Howland, Gregory; Kidd, Reggie

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the design and development of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) test-bed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The aircraft is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, remotely piloted, twin-turbine, swept wing, Generic Transport Model (GTM) which will be used to provide an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. The unique design challenges arising from the dimensional, weight, dynamic (inertial), and actuator scaling requirements necessitated by the research community are described along with the specific telemetry and control issues associated with a remotely piloted subscale research aircraft. Development of the necessary operational infrastructure, including operational and safety procedures, test site identification, and research pilots is also discussed. The GTM is a unique vehicle that provides significant research capacity due to its scaling, data gathering, and control characteristics. By combining data from this testbed with full-scale flight and accident data, wind tunnel data, and simulation results, NASA will advance and validate control upset prevention and recovery technologies for transport aircraft, thereby reducing vehicle loss-of-control accidents resulting from adverse and upset conditions.

  15. Assessment of ground effects on the propagation of aircraft noise: The T-38A flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, W. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate air to ground propagation of sound at gazing angles of incidence. A turbojet powered airplane was flown at altitudes ranging from 10 to 160 m over a 20-microphone array positioned over grass and concrete. The dependence of ground effects on frequency, incidence angle, and slant range was determined using two analysis methods. In one method, a microphone close to the flight path is compared to down range microphones. In the other method, comparisons are made between two microphones which were equidistant from the flight path but positioned over the two surfaces. In both methods, source directivity angle was the criterion by which portions of the microphone signals were compared. The ground effects were largest in the frequency range of 200 to 400 Hz and were found to be dependent on incidence angle and slant range. Ground effects measured for angles of incidence greater than 10 deg to 15 deg were near zero. Measured attenuation increased with increasing slant range for slant ranges less than 750 m. Theoretical predictions were found to be in good agreement with the major details of the measured results.

  16. Flight Experiment Investigation of General Aviation Self-Separation and Sequencing Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Ramiscal, Ermin R.; McNabb, Jennifer L.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2005-01-01

    A new flight operations concept called Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) was developed to increase capacity during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) at non-towered, non-radar airports by enabling concurrent operations of multiple aircraft. One aspect of this concept involves having pilots safely self-separate from other aircraft during approaches into these airports using appropriate SATS HVO procedures. A flight experiment was conducted to determine if instrument-rated general aviation (GA) pilots could self-separate and sequence their ownship aircraft, while following a simulated aircraft, into a non-towered, non-radar airport during simulated IMC. Six GA pilots' workload levels and abilities to perform self-separation and sequencing procedures while flying a global positioning system (GPS) instrument approach procedure were examined. The results showed that the evaluation pilots maintained at least the minimum specified separation between their ownship aircraft and simulated traffic and maintained their assigned landing sequence 100-percent of the time. Neither flight path deviations nor subjective workload assessments were negatively impacted by the additional tasks of self-separating and sequencing during these instrument approaches.

  17. Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

  18. 30-kW class Arcjet Advanced Technology Transition Demonstration (ATTD) flight experiment diagnostic package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriebel, M. M.; Stevens, N. J.

    1992-07-01

    TRW, Rocket Research Co and Defense Systems Inc are developing a space qualified 30-kW class arcjet flight unit as a part of the Arcjet ATTD program. During space operation the package will measure plume deposition and contamination, electromagnetic interference, thermal radiation, arcjet thruster performance, and plume heating in order to quantify arcjet operational interactions. The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) diagnostic package is described. The goals of ESEX are the demonstration of a high powered arcjet performance and the measurement of potential arcjet-spacecraft interactions which cannot be determined in ground facilities. Arcjet performance, plume characterization, thermal radiation flux and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) experiment as well as experiment operations with a preliminary operations plan are presented.

  19. Pre-Flight Characterization of Samples for the MISSE-7 Spacesuit Fabric Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; McCue, Terry R.; Clark, Gregory W.; Rogers, Kerry J.; Mengesu, Tsega

    2009-01-01

    A series of six sample spacesuit pressure garment assembly (PGA) fabric samples were prepared for the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE-7) flight experiment to test the effects of damage by lunar dust on the susceptibility of the fabrics to radiation damage. These included pristine Apollo-era fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) fabric, Apollo-era FEP fabric that had been abraded with JSC-1A lunar simulant, and a piece of Alan Bean s Apollo 12 PGA sectioned from near the left knee. Also included was a sample of pristine orthofabric, and orthofabric that had been abraded to two different levels with JSC-1A. The samples were characterized using optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Two sets of six samples were then loaded in space environment exposure hardware, one of which was stored as control samples. The other set was affixed to the MISSE-7 experiment package, and will be mounted on the International Space Station, and exposed to the wake-side low Earth orbit environment. It will be retrieved after an exposure of approximately 12 months, and returned for post flight analysis.

  20. SHEFEX II - Aerodynamic Re-Entry Controlled Sharp Edge Flight Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, J. M. A.; Turner, J.; Weihs, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the basic goals and architecture of the SHEFEX II mission is presented. Also launched by a two staged sounding rocket system SHEFEX II is a consequent next step in technology test and demonstration. Considering all experience and collected flight data obtained during the SHEFEX I Mission, the test vehicle has been re-designed and extended by an active control system, which allows active aerodynamic control during the re-entry phase. Thus, ceramic based aerodynamic control elements like rudders, ailerons and flaps, mechanical actuators and an automatic electronic control unit has been implemented. Special focus is taken on improved GNC Elements. In addition, some other experiments including an actively cooled thermal protection element, advanced sensor equipment, high temperature antenna inserts etc. are part of the SHEFEX II experimental payload. A final 2 stage configuration has been selected considering Brazilian solid rocket boosters derived from the S 40 family. During the experiment phase a maximum entry velocity of Mach around 10 is expected for 50 seconds. Considering these flight conditions, the heat loads are not representative for a RLV re-entry, however, it allows to investigate the principal behaviour of such a facetted ceramic TPS, a sharp leading edge at the canards and fins and all associated gas flow effects and their structural response.

