Science.gov

Sample records for aerobic bacterial strains

  1. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  2. Flexible bacterial strains that oxidize arsenite in anoxic or aerobic conditions and utilize hydrogen or acetate as alternative electron donors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Freire, Lucía; Sun, Wenjie; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2012-02-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic compound widely distributed in the groundwater around the world. The fate of arsenic in groundwater depends on the activity of microorganisms either by oxidizing arsenite (As(III)), or by reducing arsenate (As(V)). Because of the higher toxicity and mobility of As(III) compared to As(V), microbial-catalyzed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) can lower the environmental impact of arsenic. Although aerobic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria are well known, anoxic oxidation of As(III) with nitrate as electron acceptor has also been shown to occur. In this study, three As(III)-oxidizing bacterial strains, Azoarcus sp. strain EC1-pb1, Azoarcus sp. strain EC3-pb1 and Diaphorobacter sp. strain MC-pb1, have been characterized. Each strain was tested for its ability to oxidize As(III) with four different electron acceptors, nitrate, nitrite, chlorate and oxygen. Complete As(III) oxidation was achieved with both nitrate and oxygen, demonstrating the novel ability of these bacterial strains to oxidize As(III) in either anoxic or aerobic conditions. Nitrate was only reduced to nitrite. Different electron donors were used to study their suitability in supporting nitrate reduction. Hydrogen and acetate were readily utilized by all the cultures. The flexibility of these As(III)-oxidizing bacteria to use oxygen and nitrate to oxidize As(III) as well as organic and inorganic substrates as alternative electron donors explains their presence in non-arsenic-contaminated environments. The findings suggest that at least some As(III)-oxidizing bacteria are flexible with respect to electron-acceptors and electron-donors and that they are potentially widespread in low arsenic concentration environments.

  3. Characterisation and optimisation of three potential aerobic bacterial strains for kraft lignin degradation from pulp paper waste.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R; Raj, A; Purohit, H J; Kapley, A

    2007-03-01

    Eight aerobic bacterial strains were isolated from pulp paper mill effluent sludge. Out of eight through nutrient enrichment technique three potential aerobic bacterial strains ITRC S(6), ITRC S(7) and ITRC S(8) were found capable to effectively degrade the kraft lignin (KL), a major byproduct of the chemical pulping process and main contributor to the colour and toxicity of effluent. Further, these potential strains (ITRC S(6), ITRC S(7) and ITRC S(8)) were biochemically characterised as Gram variable small rod, Gram negative rod and Gram positive rod respectively. Subsequently, 16S rRNA sequencing showed 95% base sequence homology and it was identified as Paenibacillus sp. (AY952466), Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus (AY856831), Bacillus sp. (AY952465) for ITRC S(6), IITRC S(7) and ITRC S(8), respectively. In batch decolourization experiments Bacillus sp. ITRC S(8) reduced the colour of lignin amended mineral salt medium, pH 7.6 by 65% after 6th d, at 30 degrees C, A. aneurinilyticus ITRC S(7) by 56% and Paenibacillus ITRC S(6) 43%. Under these conditions the three strains degraded the KL by 37%, 33% and 30%, respectively while the mixed culture of these three bacteria reduced colour by 69%, lignin by 40% and total substrate by 50% under same conditions. Biodegradation of the KL was not affected by low (<0.2 mg l(-1)) dissolved oxygen content; thus oxygen inhibition is more likely to be a metabolism-dependent event. Initially with 48 h incubation the decolourization was slow with decreased pH. Further incubation there was rapid decolourization with slight increase in pH at 6d compared with initial pH by increasing culture optical density. The lignin analysis from medium with HPLC indicated complete degradation rather than biotransformation with complete loss of absorbance peak at 280 nm.

  4. Anaerobic and aerobic degradation of cyanophycin by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1 and role of three other coisolates in a mixed bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    Four bacterial strains were isolated from a cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP)-degrading anaerobic consortium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and assigned to species of the genera Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Paenibacillus. The consortium member responsible for CGP degradation was assigned as Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1. The growth of and CGP degradation by strain DIP1 under anaerobic conditions were enhanced but not dependent on the presence of nitrate as an electron acceptor. CGP was hydrolyzed to its constituting beta-Asp-Arg dipeptides, which were then completely utilized within 25 and 4 days under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The end products of CGP degradation by strain DIP1 were alanine, succinate, and ornithine as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The facultative anaerobic Enterococcus casseliflavus strain ELS3 and the strictly anaerobic Clostridium sulfidogenes strain SGB2 were coisolates and utilized the beta-linked isodipeptides from the common pool available to the mixed consortium, while the fourth isolate, Paenibacillus odorifer strain PNF4, did not play a direct role in the biodegradation of CGP. Several syntrophic interactions affecting CGP degradation, such as substrate utilization, the reduction of electron acceptors, and aeration, were elucidated. This study demonstrates the first investigation of CGP degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions by one bacterial strain, with regard to the physiological role of other bacteria in a mixed consortium.

  5. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  6. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5).

  7. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to a group IIk-2 strain.

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, V K; Rajashekaraiah, K R; Metzger, W I; Rice, T W; Kallick, C A

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by a group IIk-2 strain. No other organism was isolated from the peritoneal fluid cultured aerobically and anaerobically. PMID:7381015

  8. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH.

  9. Pattern of elemental release during the granite dissolution can be changed by aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Damma Glacier (central Alps) deglaciated granite sand.

    PubMed

    Lapanje, Aleš; Wimmersberger, Celine; Furrer, Gerhard; Brunner, Ivano; Frey, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Colonisation and weathering of freshly deglaciated granite are key processes in initial soil formation and development. We have obtained 438 isolates from granite sand covering glacial toe, 284 isolates at 22°C and 154 at 4°C incubation temperatures, respectively, to obtain cultures for the investigation of their weathering capabilities under laboratory conditions. The isolation of bacteria from granite sand was performed on rich-, intermediate- and low-nutrient-content solid media. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. According to the genera-associated weathering capabilities described in the literature and according to their abundance in our culture collection, we selected eight strains to analyse their effects on the weathering dynamics of granite sand during the batch culture experiment. Analysis of culturable bacteria showed higher species richness among isolates from 22°C than from 4°C incubations. In the R2A and 1/100 Ravan media, we observed the highest species richness of isolates obtained at 22°C and 4°C incubation temperatures, respectively. The obtained 16S rRNA sequences revealed the presence of alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The most numerous group of isolates was distantly related to Collimonas representatives, and according to the sequences of the 16S rRNA genes, they can form a new genus. Isolates from this group had the capability of causing increased dissolution rates for Fe, W, Ni and Rb. In general, at each sampling during the 30-day experiment, every strain showed a unique weathering profile resulting from differential rates of the dissolution and the precipitation of different minerals in the batch culture. Consequently, the presence of different strains, their growth stage and changes in proportions of strains in the bacterial community can affect further soil development and the successive colonisation by plants.

  10. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  11. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  12. Communal microaerophilic-aerobic biodegradation of Amaranth by novel NAR-2 bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Chan, Giek Far; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul; Chua, Lee Suan; Ab llah, Norzarini; Nasiri, Rozita; Ikubar, Mohamed Roslan Mohamad

    2012-02-01

    A novel bacterial consortium, NAR-2 which consists of Citrobacter freundii A1, Enterococcus casseliflavus C1 and Enterobacter cloacae L17 was investigated for biodegradation of Amaranth azo dye under sequential microaerophilic-aerobic condition. The NAR-2 bacterial consortium with E. casseliflavus C1 as the dominant strain enhanced the decolorization process resulting in reduction of Amaranth in 30 min. Further aerobic biodegradation, which was dominated by C. freundii A1 and E. cloacae L17, allowed biotransformation of azo reduction intermediates and mineralization via metabolic pathways including benzoyl-CoA, protocatechuate, salicylate, gentisate, catechol and cinnamic acid. The presence of autoxidation products which could be metabolized to 2-oxopentenoate was elucidated. The biodegradation mechanism of Amaranth by NAR-2 bacterial consortium was predicted to follow the steps of azo reduction, deamination, desulfonation and aromatic ring cleavage. This is for the first time the comprehensive microaerophilic-aerobic biotransformation pathways of Amaranth dye intermediates by bacterial consortium are being proposed.

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  14. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API(®) strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder.

  15. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API® strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  16. Characteristics of a Novel Aerobic Denitrifying Bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae Strain HNR.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Tian, Meng

    2016-03-01

    A novel aerobic denitrifier strain HNR, isolated from activated sludge, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae by16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Glucose was considered as the most favorable C-source for strain HNR. The logistic equation well described the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.283 h(-1) with an initial NO3 (-)-N concentration of 110 mg/L. Almost all NO3 (-)-N was removed aerobically within 30 h with an average removal rate of 4.58 mg N L(-1) h(-1). Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that proximately 70.8 % of NO3 (-)-N was removed as gas products and only 20.7 % was transformed into biomass. GC-MS result indicates that N2 was the end product of aerobic denitrification. The enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which are related to the process of aerobic denitrification, were 0.0688 and 0.0054 U/mg protein, respectively. Thus, the aerobic denitrification of reducing NO3 (-) to N2 by strain HNR was demonstrated. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were C/N ratio 13, pH value 8, shaking speed 127 rpm and temperature 30 °C. These findings show that E. cloacae strain HNR has a potential application on wastewater treatment to achieve nitrate removal under aerobic conditions.

  17. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  18. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Robrock, Kristin R; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohent, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of the related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di-BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta,- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation.

  19. Comparative study of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial flora of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, B; Garges, S; Conrad, B; Harding, E E; Colwell, R R; Simidu, U; Taga, N

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of the bacterial flora of the water of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay was undertaken to assess similarities and differences between the autochthonous flora of the two geographical sites and to test the hypothesis that, given similarities in environmental parameters, similar bacterial populations will be found, despite extreme geographic distance between locations. A total of 195 aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay water were examined for 115 biochemical, cultural, morphological, nutritional, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by the methods of numerical taxonomy. From sorted similarity matrices, 77% of the isolates could be grouped into 30 phena and presumptively identified as Acinetobacter-Moraxella, Caulobacter, coryneforms, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. Vibrio and Acinetobacter species were found to be common in the estuarine waters of Chesapeake Bay, whereas Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Caulobacter predominated in Tokyo Bay waters, at the sites sampled in the study. PMID:453838

  20. A quasi-universal medium to break the aerobic/anaerobic bacterial culture dichotomy in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Dione, N; Khelaifia, S; La Scola, B; Lagier, J C; Raoult, D

    2016-01-01

    In the mid-19th century, the dichotomy between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was introduced. Nevertheless, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacterial species such as Ruminococcus gnavus and Fusobacterium necrophorum, in a culture medium containing antioxidants, was recently demonstrated. We tested aerobically the culture of 623 bacterial strains from 276 bacterial species including 82 strictly anaerobic, 154 facultative anaerobic, 31 aerobic and nine microaerophilic bacterial species as well as ten fungi. The basic culture medium was based on Schaedler agar supplemented with 1 g/L ascorbic acid and 0.1 g/L glutathione (R-medium). We successively optimized this media, adding 0.4 g/L uric acid, using separate autoclaving of the component, or adding haemin 0.1 g/L or α-ketoglutarate 2 g/L. In the basic medium, 237 bacterial species and ten fungal species grew but with no growth of 36 bacterial species, including 22 strict anaerobes. Adding uric acid allowed the growth of 14 further species including eight strict anaerobes, while separate autoclaving allowed the growth of all tested bacterial strains. To extend its potential use for fastidious bacteria, we added haemin for Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Eikenella corrodens and α-ketoglutarate for Legionella pneumophila. This medium allowed the growth of all tested strains with the exception of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Testing primoculture and more fastidious species will constitute the main work to be done, but R-medium coupled with a rapid identification method (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) will facilitate the anaerobic culture in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  1. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  2. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  3. Impact of adding Saccharomyces strains on fermentation, aerobic stability, nutritive value, and select lactobacilli populations in corn silage.

    PubMed

    Duniere, L; Jin, L; Smiley, B; Qi, M; Rutherford, W; Wang, Y; McAllister, T

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial inoculants can improve the conservation and nutritional quality of silages. Inclusion of the yeast Saccharomyces in the diet of dairy cattle has also been reported to be beneficial. The present study assessed the ability of silage to be used as a means of delivering Saccharomyces strains to ruminants. Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 1 and 3)and 1 strain of Saccharomyces paradoxus (strain 2) were inoculated (10(3) cfu/g) individually onto corn forage that was ensiled in mini silos for 90 d. Fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of silages were determined and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify S. cerevisiae, S.paradoxus, total Saccharomyces, fungal, and bacterial populations. Fermentation characteristics of silage inoculated with S1 were similar to control silage. Although strain 3 inoculation increased ash and decreased OM contents of silage (P = 0.017), no differences were observed in nutrient composition or fermentation profiles after 90 d of ensiling. Inoculation with Saccharomyces had no detrimental effect on the aerobic stability of silage. In vitro DM disappearance, gas production, and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by yeast inoculation.Saccharomyces strain 1 was quantified throughout ensiling, whereas strain 2 was detected only immediately after inoculation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 3 was quantified until d 7 and detectable 90 d after ensiling. All inoculants were detected and quantified during aerobic exposure. Inoculation with Saccharomyces did not alter lactobacilli populations. Saccharomycetales were detected by RT-qPCR throughout ensiling in all silages. Both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus populations increased during aerobic exposure, demonstrating that the density of these yeast strains would increase between the time that silage was removed from storage and the time it was fed.

  4. Comparison of Proteomics Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Strain Bf under Microaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ramila C.; Haddad, Nabila; Chevret, Didier; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the clinical C. jejuni strain Bf was singled out for its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression, and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake, and regulation, and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection. PMID:27790195

  5. Detection, diversity and expression of aerobic bacterial arsenite oxidase genes.

    PubMed

    Inskeep, William P; Macur, Richard E; Hamamura, Natsuko; Warelow, Thomas P; Ward, Seamus A; Santini, Joanne M

    2007-04-01

    The arsenic (As) drinking water crisis in south and south-east Asia has stimulated intense study of the microbial processes controlling the redox cycling of As in soil-water systems. Microbial oxidation of arsenite is a critical link in the global As cycle, and phylogenetically diverse arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms have been isolated from various aquatic and soil environments. However, despite progress characterizing the metabolism of As in various pure cultures, no functional gene approaches have been developed to determine the importance and distribution of arsenite-oxidizing genes in soil-water-sediment systems. Here we report for the first time the successful amplification of arsenite oxidase-like genes (aroA/asoA/aoxB) from a variety of soil-sediment and geothermal environments where arsenite is known to be oxidized. Prior to the current work, only 16 aroA/asoA/aoxB-like gene sequences were available in GenBank, most of these being putative assignments from homology searches of whole genomes. Although aroA/asoA/aoxB gene sequences are not highly conserved across disparate phyla, degenerate primers were used successfully to characterize over 160 diverse aroA-like sequences from 10 geographically isolated, arsenic-contaminated sites and from 13 arsenite-oxidizing organisms. The primer sets were also useful for confirming the expression of aroA-like genes in an arsenite-oxidizing organism and in geothermal environments where arsenite is oxidized to arsenate. The phylogenetic and ecological diversity of aroA-like sequences obtained from this study suggests that genes for aerobic arsenite oxidation are widely distributed in the bacterial domain, are widespread in soil-water systems containing As, and play a critical role in the biogeochemical cycling of As.

  6. Bacteriocins and novel bacterial strains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry is thought to be a significant source of Campylobacter in human disease. We evaluated anti-Campylobacter activity among 365 Bacillus and Paenibacillus isolates from poultry. One novel antagonistic Bacillus circulans and three Paenibacillus polymyxa strains were identified and further studi...

  7. Aerobic carboxydotrophy under extremely haloalkaline conditions in Alkalispirillum/Alkalilimnicola strains isolated from soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Kovaleva, Olga L; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2010-03-01

    Aerobic enrichments from soda lake sediments with CO as the only substrate resulted in the isolation of five bacterial strains capable of autotrophic growth with CO at extremely high pH and salinity. The strains belonged to the Alkalispirillum/Alkalilimnicola cluster in the Gammaproteobacteria, where the ability to oxidize CO, but not growth with CO, has been demonstrated previously. The growth with CO was possible only at an oxygen concentration below 5 % and CO concentration below 20 % in the gas phase. The isolates were also capable of growth with formate but not with H(2). The carboxydotrophic growth occurred within a narrow pH range from 8 to 10.5 (optimum at 9.5) and a broad salt concentration from 0.3 to 3.5 M total Na(+) (optimum at 1.0 M). Cells grown on CO had high respiration activity with CO and formate, while the cells grown on formate actively oxidized formate alone. In CO-grown cells, CO-dehydrogenase (CODH) activity was detectable both in soluble and membrane fractions, while the NAD-independent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) resided solely in membranes. The results of total protein profiling and the failure to detect CODH with conventional primers for the coxL gene indicated that the CO-oxidizing enzyme in haloalkaliphilic isolates might differ from the classical aerobic CODH complex. A single cbbL gene encoding the RuBisCO large subunit was detected in all strains, suggesting the presence of the Calvin cycle of inorganic carbon fixation. Overall, these results demonstrated the possibility of aerobic carboxydotrophy under extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  8. Nitrogen removal by Providencia rettgeri strain YL with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Huang, Yuan-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Providencia rettgeri strain YL shows the capability of nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions. By using isotope ratio mass spectrometry, (15)N-labelled N2O and N2 were detected in aerobic batch cultures containing [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. Strain YL converted [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to produce more N2O than N2 in the presence of [Formula: see text]. An (15)N isotope tracing experiment confirmed that the nitrogen removal pathway of strain YL was heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification. The optimal treatment conditions for nitrogen removal were pH of 8, C/N ratio of 12, temperature of 25°C and shaking speed of 105 rpm. A continuous aerobic bioreactor inoculated with strain YL was developed. With an influent [Formula: see text] concentration of 90-200 mg/L, the [Formula: see text] removal efficiency ranged from 80% to 97% and the total nitrogen removal efficiency ranged from 72% to 95%. The nitrogen balance in the continuous bioreactor revealed that approximately 35-52% of influent [Formula: see text] was denitrified aerobically to form gaseous nitrogen. These findings show that the P. rettgeri strain YL has potential application in wastewater treatment for nitrogen removal under sole aerobic conditions.