  1. Droplet combustion experiment drop tower tests using models of the space flight apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B.; Brace, M. H.; Kropp, J. L.; Dryer, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) is an experiment that is being developed to ultimately operate in the shuttle environment (middeck or Spacelab). The current experiment implementation is for use in the 2.2 or 5 sec drop towers at NASA Lewis Research Center. Initial results were reported in the 1986 symposium of this meeting. Since then significant progress was made in drop tower instrumentation. The 2.2 sec drop tower apparatus, a conceptual level model, was improved to give more reproducible performance as well as operate over a wider range of test conditions. Some very low velocity deployments of ignited droplets were observed. An engineering model was built at TRW. This model will be used in the 5 sec drop tower operation to obtain science data. In addition, it was built using the flight design except for changes to accommodate the drop tower requirements. The mechanical and electrical assemblies have the same level of complexity as they will have in flight. The model was tested for functional operation and then delivered to NASA Lewis. The model was then integrated into the 5 sec drop tower. The model is currently undergoing initial operational tests prior to starting the science tests.

  2. Data acquisition schemes for continuous two-particle time-of-flight coincidence experiments.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Andras; Sztáray, Bálint; Baer, Tomas; Johnson, Melanie; Gerber, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Three data acquisition schemes for two-particle coincidence experiments with a continuous source are discussed. The single-start/single-stop technique, implemented with a time-to-pulse-height converter, results in a complicated spectrum and breaks down severely at high count rates. The single-start/multiple-stop setup, based on a time-to-digital converter and the first choice in today's similar coincidence experiments, performs significantly better at high count rates, but its performance is still hampered if the time-of-flight range is large, and the false coincidence background is variable if the event frequency and the collection efficiency of the starts are both high. A straightforward, multistart/multistop setup is proposed for coincidence experiments. By collecting all detector data, it ensures the highest signal-to-noise ratio, constant background, and fast data acquisition and can now be easily constructed with commercially available time-to-digital converters. Analytical and numerically evaluated formulas are derived to characterize the performance of each setup in a variety of environments. Computer simulated spectra are presented to illustrate the analytically predicted features of the various raw time-of-flight distributions obtained with each technique.

  3. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knauer, J. P.; et al

    2015-11-12

    For a long time, neutron time-of-flight diagnostics been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d+t→n+α (DT) and d+d→n+³He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, which is also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (Tion) and cold fuel areal density. We explain such novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent Tion and DSR.

  4. The Gravity-Probe-B relativity gyroscope experiment - Development of the prototype flight instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turneaure, J. P.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Parkinson, B. W.; Bardas, D.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity-Probe-B relativity gyroscope experiment (GP-B) will measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precession rates of gyroscopes in a 650 km high polar orbit about the earth. The goal is to measure these two effects, which are predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to 0.01 percent (geodetic) and 1 percent (frame-dragging). This paper presents the development progress for full-size prototype flight hardware including the gyroscopes, gyro readout and magnetic shielding system, and an integrated ground test instrument.

  5. Effects of space flight factors at the cellular level: results of the Cytos experiment.

    PubMed

    Planel, H; Tixador, R; Nefedov, Y; Gretchko, G; Richoilley, G

    1982-04-01

    Paramecium tetraurelia was cultivated aboard the Soviet orbital station Salyut 6. Each culture included one cell, bacterized culture medium, and two small glass tubes filled with a fixative. Cultures were kept at a low temperature before Soyouz-Salyut docking. Cultures were maintained at 25 degrees +/- 0.1 degree C in orbit and were fixed every 12 h. The space flight resulted in an increase in cell growth rate and in cell volume. Measurements of cell dry weight and total protein content favour a higher cell water content. Respective roles of cosmic rays and microgravity are discussed. Cytos results are compared to those of previous space experiments.

  6. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  7. Techniques used in the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bianca Trujillo; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Chiles, Harry R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses and evaluates the test measurement techniques used to determine the laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition location in the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE). The main objective of the VSTFE was to determine the effects of wing sweep on the laminar-to-turbulent transition location at conditions representative of transport aircraft. Four methods were used to determine the transition location: (1) a hot-film anemometer system; (2) two boundary-layer rakes; (3) surface pitot tubes; and (4) liquid crystals for flow visualization. Of the four methods, the hot-film anemometer system was the most reliable indicator of transition.

  8. Techniques used in the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo Anderson, Bianca; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Chiles, Harry R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses and evaluates the test measurement techniques used to determine the laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transition location in the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE). The main objective of the VSTFE was to determine the effects of wing sweep on the laminar-to-turbulent transition location at conditions representative of transport aircraft. Four methods were used to determine the transition location: (1) a hot-film anemometer system, (2) two boundary-layer rakes, (3) surface pitot tubes, and (4) liquid crystals for flow visualization. Of the four methods, the hot-film anemometer system was the most reliable indicator of transition.

  9. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knauer, J. P.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Munro, D. H.

    2015-11-12

    For a long time, neutron time-of-flight diagnostics been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d+t→n+α (DT) and d+d→n+³He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, which is also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (Tion) and cold fuel areal density. We explain such novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent Tion and DSR.

  10. LDEF (Flight), S1005 : Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe Experiment, Tray B10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), S1005 : Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe Experiment, Tray B10 EL-1994-00017 The Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe Experiment flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. No change in the color of the white paint dots on experiment tray clamp blocks is apparent. The Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe Experiment consist of three (3) transverse flat heat-pipe modules , a power system for the heaters, a data acquisition and storage system and an aluminum support structure placed in a twelve (12) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The surface of the experiment exposed to the space environment consist of the three heat pipe modules exterior surfaces, silver TEFLON®, and the thermal blankets covering the aluminum mounting hardware and openings between the hardware and the tray sidewalls. The raised surface at the top of each heat pipe module is the fluid reservoir. Five thermocouples, for monitoring the external surface temperature, are located on each module. The specular surface of the silver TEFLON® has become diffuse and appears white. Numerous impact craters, black specks, can be seen on the white surfaces of the modules. There appears to be a light tan discoloration on the surfaces of all three heat pipe modules. Two different types of discolorations can be seen at the top end of the center heat pipe; a dark brown color to the left of the thermocouple and what appears as two multi-color irregular shaped patterns to the right of the thermocouple. A square shaped light brown discoloration is seen near the left edge of the left thermal blanket, approximately half way between the tray bottom and center clamp blocks and also near the top of the thermal blanket between the left heat pipe module and the center heat pipe module.

  11. Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle guidance performance in the presence of density dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Steve M.; Ward, Donald T.