  9. Bacterial Diversity in a Nonsaline Alkaline Environment: Heterotrophic Aerobic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tiago, Igor; Chung, Ana Paula; Veríssimo, António

    2004-01-01

    Heterotrophic populations were isolated and characterized from an alkaline groundwater environment generated by active serpentinization, which results in a Ca(OH)2-enriched, extremely diluted groundwater with pH 11.4. One hundred eighty-five strains were isolated in different media at different pH values during two sampling periods. To assess the degree of diversity present in the environment and to select representative strains for further characterization of the populations, we screened the isolates by using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles and grouped them based on similarities determined by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Phenotypic characterization, determinations of G+C content, phylogenetic analyses by direct sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and determinations of pH tolerance were performed with the selected isolates. Although 38 different populations were identified and characterized, the vast majority of the isolates were gram positive with high G+C contents and were affiliated with three distinct groups, namely, strains closely related to the species Dietzia natrolimnae (32% of the isolates), to Frigoribacterium/Clavibacter lineages (29% of the isolates), and to the type strain of Microbacterium kitamiense (20% of the isolates). Other isolates were phylogenetically related to strains of the genera Agrococcus, Leifsonia, Kytococcus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Rothia, Nesterenkonia, Citrococcus, Micrococcus, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. Only five isolates were gram negative: one was related to the Sphingobacteria lineage and the other four were related to the α-Proteobacteria lineage. Despite the pH of the environment, the vast majority of the populations were alkali tolerant, and only two strains were able to grow at pH 11. PMID:15574939

  10. Systemic dexamethasone and its effect on normal aerobic bacterial flora of cow.

    PubMed

    Kojouri, Gholam-Ali; Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-06-15

    This study was carried out on 17 Holestein, heifers, aged between 1 to 2 years for determining the normal aerobic bacterial flora and their changes after dexamethasone injection. Swab samples were taken from eye, ear, pharynx and vagina before and 5 days after twice dexamethasone treatment. Results indicated that Bacillus cereus and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis had higher frequency of isolations than the other bacterial flora in eye, ear and pharynx. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated with considerable frequency from vagina. Klebsiella pneumoniae was also isolated from pharynx and its frequency was increased significantly after dexamethasone injection (p < 0.05).

  11. Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Moriya, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashita, M.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    A material recycling is one of core issues in engineering for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies such as Mars A new composting system has been developed in Japan which utilizes some thermophilic bacteria to attain higher temperature than normally expected in the ordinary composting system Dead body of rat was found to be eaten up by the thermophilic bacteria under aerated condition and oxidized to carbon dioxide and few other inorganics within two hours Ecology of these composting bacteria is structured on the intensive symbiotic interactions among various species that participate in various reaction networks in a concert Complexity in the composting bacteria might be based on multiple interaction and interdependency among participating species and organisms Species identification and phylogeny of symbiotic bacteria and understanding of their ecology have been made Those bacterial systems are active and durable under temperature high in a range of 80 to 100 r C Biological combustion release heat and temperature goes up when air is fed through the reaction bed Since microbial activity decreases at exceeding temperature and release of heat decreases as well temperature in the reacting bed itself-regulated in the range Even though it should be verified composting bacteria themselves are presumed to be safe for human agricultural plant and animal species Their activity is restricted only to the condition under elevated temperature Their activities depend greatly on their symbiotic partners and extreme environment created by them The

  12. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hosseini Salekdeh, Ghasem; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated. PMID:26725518

  13. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-04

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated.

  14. Piggery wastewater treatment using Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

    2006-09-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4, which has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, was used to treat actual piggery wastewater containing high-strength ammonium under aerobic conditions. In a continuous experiment using a solids-free wastewater (SFW) mixed with feces, almost all of the 2000 NH4+ -N mg/L and 12,000 COD mg/L in the wastewater was removed and the ammonium removal rate was approximately 30 mg-N/L/h, which was 5-10 times higher than the rates achieved by other bacteria with the same abilities. The denitrification ratio was more than 65% of removed NH4+ -N, indicating that strain No. 4 exhibited its heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities in the piggery wastewater.

  15. Developmental hazard assessment with FETAX: Aerobic metabolites in bacterial transformation of naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Dawson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    The underlying principle of bioremediation is the capability of microorganisms to biodegrade pollutants. When a contaminated site is biotreated, it is usually assumed that the disappearance of the pollutant means a reduction in the toxic effects of the contaminants. However, pollutants can undergo partial biodegradation or biotransformation. Microbial-mediated transformations play a critical role in the toxic effects of pollutants, as any alteration in structure can result in a change in physicochemical properties which influence toxicity. Therefore, a relevant question is; what is the toxicity of accumulative metabolites relative to the parent chemical? One class of chemicals that consistently appears at Superfund hazard waste sites is aromatic hydrocarbons. Studies of the aerobic bacterial metabolism of representative compounds, including benzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene, have revealed similar oxidative pathways. Bacterial degradation of these aromatic hydrocarbons was initiated by the addition of two molecules of oxygen via a dioxygenase enzyme, with the resulting intermediate being converted to a catechol-like compound. From a biotransformation standpoint, one of the more thoroughly studied aromatic hydrocarbons has been naphthalene. Cerniglia (1984) has identified five major intermediates, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid, gentisic acid and catechol in the aerobic bacterial degradation of naphthalene. In vitro test systems such as the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay - Xenopus (FETAX) provide a time- and resource-effective means for assessing developmental toxicity on a preliminary basis. FETAX is a 96-hr static-renewal system that uses early embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the developmental hazard, using FETAX, of exposure to the model aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthalene, and it`s known major aerobic metabolites from bacterial transformation. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K; Davenport, Russell J; Head, Ian M; Werner, David

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition.

  17. Mineralization of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate by a Four-Member Aerobic Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Luis; Breen, Alec; Thomas, Nikki; Federle, Thomas W.; Sayler, Gary S.

    1991-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. The consortium, designated KJB, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. Three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of Pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the Aeromonas spp. Cell suspensions were grown together in minimal medium with [14C]LAS as the only carbon source. After 13 days of incubation, more than 25% of the [14C]LAS was mineralized to 14CO2 by the consortium. Pure bacterial cultures and combinations lacking any one member of the KJB bacterial consortium did not mineralize LAS. Three isolates carried out primary biodegradation of the surfactant, and one did not. This study shows that the four bacteria complemented each other and synergistically mineralized LAS, indicating catabolic cooperation among the four consortium members. PMID:16348496

  18. Effect of NaCl on aerobic denitrification by strain Achromobacter sp. GAD-3.

    PubMed

    Gui, Mengyao; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the effect of NaCl on aerobic denitrification by a novel aerobic denitrifier strain Achromobacter sp. GAD-3. Results indicated that the aerobic denitrification process was inhibited by NaCl concentrations ≥20 g L(-1), leading to lower nitrate removal rates (1.67∼4.0 mg L(-1) h(-1)), higher nitrite accumulation (50.2∼87.4 mg L(-1)), and increasing N2O emission ratios (13∼72 mg L(-1)/mg L(-1)). Poor performance of aerobic denitrification at high salinity was attributed to the suppression of active microbial biomass and electron donating capacity of strain GAD-3. Further studies on the corresponding inhibition of the denitrifying gene expression by higher salinities revealed the significant sensitivity order of nosZ (for N2O reductase) > cnorB (for NO reductase) ≈ nirS (for cytochrome cd(1) nitrite reductase) > napA (for periplasmic nitrate reductase), accompanied with a time-lapse expression between nosZ and cnorB based on reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The insights into the effect of NaCl on aerobic denitrification are of great significance to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) containing varying levels of salinity.

  19. Intracellular azo decolorization is coupled with aerobic respiration by a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Tian; Hu, Jin-Mei; Wang, Shi; Li, Wen-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Reduction of azo dye methyl red coupled with aerobic respiration by growing cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 was investigated. In liquid media containing dye and 0.6 % glucose in a mineral salts base, 100 mg l(-1) of the dye are completely removed in 3 h under shaking conditions. The dye cannot be aerobically decolorized by strain GS-4-08 without extra carbon sources, indicating a co-metabolism process. Higher initial dye concentration prolonged the lag phase of the cell growth, but final cell concentrations of each batches reached a same level with range from 6.3 to 7.6 mg l(-1) after the dye adaption period. This strain showed stronger dye tolerance and decolorization ability than many reported strains. Furthermore, a new intracellular oxygen-insensitive azoreductase was isolated from this strain, and the specific activity of enzyme was 0.846 and 0.633 U mg(-1) protein in the presence of NADH and NADPH, respectively. N,N dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and anthranilic acid were stoichiometrically released from MR dye, indicating the breakage of azo bonds accounts for the intracellular decolorization. Combining the characteristics of azoreductase, the stoichiometry of EMP, and TCA cycle, the electron transfer chain theory of aerobic respiration, and the possible mechanism of aerobic respiration coupled with azo reduction by K. oxytoca GS-4-08 are proposed. This study is expected to provide a sound theoretical basis for the development of the K. oxytoca strain in aerobic process for azo dye containing wastewaters.

  20. Aerobic bacterial microbiota isolated from the cloaca of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer; Gnat, Sebastian; Wójcik, Mariusz; Dziedzic, Roman; Kostruba, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of the aerobic cloacal bacteria of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) living in their natural environment and juvenile turtles reared under controlled conditions in a breeding center. We included 130 turtles in the study. The aerobic bacteria isolated from the cloaca of the juvenile turtles were less diverse and more prevalent than the bacteria isolated from free-living adults. We isolated 17 bacterial species from juvenile captive turtles, among which the dominant species were Cellulomonas flavigena (77/96), Enterococcus faecalis (96/96), Escherichia coli (58/96), and Proteus mirabilis (41/96). From the adult, free-living turtles, we isolated 36 bacterial species, some of which are a potential threat to public health (e.g., Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Daytona, and Braenderup; Listeria monocytogenes; Yersinia enterocolitica; Yersinia ruckeri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Vibrio fluvialis; and Serratia marcescens), and pathogens that are etiologic agents of diseases of ectothermic animals (e.g., Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, and Citrobacter braakii; the last two species were isolated from both groups of animals). The cloacal bacterial biota of the European pond turtle was characterized by numerous species of bacteria, and its composition varied with turtle age and environmental conditions. The small number of isolated bacteria that are potential human pathogens may indicate that the European pond turtle is of relatively minor importance as a threat to public health.

  1. Characterisation of the aerobic bacterial flora of boid snakes: application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Krüger, Monika; Pees, Michael

    2015-03-14

    The aim of this study was to identify aerobic bacterial isolates from the respiratory tract of boids with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). From 47 boid snakes, swabs from the oral cavity, tracheal wash samples and, in cases in which postmortem examination was performed, pulmonary tissue samples were taken. Each snake was classified as having inflammation of the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, or without evidence of inflammation based on combination of clinical, cytological and histopathological findings. Samples collected from the respiratory tract and oral cavity were inoculated onto routine media and bacteria were cultured aerobically. All morphologically distinct individual colonies obtained were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS. Unidentified isolates detected in more than three snakes were selected for further 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. Among all examined isolates (n=243), 49 per cent (n=119) could be sufficiently speciated using MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular biology revealed several bacterial species that have not been previously described in reptiles. With an average of 6.3 different isolates from the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, boids with inflammatory disease harboured significantly more bacterial species than boids without inflammatory disease (average 2.8 isolates).

  2. Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Genomic Features of Campylobacter jejuni Bf, an Atypical Strain Able to Grow under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bronnec, Vicky; Turoňová, Hana; Bouju, Agnès; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Rodrigues, Ramila; Demnerova, Katerina; Tresse, Odile; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in Europe. Human campylobacteriosis cases are frequently associated to the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To survive under environmental conditions encountered along the food chain, i.e., from poultry digestive tract its natural reservoir to the consumer’s plate, this pathogen has developed adaptation mechanisms. Among those, biofilm lifestyle has been suggested as a strategy to survive in the food environment and under atmospheric conditions. Recently, the clinical isolate C. jejuni Bf has been shown to survive and grow under aerobic conditions, a property that may help this strain to better survive along the food chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion capacity of C. jejuni Bf and its ability to develop a biofilm. C. jejuni Bf can adhere to abiotic surfaces and to human epithelial cells, and can develop biofilm under both microaerobiosis and aerobiosis. These two conditions have no influence on this strain, unlike results obtained with the reference strain C. jejuni 81-176, which harbors only planktonic cells under aerobic conditions. Compared to 81-176, the biofilm of C. jejuni Bf is more homogenous and cell motility at the bottom of biofilm was not modified whatever the atmosphere used. C. jejuni Bf whole genome sequence did not reveal any gene unique to this strain, suggesting that its unusual property does not result from acquisition of new genetic material. Nevertheless some genetic particularities seem to be shared only between Bf and few others strains. Among the main features of C. jejuni Bf genome we noticed (i) a complete type VI secretion system important in pathogenicity and environmental adaptation; (ii) a mutation in the oorD gene involved in oxygen metabolism; and (iii) the presence of an uncommon insertion of a 72 amino acid coding sequence upstream from dnaK, which is involved in stress resistance. Therefore, the atypical behavior of this strain under

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain MA01 aerobically metabolizes the aminodinitrotoluenes produced by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene nitro group reduction.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M A; Kitts, C L; Botsford, J L; Unkefer, P J

    1995-11-01

    Many microbes reduce the nitro substituents of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), producing aminodinitrotoluenes (ADNTs). These compounds are recalcitrant to further breakdown and are acutely toxic. In a search for organisms capable of metabolizing ADNTs, a bacterial strain was isolated for the ability to use 2-aminobenzoate (anthranilate) as sole C-source. This isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01, metabolized TNT by first reducing one nitro group to form either 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) or 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT). However, strain MA01 was distinct from other TNT-reducing organisms in that it transformed these compounds into highly polar metabolites through an O2-dependent process. Strain MA01 was able to cometabolize TNT, 2ADNT, and 4ADNT in the presence of a variety of carbon and energy sources. During aerobic cometabolism with succinate, 45% of uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT was transformed to highly polar compounds. Aerobic cometabolism of purified [14C]2ADNT and [14C]4ADNT with succinate as C-source produced similar amounts of these polar metabolites. During O2-limited cometabolism with succinate as C-source and nitrate as electron acceptor, less than 8% of the [14C]TNT was transformed to polar metabolites. Purified 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene was not metabolized, and while 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was acetylated, the product (N-acetyl-2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene) was not further metabolized. Therefore, strain MA01 metabolized TNT by oxidation of the ADNTs and not by reduction the remaining nitro groups on the ADNTs.

  4. Aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Hernández, Giovanna; Caballero, Magaly

    2006-12-01

    Bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera. Two hundred thirty-nine were Gram-negative and 86 were Gram-positive isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal samples. The Enterobacteriaceae family, including Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, was the largest Gram-negative group of bacteria recovered and comprised 127 of 239 (53.1%) of the Gram-negative isolates. Staphylococcus species was the largest Gram-positive bacteria group, including S. aureus, S. cromogenes, S. epidermis, and S. intermedius, and made up 63 of 86 (73.2%) of the Gram-positive isolates recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero National Park is composed of a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including several potential pathogens.

  5. Genome Sequence of Bacterial Interference Strain Staphylococcus aureus 502A.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dane; Narechania, Apurva; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Larussa, Samuel; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Hannah; Prince, Alice; Mathema, Barun; Ratner, Adam J; Kreiswirth, Barry; Planet, Paul J

    2014-04-10

    Staphylococcus aureus 502A was a strain used in bacterial interference programs during the 1960s and early 1970s. Infants were deliberately colonized with 502A with the goal of preventing colonization with more invasive strains. We present the completed genome sequence of this organism.

  6. Effects of heavy metals on aerobic denitrification by strain Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1.

    PubMed

    Gui, Mengyao; Chen, Qian; Ma, Tao; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-02-01

    Effects of heavy metals on aerobic denitrification have been poorly understood compared with their impacts on anaerobic denitrification. This paper presented effects of four heavy metals (Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)) on aerobic denitrification by a novel aerobic denitrifying strain Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1. Results indicated that aerobic denitrifying activity decreased with increasing heavy metal concentrations due to their corresponding inhibition on the denitrifying gene expression characterized by a time lapse between the expression of the nosZ gene and that of the cnorB gene by PCN-1, which led to lower nitrate removal rate (1.67∼6.67 mg L(-1) h(-1)), higher nitrite accumulation (47.3∼99.8 mg L(-1)), and higher N2O emission ratios (5∼283 mg L(-1)/mg L(-1)). Specially, promotion of the nosZ gene expression by increasing Cu(II) concentrations (0∼0.05 mg L(-1)) was found, and the absence of Cu resulted in massive N2O emission due to poor synthesis of N2O reductase. The inhibition effect for both aerobic denitrifying activity and denitrifying gene expression was as follows from strongest to least: Cd(II) (0.5∼2.5 mg L(-1)) > Cu(II) (0.5∼5 mg L(-1)) > Ni(II) (2∼10 mg L(-1)) > Zn(II) (25∼50 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, sensitivity of denitrifying gene to heavy metals was similar in order of nosZ > nirS ≈ cnorB > napA. This study is of significance in understanding the potential application of aerobic denitrifying bacteria in practical wastewater treatment.

  7. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil.

  8. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  9. Metabolism of 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) by the aerobic bacterium Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1.

    PubMed

    Kottegoda, Samanthi; Waligora, Elizabeth; Hyman, Michael

    2015-03-01

    An aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1) that utilizes 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated and characterized. Strain ELW1 grew on 2-methylpropene (growth rate = 0.05 h(-1)) with a yield of 0.38 mg (dry weight) mg 2-methylpropene(-1). Strain ELW1 also grew more slowly on both cis- and trans-2-butene but did not grow on any other C2 to C5 straight-chain, branched, or chlorinated alkenes tested. Resting 2-methylpropene-grown cells consumed ethene, propene, and 1-butene without a lag phase. Epoxyethane accumulated as the only detected product of ethene oxidation. Both alkene consumption and epoxyethane production were fully inhibited in cells exposed to 1-octyne, suggesting that alkene oxidation is initiated by an alkyne-sensitive, epoxide-generating monooxygenase. Kinetic analyses indicated that 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane is rapidly consumed during 2-methylpropene degradation, while 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol is not a significant metabolite of 2-methylpropene catabolism. Degradation of 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane by 2-methylpropene-grown cells led to the accumulation and further degradation of 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, two sequential metabolites previously identified in the aerobic microbial metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Growth of strain ELW1 on 2-methylpropene, 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate was fully inhibited when cobalt ions were omitted from the growth medium, while growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate and other substrates was unaffected by the absence of added cobalt ions. Our results suggest that, like aerobic MTBE- and TBA-metabolizing bacteria, strain ELW1 utilizes a cobalt/cobalamin-dependent mutase to transform 2-hydroxyisobutyrate. Our results have been interpreted in terms of their impact on our understanding of the microbial metabolism of alkenes and ether oxygenates.

  10. Metabolism of 2-Methylpropene (Isobutylene) by the Aerobic Bacterium Mycobacterium sp. Strain ELW1

    PubMed Central

    Kottegoda, Samanthi; Waligora, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1) that utilizes 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated and characterized. Strain ELW1 grew on 2-methylpropene (growth rate = 0.05 h−1) with a yield of 0.38 mg (dry weight) mg 2-methylpropene−1. Strain ELW1 also grew more slowly on both cis- and trans-2-butene but did not grow on any other C2 to C5 straight-chain, branched, or chlorinated alkenes tested. Resting 2-methylpropene-grown cells consumed ethene, propene, and 1-butene without a lag phase. Epoxyethane accumulated as the only detected product of ethene oxidation. Both alkene consumption and epoxyethane production were fully inhibited in cells exposed to 1-octyne, suggesting that alkene oxidation is initiated by an alkyne-sensitive, epoxide-generating monooxygenase. Kinetic analyses indicated that 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane is rapidly consumed during 2-methylpropene degradation, while 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol is not a significant metabolite of 2-methylpropene catabolism. Degradation of 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane by 2-methylpropene-grown cells led to the accumulation and further degradation of 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, two sequential metabolites previously identified in the aerobic microbial metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Growth of strain ELW1 on 2-methylpropene, 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate was fully inhibited when cobalt ions were omitted from the growth medium, while growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate and other substrates was unaffected by the absence of added cobalt ions. Our results suggest that, like aerobic MTBE- and TBA-metabolizing bacteria, strain ELW1 utilizes a cobalt/cobalamin-dependent mutase to transform 2-hydroxyisobutyrate. Our results have been interpreted in terms of their impact on our understanding of the microbial metabolism of alkenes and ether oxygenates. PMID:25576605

  11. Influence of bacterial strains on bone infection.

    PubMed

    Cordero, J; Munuera, L; Folgueira, M D

    1996-07-01

    Experiments were performed on 120 rabbits to compare the probability of infection after bone surgery without an implant, with polymethylmethacrylate, and with autografts. Staphylococcus aureus phage type 94/96, isolated from a human osteomyelitis, was instilled into the intramedullar cavity after reaming of the femoral canal and before insertion of the implant. The different 50% infective doses were determined for each of the groups for comparative purposes. The bacterial concentrations required to produce infection in femora without an implant were two times less than those necessary in femora implanted with polymethylmethacrylate. The bone graft required bacterial concentrations nine times less than those necessary to infect femora containing polymethylmethacrylate and four times less than those required to infect femora without an implant. The results presented here confirm that the susceptibility to infection in orthopaedic surgery is not only material dependent but also bacteria dependent.

  12. Pyrosequencing analysis of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterial community structure in the oligotrophic western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Liu, Yanting; Steindler, Laura; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) represent a widespread functional bacterial group defined by their obligate aerobic and facultative photoheterotrophic abilities. They are an active part of the marine microbial community as revealed by a large number of previous investigations. Here, we made an in-depth comparison of AAPB community structures in the subsurface water and the upper twilight zone of the western Pacific Ocean using high-throughput sequencing based on the pufM gene. Approximately, 100 000 sequences, grouped into 159 OTUs (94% cut-off value), included 44 and 24 OTUs unique to the subsurface and the upper twilight zone, respectively; 92 OTUs were common to both subsurface and twilight zone, and 3 OTUs were found in all samples. Consistent with previous studies, AAPB belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria were the dominant group in the whole water column, followed by the alphaproteobacterial AAPB. Comparing the relative abundance distribution patterns of different clades, an obvious community-structure separation according to deeper or shallower environment could be observed. Sulfitobacter-like, Loktanella-like, Erythrobacter-like, Dinoroseobacter-like and Gamma-HIMB55-like AAPB preferred the high-light subsurface water, while Methylobacterium-like, 'Citromicrobium'-like, Roseovarius-like and Bradyrhizobium-like AAPB, the dim light environment.

  13. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobic cultivation.

    PubMed

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M; Weightman, Andrew J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by "JW") was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  14. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  15. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by an aerobic bacterial consortium using a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, T Emilia; Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, Jegan J; Poulose, T P; Thomas, P P

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye mixture by an aerobic bacterial consortium was studied in a rotating biological reactor. Laterite pebbles of particle size 850 microm to 1.44 mm were fixed on gramophone records using an epoxy resin on which the developed consortium was immobilized. Rate of degradation, BOD, biomass determination, enzymes involved, and fish bioassay were studied. The RBC has a high efficiency for dye degradation even at high dye concentrations (100 microg/mL) and high flow rate (36 L/h) at alkaline pH and salinity conditions normally encountered in the textile effluents. Bioassays (LD-50) using Thilapia fish in treated effluent showed that the percentage mortality was zero over a period of 96 h, whereas the mortality was 100% in untreated dye water within 26 h. Fish bioassay confirms that the effluent from RBC can be discharged safely to the environment.

  16. Aerobic fermentation of D-glucose by an evolved cytochrome oxidase-deficient Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Vasiliy A; Herrgård, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2008-12-01

    Fermentation of glucose to D-lactic acid under aerobic growth conditions by an evolved Escherichia coli mutant deficient in three terminal oxidases is reported in this work. Cytochrome oxidases (cydAB, cyoABCD, and cbdAB) were removed from the E. coli K12 MG1655 genome, resulting in the ECOM3 (E. coli cytochrome oxidase mutant) strain. Removal of cytochrome oxidases reduced the oxygen uptake rate of the knockout strain by nearly 85%. Moreover, the knockout strain was initially incapable of growing on M9 minimal medium. After the ECOM3 strain was subjected to adaptive evolution on glucose M9 medium for 60 days, a growth rate equivalent to that of anaerobic wild-type E. coli was achieved. Our findings demonstrate that three independently adaptively evolved ECOM3 populations acquired different phenotypes: one produced lactate as a sole fermentation product, while the other two strains exhibited a mixed-acid fermentation under oxic growth conditions with lactate remaining as the major product. The homofermenting strain showed a D-lactate yield of 0.8 g/g from glucose. Gene expression and in silico model-based analyses were employed to identify perturbed pathways and explain phenotypic behavior. Significant upregulation of ygiN and sodAB explains the remaining oxygen uptake that was observed in evolved ECOM3 strains. E. coli strains produced in this study showed the ability to produce lactate as a fermentation product from glucose and to undergo mixed-acid fermentation during aerobic growth.

  17. The influence of bacterial inoculants on the microbial ecology of aerobic spoilage of barley silage.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Kawchuk, L M; McAllister, T A

    1999-01-01

    The aerobic decomposition of barley silage treated with two inoculants (LacA and LacB) containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium was investigated over a 28-day period. Initially, yeast and bacterial populations were larger in silage inoculated with LacA than in silage treated with LacB or water alone (control). Differences in the succession of yeasts in silage treated with LacA were observed relative to the other two treatments. From silage treatment with LacA, Issatchenkia orientalis was the most prevalent yeast taxon over all of the sample times, and the filamentous fungus Microascus brevicaulis was also frequently isolated at later sample dates (> or = 14 days). In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus was the most prominent yeast recovered from silage treated with LacB and water alone on days 2 and 4, although it was supplanted by I. orientalis at later sample times. Successional trends of bacteria were similar for all three treatments. Lactobacillus spp. were initially the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (primarily Bacillus pumilus). However, the onset of Bacillus spp. prominence was faster in LacA silage, and Klebsiella planticola was frequently recovered at later sample times (> or = 14 days). More filamentous fungi were recovered from LacA silage on media containing carboxylmethylcellulose, pectin, or xylan. The most commonly isolated taxa were Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Byssochlamys nivea, Monascus ruber, Penicillium brevicompactum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, and M. brevicaulis. The results of this study indicated that the two bacterial inoculants incorporated into barley at the time of ensilage affected the microbial ecology of silage decomposition following exposure to air. However, neither of the microbial inoculants effectively delayed aerobic spoilage of barley silage, and the rate of decomposition of silage treated with one of the inoculants (LacA) was actually enhanced.

  18. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  19. Genome engineering and gene expression control for bacterial strain development.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan Woo; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of techniques and tools have been developed for genome engineering and gene expression control to achieve desired phenotypes of various bacteria. Here we review and discuss the recent advances in bacterial genome manipulation and gene expression control techniques, and their actual uses with accompanying examples. Genome engineering has been commonly performed based on homologous recombination. During such genome manipulation, the counterselection systems employing SacB or nucleases have mainly been used for the efficient selection of desired engineered strains. The recombineering technology enables simple and more rapid manipulation of the bacterial genome. The group II intron-mediated genome engineering technology is another option for some bacteria that are difficult to be engineered by homologous recombination. Due to the increasing demands on high-throughput screening of bacterial strains having the desired phenotypes, several multiplex genome engineering techniques have recently been developed and validated in some bacteria. Another approach to achieve desired bacterial phenotypes is the repression of target gene expression without the modification of genome sequences. This can be performed by expressing antisense RNA, small regulatory RNA, or CRISPR RNA to repress target gene expression at the transcriptional or translational level. All of these techniques allow efficient and rapid development and screening of bacterial strains having desired phenotypes, and more advanced techniques are expected to be seen.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Methylocystis sp. strain SC2, an aerobic methanotroph with high-affinity methane oxidation potential.

    PubMed

    Dam, Bomba; Dam, Somasri; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Liesack, Werner

    2012-11-01

    Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 is an aerobic type II methanotroph isolated from a highly polluted aquifer in Germany. A specific trait of the SC2 strain is the expression of two isozymes of particulate methane monooxygenase with different methane oxidation kinetics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this methanotroph that contains not only a circular chromosome but also two large plasmids.

  1. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  2. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils.

  3. Identification and characterisation of potential biofertilizer bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagöz, Kenan; Kotan, Recep; Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Dadaşoǧlu, Esin

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed that isolation, identification and characterizations of PGPR strains from rhizosphere of legume plants. 188 bacterial strains isolated from different legume plants like clover, sainfoin and vetch in Erzurum province of Turkey. These three plants are cultivated commonly in the Erzurum province. It was screen that 50 out of 188 strains can fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate. These strains were identified via MIS (Microbial identification system). According to MIS identification results, 40 out of 50 strains were identified as Bacillus, 5 as Pseudomonas, 3 as Paenibacillus, 1 as Acinetobacter, 1 as Brevibacterium. According to classical test results, while the catalase test result of all isolates are positive, oxidase, KOH and starch hydrolysis rest results are variable.

  4. [Recombinant Escherichia coli strains deficient in mixed acid fermentation pathways and capable of rapid aerobic growth on glucose with a reduced Crabtree effect].

    PubMed

    Morzhakova, A A; Skorokhodova, A Iu; Gulevich, A Iu; Debabov, V G

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed and characterized Escherichia coli strains deficient for mixed acid fermentation pathways, which are capable of rapid aerobic growth on glucose without pronounced bacterial Crabtree effect. The main pathways of production of acetic and lactic acids and ethanol in these strains were inactivated by a deletion of the ackA, pta, poxB, IdhA, and adhEgenes. The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of glucose transport and phosphorylation was inactivated in the strains by a deletion of the ptsG gene. The possibility of alternative transport and phosphorylation of the carbohydrate substrate was ensured in recombinants by constitutive expression of the galP and glk genes, which encode the low-affinity H+-symporter of D-galactose and glucokinase, respectively. SGMI.0DeltaptsG PtacgalP and SG M1.0DeltaptsG PIglk PtacgalP strains were capable of rapid aerobic growth in a minimal medium containing 2.0 and 10.0 g/l of glucose and secreted only small amounts of acetic acid and trace amounts of pyruvic acid.

  5. Aerobic Degradation of Dinitrotoluenes and Pathway for Bacterial Degradation of 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Shirley F.; Paoli, George C.; Spain, Jim C.

    2000-01-01

    An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize 2,4-DNT by the same pathway and the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that mineralize 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkholderia cepacia strain JS850 and Hydrogenophaga palleronii strain JS863 grew on 2,6-DNT as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The initial steps in the pathway for degradation of 2,6-DNT were determined by simultaneous induction, enzyme assays, and identification of metabolites through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. 2,6-DNT was converted to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol by a dioxygenation reaction accompanied by the release of nitrite. 3-Methyl-4-nitrocatechol was the substrate for extradiol ring cleavage yielding 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoic acid, which was converted to 2-hydroxy-5-nitropenta-2,4-dienoic acid. 2,4-DNT-degrading strains also converted 2,6-DNT to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol but did not metabolize the 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. Although 2,6-DNT prevented the degradation of 2,4-DNT by 2,4-DNT-degrading strains, the effect was not the result of inhibition of 2,4-DNT dioxygenase by 2,6-DNT or of 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol monooxygenase by 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. PMID:10788393

  6. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  7. [Aerobic bacterial flora from the digestive tract of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)].

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Gloriana

    2006-09-01

    This study addresses the composition of microbial flora in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) primarily because all available data are outdated, and because of the economical significance of this bat species. Twenty-one bats were collected and their aerobic bacteria documented separately for stomach and intestine. Bacteria were identified through the Analytical Profile Index (API), and results analyzed with the APILAB software. A total of thirty bacterial species were isolated from sixteen females and five males. The most common species were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, although other bacteria, such as Acinetobacterjohnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus and S. xylosus were also common. The number of species found in the stomach and intestine was significantly different, and the intestine presented a higher diversity compared to the stomach. This has previously been found in other mammals and it is attributed to a reduction of acidity. Most of the species found in this study are considered normal components of the digestive tract of mammals, although other bacteria common in the skin of mammals and from aquatic environments were found. Bacteria from the skin may invade the vampire's stomach and/or intestine when the bat has contact with its prey, and may suggest that the vampire's feeding habit facilitates the invasion of other microbes not common in its digestive tract. The fact that bacteria from aquatic environments were also found suggests that D. rotundus, as previously found by other researchers, drinks free water when available, and water may be another source of microbial invasion.

  8. Efficacy of soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol on aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves for serial mouse laparotomies.

    PubMed

    Keen, Jessica N; Austin, MaryKay; Huang, Li-Shan; Messing, Susan; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

    2010-11-01

    Rodent surgeries in biomedical research facilities are often performed in series. This practice presents many challenges to maintaining aseptic technique between animals. Here, we examined using soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol for aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves used in a series of as many as 10 mouse laparotomy surgeries. These surgeries were performed on mice that were euthanized immediately prior to the procedure. Instruments and gloves were cultured before and after each procedure to determine the presence of aerobic bacterial contamination. To assess the efficacy of the decontamination protocol, culture results were grouped by procedure and then paired (before soak and after soak) for analysis using McNemar test at an α level of 0.05. In addition, by using the Fisher exact test, this modified aseptic method was compared with strict aseptic technique, for which autoclaved instruments and sterile surgical gloves were used for each procedure. In this study, we observed that the modified aseptic technique using 70% isopropyl alcohol soaks pre- vented aerobic bacterial contamination of instruments and gloves for as many as 5 mice.

  9. Carbazole degradation in the soil microcosm by tropical bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Lateef B.; Ilori, Matthew O.; Amund, Olukayode O.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonas sp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g) after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized) soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg−1 h−1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg−1 h−1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg−1 h−1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days) and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments. PMID:26691461

  10. Aerobic biodegradation of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye by a bacterial community immobilized in a multistage packed-bed BAC reactor.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arias, Alfredo; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; de los Cobos-Vasconcelos, Daniel; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Salmerón-Alcocer, Angélica; Ahuatzi-Chacón, Deifilia; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio

    2010-11-01

    A microbial community able to aerobically degrade the azo dye Acid Orange 7 was selected from riparian or lacustrine sediments collected at sites receiving textile wastewaters. Three bacterial strains, pertaining to the genera Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Rhizobium, constitute the selected community. The biodegradation of AO7 was carried out in batch-suspended cell culture and in a continuously operated multistage packed-bed BAC reactor. The rapid decolorization observed in batch culture, joined to a delay of about 24 h in COD removal and cell growth, suggests that enzymes involved in biodegradation of the aromatic amines generated after AO7 azo-bond cleavage (1-amino-2-naphthol [1-A2N] and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid [4-ABS]), are inducible in this microbial consortium. After this presumptive induction period, the accumulated byproducts, measured through COD, were partially metabolized and transformed in cell mass. At all azo dye loading rates used, complete removal of AO7 and 1-A2N was obtained in the multistage packed-bed BAC reactor (PBR).; however, the overall COD (eta ( COD )) and 4-ABS (eta ( ABS )) removal efficiencies obtained in steady state continuous culture were about 90%. Considering the toxicity of 1-A2N, its complete removal has particular relevance. In the first stages of the packed-bed BAC reactor (Fig. 4a-c), major removal was observed. In the last stage, only a slight removal of COD and 4-ABS was obtained. Comparing to several reported studies, the continuously operated multistage packed-bed BAC reactor showed similar or superior results. In addition, the operation of large-packed-bed BAC reactors could be improved by using several shallow BAC bed stages, because the pressure drop caused by bed compaction of a support material constituted by small and fragile particles can be reduced.

  11. Bayesian identification of bacterial strains from sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Aravind; Malone, Brandon; Bayliss, Sion C; Pascoe, Ben; Méric, Guillaume; Hitchings, Matthew D; Sheppard, Samuel K; Feil, Edward J; Corander, Jukka; Honkela, Antti

    2016-08-01

    Rapidly assaying the diversity of a bacterial species present in a sample obtained from a hospital patient or an environmental source has become possible after recent technological advances in DNA sequencing. For several applications it is important to accurately identify the presence and estimate relative abundances of the target organisms from short sequence reads obtained from a sample. This task is particularly challenging when the set of interest includes very closely related organisms, such as different strains of pathogenic bacteria, which can vary considerably in terms of virulence, resistance and spread. Using advanced Bayesian statistical modelling and computation techniques we introduce a novel pipeline for bacterial identification that is shown to outperform the currently leading pipeline for this purpose. Our approach enables fast and accurate sequence-based identification of bacterial strains while using only modest computational resources. Hence it provides a useful tool for a wide spectrum of applications, including rapid clinical diagnostics to distinguish among closely related strains causing nosocomial infections. The software implementation is available at https://github.com/PROBIC/BIB.