    1988-01-01

    The performance sensitivity of two aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicle concepts for atmospheric guidance of geosynchronous orbit return trajectories to atmospheric density variations is simulated. The resulting atmospheric exit states are normalized by values from a 1962 standard density profile simulation, for both the analytic predictor-corrector and energy controller algorithms. The longitudinal targeting capabilities of the guidance schemes show strong sensitivity to the location and the magnitude of the dispersions. Lateral guidance performance of the energy controller is more sensitive to the dispersion parameters; in general, this alternative is the most sensitive to density variations.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of generalized bent biconic bodies for aero-assisted, orbital-transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C. B.; Park, C.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed to generate the surface coordinates of body shapes suitable for aeroassisted, orbital-transfer vehicles (AOTVs) by extending bent biconic geometries. Lift, drag, and longitudinal moments were calculated for the bodies using Newtonian flow theory. These techniques were applied to symmetric and asymmetric aerobraking vehicles, and to an aeromaneuvering vehicle with high L/D. Results for aerobraking applications indicate that a 70 deg, fore half cone angle with a spherically blunted nose, rounded edges, and a slight asymmetry would be appropriate. Moreover, results show that an aeromaneuvering vehicle with L/D 2.0, and with sufficient stability, is feasible.

  13. A guidance law for the aeroassisted plane change maneuver in the presence of atmospheric uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishne, D.; Speyer, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A stochastic feedback control law for a space vehicle performing an aeroassisted plane-change maneuver is developed. The stochastic control law is designed to minimize the energy loss while taking into consideration the uncertainty in the atmospheric density. The solution is based on expansion of the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (or dynamic programming) about a zeroth-order known integrable solution. The resulting guidance law is expressed as a series expansion in the noise power spectral densities. A numerical example indicates the potential improvement of this method.

  14. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for in-flight experiments under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt

    Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peter-diedrich.hansen@tu-berlin.de Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The

  15. Meteorology Associated with Turbulence Encounters During NASA's Fall-2000 Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    Initial flight experiments have been conducted to investigate convectively induced turbulence and to test technologies for its airborne detection. Turbulence encountered during the experiments is described with sources of data measured from in situ sensors, groundbased and airborne Doppler radars, and aircraft video. Turbulence measurements computed from the in situ system were quantified in terms of RMS normal loads (sigma(sub Delta n)), where 0.20 g is less than or equal to sigma(sub Delta n) is less than or equal to 0.30 g is considered moderate and sigma(sub Delta n) is greater than 0.30 g is severe. During two flights, 18 significant turbulence encounters (sigma(sub Delta) is greater than or equal to 0.20 g) occurred in the vicinity of deep convection; 14 moderate and 4 severe. In all cases, the encounters with turbulence occurred along the periphery of cumulus convection. These events were associated with relatively low values of radar reflectivity, i.e. RRF is less than 35 dBz, with most levels being below 20 dBz. The four cases of severe turbulence occurred in precipitation and were centered at the interface between a cumulus updraft turret and a downwind downdraft. Horizontal gradients of vertical velocity at this interface were found to be strongest on the downwind side of the cumulus turrets. Furthermore, the greatest loads to the aircraft occurred while flying along, not orthogonal to, the ambient environmental wind vector. During the two flights, no significant turbulence was encountered in the clear air (visual meteorological conditions), not even in the immediate vicinity of the deep convection.

  16. Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) Ground Experiments and Concepts for Flight Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Trolinger, James D.; Lackey, Jeffrey D.; Milton, Martha E.; Waggoner, Jason; Pope, Regina D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design of an experimental test cell for ground-based testing to provide requirements for the Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) experiment. Ground-based testing of a hardware breadboard set-up is being conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. SHIVA objectives are to test and validate new solutions of the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid, including particle-particle interaction, wall effects, motion at higher Reynolds Number, and a motion and dissolution of a crystal moving in a fluid. These objectives will be achieved by recording a large number of holograms of particle motion in the International Space Station (ISS) glove box under controlled conditions, extracting the precise three- dimensional position of all the particles as a function of time, and examining the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles. This paper will describe the mechanistic approach to enabling the SHIVA experiment to be performed in a ISS glove box in microgravity. Because the particles are very small, surface tension becomes a major consideration in designing the mechanical method to meet the experiments objectives in microgravity, To keep a particle or particles in the center of the test cell long enough to perform and record the experiment and to preclude contribution to particle motion, requires avoiding any initial velocity in particle placement. A Particle Injection Mechanism (PIM) designed for microgravity has been devised and tested to enable SHIVA imaging. Also, a test cell capture mechanism, to secure the test cell during vibration on a specially designed shaker table for the SHIVA experiment will be described. Concepts for flight design are also presented.

  17. The E and B EXperiment: Implementation and Analysis of the 2009 Engineering Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Michael Bryce

    The E and B EXperiment (EBEX) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and emission from galactic dust at millimeter wavelengths from 150 to 410 GHz. The primary science objectives of EBEX are to: detect or constrain the primordial B-mode polarization of the CMB predicted by inflationary cosmology; measure the CMB B-mode signal induced by gravitational lensing; and characterize the polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust. EBEX will observe a 420 square degree patch of the sky at high galactic latitude with a telescope and camera that provide an 8 arcminute beam at three observing bands (150, 250, and 410 GHz) and a 6.2 degree diffraction limited field of view to two large-format bolometer array focal planes. Polarimetry is achieved via a continuously rotating half-wave plate (HWP), and the optical system is designed from the ground up for control of sidelobe response and polarization systematic errors. EBEX is intended to execute fly or more Antarctic long duration balloon campaigns. In June 2009 EBEX completed a North American engineering flight launched from NASA's Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility (CSBF) in Ft. Sumner, NM and operated in the stratosphere above 30 km altitude for ˜10 hours. During flight EBEX must be largely autonomous as it conducts pointed, scheduled observations; tunes and operates 1432 TES bolometers via 28 embedded Digital frequency-domain multiplexing (DfMux) computers; logs over 3 GiB/hour of science and housekeeping data to onboard redundant disk storage arrays; manages and dispatches jobs over a fault-tolerant onboard Ethernet network; and feeds a complex real-time data processing infrastructure on the ground via satellite and line-of-sight (LOS) downlinks. In this thesis we review the EBEX instrument, present the optical design and the computational architecture for in-flight control and data handling, and the quick-look software stack. Finally we describe