  12. Bayesian identification of bacterial strains from sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Aravind; Malone, Brandon; Bayliss, Sion C.; Pascoe, Ben; Méric, Guillaume; Hitchings, Matthew D.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Feil, Edward J.; Corander, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly assaying the diversity of a bacterial species present in a sample obtained from a hospital patient or an environmental source has become possible after recent technological advances in DNA sequencing. For several applications it is important to accurately identify the presence and estimate relative abundances of the target organisms from short sequence reads obtained from a sample. This task is particularly challenging when the set of interest includes very closely related organisms, such as different strains of pathogenic bacteria, which can vary considerably in terms of virulence, resistance and spread. Using advanced Bayesian statistical modelling and computation techniques we introduce a novel pipeline for bacterial identification that is shown to outperform the currently leading pipeline for this purpose. Our approach enables fast and accurate sequence-based identification of bacterial strains while using only modest computational resources. Hence it provides a useful tool for a wide spectrum of applications, including rapid clinical diagnostics to distinguish among closely related strains causing nosocomial infections. The software implementation is available at https://github.com/PROBIC/BIB. PMID:28348870

  13. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-05-05

    Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/LPG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  14. Bacterial effects and interfacial inactivation mechanism of nZVI/Pd on Pseudomonas putida strain.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Niu, Zhuyu; Chen, Yuancai; Hu, Yongyou

    2017-05-15

    With the introduction of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technology into our environment, its potential environmental risk to environmental microorganisms has attracted considerable attention. In this study, Pseudomonas putida was chosen as a typical strain to study the bacterial toxicity of nZVI/Pd. The CFU assay results indicated that nZVI/Pd was toxic to P. putida cells but the toxicity decreased with an increase in DO. The experiments isolated by dialysis bag and flow cytometry analysis suggested that both membrane disruption caused by direct contact and oxidative stress were the main bactericidal mechanisms under the aerobic condition, while membrane disruption resulting from direct contact was the primary bactericidal mechanism in the anaerobic system. Furthermore, according to TEM, SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and XPS, it was indicated that in the aerobic system, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by nZVI/Pd could oxidize the amide and hydroxyl groups into carboxyl groups, resulting in a decline in peptides and increase in polysaccharides. In addition, the ROS also accumulated inside the cell and caused cell inactivation via oxidative stress. In the anaerobic system, the adhered nZVI/Pd particles would attack the functional groups such as carboxyl, ester and amide, leading to the decline in proteins and polysaccharides and subsequent damage of the membrane. The findings provide a significant guide for the application of nano-bio combined technology.

  15. New evidence for Cu-decorated binary-oxides mediating bacterial inactivation/mineralization in aerobic media.

    PubMed

    Rtimi, S; Pulgarin, C; Bensimon, M; Kiwi, J

    2016-08-01

    Binary oxide semiconductors TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 (TiO2-ZrO2-Cu) uniform films were sputtered on polyester (PES). These films were irradiated under low intensity solar simulated light and led to bacterial inactivation in aerobic and anaerobic media as evaluated by CFU-plate counting. But bacterial mineralization was only induced by TiO2-ZrO2-Cu in aerobic media. The highly oxidative radicals generated on the films surface under light were identified by the use of appropriate scavengers. The hole generated on the TiO2-ZrO2 films is shown to be the main specie leading to bacterial inactivation. TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 films release Zr and Ti <1ppb and Cu 4.6ppb/cm(2) as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) This level is far below the citotoxicity permitted level allowed for mammalian cells suggesting that bacterial disinfection proceeds through an oligodynamic effect. By Fourier transform attenuated infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) the systematic shift of the predominating νs(CH2) vibrational-rotational peak making up most of the bacterial cell-wall content in C was monitored. Based on this evidence a mechanism suggested leading to CH bond stretching followed by cell lysis and cell death. Bacterial inactivation cycling was observed on TiO2-ZrO2-Cu showing the stability of these films leading to bacterial inactivation.

  16. Diversity of Streptococcus mutans strains in bacterial interspecies interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Ling, Junqi; Crielaard, Wim; Deng, Dong Mei

    2014-02-01

    Biofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial population adhere to each other and to surfaces. Compared to planktonic bacterial cells, biofilm cells show much higher levels of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to investigate Streptococcus mutans strain diversity in biofilm formation and chlorhexidine (CHX) resistance of single S. mutans and dual S. mutans-Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Four clinical S. mutans strains (C180-2, C67-1, HG723 and UA159) formed 24-h biofilms with or without an E. faecalis strain. These biofilms were treated for 10 min with 0.025% CHX. Biofilm formation, CHX resistance and S.mutans-E. faecalis interactions were evaluated by biomass staining, resazurin metabolism, viable count and competition agar assays. The main finding is that the presence of E. faecalis generally reduced all dual-species biofilm formation, but the proportions of S. mutans in the dual-species biofilms as well as CHX resistance displayed a clear S. mutans strain dependence. In particular, decreased resistance against CHX was observed in dual S. mutans C67-1 biofilms, while increased resistance was found in dual S. mutans UA159 biofilms. In conclusion, the interaction of S. mutans with E. faecalis in biofilms varies between strains, which underlines the importance of studying strain diversity in inter-species virulence modulation and biofilm antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  18. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in corn silage experimentally contaminated at ensiling, at silo opening, or after aerobic exposure, and protective effect of various bacterial inoculants.

    PubMed

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (10⁵ CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (10⁶ CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain.

  19. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    PubMed Central

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  20. Resistance and Inactivation Kinetics of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Non-Chlorinated and Chlorinated Effluents of a WWTP

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Hernández, Sylvia; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A.; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I.; Prieto-García, Francisco; Miranda-López, José M.; Franco-Abuín, Carlos M.; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Iturbe, Ulises; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains), Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains), Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains), Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1), contact time (0, 15 and 30 min) and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C). The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant at a temperature of 20 °C for 30 min. The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L−1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min). The results indicated that during the inactivation process, there was no relationship between removal percentage and retention time and that the strains have no common response to the treatments. PMID:23924881

  1. Transforming Microbial Genotyping: A Robotic Pipeline for Genotyping Bacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Vimalkumar; Murphy, Ronan A.; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of < €25 per strain. Since developing this pipeline, >200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost. PMID:23144721

  2. [Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain Isolated from Marine Environment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Li, Jin

    2016-02-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strain named y5 was isolated from marine environment by traditional microbial isolation method using seawater as medium. It was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on the morphological, physiological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate; the optimal pH was 7.0; and the optimal C/N was 17. The strain could use NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3 as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were77.07%, 64.14% and 100% after 36 hours, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 100% after 36 hours in the coexistence of NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3. The results showed that the strain y5 had independent and efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification activities in high salt wastewater.

  3. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Faron, Matthew L; Buchan, Blake W; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L; Granato, Paul A; Wilson, Deborah A; Procop, Gary W; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Faron, Matthew L.; Buchan, Blake W.; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L.; Granato, Paul A.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Procop, Gary W.; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26529504

  5. Aerobic degradation of mercaptosuccinate by the gram-negative bacterium Variovorax paradoxus strain B4.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Rodríguez, Irma; Stöveken, Nadine; Satola, Barbara; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Variovorax paradoxus strain B4 was isolated from soil under mesophilic and aerobic conditions to elucidate the so far unknown catabolism of mercaptosuccinate (MS). During growth with MS this strain released significant amounts of sulfate into the medium. Tn5::mob-induced mutagenesis was successfully employed and yielded nine independent mutants incapable of using MS as a carbon source. In six of these mutants, Tn5::mob insertions were mapped in a putative gene encoding a molybdenum (Mo) cofactor biosynthesis protein (moeA). In two further mutants the Tn5::mob insertion was mapped in the gene coding for a putative molybdopterin (MPT) oxidoreductase. In contrast to the wild type, these eight mutants also showed no growth on taurine. In another mutant a gene putatively encoding a 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (paaH2) was disrupted by transposon insertion. Upon subcellular fractionation of wild-type cells cultivated with MS as sole carbon and sulfur source, MPT oxidoreductase activity was detected in only the cytoplasmic fraction. Cells grown with succinate, taurine, or gluconate as a sole carbon source exhibited no activity or much lower activity. MPT oxidoreductase activity in the cytoplasmic fraction of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant Icr6 was 3-fold lower in comparison to the wild type. Therefore, a new pathway for MS catabolism in V. paradoxus strain B4 is proposed: (i) MPT oxidoreductase catalyzes the conversion of MS first into sulfinosuccinate (a putative organo-sulfur compound composed of succinate and a sulfino group) and then into sulfosuccinate by successive transfer of oxygen atoms, (ii) sulfosuccinate is cleaved into oxaloacetate and sulfite, and (iii) sulfite is oxidized to sulfate.

  6. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  7. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-09-30

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  8. Drug resistance analysis of bacterial strains isolated from burn patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, L F; Li, J L; Ma, W H; Li, J Y

    2014-01-22

    This study aimed to analyze the spectrum and drug resistance of bacteria isolated from burn patients to provide a reference for rational clinical use of antibiotics. Up to 1914 bacterial strain specimens isolated from burn patients admitted to hospital between 2001 and 2010 were subjected to resistance monitoring by using the K-B paper disk method. Retrospective analysis was performed on drug resistance analysis of burn patients. The top eight bacterium strains according to detection rate. A total of 1355 strains of Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria and 559 strains of Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria were detected. The top eight bacterium strains, according to detection rate, were Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus. Drug resistance rates were higher than 90% in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus, which accounted for 52.2, 21.7, 27.8, and 33.3%, respectively, of the entire sample. Those with drug resistance rates lower than 30% accounted for 4.3, 30.4, 16.7, and 16.7%, respectively. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) accounted for 49.2 and 76.4% of the S. epidermis and S. aureus resistance, respectively. Antibacterial drugs that had drug resistance rates to MRSE and MRSA higher than 90% accounted for 38.9 and 72.2%, respectively, whereas those with lower than 30% drug resistance rates accounted for 11.1 and 16.7%, respectively. The burn patients enrolled in the study were mainly infected with G(-) bacteria. These results strongly suggest that clinicians should practice rational use of antibiotics based on drug susceptibility test results.

  9. Inhibition of the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood of honeybees, by selected strains of aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from apiarian sources.

    PubMed

    Alippi, Adriana M; Reynaldi, Francisco J

    2006-03-01

    The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease of honeybee larvae, occurs throughout the world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. The potential as biocontrol agents of antagonic aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from honey samples and other apiarian sources were evaluated. Each isolate was screened against one strain of Paenibacillus larvae (ATCC 9545) by using a perpendicular streak technique. Ten randomly selected bacterial strains from the group that showed the best antagonistic effect to P. larvae ATCC 9545 were selected for further study. These were identified as Bacillus subtilis (m351), B. pumilus (m350), B. licheniformis (m347), B. cereus (mv33), B. cereus (m387), B. cereus (m6c), B. megaterium (m404), Brevibacillus laterosporus (BLAT169), B. laterosporus (BLAT170), and B. laterosporus (BLAT171). The antagonistic strains were tested against 17 P. larvae strains from different geographical origins by means of a spot test in wells. The analysis of variance and posterior comparison of means by Tukey method (P < 0.01) showed that the best antagonists were B. megaterium (m404), B. licheniformis (m347), B. cereus (m6c), B. cereus (mv33), and B. cereus (m387).

  10. Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Santisi, Santina; Cappello, Simone; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Mancini, Giuseppe; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2015-01-01

    Three bacterial isolates identified as Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, Rhodococcus erythropolis HS4 and Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, were isolated from crude oil enrichments of natural seawater. Single strains and four bacterial consortia designed by mixing the single bacterial cultures respectively in the following ratios: (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas, 1:1), (Alcanivorax: Rhodococcus, 1:1), (Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1), and (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1:1), were analyzed in order to evaluate their oil degrading capability. All experiments were carried out in microcosms systems containing seawater (with and without addition of inorganic nutrients) and crude oil (unique carbon source). Measures of total and live bacterial abundance, Card-FISH and quali-, quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons (GC-FID) were carried out in order to elucidate the co-operative action of mixed microbial populations in the process of biodegradation of crude oil. All data obtained confirmed the fundamental role of bacteria belonging to Alcanivorax genus in the degradation of linear hydrocarbons in oil polluted environments. PMID:26273252

  11. Bacterial community and groundwater quality changes in an anaerobic aquifer during groundwater recharge with aerobic recycled water.

    PubMed

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Morris, Christina; Shackelton, Mark; Patterson, Bradley M

    2013-09-01

    Managed aquifer recharge offers the opportunity to manage groundwater resources by storing water in aquifers when in surplus and thus increase the amount of groundwater available for abstraction during high demand. The Water Corporation of Western Australia (WA) is undertaking a Groundwater Replenishment Trial to evaluate the effects of recharging aerobic recycled water (secondary treated wastewater subjected to ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet disinfection) into the anaerobic Leederville aquifer in Perth, WA. Using culture-independent methods, this study showed the presence of Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, Cytophaga, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria, and a decrease in microbial diversity with an increase in depth of aquifer. Assessment of physico-chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater before and after recharge revealed that recharging the aquifer with aerobic recycled water resulted in elevated redox potentials in the aquifer and increased bacterial numbers, but reduced microbial diversity. The increase in bacterial numbers and reduced microbial diversity in groundwater could be a reflection of an increased denitrifier and sulfur-oxidizing populations in the aquifer, as a result of the increased availability of nitrate, oxygen, and residual organic matter. This is consistent with the geochemical data that showed pyrite oxidation and denitrification within the aquifer after recycled water recharge commenced.

  12. Studies on bacterial activities in aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification.

    PubMed

    Adamse, A D; Deinema, M H; Zehnder, A J

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of the bacteriology of aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification are discussed in view of current opinions and recent developments in the technology of waste water treatment. Various contributions of scientific workers attached to the Department of Microbiology of the Agricultural University, Wageningen, during the past 65 years are summarized. Besides, present investigations are described and research activities in future indicated.

  13. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, R. S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Robert L. Hettich; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-07-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13 21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.

  14. Modelling aerobic biodegradation in vertical flow sand filters: impact of operational considerations on oxygen transfer and bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Wanko, A; Laurent, J; Molle, P; Mosé, R; Sadowski, A

    2012-05-01

    Oxygen renewal, as a prominent phenomenon for aerobic bacterial activity, deeply impacts Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW) treatment efficiency. We introduce a multiphase model able to simulate multi-component transfer in VFCWs. It is based on a two-phase flow module, and a transport module. The flow module can quantify both water and air velocities throughout the filter during operation. The reactive transport module follows dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations, and the transport of solutes such as ammonium and readily biodegradable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). The consumption of components is governed by Monod-type kinetics. Heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria, which are responsible for COD and ammonium degradation respectively, are part of the model components. The kinetics are based on the Constructed Wetlands Model 1. The results from the simulation tool were compared with existing experimental data, and two kinds of operation with VFCWs were investigated. The authors show strong interplay between oxygen renewal and bacterial consumption in case of sequential batch feeding with transient flooding of surface. Oxygen renewal is essentially convection mediated in such operation, while convection is not significant in non-flooding operation. Simulated bacterial patterns are impacted by the operation, both quantitatively and spatially. From a modelling point of view, the authors highlight some limitations of the biological model: the description of bacterial lysis processes needs to be enhanced, as well as ammonium adsorption to organic matter.

  15. Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Sm3, Bacterial Antagonist of Pratylenchus penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Clemens; Muehlkchen, Andrea; Forge, Thomas; Vrain, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Sm3 and the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans was investigated in three separate greenhouse experiments with soils from southern British Columbia, Canada. The bacteria were applied to the roots of strawberry plants and planted in unpasteurized field soils, with natural or supplemented infestation of P. penetrans. Nematode suppression in roots was evident after 6 or 10 weeks in all experiments. Root or shoot growth were increased after 10 weeks in two experiments. Population dynamics of P. chlororaphis Sm3 in the rhizosphere was followed using an antibiotic-resistant mutant of P. chlororaphis Sm3. There was no apparent correlation between bacterial density in the rhizosphere and P. penetrans suppression in strawberry roots and rhizosphere soil, although the soil with the highest nematode reduction also had the largest P. chlororaphis Sm3 population in the rhizosphere. PMID:19270964

  16. Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments.

    PubMed

    Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Gorbushina, Anna; Fortune, Irene; Marquardt, Jürgen; Saarela, Maria

    2007-09-01

    Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 10(5) and 10(7)cfug(-1) substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. "vulgaris" (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.

  17. CAMBer: an approach to support comparative analysis of multiple bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a large amount of inconsistency in gene structure annotations of bacterial strains. This inconsistency is a frustrating impedance to effective comparative genomic analysis of bacterial strains in promising applications such as gaining insights into bacterial drug resistance. Results Here, we propose CAMBer as an approach to support comparative analysis of multiple bacterial strains. CAMBer produces what we called multigene families. Each multigene family reveals genes that are in one-to-one correspondence in the bacterial strains, thereby permitting their annotations to be integrated. We present results of our method applied to three human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions As a result, more accurate and more comprehensive annotations of the bacterial strains can be produced. PMID:21989220

  18. Selection and identification of bacterial strains with methyl-tert-butyl ether, ethyl-tert-butyl ether, and tert-amyl methyl ether degrading capacities.

    PubMed

    Purswani, Jessica; Pozo, Clementina; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; González-López, Jesús

    2008-11-01

    Nine bacterial strains isolated from two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were selected because of their capacity for growth in culture media amended with 200 mg/L of one of the following gasoline oxygenates: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). These strains were identified by amplification of their 16S rRNA gene, using fDl and rD1 primers, and were tested for their capacity to grow and biotransform these oxygenates in both mineral and cometabolic media. The isolates were classified as Bacillus simplex, Bacillus drentensis, Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter sp., Gordonia amicalis (two strains), Nocardioides sp., and Rhodococcus ruber. Arthrobacter sp. (strain MG) and A. calcoaceticus (strain M10) consumed 100 (cometabolic medium) and 82 mg/L (mineral medium) of oxygenate TAME in 21 d, respectively, under aerobic conditions. Rhodococcus ruber (strain E10) was observed to use MTBE and ETBE as the sole carbon and energy source, whereas G. amicalis (strain T3) used TAME as the sole carbon and energy source for growth. All the bacterial strains transformed oxygenates better in the presence of an alternative carbon source (ethanol) with the exception of A. calcoaceticus (strain M10). The capacity of the selected strains to remove MTBE, ETBE, and TAME looks promising for application in bioremediation technologies.

  19. Aerobic physiology of redox-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains modified in the ammonium assimilation for increased NADPH availability.

    PubMed

    Moreira dos Santos, Margarida; Thygesen, Gerda; Kötter, Peter; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-10-01

    Recombinant strains altered in the ammonium assimilation pathways were constructed with the purpose of increasing NADPH availability. The NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1, which accounts for a major fraction of the NADPH consumption during growth on ammonium, was deleted, and alternative pathways for ammonium assimilation were overexpressed: GDH2 (NADH-consuming) or GLN1 and GLT1 (the GS-GOGAT system). The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway during aerobic growth on glucose decreased to about half that of the reference strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, indicating a major redox alteration in the strains. The basic growth characteristics of the recombinant strains were not affected to a great extent, but the dilution rate at which the onset of aerobic fermentation occurred decreased, suggesting a relation between the onset of the Crabtree effect and the flux through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway downstream of glucose 6-phosphate. No redox effect was observed in a strain containing a deletion of GLR1, encoding glutathione reductase, an enzyme that is NADPH-consuming.