  18. Conceptual Design of Super-Orbital Earth Entry Flight Experiment using a Submarine-Launched Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jae-Jeong; Baek, Seung-Wook; Park, Chul

    2006-11-01

    A conceptual study is performed to propose that a super-orbital re-entry flight experiment be conducted using a Russian submarine-launched VOLNA launch system. The purpose of the experiment is to study the flow phenomena and the heatshield behavior in the planetary-Earth return entry. Because the three-stage launcher produces a re-entry velocity of only up to 7 km/s, a solid rocket booster must be used to accelerate the re-entry vehicle during its descent. An inviscid Newtonian analysis is made to estimate the aerodynamic coefficients. The weight of system is estimated using a method developed by NASA and it is iteratively coupled with a three-degree-of-freedom flight trajectory calculation. The result shows that, using a STAR 27 solid rocket engine, re-entry velocity of nearly 11 km/s can be attained for a body of nose radius of 0.39 m with a scientific payload of up to 15 kg.

  19. Flight Crew Responses to the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Roper, Roy D.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) was a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment conducted to explore the efficacy and acceptability of three IM operations: CAPTURE, CROSS, and MAINTAIN. Two weeks of data collection were conducted, with each week using twelve subject pilots and four subject controllers flying ten high-density arrival scenarios into the Denver International Airport. Overall, both the IM operations and procedures were rated very favorably by the flight crew in terms of acceptability, workload, and pilot head down time. However, several critical issues were identified requiring resolution prior to real-world implementation, including the high frequency of IM speed commands, IM speed commands requiring changes to aircraft configuration, and ambiguous IM cockpit displays that did not trigger the intended pilot reaction. The results from this experiment will be used to prepare for a flight test in 2017, and to support the development of an advanced IM concept of operations by the FAA (Federal Aviation Agency) and aviation industry.

  20. Stability and Control Estimation Flight Test Results for the SR-71 Aircraft With Externally Mounted Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Iliff, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique is used to obtain stability and control derivatives for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center SR-71A airplane and for configurations that include experiments externally mounted to the top of the fuselage. This research is being done as part of the envelope clearance for the new experiment configurations. Flight data are obtained at speeds ranging from Mach 0.4 to Mach 3.0, with an extensive amount of test points at approximately Mach 1.0. Pilot-input pitch and yaw-roll doublets are used to obtain the data. This report defines the parameter estimation technique used, presents stability and control derivative results, and compares the derivatives for the three configurations tested. The experimental configurations studied generally show acceptable stability, control, trim, and handling qualities throughout the Mach regimes tested. The reduction of directional stability for the experimental configurations is the most significant aerodynamic effect measured and identified as a design constraint for future experimental configurations. This report also shows the significant effects of aircraft flexibility on the stability and control derivatives.

  1. ESF-X: a low-cost modular experiment computer for space flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Steven; Zapetis, Joseph; Littlefield, Jim; Vining, Joanne

    2004-08-01

    The high cost associated with spaceflight research often compels experimenters to scale back their research goals significantly purely for budgetary reasons; among experiment systems, control and data collection electronics are a major contributor to total project cost. ESF-X was developed as an architecture demonstration in response to this need: it is a highly capable, radiation-protected experiment support computer, designed to be configurable on demand to each investigator's particular experiment needs, and operational in LEO for missions lasting up to several years (e.g., ISS EXPRESS) without scheduled service or maintenance. ESF-X can accommodate up to 255 data channels (I/O, A/D, D/A, etc.), allocated per customer request, with data rates up to 40kHz. Additionally, ESF-X can be programmed using the graphical block-diagram based programming languages Simulink and MATLAB. This represents a major cost saving opportunity for future investigators, who can now obtain a customized, space-qualified experiment controller at steeply reduced cost compared to 'new' design, and without the performance compromises associated with using preexisting 'generic' systems. This paper documents the functional benchtop prototype, which utilizes a combination of COTS and space-qualified components, along with unit-gravity-specific provisions appropriate to laboratory environment evaluation of the ESF-X design concept and its physical implementation.

  2. Guidance and control law for automatic landing flight experiment of reentry space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Yoshikazu; Ishikawa, Kazutoshi; Fujii, Kenji

    An automatic landing flight experiment with a sub-scale model is being prepared for a planned future reentry space vehicle by the National Aerospace Laboratory and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The subscale model is dropped from a helicopter at a 1500-m altitude, and, controlled by an on-board navigation, guidance, and control system, it automatically lands on a 1000-m runway. This paper discusses preliminary study results obtained from numerical simulation. The guidance and control law was designed using a multiple delay model and multiple design point approach. Control system robustness against uncertain and time varying dynamics is especially considered in this approach. The control performances are evaluated with appropriately defined quadratic indices of tracking error. Simple control structures are assumed and parameters are obtained with numerical optimization. The approach was successfully applied to the design, and feasibility of the experiment has been verified with numerical simulations.

  3. The role of man in flight experiment payload missions. Volume 1: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that a controversy exists concerning the required role of man, and his attendant skills and levels of skills, for Sortie Lab operations. As a result, a study was conducted to generate a taxonomy of candidate crew roles which would: (1) be applicable across all experiments, and (2) be usable for Sortie scientists and engineers in determination of level of skill as well as type of skill. Nine basic roles were identified in the study, and the tasks associated with each were developed from a functional description of a generalized in-flight experiment. The functional analysis comprised the baseline for establishment of crew roles, with roles being defined as combinations of tasks, associated skills, and knowledges. A role classification scheme was developed in which the functions and tasks identified were allocated to each of the nine role types. This classification scheme is presented together with the significant results of the study.

  4. In-flight star tracker SED 12 performances on-board the SIGMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouret, M.; Sebbag, I.; Vandermarcq, M. Q.; Krebs, J. P.; Le Goff, R.; Vilaire, D.; Tulet, M. M.

    The multimission SED 12 star tracker using a CCD matrix array has been designed by SODERN in cooperation with Matra-Marconi Space (F), respectively in charge of the optical head and software development for one and processing electronics and associated interfaces for the other. It has been selected for the French SIGMA experiment on board the Soviet GRANAT spacecraft which was launched on December 2, 1989. SIGMA is a French hard X-ray/medium energy gamma ray (30 keV-2 MeV) experiment aimed at imaging selected regions of the sky with a resolution of about one arc minute and has been developed and manufactured under the overall management of CNES (the French National Space Agency). The experiment package demands a pointing stability of a few arc-seconds over periods of several hours corresponding to the long exposure times required to build up images of the target gamma sources. As the GRANAT satellite is not able to maintain such high precision attitude stability, incorporated into the gamma telescope are two SED 12 sensors aligned together with the telescope. The development of this star tracker was started in 1985 under a CNES contract, the qualification was successfully performed in 1987 and the delivery of 2 flight models was completed in 1988. The expected life time of the experiment was 1.5 year and since the launch date the mission is still operating without any significant performance degradation of the star tracker. The purpose of this paper is, on the one hand to present the multimission tracker design trade-offs and the SED 12 device: description, main features, operating modes and performances, and on the other hand, to analyze the on ground and in-flight star tracker data. This analysis has been mainly led according to the following criteria: performance results in angular position and magnitude measurement, dark current evolution versus time and radiation dose, correlation between visual and instrumental magnitudes.

  5. Soviet experiments aimed at investigating the influence of space flight factors on the physiology of animals and man.

    PubMed

    Parin, V V; Gazenko, O G

    1963-01-01

    Results are given of biological experiments on space ship-satellites II, III, IV and V, and of scientific investigations made during the flights of Cosmonauts Gagarin and Titov aboard space ships Vostok I and Vostok II. Physiological reactions to the action of the flight stress-factors are not of a pathological character. In the post-flight period no alterations in health conditions of either cosmonauts or animals were observed. At the same time some peculiarities which were revealed while analyzing physiological reactions and a number of biological indices require further investigations. The most important tasks remaining are to study the influence of protracted weightlessness, of the biological action of space radiation, of the action of acceleration stresses after prolonged stay under zero-gravity conditions and also to analyze the influence on the organism of the whole combination of spaceflight factors, including emotional strain. In the Soviet Union, a great number of biological experiments have been conducted with a view to elucidating the action of space flight factors on living organisms and the design of systems necessary to ensure healthy activity during flight aboard rocket space vehicles. The first flight experiments with animals were conducted by means of geophysical rockets. The next step in this direction was made by the launching of Sputnik II in 1957 and by experiments on space ship-satellites in 1960-61. The main purpose of flight and laboratory investigations was to obtain the objective scientific criteria essential for ensuring the safety of manned space flight. PMID:12056420

  6. Science Requirements for a Space Flight Experiment Entitled Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to measure in low gravity the viscosity of xenon close to its critical point. The accuracy will be sufficient to eliminate uncertainties currently associated with the analysis of l-g experiments. The measurements will provide the first direct observation of the predicted power-law divergence of viscosity in a pure fluid. The measurements will also strengthen Zeno's test of mode coupling theory by greatly increasing the reliability of the extrapolation of viscosity to low reduced temperatures. Our scientific objectives are described in more detail in one of the attached reports. The low-gravity experiment will be the final stage of a program whose completed ground-based stages are: (1) theoretical studies by one of the principal investigators (MRM) and coworkers, (2) critical viscosity measurements of binary liquid mixtures, (3) critical viscosity measurements of pure fluids in l-g, and development of a suitable vibration-insensitive viscometer. Our technical approach is described in the draft Science Requirements Document. One of us (MRM) has reviewed opportunities for critical phenomena research in low gravity. Both of us were co-principal investigators in the Thermal Equilibration Experiment in the Critical Point Facility, flown on IML-1 in 1992. From this experience, and from the technical maturity of our ground-based work, we believe our critical point viscometer is ready for development as a flight experiment.

  7. Tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer for cluster--surface scattering experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.D.; Weis, P.; Braeuchle, G.; Rockenberger, J.

    1995-08-01

    A new tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described which is designed to study the mass-, velocity-, and angle-resolved scattering of cluster ions from solid surfaces. Clusters are produced in a supersonic jet laser desorption/vaporization source, ionized either directly in the formation step or by subsequent photoionization of neutrals, mass selected in a primary time-of-flight region, and decelerated to the impact energy (50--1000 eV) close to the target surface. Cluster--surface collisions take place in a field-free region in order to determine both velocity and angular distributions of the scattered clusters and fragments with an independently pulsed, rotatable secondary time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Several surface targets can be mounted in the UHV scattering chamber (10{sup {minus}10} Torr base pressure) on a five-axis manipulator which, together with the rotatable secondary TOF, allows for independent variation of incident and scattering angles. Target surfaces can be cleaned by direct current heating and sputtering with an argon-ion gun. Surface structure and composition are assessed by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger spectroscopy with a four grid reverse view LEED/Auger system. Surface collision experiments of fullerenes (C{sup +}{sub 60}, C{sup +}{sub 70}, C{sup +}{sub 76}, C{sup +}{sub 84}, ...) and metallofullerenes (La{at}C{sup +}{sub 82}) with highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) surfaces are described as examples for the performance of the instrument. Effects of surface contamination in the scattering of fullerenes from HOPG are described to demonstrate the need for thorough cleaning procedures in order to obtain reproducible results. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  9. Optimal aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change using collocation and nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yun. Y.; Nelson, R. L.; Young, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    The fuel optimal control problem arising in the non-planar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) with orbital plane change. The basic strategy here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the aeroassisted HEO to LEO transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the orbital transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into an elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and bank angle modulations to perform the desired orbital plane change and to satisfy heating constraints. Because of the energy loss during the turn, an impulse is required to initiate the third phase to boost the vehicle back to the desired LEO orbital altitude. The third impulse is then used to circularize the orbit at LEO. The problem is solved by a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the state and control variables and collocation to satisfy the differential equations. This technique converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem which is solved numerically. Solutions were obtained for cases with and without heat constraints and for cases of different orbital inclination changes. The method appears to be more powerful and robust than other optimization methods. In addition, the method can handle complex dynamical constraints.