  20. Extremely 'vanadiphilic' multiply metal-resistant and halophilic aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, strains EG13 and EG8, from hypersaline springs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Csotonyi, J T; Maltman, C; Swiderski, J; Stackebrandt, E; Yurkov, V

    2015-01-01

    Two pinkish peach-colored strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria, EG13 and EG8, were isolated from a saline spring effluent stream in west central Manitoba, Canada. The strains possessed bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into a typical purple bacterial light-harvesting complex 1 (870 nm) and reaction center (801 nm). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated 100% identity among the isolates and 99% similarity to Roseovarius tolerans EL-172(T). The strains were physiologically well adapted to high salinity (0-22%), fluctuating pH (7-12) and temperature (7-40 °C) of the exposed hypersaline stream of East German Creek. EG8 and EG13 were also highly resistant to the toxic metal(loid) oxyanions tellurite, selenite and metavanadate (≥1000 μg/ml each). Most intriguingly, growth and pigment production of EG13 on glutamate minimal medium was stimulated by 1000-10000 μg/ml of sodium metavanadate compared to metal-free conditions. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic properties such as pigment composition and morphology indicate close relatedness to Roseovarius genus.

  1. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules.

  2. Incomplete aerobic degradation of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and identification of the bacterial dead-end transformation product Guanylurea.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as personal care products are detected in increasing prevalence in different environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater and soil. Still little is known about the environmental fate of these substances. The type II antidiabetic drug Metformin has already been detected in different surface waters worldwide, but concentrations were significantly lower than the corresponding predicted environmental concentration (PEC). In human and mammal metabolism so far no metabolites of Metformin have been identified, so the expected environmental concentrations should be very high. To assess the aerobic biodegradability of Metformin and the possible formation of degradation products, three Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test series were performed in the present study. In the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), a screening test that simulates the conditions of an environmental surface water compartment, Metformin was classified as not readily biodegradable (no biodegradation). In the Manometric Respiratory test (OEDC 301 F) working with high bacterial density, Metformin was biodegraded in one of three test bottles to 48.7% and in the toxicity control bottle to 57.5%. In the Zahn-Wellens test (OECD 302 B) using activated sludge, Metformin was biodegraded in both test vessels to an extent of 51.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) showed in the tests vessels were biodegradation was observed full elimination of Metformin and revealed Guanylurea (Amidinourea, Dicyandiamidine) as single and stable aerobic bacterial degradation product. In another Manometric Respiratory test Guanylurea showed no more transformation. Photodegradation of Guanylurea was also negative. A first screening in one of the greatest sewage treatment plant in southern Germany found Metformin with high concentrations

  3. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de

  4. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  5. Bacterial strains isolated from river water having the ability to split alcohol ethoxylates by central fission.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Irena; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a major component of the surfactant stream discharged into surface water. The "central fission" of AE with the formation of poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) is considered to be the dominant biodegradation pathway. However, information as to which bacterial strains are able to perform this reaction is very limited. The aim of this work was to establish whether such an ability is unique or common, and which bacterial strains are able to split AE used as a sole source of organic carbon. Four bacterial strains were isolated from river water and were identified on the basis of phylogenetic trees as Enterobacter strain Z2, Enterobacter strain Z3, Citrobacter freundii strain Z4, and Stenotrophomonas strain Z5. Sterilized river water and "artificial sewage" were used for augmentation of the isolated bacteria. The test was performed in bottles filled with a mineral salt medium spiked with surfactant C12E10 (10 mg L(-1)) and an inoculating suspension of the investigated bacterial strain. Sequential extraction of the tested samples by ethyl acetate and chloroform was used for separation of PEG from the water matrix. LC-MS was used for PEG determination on the basis of single-ion chromatograms. All four selected and investigated bacterial strains exhibit the ability to split fatty alcohol ethoxylates with the production of PEG, which is evidence that this property is a common one rather than specific to certain bacterial strains. However, this ability increases in the sequence: Stenotrophomonas strain Z5 < Enterobacter strain Z2 < Enterobacter strain Z3 = Citrobacter freundii strain Z4. Graphical Abstract Biodegradation by central fission of alcohol ethoxylates by bacterial strains isolated from river water.

  6. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    DOE PAGES

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, R. S.; Young, Jacque C.; ...

    2015-07-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13 21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains ofmore » Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.« less

  7. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, Ryan S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13–21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential. PMID:26191049

  8. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Qing-Song; Zhang, You-Bing; Guo, Mao-Wei; Gong, An-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Wu, Ai-Bo; Huang, Tao; Qu, Bo; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON). Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10) and temperatures (20–37 °C) values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation. PMID:27669304

  9. Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

    1981-05-01

    Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners.

  10. Aerobic Degradation of N-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline (MNA) by Pseudomonas sp. Strain FK357 Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Vyas, Bhawna; Pal, Deepika; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT) as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent) reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway. PMID:24116023

  11. Aerobic Degradation of Dinitrotoluenes and Pathway for Bacterial Degradation of 2,6- Dinitrotoluene.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    of 3M4NC, 9.8 t±mol of sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), and cell extract (0.1 been designated Alcaligenes sp. They are represented by strain to 0.5 mg of...protein) in a final volume of 1 ml. The molar extinction coefficients JS867 ( Alcaligenes denitrificans Biolog cluster) and strain JS871 of compounds X...cepacia Pseudomonas sp. 1; 1992 2,4 - + + PR7 Burkholderia cepacia Pseudomonas sp. 1; 1992 2,4 - + + JS850 Burkholderia cepacia None 3; 1995 2,6

  12. Bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products under aerobic conditions at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rongrong; Yu, Xiaoqiao; Wang, Renhuan; Luo, Xin; Mao, Yanwei; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzed the bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically at 4°C, using "bone and chicken string," a product popular in the People's Republic of China, as the study subject. Samples collected from three different factories were tray packaged with cling film and stored at 4°C. Bacterial diversity and dominant bacteria were analyzed using PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Combined with selective cultivation of the dominant bacteria and correlation analysis, the dominant spoilage microbiota was determined. The results showed that bacterial diversity varied with different manufacturers. Such bacteria as Acinetobacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Rahnella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix sp., and Weissella sp. were detected in freshly prepared chicken products during storage. And Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Brochothrix sp. bacteria were the common dominant spoilage bacteria groups in most freshly prepared chicken products from different factories. Carnobacterium was, for the first time, shown to be an important contributor to the spoilage-related microflora of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. Our work shows the bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage microbiota of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration.

  13. Rapid identification and discrimination of bacterial strains by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S; Moncayo, S; Navarro-Villoslada, F; Ayala, J A; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; de Villena, F J Manuel; Caceres, J O

    2014-04-01

    Identification and discrimination of bacterial strains of same species exhibiting resistance to antibiotics using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and neural networks (NN) algorithm is reported. The method has been applied to identify 40 bacterial strains causing hospital acquired infections (HAI), i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella pullurum and Salmonella salamae. The strains analyzed included both isolated from clinical samples and constructed in laboratory that differ in mutations as a result of their resistance to one or more antibiotics. Small changes in the atomic composition of the bacterial strains, as a result of their mutations and genetic variations, were detected by the LIBS-NN methodology and led to their identification and classification. This is of utmost importance because solely identification of bacterial species is not sufficient for disease diagnosis and identification of the actual strain is also required. The proposed method was successfully able to discriminate strains of the same bacterial species. The optimized NN models provided reliable bacterial strain identification with an index of spectral correlation higher than 95% for the samples analyzed, showing the potential and effectiveness of the method to address the safety and social-cost HAI-related issue.

  14. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. Results: The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively. PMID:26114142

  15. Screening of bacterial strains isolated from uranium mill tailings porewaters for bioremediation purposes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castro, Iván; Amador-García, Ahinara; Moreno-Romero, Cristina; López-Fernández, Margarita; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Nos, Jeremy; Descostes, Michael; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2017-01-01

    The present work characterizes at different levels a number of bacterial strains isolated from porewaters sampled in the vicinity of two French uranium tailing repositories. The 16S rRNA gene from 33 bacterial isolates, corresponding to the different morphotypes recovered, was almost fully sequenced. The resulting sequences belonged to 13 bacterial genera comprised in the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Further characterization at physiological level and metals/metalloid tolerance provided evidences for an appropriate selection of bacterial strains potentially useful for immobilization of uranium and other common contaminants. By using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM), this potential ability to immobilize uranium as U phosphate mineral phases was confirmed for the bacterial strains Br3 and Br5 corresponding to Arthrobacter sp. and Microbacterium oxydans, respectively. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope- High-Angle Annular Dark-Field (STEM-HAADF) analysis showed U accumulates on the surface and within bacterial cytoplasm, in addition to the extracellular space. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) element-distribution maps demonstrated the presence of U and P within these accumulates. These results indicate the potential of certain bacterial strains isolated from porewaters of U mill tailings for immobilizing uranium, likely as uranium phosphates. Some of these bacterial isolates might be considered as promising candidates in the design of uranium bioremediation strategies.

  16. The p-nitroaniline test to asses the bacterial microbiota of raw ground meat aerobically stored.

    PubMed

    López Tomás, L A; Ordóñez, J A; de Fernando, G García

    2006-02-01

    The previously developed p-nitroaniline test for assessing the microbial load of meat surfaces has been now adapted to determine the microbial quality of raw ground meat. A good correlation (r=0.91) between bacterial count determined by the pour plate method and the p-nitroaniline test was obtained. The sensitivity of the new method was of the order of magnitude of 10(4)cfu/g. This method allows the assay of ground meat in approximately 2.5h, it does not require expensive equipment and the results can be interpreted both spectrophotometrically and visually. Additionally, it has been proven that the method is useful in estimating the microbial quality of raw meat irrespective of the species of Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria prevailing in the meat during refrigerated storage.

  17. Characterization of a Planctomycetal Organelle: a Novel Bacterial Microcompartment for the Aerobic Degradation of Plant Saccharides

    PubMed Central

    Erbilgin, Onur; McDonald, Kent L.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles that encapsulate functionally linked enzymes within a proteinaceous shell. The prototypical example is the carboxysome, which functions in carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophs. It is increasingly apparent that diverse heterotrophic bacteria contain BMCs that are involved in catabolic reactions, and many of the BMCs are predicted to have novel functions. However, most of these putative organelles have not been experimentally characterized. In this study, we sought to discover the function of a conserved BMC gene cluster encoded in the majority of the sequenced planctomycete genomes. This BMC is especially notable for its relatively simple genetic composition, its remote phylogenetic position relative to characterized BMCs, and its apparent exclusivity to the enigmatic Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes. Members of the phylum Planctomycetes are known for their morphological dissimilarity to the rest of the bacterial domain: internal membranes, reproduction by budding, and lack of peptidoglycan. As a result, they are ripe for many discoveries, but currently the tools for genetic studies are very limited. We expanded the genetic toolbox for the planctomycetes and generated directed gene knockouts of BMC-related genes in Planctomyces limnophilus. A metabolic activity screen revealed that BMC gene products are involved in the degradation of a number of plant and algal cell wall sugars. Among these sugars, we confirmed that BMCs are formed and required for growth on l-fucose and l-rhamnose. Our results shed light on the functional diversity of BMCs as well as their ecological role in the planctomycetes, which are commonly associated with algae. PMID:24487526

  18. Aerobic degradation of ibuprofen in batch and continuous reactors by an indigenous bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, María Susana; Fuentes Abril, Nancy Piedad; Martinefski, Manuela; Trípodi, Valeria; Papalia, Mariana; Rádice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith

    2016-10-01

    Water from six points from the Riachuelo-Matanza basin was analyzed in order to assess ibuprofen biodegradability. In four of them biodegradation of ibuprofen was proved and degrading bacterial communities were isolated. Biodegradation in each point could not be correlated with sewage pollution. The indigenous bacterial community isolated from the point localized in the La Noria Bridge showed the highest degradative capacity and was selected to perform batch and continuous degradation assays. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the community consisted of Comamonas aquatica and Bacillus sp. In batch assays the community was capable of degrading 100 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen in 33 h, with a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.21 h(-1). The removal of the compound, as determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exceeded 99% of the initial concentration, with a 92.3% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In a down-flow fixed-bed continuous reactor, the community shows a removal efficiency of 95.9% of ibuprofen and 92.3% of COD for an average inlet concentration of 110.4 mg. The reactor was kept in operation for 70 days. The maximal removal rate for the compound was 17.4 g m(-3) d(-1). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe biofilm development in the reactor. The ability of the isolated indigenous community can be exploited to improve the treatment of wastewaters containing ibuprofen.

  19. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  20. Hydrolysis of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and their aerobic transformation into phenol by the resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain EM.

    PubMed

    Valkova, N; Lépine, F; Valeanu, L; Dupont, M; Labrie, L; Bisaillon, J G; Beaudet, R; Shareck, F; Villemur, R

    2001-06-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain EM was isolated from a commercial dietary mineral supplement stabilized by a mixture of methylparaben and propylparaben. It harbored a high-molecular-weight plasmid and was resistant to high concentrations of parabens. Strain EM was able to grow in liquid media containing similar amounts of parabens as found in the mineral supplement (1,700 and 180 mg of methyl and propylparaben, respectively, per liter or 11.2 and 1.0 mM) and in very high concentrations of methylparaben (3,000 mg liter(-1), or 19.7 mM). This strain was able to hydrolyze approximately 500 mg of methyl-, ethyl-, or propylparaben liter(-1) (3 mM) in less than 2 h in liquid culture, and the supernatant of a sonicated culture, after a 30-fold dilution, was able to hydrolyze 1,000 mg of methylparaben liter(-1) (6.6 mM) in 15 min. The first step of paraben degradation was the hydrolysis of the ester bond to produce 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, followed by a decarboxylation step to produce phenol under aerobic conditions. The transformation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid into phenol was stoichiometric. The conversion of approximately 500 mg of parabens liter(-1) (3 mM) to phenol in liquid culture was completed within 5 h without significant hindrance to the growth of strain EM, while higher concentrations of parabens partially inhibited its growth.

  1. Identification of Electrode Respiring, Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacterial Strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MK2 Highlights the Untapped Potential for Environmental Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-01-01

    Electrode respiring bacteria (ERB) possess a great potential for many biotechnological applications such as microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS) because of their exoelectrogenic capabilities to degrade xenobiotic pollutants. Very few ERB have been isolated from MERS, those exhibited a bioremediation potential toward organic contaminants. Here we report once such bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MK2, a facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated from a hydrocarbon fed MERS, showed a potent hydrocarbonoclastic behavior under aerobic and anaerobic environments. Distinct properties of the strain MK2 were anaerobic fermentation of the amino acids, electrode respiration, anaerobic nitrate reduction and the ability to metabolize n-alkane components (C8–C36) of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) including the biomarkers, pristine and phytane. The characteristic of diazoic dye decolorization was used as a criterion for pre-screening the possible electrochemically active microbial candidates. Bioelectricity generation with concomitant dye decolorization in MERS showed that the strain is electrochemically active. In acetate fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs), maximum current density of 273 ± 8 mA/m2 (1000 Ω) was produced (power density 113 ± 7 mW/m2) by strain MK2 with a coulombic efficiency of 34.8%. Further, the presence of possible alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB and rubA) in the strain MK2 indicated that the genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation are of diverse origin. Such observations demonstrated the potential of facultative hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated environments. Identification of such a novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading ERB is likely to offer a new route to the sustainable bioremedial process of source zone contamination with simultaneous energy generation through MERS. PMID:28018304

  2. Lysozyme-coated silver nanoparticles for differentiating bacterial strains on the basis of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Chatha, Mariyam Asghar; Ejaz, Wardah; Janjua, Hussnain Ahmed; Hussain, Irshad

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles adopting various strategies. The synthesized particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM to observe their morphology and surface chemistry. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species and various bacterial strains within the same species. The cationic silver nanoparticles were found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 compared to other bacterial species/strains investigated. Some of the bacterial strains of the same species showed variable antibacterial activity. The difference in antimicrobial activity of these particles has led to the conclusion that antimicrobial products formed from silver nanoparticles may not be equally effective against all the bacteria. This difference in the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles for different bacterial strains from the same species may be due to the genome islands that are acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These genome islands are expected to possess some genes that may encode enzymes to resist the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles may thus also be used to differentiate some bacterial strains within the same species due to variable silver resistance of these variants, which may not possible by simple biochemical tests.

  3. Lysozyme-coated silver nanoparticles for differentiating bacterial strains on the basis of antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles adopting various strategies. The synthesized particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM to observe their morphology and surface chemistry. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species and various bacterial strains within the same species. The cationic silver nanoparticles were found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 compared to other bacterial species/strains investigated. Some of the bacterial strains of the same species showed variable antibacterial activity. The difference in antimicrobial activity of these particles has led to the conclusion that antimicrobial products formed from silver nanoparticles may not be equally effective against all the bacteria. This difference in the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles for different bacterial strains from the same species may be due to the genome islands that are acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These genome islands are expected to possess some genes that may encode enzymes to resist the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles may thus also be used to differentiate some bacterial strains within the same species due to variable silver resistance of these variants, which may not possible by simple biochemical tests. PMID:25435831

  4. Risk factors for aerobic bacterial conjunctival flora in preoperative cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, S; Hashida, M; Urabe, K

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo investigate the relationship between the background of preoperative cataract patients and bacterial conjunctival flora.MethodsA total of 990 cataract patients who had completed preoperative examinations in 2007 and 2008 were included. Patients using topical antibiotics at the preoperative examination or having a history of intraocular surgery were excluded. Conjunctival cultures had been preoperatively obtained. Patient characteristics were investigated via medical records. Risk factors for conjunctival flora of seven typical bacteria were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsThe detection rate of alpha-hemolytic streptococci and Enterococcus faecalis increased with age (P=0.044 and P=0.002, respectively). The detection rate of Gram-negative bacilli was higher among patients with oral steroid use or lacrimal duct obstruction (P=0.038 and P=0.002, respectively). The detection rate of Corynebacterium species was higher among older patients and men, and lower among patients with glaucoma eye drop use (P<0.001, P=0.012 and P=0.001, respectively). The detection rate of methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative Staphylococci was higher among men and lower among patients with a surgical history in other departments (P=0.003 and P=0.046, respectively). The detection rate of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MR-CNS) was higher among patients with oral steroid use, a visit history to ophthalmic facilities, or a surgical history in other departments (P=0.002, P=0.037 and P<0.001, respectively).ConclusionsElderly patients, men, patients with lacrimal duct obstruction or immunosuppressed patients are more likely to be colonized by pathogens that cause postoperative endophthalmitis. Moreover, MR-CNS colonization was associated with healthcare-associated infection.