  10. Passive exposure of Earth radiation budget experiment components LDEF experiment AO-147: Post-flight examinations and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The Passive Exposure of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Components (PEERBEC) experiment of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission was composed of sensors and components associated with the measurement of the earth radiation budget (ERB) from satellites. These components included the flight spare sensors from the ERB experiment which operated on Nimbus 6 and 7 satellites. The experiment components and materials as well as the pertinent background and ancillary information necessary for the understanding of the intended mission and the results are described. The extent and timing of the LDEF mission brought the exposure from solar minimum between cycles 21 and 22 through the solar maximum of cycle 22. The orbital decay, coupled with the events of solar maximum, caused the LDEF to be exposed to a broader range of space environmental effects than were anticipated. The mission spanned almost six years concurrent with the 12 year (to date) Nimbus 7 operations. Preliminary information is presented on the following: (1) the changes in transmittance experienced by the interference filters; (2) the results of retesting of the thermopile sensors, which appear to be relatively unaffected by the exposure; and (3) the results of the recalibration of the APEX cavity radiometer. The degradation and recovery of the filters of the Nimbus 7 ERB are also discussed relative to the apparent atomic oxygen cleaning which also applies to the LDEF.

  11. Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

  12. Optimal reentry guidance for aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.

    A three-state model is presented for analyzing the problem of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss for a hypersonic gliding vehicle. A further model order reduction to a single state model is examined using singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy of the vehicle. A separate boundary-layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary-layer problem, three guidance laws are obtained, each having a feedback form. The guidance laws are evaluated for a hypothetical vehicle, and compared to an optimal solution obtained using a multiple shooting algorithm.

  13. Optimal reentry guidance for aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.

    1988-01-01

    A three-state model is presented for analyzing the problem of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss for a hypersonic gliding vehicle. A further model order reduction to a single state model is examined using singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy of the vehicle. A separate boundary-layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary-layer problem, three guidance laws are obtained, each having a feedback form. The guidance laws are evaluated for a hypothetical vehicle, and compared to an optimal solution obtained using a multiple shooting algorithm.

  14. Aeroassisted-vehicle design studies for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.

    1987-01-01

    An aerobrake design that has matured over several years of development accounting for all of the important flow phenomenology which are characteristic of aerobraking vehicles is proposed as the mission baseline. Flight regimes and aerothermal environments for both Mars and Earth entry are calculated using advanced methods to account for real-gas, thermochemical, relaxation effects. The results are correlated with thermal-protection and structural requirements and mission performance capability. The importance of nonequilibrium radiative heating for Earth aerocapture is demonstrated. It is suggested that two aerobrakes of different sizes will produce optimal performance for the three phases of the mission (i.e., one aerobrake for Mars aerocapture and descent of the surface lander and another for Earth return).

  15. LDEF (Flight), S0069 : Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment, Tray A09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), S0069 : Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment, Tray A09 EL-1994-00660 The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the centers of the upper and left tray flanges have changed from their original white color to an off-white. Brown discolorations are visible on the experiment trays left and lower flanges. The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is completely self-contained in a twelve (12) inch deep LDEF experiment tray and consist of the power and data systems, a carousel, a pre-programmed controller and the sample materials. The experiment structure is fabricated from aluminum alloys and assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The photograph shows the carousel sample mounting plate rotated into the open position and a thermal shroud that covers the experiment structure and the power and data system components. The aluminum sample mounting plate accommodates twenty five (25) active samples mounted in calorimeters to thermally isolate the samples from the mounting plate, twenty-four (24) passive samples and three (3) radiometers. The thermal shroud, an aluminum alloy sheet material that is thermally isolated from the experiment structure, has an inside surface coated with black thermal paint and an outside (exposed) surface covered with two (2) mil silver TEFLON®, applied to the aluminum with Y966 acrylic adhesive. The most obvious change is the color of the 2 mil silver TEFLON® surface on the shroud. The original silver mirror-like surface now appears white with copious amounts of a brown discoloration in a distinct pattern. The upper and lower triangular sections of the shroud have many irregular shaped black discolorations and an areas where the adhesive appears to have failed. Changes in color have occurred in both the active and passive samples. Note the top four active coating samples located on

  16. Barrel time-of-flight detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, L.; Brunner, S. E.; Marton, J.; Orth, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2016-07-01

    The barrel time-of-flight detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR is foreseen as a Scintillator Tile (SciTil) Hodoscope based on several thousand small plastic scintillator tiles read-out with directly attached Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The main tasks of the system are an accurate determination of the time origin of particle tracks to avoid event mixing at high collision rates, relative time-of-flight measurements as well as particle identification in the low momentum regime. The main requirements are the use of a minimum material amount and a time resolution of σ < 100 ps. We have performed extensive optimization studies and prototype tests to prove the feasibility of the SciTil design and finalize the R&D phase. In a 2.7 GeV/c proton beam at Forschungszentrum Jülich a time resolution of about 80 ps has been achieved using SiPMs from KETEK and Hamamatsu with an active area of 3 × 3mm2. Employing the Digital Photon Counter from Philips a time resolution of about 30 ps has been reached.

  17. Flight dynamics facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean topography experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center Dynamics Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the Dynamics Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.

  18. Local Flow Conditions for Propulsion Experiments on the NASA F-15B Propulsion Flight Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Corda, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Local flow conditions were measured underneath the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-15B airplane to support development of future experiments on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF). The local Mach number and flow angles were measured using a conventional air data boom on a cone-cylinder mounted under the PFTF and compared with the airplane air data nose boom measurements. At subsonic flight speeds, the airplane and PFTF Mach numbers were approximately equal. Transonic Mach number values were up to 0.1 greater at the PFTF than the airplane, which is a counterintuitive result. The PFTF local supersonic Mach numbers were as much as 0.46 less than the airplane values. The maximum local Mach number at the PFTF was approximately 1.6 at an airplane Mach number near 2.0. The PFTF local angle of attack was negative at all Mach numbers, ranging from -3 to -8 degrees. When the airplane angle of sideslip was zero, the PFTF local value was zero between Mach 0.8 and Mach 1.1, -2 degrees between Mach 1.1 and Mach 1.5, and increased from zero to 1 degree from Mach 1.5 to Mach 2.0. Airplane inlet shock waves crossed the aerodynamic interface plane between Mach 1.85 and Mach 1.90.

  19. First Flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Ellison, S.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Price, B.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Mock, L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATILT instrument is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range -10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC was launched as a long duration test balloon flight on 12/28/00 local time from McMurdo, Antarctica. The operations preceding and during launch went very smoothly. During the first -20 hr while the instrument remained within line of sight (LOS), a full system check out was conducted, the experiment was operated in several test configurations, and all major tuning was completed. Preliminary analysis of the science data indicates that the overall detector system is functioning as expected. With our fully functioning analysis software we were able to monitor the data in nearly real time. Each event was reconstructed event-by-event to confirm the detector performance. The shower profiles indicate that the shower maximum location is deeper in the calorimeter for higher energy events, as expected. The energy spectra of protons, Helium nuclei, and "all particles" appear to follow power laws. Both the Si matrix and top scintillator layer of the charge module show clear charge separation for p and He. As the statistics increase, heavy nuclei charge separation will be evaluated. We will present preliminary results of the LOS data, as well as other data that will be available from the flight-data hard disk,

  20. A Practical, Affordable Cryogenic Propellant Depot Based on ULA's Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; O'Neil, Gary; Pitchford, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Mankind is embarking on the next step in the journey of human exploration. We are returning to the moon and eventually moving to Mars and beyond. The current Exploration architecture seeks a balance between the need for a robust infrastructure on the lunar surface, and the performance limitations of Ares I and V. The ability to refuel or top-off propellant tanks from orbital propellant depots offers NASA the opportunity to cost effectively and reliably satisfy these opposing requirements. The ability to cache large orbital quantities of propellant is also an enabling capability for missions to Mars and beyond. This paper describes an option for a propellant depot that enables orbital refueling supporting Exploration, national security, science and other space endeavors. This proposed concept is launched using a single EELV medium class rocket and thus does not require any orbital assembly. The propellant depot provides cryogenic propellant storage that utilizes flight proven technologies augmented with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management, flight experience, and key technologies are also discussed. Options for refueling the propellant depot along with an overview of Exploration architecture impacts are also presented.

  1. The Role of Flight Experiments in the Development of Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of cryogenic fluid management technology development and infusion into both the Saturn and Centaur vehicles. Ground testing and analysis proved inadequate to demonstrate full scale performance. As a consequence flight demonstration with a full scale vehicle was required by both the Saturn and Centaur programs to build confidence that problems were addressed. However; the flight vehicles were highly limited on flight instrumentation and the flight demonstration locked-in the design without challenging the function of design elements. Projects reviewed include: the Aerobee Sounding Rocket Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) tests which served as a valuable stepping stone to flight demonstration and built confidence in the ability to handle hydrogen in low gravity; the Saturn IVB Fluid Management Qualification flight test; the Atlas Centaur demonstration flights to develop two burn capability; and finally the Titan Centaur two post mission flight tests.

  2. A Survey of Flight Crew Experience with FANS-1 ATC Datalink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy; Moses, John; Polson, Peter,; Romahn, Stephen; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A survey was used to collect data from Boeing 747-400 pilots who fly with three international carriers about their operational experience using FANS-1 CPDLC (controller-pilot datalink communication) for oceanic communication with air traffic control (ATC). The survey provides data characterizing the operators' experiences performing all routine datalink communication tasks, with the goal of determining how well the FANS-1 CPDLC system supports task performance, the problems flight crews experience when using the system, and the possible operational consequences of those problems. Survey questions were developed from an analysis of activities performed by pilots when using FANS-1 CPDLC. Seven routine tasks were identified: (1) preflight initialization; (2) ATC facility logon; (3) monitoring ATC facility handoffs; (4) monitoring integrity of FANS- 1 CPDLC connection; (5) responding to ATC communications; (6) sending ATC requests; and (7) sending ATC position reports. A decomposition of each task described its information requirements, task timing requirements, user interface actions, company procedures and documentation, and the available cues and feedback provided by the interface. This analysis was used to determine where the system might provide poor support for task performance, and survey questions were developed to determine whether operator experience reflected problems in these areas.

  3. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  4. Summary of Results from the Risk Management Program for the Mars Microrover Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Matijevic, Jacob R.

    2000-01-01

    On 4 July 1997, the Mars Pathfinder landed on the surface of Mars carrying the first planetary rover, known as the Sojourner. Formally known as the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX), the Sojourner was a low cost, high-risk technology demonstration, in which new risk management techniques were tried. This paper summarizes the activities and results of the effort to conduct a low-cost, yet meaningful risk management program for the MFEX. The specific activities focused on cost, performance, schedule, and operations risks. Just as the systems engineering process was iterative and produced successive refinements of requirements, designs, etc., so was the risk management process. Qualitative risk assessments were performed first to gain some insights for refining the microrover design and operations concept. These then evolved into more quantitative analyses. Risk management lessons from the manager's perspective is presented for other low-cost, high-risk space missions.

  5. A prototype heat pipe heat exchanger for the capillary pumped loop flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Yun, Seokgeun; Kroliczek, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    A Capillary Pumped Two-Phase Heat Transport Loop (CAPL) Flight Experiment, currently planned for 1993, will provide microgravity verification of the prototype capillary pumped loop (CPL) thermal control system for EOS. CAPL employs a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) to couple the condenser section of the CPL to the radiator assembly. A prototype HPHX consisting of a heat exchanger (HX), a header heat pipe (HHP), a spreader heat pipe (SHP), and a flow regulator has been designed and tested. The HX transmits heat from the CPL condenser to the HHP, while the HHP and SHP transport heat to the radiator assembly. The flow regulator controls flow distribution among multiple parallel HPHX's. Test results indicated that the prototype HPHX could transport up to 800 watts with an overall heat transfer coefficient of more than 6000 watts/sq m-deg C. Flow regulation among parallel HPHX's was also demonstrated.