  5. Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Hanada, Satoshi; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kim, Hongik; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

    2003-07-01

    A phylogenetically novel aerobic bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic-aerobic sequential batch reactor operated under enhanced biological phosphorus removal conditions for wastewater treatment. The isolation strategy used targeted slowly growing polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria by combining low-speed centrifugations and prolonged incubation on a low-nutrient medium. The isolate, designated strain T-27T, was a gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobe. Cells often appeared to divide by budding replication. Strain T-27T grew at 25-35 degrees C with an optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C, whilst no growth was observed below 20 degrees C or above 37 degrees C within 20 days incubation. The pH range for growth was 6.5-9.5, with an optimum at pH 7.0. Strain T-27T was able to utilize a limited range of substrates, such as yeast extract, polypepton, succinate, acetate, gelatin and benzoate. Neisser staining was positive and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells displayed a yellow fluorescence, indicative of polyphosphate inclusions. Menaquinone 9 was the major respiratory quinone. The cellular fatty acids of the strain were mainly composed of iso-C15:0, C16:1 and C14:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 66 mol%. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain T-27T belongs to candidate division BD (also called KS-B), a phylum-level lineage in the bacterial domain, to date comprised exclusively of environmental 16S rDNA clone sequences. Here, a new genus and species are proposed, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (type strain T-27T=JCM 11422T=DSM 14586T) gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. Environmental sequence data indicate that this phylum is widespread in nature and has a phylogenetic breadth (19% 16S rDNA sequence divergence) that is greater than well-known phyla such as the Actinobacteria (18% divergence).

  6. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages.

  7. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages

  8. Probiotic Activity of a Bacterial Strain Isolated from Ancient Permafrost Against Salmonella Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fursova, O; Potapov, V; Brouchkov, A; Pogorelko, G; Griva, G; Fursova, N; Ignatov, S

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus cereus strain F, collected from relict permafrost located in Siberia, was analyzed for probiotic activity in the mouse Salmonella enterica model. Viable bacterial cells were found in frozen soils taken at Mammoth Mountain in Yakutia from a depth below the level of seasonal thawing. Geological data indicated the absence of a thawing within millions of years of deposited soils, which helped to ensure the ancient origin of our sample. According to DNA analysis, bacterial cells collected from the relict permafrost appeared to be B. cereus strain F. The morphology of these bacteria was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. B. cereus strain F was assessed as a nonpathogenic bacterium by evaluation of its pathogenicity. A S. enterica model is described in mice after per oral inoculation and serves as a model for the human carrier state. Using this model, probiotic activity by the bacterial strain isolated from the ancient permafrost has been shown against Salmonella infection in mice.

  9. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of high-strength ammonium in anaerobically digested sludge by Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 which is capable of heterogeneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification, was used to remove high-strength ammonium (approximately 1 g NH4(+)-N/l) from digested sludge, the product of an anaerobic digestion reactor, in which methane was produced from excess municipal sewage sludge. Repeated batch operations were conducted at 20°C and 30°C for 550 h, using a jar fermentor. The removal ratios of high-strength ammonium reached 90-100% within 24 h, and the average ammonium removal rate was 2.9 kg-N/m(3)/day, more than 200 times higher than that in conventional nitrification-denitrification processes. During these operations, the cell density was maintained at 10(8)-10(9) cells of A. faecalis strain No. 4/ml. At 3% NaCl in the digested sludge, strain No. 4 exhibited an ammonium removal rate of 3 kg-N/m(3)/day.

  10. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature–pH–salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jesse P.; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. PMID:26354829

  11. Permissivity of the biphenyl-specific aerobic bacterial metabolic pathway towards analogues with various steric requirements.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; Standfuß-Gabisch, Christine; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Reichelt, Joachim; Wray, Victor; Hofer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenases do not possess a very high substrate specificity. To gain more insight into this phenomenon, we examined two powerful biphenyl dioxygenases, the well-known wild-type enzyme from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphA-LB400) and a hybrid enzyme, based on a dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. B4-Magdeburg (BphA-B4h), for their abilities to dioxygenate a selection of eight biphenyl analogues in which the second aromatic ring was replaced by aliphatic as well as aliphatic/aromatic moieties, reflecting a variety of steric requirements. Interestingly, both enzymes were able to catalyse transformation of almost all of these compounds. While the products formed were identical, major differences were observed in transformation rates. In most cases, BphA-B4h proved to be a significantly more powerful catalyst than BphA-LB400. NMR characterization of the reaction products showed that the metabolite obtained from biphenylene underwent angular dioxygenation, whereas all other compounds were subject to lateral dioxygenation at ortho and meta carbons. Subsequent growth studies revealed that both dioxygenase source strains were able to utilize several of the biphenyl analogues as sole sources of carbon and energy. Therefore, prototype BphBCD enzymes of the biphenyl degradative pathway were examined for their ability to further catabolize the lateral dioxygenation products. All of the ortho- and meta-hydroxylated compounds were converted to acids, showing that this pathway is quite permissive, enabling catalysis of the turnover of a fairly wide variety of metabolites.

  12. How Fitness Reduced, Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria Survive and Spread: A Multiple Pig - Multiple Bacterial Strain Model

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2014-01-01

    More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given that there are multiple susceptible and resistant bacterial strains in the pig intestines, how can we describe their coexistence? To what extent does the composition of these multiple strains in individual pigs influence the total bacterial population of the pig pen? What happens to a complex population when antimicrobials are used? To investigate these questions, we created a model where multiple strains of bacteria coexist in the intestines of pigs sharing a pen, and explored the parameter limits of a stable system; both with and without an antimicrobial treatment. The approach taken is a deterministic bacterial population model with stochastic elements of bacterial distributions and transmission. The rates that govern the model are process-oriented to represent growth, excretion, and uptake from environment, independent of herd and meta-population structures. Furthermore, an entry barrier and elimination process for the individual strains in each pig were implemented. We demonstrate how competitive growth between multiple bacterial strains in individual pigs, and the transmission between pigs in a pen allow for strains of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to persist in a pig population to different extents, and how quickly they can become dominant if antimicrobial treatment is initiated. The level of spread depends in a non-linear way of the parameters that govern excretion and uptake. Furthermore, the sampling of initial distributions of strains and stochastic transmission events give rise to large variation in how homogenous and how resistant the bacterial population becomes. Most important: resistant bacteria are demonstrated to survive with a disadvantage in growth rate of well over 10

  13. Breeding lines and host QTL interaction with bacterial strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB) is controlled by more than 20 QTL (Miklas and Singh, 2007). A QTL on Pv10 linked to SAP6 SCAR markers is derived from common bean. Higher levels of resistance associated with BC420 QTL on Pv06 (Yu et al., 2000) and SU91-CG11 QTL on Pv08 (Pedraza et al., 20...

  14. Nitric oxide levels regulate the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster reference laboratory strains to bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains.

  15. Nitric Oxide Levels Regulate the Immune Response of Drosophila melanogaster Reference Laboratory Strains to Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains. PMID:25047850

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus mongoliensis Strain MB4, a Sulfur-Utilizing Aerobic Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Tattapani, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Parul; Saxena, Rituja

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anoxybacillus mongoliensis strain MB4, an aerobic thermophile, was isolated from a hot spring located in central India. Its first draft genome sequence reported in this study comprises 2,807,516 bp and 2,853 protein-coding genes. Detailed genomic analysis indicates that it is capable of performing sulfur metabolism. PMID:28254979

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus mongoliensis Strain MB4, a Sulfur-Utilizing Aerobic Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Tattapani, Central India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Parul; Saxena, Rituja; Sharma, Vineet K

    2017-03-02

    Anoxybacillus mongoliensis strain MB4, an aerobic thermophile, was isolated from a hot spring located in central India. Its first draft genome sequence reported in this study comprises 2,807,516 bp and 2,853 protein-coding genes. Detailed genomic analysis indicates that it is capable of performing sulfur metabolism.

  18. Raman discrimination of bacterial strains using multilayered microcavity substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shiv K.; Dykes, Ava C.; Misra, Anupam K.; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Bates, David E.

    2011-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) utilizing colloidal silver and gold has been demonstrated to provide a rapid means of measuring the Raman spectra of microorganisms in the fingerprint region. In this study, we have introduced microcavity substrates coated with alternating layers of silver and gold thin films for measuring the Raman spectra of four strains of E. coli. These microcavitiy substrates have been prepared by placing glass microspheres between two polished aluminum substrates and pressing them together using a standard lab press. After removing the glass microspheres from the substrates, the substrates have been coated with 15 to 70 nm thick films of chromium, silver and gold in a precise order. The cavities were evaluated for SERS enhancement by measuring Raman spectra of dilute rhodamine 6G (R6G) down to 10-8 M. With these microcavities, we have investigated the SERS spectra of four chemically competent strains of E. coli (One Shot OmniMAX 2-T1, Mach1-T1, Stbl3, and TOP10). Replicate SERS spectra of all the four e-coli strains show excellent reproducibility. Visual examination of the spectra, however, reveals differences in the spectra of these strains. To confirm this observation, we have used multivariate analysis for positive identification and discrimination between the strains.

  19. Engineering of bacterial strains and their products for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Nuno; Chakrabarty, Ananda M; Fialho, Arsenio M

    2013-06-01

    The use of live bacteria in cancer therapies offers exciting possibilities. Nowadays, an increasing number of genetically engineered bacteria are emerging in the field, with applications both in therapy and diagnosis. In parallel, purified bacterial products are also gaining relevance as new classes of bioactive products to treat and prevent cancer growth and metastasis. In the first part of the article, we review the latest findings regarding the use of live bacteria and products as anti-cancer agents, paying special attention to immunotoxins, proteins, and peptides. In particular, we focus on the recent results of using azurin or its derived peptide as anticancer therapeutic agents. In the second part, we discuss the challenges of using metagenomic techniques as a distinctive approach for discovering new anti-cancer agents from bacterial origin.

  20. Comparative biocidal activity of peracetic acid, benzalkonium chloride and ortho-phthalaldehyde on 77 bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Bridier, A; Briandet, R; Thomas, V; Dubois-Brissonnet, F

    2011-07-01

    Despite numerous reports on biocide activities, it is often difficult to have a reliable and relevant overview of bacterial resistance to disinfectants because each work challenges a limited number of strains and tested methods are often different. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of three different disinfectants commonly used in industrial or medical environments (peracetic acid, benzalkonium chloride and ortho-phthalaldehyde) against 77 bacterial strains from different origins using one standard test method (NF EN 1040). Results highlight the existence of high interspecific variability of resistance to disinfectants and, contrary to widespread belief, Gram-positive strains generally appeared more resistant than Gram-negative strains. Resistance was also variable among strains of the same species such as Bacillus subtilis to peracetic acid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa to benzalkonium chloride and Staphylococcus aureus to ortho-phthalaldehyde.

  1. Characteristics of bacterial strains inhabiting the wood of coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Julitta; Miszczyk, Anita; Markiewicz, Zdzisław

    2004-01-01

    The presented studies embraced samples of wood chips from coniferous trees which contained layers of duramen, alburnum and bark. Microbiological analysis involved qualitative and quantitative determination of bacterial flora inhabiting the studied wood material. The wood chips were found to contain primarily species belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. The presence of the potentially pathogenic species Bacillus cereus 1, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Aeromonas salmonicida and Chryseomonas luteola was also demonstrated.

  2. [BACILLUS STRAINS'S SCREENING--ACTIVE ANTAGONISTS OF BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL PHYTOPATHOGENS].

    PubMed

    Grabova, A Yu; Dragovoz, I V; Kruchkova, L A; Pasichnik, L A; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Antagonistic activity 100 strains of Bacillus bacteria towards to museum and actual strains of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungy was defined. Relation between level of antagonistic activity to phytopathogenic bacteria and genus accessory of the last was shown. The medium level of antagonism to fungal phytopathogens at 30% of the studied strains of Bacillus bacteria was shown. 5 strains of Bacillus sp. with high and medium levels of antagonism to phytopathogens bacterial and fungy nature was selected and considered as perspective for creation of biological preparations for plant protection.

  3. Specificity of monoclonal antibodies to strains of Dickeya sp. that cause bacterial heart rot of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Gabriel D; Kaneshiro, Wendy S; Luu, Van; Berestecky, John M; Alvarez, Anne M

    2010-10-01

    During a severe outbreak of bacterial heart rot that occurred in pineapple plantations on Oahu, Hawaii, in 2003 and years following, 43 bacterial strains were isolated from diseased plants or irrigation water and identified as Erwinia chrysanthemi (now Dickeya sp.) by phenotypic, molecular, and pathogenicity assays. Rep-PCR fingerprint patterns grouped strains from pineapple plants and irrigation water into five genotypes (A-E) that differed from representatives of other Dickeya species, Pectobacterium carotovorum and other enteric saprophytes isolated from pineapple. Monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of mice with virulent type C Dickeya sp. showed only two specificities. MAb Pine-1 (2D11G1, IgG1 with kappa light chain) reacted to all 43 pineapple/water strains and some reference strains (D. dianthicola, D. chrysanthemi, D. paradisiaca, some D. dadantii, and uncharacterized Dickeya sp.) but did not react to reference strains of D. dieffenbachiae, D. zeae, or one of the two Malaysian pineapple strains. MAb Pine-2 (2A7F2, IgG3 with kappa light chain) reacted to all type B, C, and D strains but not to any A or E strains or any reference strains except Dickeya sp. isolated from Malaysian pineapple. Pathogenicity tests showed that type C strains were more aggressive than type A strains when inoculated during cool months. Therefore, MAb Pine-2 distinguishes the more virulent type C strains from less virulent type A pineapple strains and type E water strains. MAbs with these two specificities enable development of rapid diagnostic tests that will distinguish the systemic heart rot pathogen from opportunistic bacteria associated with rotted tissues. Use of the two MAbs in field assays also permits the monitoring of a known subpopulation and provides additional decision tools for disease containment and management practices.

  4. Pilot Screening to Determine Antimicrobial Synergies in a Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strain Library

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Chulmin; Chun, Hye-Sun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    With the rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, there has been increasing interest in combinations of ≥2 antimicrobial agents with synergistic effects. We established an MDR bacterial strain library to screen for in vitro antimicrobial synergy by using a broth microdilution checkerboard method and high-throughput luciferase-based bacterial cell viability assay. In total, 39 MDR bacterial strains, including 23 carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, 9 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, were used to screen for potential antimicrobial synergies. Synergies were more frequently identified with combinations of imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the library. To verify this finding, we tested 34 A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to both imipenem and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole by the checkerboard method. The imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole combination showed synergy in the treatment of 21 (62%) of the clinical isolates. The results indicate that pilot screening for antimicrobial synergy in the MDR bacterial strain library could be valuable in the selection of combination therapeutic regimens to treat MDR bacterial infections. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this screening system can be useful to screen for the combined effects of conventional antimicrobials and new-generation antimicrobials or nonantimicrobials. PMID:26974861

  5. The Use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Distinguishing Between Bacterial Pathogen Species and Strains

    PubMed Central

    Multari, Rosalie A.; Cremers, David A.; Dupre, Joanne M.; Gustafson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in a blind study to successfully differentiate bacterial pathogens, both species and strain. The pathogens used for the study were chosen and prepared by one set of researchers. The LIBS data were collected and analyzed by another set of researchers. The latter researchers had no knowledge of the sample identities other than that (1) the first five of fifteen samples were unique (not replicates) and (2) the remaining ten samples consisted of two replicates of each of the first five samples. Using only chemometric analysis of the LIBS data, the ten replicate bacterial samples were successfully matched to each of the first five samples. The results of this blind study show it is possible to differentiate the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli, three clonal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, and one unrelated MRSA strain using LIBS. This is an important finding because it demonstrates that LIBS can be used to determine bacterial pathogen species within a defined sample set and can be used to differentiate between clonal relationships among strains of a single multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. Such a capability is important for the development of LIBS instruments for use in medical, water, and food safety applications. PMID:20615288

  6. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus sp. for kraft lignin decolorization from pulp paper mill waste.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Singh, Shail; Krishna Reddy, M M; Patel, D K; Purohit, Hemant J; Kapley, Atya

    2008-12-01

    Eight aerobic bacterial strains were isolated from pulp paper mill waste and screened for tolerance of kraft lignin (KL) using the nutrient enrichment technique in mineral salt media (MSM) agar plate (15 g/L) amended with different concentrations of KL (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 ppm) along with 1% glucose and 0.5% peptone (w/v) as additional carbon and nitrogen sources. The strains ITRC S6 and ITRC S8 were found to have the most potential for tolerance of the highest concentration of KL. These organisms were characterized by biochemical tests and further 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequencing, which showed 96.5% and 95% sequence similarity of ITRC S(6) and ITRC S(8) and confirmed them as Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively. KL decolorization was routinely monitored with a spectrophotometer and further confirmed by HPLC analysis. Among eight strains, ITRC S(6) and ITRC S(8) were found to degrade 500 mg/L of KL up to 47.97% and 65.58%, respectively, within 144 h of incubation in the presence of 1% glucose and 0.5% (w/v) peptone as a supplementary source of carbon and nitrogen. In the absence of glucose and peptone, these bacteria were unable to utilize KL. The analysis of lignin degradation products by GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of various acids as lignin monomers which resulted in a decrease in pH and a major change in the chromatographic profile of the bacterial degraded sample as compared to the control clear indications of biochemical modification of KL due to the bacterial ligninolytic system by ITRC S(6), namely, acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, guaiacol, hexanoic acid, and ITRC S(8), namely acetic acid, propanoic acid, ethanedioic acid, furan carboxylic acid, 2-propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-acetoxybutyric acid, propanedioic acid, acetoguiacone, 1,2,3-thiadiazole, 5-carboxaldixime, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenol, and dibutyl phthalate, indicating the bacterium characteristic to degrade G and S units of lignin polymer.

  7. Cloacal aerobic bacterial flora and absence of viruses in free-living slow worms (Anguis fragilis), grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and European Adders (Vipera berus) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Mock, Ronja; Burgkhardt, Eileen; Junghanns, Anja; Ortlieb, Falk; Szabo, Istvan; Marschang, Rachel; Blindow, Irmgard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Disease problems caused by viral or bacterial pathogens are common in reptiles kept in captivity. There is no information available on the incidence of viral pathogens or the physiological cloacal bacterial flora of common free-living reptiles in Germany. Therefore, 56 free-living reptiles including 23 European adders (Vipera berus), 12 grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and 21 slow worms (Anguis fragilis) were investigated on the island Hiddensee in northeastern Germany. Pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken immediately after capture. Bacteriological examination was performed from the cloacal swabs to study the aerobic cloacal flora. Molecular biological examination included amplification of DNA or RNA from adeno-, rana- and ferlaviruses as well as culturing on Russell's viper heart cells for virus isolation. Salmonella spp. were isolated from European adders but not from the other reptiles examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined from the isolated Salmonella spp. However, some potentially human pathogenic bacteria, such as Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were isolated. Viruses were not detected in any of the examined reptiles. To the authors' best knowledge, the present study is the first survey of viral pathogens in free-living snakes and slow worms in Germany and the first survey of cloacal aerobic bacterial flora of slow worms.