  6. Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

  7. Preliminary results from the third flight of the Millimeter Anisotropy Experiment (MAX).

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, M; Alsop, D; Clapp, A; Cottingham, D; Fischer, M; Gundersen, J; Holmes, W; Lange, A; Lubin, P; Meinhold, P; Richards, P; Smoot, G

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results from the June 1991 flight of MAX are presented. Simultaneous observations were made in bands centered at 6, 9, and 12 cm-1 with a bolometric receiver operating at 300 mK. The experimental sensitivities are the highest reported at angular scales of 0.3 degrees to 1.0 degrees. Interstellar dust is observed to have an emissivity [symbol, see text] nu 1.4+/-0.3 and to correlate with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 100- map. After removal of emission from interstellar dust, 1.3 hr of integration on a 6 degrees scan yields an upper limit of temperature difference Delta T/T < 2.6 x 10(-5) at a Gaussian autocorrelation function centered at 0.5 degrees. The experiment and data analysis are described. PMID:11607384

  8. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  9. Ballistic range experiments on the superboom generated at increasing flight Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanai, M.; Toong, T.-Y.; Pierce, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    Ballistic range experiments for the study of the propagation of converging shocks are described and the similarity between the observed phenomenon and that expected for superbooms created by accelerating supersonic aircraft is discussed. For weak shocks (shock Mach numbers of about 1.03), a structure resembling that of a folded shock predicted by geometrical acoustics theory is observed while for stronger shocks, a concave front with enhanced overpressure is recorded. Other results are in general accord with the basic concepts of shock propagation and in conjunction with some theoretical scaling laws indicate that the peak magnification of sonic booms due to aircraft flight acceleration in the real atmosphere should be in the range of 6 to 13.

  10. Preliminary Results from the Flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the OAST-2 mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  11. Enhanced data reduction of the velocity data on CETA flight experiment. [Crew and Equipment Translation Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  12. Boiling in variable gravity under the action of an electric field: results of parabolic flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, P.; Raj, R.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Results from the variable gravity pool boiling experiments performed during the 52nd ESA parabolic flight campaign are reported in this paper. During a typical parabola, the gravity acceleration changes from 1.8gE (high gravity) to ~0gE (low gravity) and finally back to 1.8gE. The two high gravity periods and the microgravity period are each roughly maintained for 20 seconds while the transition from high gravity to low gravity and vice versa occurs over a period of 3-5 seconds. Use of the high feedback frequency microheater array allowed quasi-steady boiling data over the continuous range of gravity levels (0gE-1.8gE). The experimental apparatus consisted of a boiling chamber with a 7×7 mm2 microheater array in a 10×10 configuration. Each heater in the array was individually controlled to maintain a constant temperature. The array could be operated in a full configuration or a selectively powered reduced set of 3×3 heaters. Experiments were performed with FC-72 as the test fluid, the pressure was maintained at a constant value between 1 and 1.13 atm and the subcooling ranged from 27 to 11 K. An external electric field was imposed over the boiling surface by means of a grid consisting of 4 rods, laid parallel to the surface; voltages up to 10 kV were applied. The electric field was effective in reducing the size of the detaching bubbles, and increasing the heat transfer compared to the values in low-g, although its effectiveness decayed as the heat flux/superheat increased. The current results compared well with previous results obtained in the ARIEL apparatus that was operated in orbital flight.

  13. Laser measurements of distances from the ORELA neutron target to experiment stations along flight paths 1 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.C.; Larson, N.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Perey, F.G.; Pierce, D.E.; Seals, R.H.

    1985-03-01

    Flight-path lengths have been measured by laser techniques for the 200-, 80-, and 18-m stations along flight path 1, and for the 5-, 20-, 40-, and 150-m stations along flight path 6 at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). In each case the distance evaluated from the measurements is the slope distance from the center of the neutron-producing target to a position along the beam path, directly above a suitable benchmark at the experiment station. A total of 25 laser measurements were performed between the various stations. These data, along with appropriate uncertainties, were combined using Bayes' method. From this analysis we obtained the desired flight-path lengths, which typically have uncertainties less than 1.5 mm. The measurment technique, uncertainties, analysis method, and results are documented in detail in this report.

  14. Evaluation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) shortwave channel's stability using in-flight calibration sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A.; Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers were designed to make absolute measurements of the incoming solar, earth-reflected solar, and earth-emitted fluxes for investigations of the earth's climate system. Thermistor bolometers were the sensors used for the ERBE scanning radiometric package. Each thermistor bolometer package consisted of three narrow field of view broadband radiometric channels measuring shortwave, longwave, and total (0.2 micron to 50 microns) radiation. The in-flight calibration facilities include Mirror Attenuator Mosaics, shortwave internal calibration source, and internal blackbody sources to monitor the long-term responsivity of the radiometers. This paper describes the in-flight calibration facilities, the calibration data reduction techniques, and the results from the in-flight shortwave channel calibrations. The results indicate that the ERBE shortwave detectors were stable to within +/- 1 percent for up to five years of flight operation.

  15. Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C F; Dreschel, T W; Brown, C S; Wheeler, R M

    1996-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the space flight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed-holder must provide water and air to the seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed.

  16. Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. F.; Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the space flight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed-holder must provide water and air to be seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed.

  17. Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C F; Dreschel, T W; Brown, C S; Wheeler, R M

    1996-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the space flight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed-holder must provide water and air to the seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed. PMID:11538804

  18. Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. F.; Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the space flight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed-holder must provide water and air to the seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed.

  19. Capsule Aerothermodynamics. CFD Prediction Methodology; Database for CFD Validation; Capsule Flight Programs: AFE and Apollo Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, George S.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Features of chemically reacting separated hypersonic flows are identified and issues concerning their analysis and simulation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on flows of high temperature dissociating and ionizing air and current methods for studying and characterizing these flows, including separation, are reviewed. The aeroassist orbital transfer vehicle and its flight trajectory are used for illustration. Thermochemical nonequilibrium phenomena are emphasized and extension of continuum analysis to the high altitude slip-flow regime is considered.

  20. The SERTS-97 Rocket Experiment on Study Activity on the Sun: Flight 36.167-GS on 1997 November 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Marvin; Condor, Charles E.; Davila, Joseph M.; Haas, J. Patrick; Jordan, Stuart D.; Linard, David L.; Miko, Joseph J.; Nash, I. Carol; Novello, Joseph; Payne, Leslie J.; Plummer, Thomas B.; Thomas, Roger J.; White, Larry A.; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Thompson, William T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes mainly the 1997 version of the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS-97), a scientific experiment that operated on NASA's suborbital rocket flight 36.167-GS. Its function was to study activity on the Sun and to provide a cross calibration for the CDS instrument on the SOHO satellite. The experiment was designed, built, and tested by the Solar Physics Branch of the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Other essential sections of the rocket were built under the management of the Sounding Rockets Program Office. These sections include the electronics, timers, IGN despin, the SPARCS pointing controls, the S-19 flight course correction section, the rocket motors, the telemetry, ORSA, and OGIVE.