  8. [Construction and evaluation of an engineered bacterial strain for producing lipopeptide under anoxic conditions].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-long; Zhao, Feng; Shi, Rong-jiu; Ban, Yun-he; Zhou, Ji-dong; Han, Si-qin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Biosurfactant-facilitated oil recovery is one of the most important aspects of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, the biosurfactant production by biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, most of which are aerobes, is severely suppressed due to the in-situ anoxic conditions within oil reservoirs. In this research, we successfully engineered a strain JD-3, which could grow rapidly and produce lipopeptide under anoxic conditions, by protoplast confusion using a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BQ-2 which produces biosurfactant aerobically, and a facultative anaerobic Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DQ-1 as parent strains. The alignment of 16S rDNA sequence (99% similarity) and comparisons of cell colony morphology showed that fusant JD-3 was closer to the parental strain B. amyloliquefaciens BQ-2. The surface tension of culture broth of fusant JD-3, after 36-hour cultivation under anaerobic conditions, decreased from initially 63.0 to 32.5 mN · m(-1). The results of thin layer chromatography and infrared spectrum analysis demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by JD-3 was lipopeptide. The surface-active lipopeptide had a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 90 mg · L(-1) and presented a good ability to emulsify various hydrocarbons such as crude oil, liquid paraffin, and kerosene. Strain JD-3 could utilize peptone as nitrogen source and sucrose, glucose, glycerin or other common organics as carbon sources for anaerobic lipopeptide synthesis. The subculture of fusant JD-3 showed a stable lipopeptide-producing ability even after ten serial passages. All these results indicated that fusant JD-3 holds a great potential to microbially enhance oil recovery under anoxic conditions.

  9. Transport processes and mutual interactions of three bacterial strains in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, Christine; Lawrence, John R.; Hendry, M. Jim; Maloszewski, Pitor

    2010-05-01

    Transport processes of the bacterial strains Klebsiella oxytoca, Burkholderia cepacia G4PR-1 and Pseudomonas sp #5 were investigated in saturated column experiments to study the differences in transport characteristics and the mutual interactions of these strains during transport. Soil column experiments (114 mm long x 33 mm in diameter) were conducted with constant water velocities (3.9-5.7 cm/h) through a medium to coarse grained silica sand. All experiments were performed in freshly packed columns in quadruplicate. Chloride was used as tracer to determine the mean transit time, dispersivity and flow rate. It was injected as a pulse into the columns together with the bacterial strains suspended in artificial groundwater medium. In the first setup, each strain was investigated alone. In the second setup, transport processes were performed injecting two strains simultaneously. Finally, the transport characteristics were studied in successive experiments when one bacterium was resident on the sand grains prior to the introduction of the second strain. In all experiments the peak C/Co bacterial concentrations were attenuated with respect to the conservative tracer chloride and a well defined tailing was observed. A one dimensional mathematical model for advective-dispersive transport that accounts for irreversible and reversible sorption was used to analyze the bacterial breakthrough curves and tailing patterns. It was shown that the sorption parameters were different for the three strains that can be explained by the properties of the bacteria. For the species Klebsiella oxytoca and Burkholderia cepacia G4PR-the transport parameters were mostly in the same range independent of the experimental setup. However, Pseudomonas sp #5, which is a motile bacterium, showed differences in the breakthrough curves and sorption parameters during the experiments. The simultaneous and successive experiments indicated an influence on the reversible sorption processes when another

  10. Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

    2011-10-01

    An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, i17 : 0 and ai17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2 % (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) ( = DSM 23976(T) = ICMP 18418(T)).

  11. Degradation of Cyanophycin by Sedimentibacter hongkongensis Strain KI and Citrobacter amalonaticus Strain G Isolated from an Anaerobic Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Obst, Martin; Krug, Andreas; Luftmann, Heinrich; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Using a combination of various enrichment techniques, the strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium Sedimentibacter hongkongensis strain KI as revealed by 16S rRNA analysis and the gram-negative enterobacterium Citrobacter amalonaticus strain G as revealed by physiological tests were isolated from an anaerobic cyanophycin (CGP)-degrading bacterial consortium. S. hongkongensis strain KI is the first anaerobic bacterium with the ability to hydrolyze CGP to β-Asp-Arg and β-Asp-Lys dipeptides, as revealed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. However, these primary accumulated hydrolysis products were only partially used by S. hongkongensis strain KI, and significant growth on CGP did not occur. On the other hand, C. amalonaticus strain G did not degrade CGP but grew on the β-linked iso-dipeptides formed in vitro by enzymatic CGP degradation or in vivo by metabolic activity of S. hongkongensis strain KI. Dipeptide utilization occurred at the highest rate if both strains were used in cocultivation experiments with CGP, indicating that cooperation between different bacteria occurs in anaerobic natural environments for complete CGP turnover. The amino acids obtained from the cleavage of dipeptides were fermented to ethanol, acetic acid, and succinic acid, as revealed by gas chromatographic analysis and by spectrophotometric enzyme assays. PMID:16000772

  12. Genome sequence of the aerobic bacterium Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guohong; Liu, Bo; Lin, Naiquan; Tang, Weiqi; Tang, Jianyang; Lin, Yingzhi

    2012-12-01

    Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%.

  13. Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain FJAT-13831

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohong; Lin, Naiquan; Tang, Weiqi; Tang, Jianyang; Lin, Yingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%. PMID:23144388

  14. Biodegradation of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan by bacterial strain Alcaligenes faecalis JBW4.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingfen; Zhu, Shaoyuan; Zhu, Lusheng; Xie, Hui; Su, Kunchang; Yan, Tongxiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Fenghua; Sun, Fengxia

    2013-11-01

    The recently discovered endosulfan-degrading bacterial strain Alcaligenesfaecalis JBW4 was isolated from activated sludge. This strain is able to use endosulfan as a carbon and energy source. The optimal conditions for the growth of strain JBW4 and for biodegradation by this strain were identified, and the metabolic products of endosulfan degradation were studied in detail. The maximum level of endosulfan biodegradation by strain JBW4 was obtained using broth at an initial pH of 7.0, an incubation temperature of 40 degreeC and an endosulfan concentration of 100 mg/L. The concentration of endosulfan was determined by gas chromatography. Strain JBW4 was able to degrade 87.5% of alpha-endosulfan and 83.9% of beta-endosulfan within 5 days. These degradation rates are much higher than the previously reported bacterial strains. Endosulfan diol and endosulfan lactone were the major metabolites detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; endosulfan sulfate, which is a persistent and toxic metabolite, was not detected. These results suggested that A. faecalis JBW4 degrades endosulfan via a non-oxidative pathway. The biodegradation of endosulfan by A. faecalis is reported for the first time. Additionally, the present study indicates that strain JBW4 may have potential for the biodegradation of endosulfan residues.

  15. Simultaneous Microcystis Algicidal and Microcystin Degrading Capability by a Single Acinetobacter Bacterial Strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Ai, Hainan; Kang, Li; Sun, Xingfu; He, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Measures for removal of toxic harmful algal blooms often cause lysis of algal cells and release of microcystins (MCs). In this study, Acinetobacter sp. CMDB-2 that exhibits distinct algal lysing activity and MCs degradation capability was isolated. The physiological response and morphological characteristics of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, the dynamics of intra- and extracellular MC-LR concentration were studied in an algal/bacterial cocultured system. The results demonstrated that Acinetobacter sp. CMDB-2 caused thorough decomposition of algal cells and impairment of photosynthesis within 24 h. Enhanced algal lysis and MC-LR release appeared with increasing bacterial density from 1 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(7) cells/mL; however, the MC-LR was reduced by nearly 94% within 14 h irrespective of bacterial density. Measurement of extracellular and intracellular MC-LR revealed that the toxin was decreased by 92% in bacterial cell incubated systems relative to control and bacterial cell-free filtrate systems. The results confirmed that the bacterial metabolite caused 92% lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, whereas the bacterial cells were responsible for approximately 91% reduction of MC-LR. The joint efforts of the bacterium and its metabolite accomplished the sustainable removal of algae and MC-LR. This is the first report of a single bacterial strain that achieves these dual actions.

  16. Identification of bacterial strains by laboratories participating in the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    Boot, R; Reubsaet, F A G

    2007-10-01

    The quality assurance programme (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) is a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. QAP comprises the quarterly distribution of two bacterial strains originating from various species of animals for identification to the species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing. We compared identification results reported by QAP participants over the years 1996-2004 with those obtained by the Dutch Bacterial Diagnostics reference laboratory on 68 samples comprising 71 bacterial strains and a fungus. Significant differences were found in the frequency of reported and correct identifications when bacteria were assigned to different groups based on morphology by Gram stain and on origin (animal versus environmental, rodent and rabbit versus other animal species, pathogen versus non-pathogens). Rodent and rabbit pathogens yielded 73% correct identifications, and with all bacterial strains only 60% of the identifications were correct. We assume that most QAP participants were from laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories. If this is true, the capabilities of laboratories in the laboratory animal discipline to correctly identify bacterial species are well below what are considered acceptable limits for human diagnostic laboratories. The distribution of cultured bacteria circumvents the most difficult step in the microbiological monitoring of animals, namely primary culture from clinical samples. We propose to set up a QAP that comprises the distribution of specimens mimicking clinical samples normally submitted to laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories.

  17. Draft genome sequence of XANTHOMONAS ARBORICOLA strain 3004, causal agent of bacterial disease on barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the annotated genome sequence of XANTHOMONAS ARBORICOLA str. 3004, a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria that includes several pathovars characterized by virulence specificity. Strain 3004 was isolated from barley leaves with symptoms of streak (bacterial blight) and also can infec...

  18. Characterization of antibiotic resistant and enzyme producing bacterial strains isolated from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Tallur, Preeti N; Sajjan, Dayanand B; Mulla, Sikandar I; Talwar, Manjunatha P; Pragasam, A; Nayak, Vinayak M; Ninnekar, Harichandra Z; Bhat, Shivanand S

    2016-06-01

    Marine bacteria are known to produce many bioactive molecules and extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. We have investigated the bacterial diversity of the coastal area of Karwar, Karnataka State, India. Among these bacterial isolates, five bacterial strains were selected and identified by their morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The identified bacterial isolates, Bacillus toyonensis PNTB1, Lysinibacillus sphaericus PTB, Vibrio vulnificus PMD, Shewanella MPTDBS, and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PNTB were characterized for their tolerance to salt and antibiotics. Vibrio vulnificus PMD showed maximum tolerance at higher concentration of salt than other bacteria. These bacterial strains were screened for the production of extracellular enzymes such as lipase, cellulase, pectinase, tannase, chitinase, and L-glutaminase. Vibrio vulnificus showed maximum production of L-glutaminase enzyme. Bacillus toyonensis PNTB1 shows lipase, CM-cellulase and chitinase activities. These isolated bacterial cultures were also utilized most of the aromatic compounds at 7 mM. These findings indicate the organisms present in this zone may have more potential applications in bioremediation, agricultural, industrial, and therapeutics.

  19. Emergence of potential superbug mycobacterium tuberculosis, lessons from new delhi mutant-1 bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Taha; Abraham, Suraj; Islam, Azharul

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that certain bacterial strains attain the New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme and become resistant to a broad range of antibiotics. Similarly, more dangerous "superbugs" of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are gradually emerging through rapid genetic mutation caused by prescription non-compliance or unsupervised indiscriminate use of anti-tubercular drugs or other antibiotics. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases have been reported in highly susceptible population groups including the aboriginal communities of US and Canada. In Canada alone, the total number of reported tuberculosis cases has decreased over the past decade. However, there is a steady increase in HIV cases in certain communities including the aboriginal communities. Reintroduction of MDR/XDR strains of tuberculosis is possible in these susceptible communities, which in turn may pose serious public health situation. MDR/XDR strains of tuberculosis are virtually untreatable using current anti-tubercular medication protocols. Thus, MDR/XDR tuberculosis presents a grave global public health threat. The unpredictable genetic mechanism involved in generating MDR/XDR resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may pose greater challenges in developing appropriate treatment strategies. In this article, we briefly review potential genetic mechanism of emerging NDM-1 bacterial strains and draw a rationale parallel to the underlying genetic mechanism of MDR/XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain development.

  20. Detoxification of mercury pollutant leached from spent fluorescent lamps using bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Abuqaoud, Reem H; Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammed H

    2016-03-01

    The spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) are being classified as a hazardous waste due to having mercury as one of its main components. Mercury is considered the second most toxic heavy metal (arsenic is the first) with harmful effects on animal nervous system as it causes different neurological disorders. In this research, the mercury from phosphor powder was leached, then bioremediated using bacterial strains isolated from Qatari environment. Leaching of mercury was carried out with nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions using two approaches: leaching at ambient conditions and microwave-assisted leaching. The results obtained from this research showed that microwave-assisted leaching method was significantly better in leaching mercury than the acid leaching where the mercury leaching efficiency reached 76.4%. For mercury bio-uptake, twenty bacterial strains (previously isolated and purified from petroleum oil contaminated soils) were sub-cultured on Luria Bertani (LB) plates with mercury chloride to check the bacterial tolerance to mercury. Seven of these twenty strains showed a degree of tolerance to mercury. The bio-uptake capacities of the promising strains were investigated using the mercury leached from the fluorescent lamps. Three of the strains (Enterobacter helveticus, Citrobacter amalonaticus, and Cronobacter muytjensii) showed bio-uptake efficiency ranged from 28.8% to 63.6%.

  1. Bacterial strains isolated from PCB-contaminated sediments and their use for bioaugmentation strategy in microcosms.

    PubMed

    Dudášová, Hana; Lukáčová, Lucia; Murínová, Slavomíra; Puškárová, Andrea; Pangallo, Domenico; Dercová, Katarína

    2014-04-01

    This study was focused on the characterization of 15 bacterial strains isolated from long-term PCB-contaminated sediment located at the Strážsky canal in eastern part of Slovakia, in the surroundings of a former PCB producer. PCB-degrading strains were isolated and identified as Microbacterium oleivorans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Brevibacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas mandelii, Rhodococcus sp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas sp., Ochrobactrum sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Starkeya novella by the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. This study presents a newly isolated bacterial strain S. novella with PCB-degrading ability in liquid medium as well as in sediment. For A. xylosoxidans, the bphA gene was identified. The best growth ability in the presence of all sole carbon sources (biphenyl and PCBs vapor) was obtained for Ochrobactrum sp. and Rhodococcus sp. Uncultured Achromobacter sp. showed the highest potential for bioaugmentation of PCB-contaminated sediment.

  2. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  3. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  4. Reduced aerobic capacity causes leaky ryanodine receptors that trigger arrhythmia in a rat strain artificially selected and bred for low aerobic running capacity

    PubMed Central

    Høydal, MA; Stølen, TO; Johnsen, AB; Alvez, M; Catalucci, D; Condorelli, G; Koch, LG; Britton, SL; Smith, GL; Wisløff, U

    2014-01-01

    Aim Rats selectively bred for inborn Low Capacity of Running (LCR) display a series of poor health indices where as rats selected for High Capacity of Running (HCR) display a healthy profile. We hypothesized that selection of low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased diastolic Ca2+ leak that trigger arrhythmia. Methods We used rats selected for HCR (N=10) or LCR (N=10) to determine the effect of inborn aerobic capacity on Ca2+ leak and susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia. We studied isolated FURA2/AM loaded cardiomyocytes to detect Ca2+-handling and function on an inverted epi-fluorescence microscope. To determine arrhythmogenicity we did a final experiment with electrical burst pacing in Langendorff perfused hearts. Results Ca2+-handling was impaired by reduced Ca2+ amplitude, prolonged time to 50% Ca2+ decay, and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-content. Impaired Ca2+ removal was influenced by reduced SR Ca2+ ATP-ase 2a (SERCA2a) function and increased sodium/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) in LCR rats. Diastolic Ca2 leak was 87% higher in LCR rats. The leak was reduced by CaMKII inhibition. Expression levels of phosphorylated theorine-286 CaMKII levels and increased RyR2 phosphorylation at the Serine-2814 site mechanistically support our findings of increased leak in LCR. LCR rats had significantly higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Conclusion Selection of inborn low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased risk of ventricular fibrillation. Increased phosphorylation of CaMKII at serine-2814 at the cardiac ryanodine receptor appears as an important mechanism of impaired Ca2+ handling and diastolic Ca2+ leak that results in increased susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation. PMID:24444142

  5. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  6. Aerobic bacterial flora of the vagina and prepuce of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and investigation of associations with urogenital carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shawn; Lowenstine, Linda; Gulland, Frances; Jang, Spencer; Imai, Denise; Almy, Frederic; Delong, Robert; Gardner, Ian

    2006-04-16

    To investigate the association between genital bacterial infection and urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), vaginal and preputial swabs for bacterial isolation were taken from 148 free-ranging and 51 stranded California sea lions including 16 animals with urogenital carcinoma. Cytological examination of vaginal or preputial smears showed a majority (65.5%, 57/87) of animals examined had mild or no inflammation. Aerobic bacteria were isolated from 116 (78.4%) wild sea lions and 100% of stranded animals. A total of 403 isolates were identified representing 51 unique bacterial species. The median number of isolates per animal increased with age in the wild group, but there was no difference in the number of isolates per animal between wild and stranded adults. The most common bacteria isolated from the wild sea lions were Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (39 isolates), non-hemolytic Streptococcus (35 isolates), Corynebacterium spp. (30 isolates), and Escherichia coli (20 isolates). More bacterial species were isolated from stranded animals than wild animals (33 versus 26) and there was significantly less growth of P. phenylpyruvicus, Corynebacterium spp., and Moraxella-like spp. in the stranded animals. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was the only bacterium significantly associated with urogenital carcinomas in California sea lions, but only in females.

  7. An integrated metagenomics pipeline for strain profiling reveals novel patterns of bacterial transmission and biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Garud, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    We present the Metagenomic Intra-species Diversity Analysis System (MIDAS), which is an integrated computational pipeline for quantifying bacterial species abundance and strain-level genomic variation, including gene content and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from shotgun metagenomes. Our method leverages a database of more than 30,000 bacterial reference genomes that we clustered into species groups. These cover the majority of abundant species in the human microbiome but only a small proportion of microbes in other environments, including soil and seawater. We applied MIDAS to stool metagenomes from 98 Swedish mothers and their infants over one year and used rare SNPs to track strains between hosts. Using this approach, we found that although species compositions of mothers and infants converged over time, strain-level similarity diverged. Specifically, early colonizing bacteria were often transmitted from an infant’s mother, while late colonizing bacteria were often transmitted from other sources in the environment and were enriched for spore-formation genes. We also applied MIDAS to 198 globally distributed marine metagenomes and used gene content to show that many prevalent bacterial species have population structure that correlates with geographic location. Strain-level genetic variants present in metagenomes clearly reveal extensive structure and dynamics that are obscured when data are analyzed at a coarser taxonomic resolution. PMID:27803195

  8. Isolation of bacterial strains from bovine fecal microflora capable of degradation of ceftiofur.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Fatemeh; Williams, Anna J; Park, Miseon; Sims, Lillie M; Heinze, Thomas M; Cerniglia, Carl E; Sutherland, John B

    2009-10-20

    Ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin used to treat bacterial infections in animals, is degraded in bovine feces but the specific bacteria involved are unknown. To find the bacteria involved in ceftiofur metabolism, the bovine fecal microflora was screened. Twenty-one nonidentical strains of bovine fecal bacteria were isolated on media containing 1-32 microg ml(-1) of ceftiofur. The cultures were incubated with 5 microg ml(-1) ceftiofur for different times, then centrifuged and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three strains of Bacillus spp., two strains of Roseomonas spp., and one strain of Azospirillum sp. metabolized 5 microg ml(-1) ceftiofur in broth cultures in less than 24h; ten other strains of Roseomonas and one strain of Bacillus pumilus had metabolized it by 120 h. After the ceftiofur had been metabolized by these bacteria, the filter-sterilized supernatants of centrifuged cultures no longer inhibited the growth of a ceftiofur-sensitive strain of Kocuria rhizophila, which indicated that ceftiofur had been transformed to compounds without bactericidal activity. Each isolate was also found to be able to grow in the presence of other beta-lactams, and a nitrocefin assay showed beta-lactamase activity in the 17 strains that metabolized ceftiofur. The results show that some beta-lactamase-producing bacteria from the bovine fecal microflora are capable of transforming ceftiofur to metabolites lacking bactericidal activity.

  9. A preliminary report of phylogenetic diversity of bacterial strains isolated from marine creatures.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Midori; Yokota, Akira

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial diversity among marine creatures, especially molluscs, as a source for searching out novel lineages of bacteria, was studied. Marine creatures were collected at the coasts of the Kanto area in Japan. A total of 116 strains of bacteria were isolated from the intestines of 19 species of marine creatures includings molluscs, pisces and protochordata. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed that most of the isolates belonged to the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The BLAST searches revealed that the complete 16S rDNA sequence of 17 strains out of 116 isolates showed less than 94% similarity with 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the database. Four strains out of the 17 isolates belonged to the Rhodobacter group, 8 strains to the Alteromonas group, and the remaining 5 strains to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. Phylogenetic positions of 6 strains belonging to the Alteromonas group, which were isolated from different marine creatures, were close to each other, and represented a novel 16S rDNA lineage within the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria. Therefore, it may be inferred that these 6 strains belong to a new genus of Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic positions of the other strains are also independent from neighboring taxa, and they were suggested to respectively form a novel lineage. From these results, it is clear that the biodiversity of bacteria in marine creatures is much wider than was previously thought, and unknown microbiological resources are buried in these organisms.

  10. Identification of mosquito larvicidal bacterial strains isolated from north Sinai in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, two of the most toxic bacterial strains of Bacillus sphaericus against mosquito were identified with the most recent genetic techniques. The PCR product profiles indicated the presence of genes encoding Bin A, Bin B and Mtx1 in all analyzed strains; they are consistent with protein profiles. The preliminary bioinformatics analysis of the binary toxin genes sequence revealed that the open reading frames had high similarities when matched with nucleotides sequence in the database of other B. sphaericus strains. The biological activity of B. sphaericus strains varied according to growing medium, and cultivation time. The highest yield of viable counts, spores and larvicidal protein were attained after 5 days. Poly (P) medium achieved the highest yield of growth, sporulation, protein and larvicidal activity for all tested strains compared to the other tested media. The larvicidal protein produced by local strains (B. sphaericus EMCC 1931 and EMCC 1932) in P medium was more lethal against the 3rd instar larvae of Culex pipiens than that of reference strains (B. sphaericus 1593 and B. sphaericus 2297). The obtained results revealed that P medium was the most effective medium and will be used in future work in order to optimize large scale production of biocide by the locally isolated Bacillus sphaericus strains. PMID:22280528

  11. Comparison of two multimetal resistant bacterial strains: Enterobacter sp. YSU and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ORO2.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew; Vinayak, Anubhav; Benton, Cherise; Esbenshade, Aaron; Heinselman, Carlisle; Frankland, Daniel; Kulkarni, Samatha; Kurtanich, Adrienne; Caguiat, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, TN, which manufactured nuclear weapons during World War II and the Cold War, contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek with heavy metals. The multimetal resistant bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Oak Ridge strain O2 (S. maltophilia O2), was isolated from East Fork Poplar Creek. Sequence analysis of 16s rDNA suggested that our working strain of S. maltophilia O2 was a strain of Enterobacter. Phylogenetic tree analysis and biochemical tests confirmed that it belonged to an Enterobacter species. This new strain was named Enterobacter sp. YSU. Using a modified R3A growth medium, R3A-Tris, the Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Au(III), Cr(VI), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV) MICs for a confirmed strain of S. maltophilia O2 were 0.24, 0.33, 5, 5, 0.25, 7, 0.03, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, compared to 0.07, 0.24, 0.8, 3, 0.05, 0.4, 0.08, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, for Enterobacter sp. YSU. Although S. maltophilia O2 was generally more metal resistant than Enterobacter sp. YSU, in comparison to Escherichia coli strain HB101, Enterobacter sp. YSU was resistant to Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Au(III), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV). By studying metal resistances in these two strains, it may be possible to understand what makes one microorganism more metal resistant than another microorganism. This work also provided benchmark MICs that can be used to evaluate the metal resistance properties of other bacterial isolates from East Fork Poplar Creek and other metal contaminated sites.

  12. Production of thermostable protease enzyme in wastewater sludge using thermophilic bacterial strains isolated from sludge.

    PubMed

    Chenel, J P; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    The volume of sludge produced annually is very high and poses serious disposal problems. The traditional methods of sludge disposal produce secondary pollutants. Therefore, the alternate or suitable solution is reuse of sludge in an ecofriendly approach. Biotechnology is an interesting tool to add value to the processes involved in wastewater and wastewater sludge disposal/reuse. In this context, a study was carried out on thermophilic bacterial strains that produce thermostable proteases. The bacterial strains were first isolated from municipal wastewater sludge. In contrast to the conventional strains used in industries, like Bacillus sp., the new strains were Gram-Negative type. In semi-synthetic medium, a maximal protease activity of 5.25 IU/ml (International Unit per ml) was obtained at a pH of 8.2 and at a temperature of 60 degrees C, which is higher than the stability temperature of 37 degrees C for a similar protease obtained from the conventional producer Bacillus licheniformis. Moreover, growth and protease activity of the strains were tested in wastewater sludge. It is expected that the complexity of sludge could stimulate/enhance the protease production and their characteristics. In conclusion, reuse of wastewater sludge will help to reduce their quantity as well as the value-added products produced will replace chemical products used in industries.

  13. A comparison of three bacterial strains for the remediation of town gas soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.E.; Akkineni, D.K.; Cutright, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The contamination of soils from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widespread. Although PAH contamination still occurs from current industrial processes, accidental spills, and leaking underground storage tanks, the main source of contamination is from abandoned town gas sites. To date there is a conservative estimate of 2500 town gas sites that require remediation. The most cost effective in-situ treatment for these sites is that of bioremediation. Experiments were conducted to compare the efficiencies of three bacterial strains for the remediation of an industrially PAH contaminated soil. Specifically, the efficiencies of Achromobacter sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Nocardia paraffinae were investigated. This paper will address the chemical specificity of each bacterial strains for the PAHs present.

  14. Bacterial Cellulose Production by Acetobacter xylinum Strains from Agricultural Waste Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongruang, Sasithorn

    Bacterial cellulose is a biopolysaccharide produced from the bacteria, Acetobacter xylinum. Static batch fermentations for bacterial cellulose production were studied in coconut and pineapple juices under 30 °C in 5-1 fermenters by using three Acetobacter strains: A. xylinum TISTR 998, A. xylinum TISTR 975, and A. xylinum TISTR 893. Experiments were carried out to compare bacterial cellulose yields along with growth kinetic analysis. Results showed that A. xylinum TISTR 998 produced a bacterial cellulose yield of 553.33 g/l, while A. xylinum TISTR 893 produced 453.33 g/l and A. xylinum TISTR 975 produced 243.33 g/l. In pineapple juice, the yields for A. xylinum TISTR 893, 975, and 998 were 576.66, 546.66, and 520 g/l, respectively. The strain TISTR 998 showed the highest productivity when using coconut juice. Morphological properties of cellulose pellicles, in terms of texture and color, were also measured, and the textures were not significantly different among treatments.

  15. Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Raj, Abhay; Yadav, Sangeeta; Patel, Devendra Kumar

    2009-08-01

    Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30 +/- 1 degrees C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45-52%), lignin (30-42%), BOD (40-70%), COD (50-60%), total phenol (32-40%) and PCP (85-90%) within 168 h of incubation. However, the highest reduction in colour (62%), lignin (54%), BOD (70%), COD (90%), total phenol (90%) and PCP (100%) was recorded by mixed culture treatment. The bacterial mechanism for the degradation of pulp and paper mill effluent may be explained by an increase in the cells biomass using added co-substrates resulting liberation of significant amount of chloride due to bacterial dechlorination of chlorolignins and chlorophenols this showed reduction in colour, lignin and toxicity in the effluent. Further, GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate-extractable compounds from treated pulp paper mill effluent reinforces the bacterium capability for the degradation of lignin and pentachlorophenol, as many aromatic compounds such as 2-chlorophenol, 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone, 6-chlorohydroxyquinol and tetrachlorohydroquinone detected which were not present in the untreated effluent.

  16. Synergistic efficacy of Bisbenzimidazole and Carbonyl Cyanide 3-Chlorophenylhydrazone combination against MDR bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Devapriya; Pandey, Stuti; Singh, Raja; Tiwari, Vinod; Sad, Kirti; Tandon, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    Activation of efflux systems and the formation of biofilm are majorly adapted by microbes to resist antimicrobial agents. PPEF (bisbenzimidazole) targeting topoisomerase IA is observed to be an effective bactericidal agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and thus can be developed as potent broad-spectrum antibiotic against MDR strains. PPEF treatment did not cause target specific mutation instead it leads to up-regulation of efflux gene in E. coli K12 as a mechanism of resistance. Microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and flow cytometry result demonstrate higher accumulation of PPEF in efflux gene deleted E. coli K12 mutants, and also suggest that Carbonyl Cyanide 3-Chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), resist the efflux of PPEF, and thus increases efficacy of PPEF. Herein, we report, PPEF and CCCP synergistically killed the persistent bacterial cells, which are not killed by PPEF alone. The above two compounds together inhibited biofilm formation, eradicate preformed biofilms and kills the biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa. PPEF and CCCP together reduced bacterial load of E. coli ATCC25922 by 6 log10 in neutropenic thigh infection model of balb/c mice. Present study suggests that combination therapy could be a promising antimicrobial strategy to handle MDR pathogenic strains. PMID:28303897

  17. Biological treatment of tannery wastewater by using salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar; Mahadevan, Surianarayanan; Sekar, Sudharshan; Rajakumar, Susheela

    2008-01-01

    Background High salinity (1–10% w/v) of tannery wastewater makes it difficult to be treated by conventional biological treatment. Salt tolerant microbes can adapt to these saline conditions and degrade the organics in saline wastewater. Results Four salt tolerant bacterial strains isolated from marine and tannery saline wastewater samples were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth factors of the identified strains were optimized. Tannery saline wastewater obtained from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) near Chennai (southern India) was treated with pure and mixed consortia of four salt tolerant bacterial strains. Experiments with optimized conditions and varying salt content (between 2 and 10% (w/v) were conducted. Salt inhibition effects on COD removal rate were noted. Comparative analysis was made by treating the tannery saline wastewater with activated sludge obtained from CETP and with natural habitat microbes present in raw tannery saline wastewater. Conclusion Salt tolerant bacterial mixed consortia showed appreciable biodegradation at all saline concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% w/v) with 80% COD reduction in particular at 8% salinity level the consortia could be used as suitable working cultures for tannery saline wastewater treatment. PMID:18445252

  18. Sequence analysis of pooled bacterial samples enables identification of strain variation in group A streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Weldatsadik, Rigbe G.; Wang, Jingwen; Puhakainen, Kai; Jiao, Hong; Jalava, Jari; Räisänen, Kati; Datta, Neeta; Skoog, Tiina; Vuopio, Jaana; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Kere, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the genomic variation among different strains of a pathogenic microbial species can help in selecting optimal candidates for diagnostic assays and vaccine development. Pooled sequencing (Pool-seq) is a cost effective approach for population level genetic studies that require large numbers of samples such as various strains of a microbe. To test the use of Pool-seq in identifying variation, we pooled DNA of 100 Streptococcus pyogenes strains of different emm types in two pools, each containing 50 strains. We used four variant calling tools (Freebayes, UnifiedGenotyper, SNVer, and SAMtools) and one emm1 strain, SF370, as a reference genome. In total 63719 SNPs and 164 INDELs were identified in the two pools concordantly by at least two of the tools. Majority of the variants (93.4%) from six individually sequenced strains used in the pools could be identified from the two pools and 72.3% and 97.4% of the variants in the pools could be mined from the analysis of the 44 complete Str. pyogenes genomes and 3407 sequence runs deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive respectively. We conclude that DNA sequencing of pooled samples of large numbers of bacterial strains is a robust, rapid and cost-efficient way to discover sequence variation. PMID:28361960

  19. In vivo selection to identify bacterial strains with enhanced ecological performance in synbiotic applications.

    PubMed

    Krumbeck, Janina A; Maldonado-Gomez, María X; Martínez, Inés; Frese, Steven A; Burkey, Thomas E; Rasineni, Karuna; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Harris, Edward N; Hutkins, Robert W; Walter, Jens

    2015-04-01

    One strategy for enhancing the establishment of probiotic bacteria in the human intestinal tract is via the parallel administration of a prebiotic, which is referred to as a synbiotic. Here we present a novel method that allows a rational selection of putative probiotic strains to be used in synbiotic applications: in vivo selection (IVS). This method consists of isolating candidate probiotic strains from fecal samples following enrichment with the respective prebiotic. To test the potential of IVS, we isolated bifidobacteria from human subjects who consumed increasing doses of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) for 9 weeks. A retrospective analysis of the fecal microbiota of one subject revealed an 8-fold enrichment in Bifidobacterium adolescentis strain IVS-1 during GOS administration. The functionality of GOS to support the establishment of IVS-1 in the gastrointestinal tract was then evaluated in rats administered the bacterial strain alone, the prebiotic alone, or the synbiotic combination. Strain-specific quantitative real-time PCR showed that the addition of GOS increased B. adolescentis IVS-1 abundance in the distal intestine by nearly 2 logs compared to rats receiving only the probiotic. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing not only confirmed the increased establishment of IVS-1 in the intestine but also revealed that the strain was able to outcompete the resident Bifidobacterium population when provided with GOS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that IVS can be used to successfully formulate a synergistic synbiotic that can substantially enhance the establishment and competitiveness of a putative probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. In Vivo Selection To Identify Bacterial Strains with Enhanced Ecological Performance in Synbiotic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Krumbeck, Janina A.; Maldonado-Gomez, María X.; Martínez, Inés; Frese, Steven A.; Burkey, Thomas E.; Rasineni, Karuna; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Harris, Edward N.; Hutkins, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    One strategy for enhancing the establishment of probiotic bacteria in the human intestinal tract is via the parallel administration of a prebiotic, which is referred to as a synbiotic. Here we present a novel method that allows a rational selection of putative probiotic strains to be used in synbiotic applications: in vivo selection (IVS). This method consists of isolating candidate probiotic strains from fecal samples following enrichment with the respective prebiotic. To test the potential of IVS, we isolated bifidobacteria from human subjects who consumed increasing doses of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) for 9 weeks. A retrospective analysis of the fecal microbiota of one subject revealed an 8-fold enrichment in Bifidobacterium adolescentis strain IVS-1 during GOS administration. The functionality of GOS to support the establishment of IVS-1 in the gastrointestinal tract was then evaluated in rats administered the bacterial strain alone, the prebiotic alone, or the synbiotic combination. Strain-specific quantitative real-time PCR showed that the addition of GOS increased B. adolescentis IVS-1 abundance in the distal intestine by nearly 2 logs compared to rats receiving only the probiotic. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing not only confirmed the increased establishment of IVS-1 in the intestine but also revealed that the strain was able to outcompete the resident Bifidobacterium population when provided with GOS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that IVS can be used to successfully formulate a synergistic synbiotic that can substantially enhance the establishment and competitiveness of a putative probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25616794

  1. Biodegradability of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/Bacterial Cellulose Composites under Aerobic Conditions, Measured via Evolution of Carbon Dioxide and Spectroscopic and Diffraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Ruka, Dianne R; Sangwan, Parveen; Garvey, Christopher J; Simon, George P; Dean, Katherine M

    2015-08-18

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bacterial cellulose (BC) are both natural polymeric materials that have the potential to replace traditional, nonrenewable polymers. In particular, the nanofibrillar form of bacterial cellulose makes it an effective reinforcement for PHB. Neat PHB, bacterial cellulose, and a composite of PHB/BC produced with 10 wt % cellulose were composted under accelerated aerobic test conditions, with biodegradability measured by the carbon dioxide evolution method, in conjunction with spectroscopic and diffraction methods to assess crystallinity changes during the biodegradation process. The PHB/BC composite biodegraded at a greater rate and extent than that of PHB alone, reaching 80% degradation after 30 days, whereas PHB did not reach this level of degradation until close to 50 days of composting. The relative crystallinity of PHB and PHB in the PHB/BC composite was found to increase in the initial weeks of degradation, with degradation occurring primarily in the amorphous region of the material and some recrystallization of the amorphous PHB. Small angle X-ray scattering indicates that the change in PHB crystallinity is accompanied by a change in morphology of semicrystalline lamellae. The increased rate of biodegradability suggests that these materials could be applicable to single-use applications and could rapidly biodegrade in compost on disposal.

  2. Comparative assessment of bacterial inoculation and propionic acid treatment of aerobic stability and microbial populations of ensiled high-moisture ear corn.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, S; Phillip, L E; Fellner, V; Idziak, E S

    1996-02-01

    High-moisture ear corn (HMEC) was untreated, treated with propionic acid (PA), or inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and allowed to ensile in laboratory silos for 0, 7, 21, 42, 138, or 202 d. The silages were evaluated for fermentation quality, microbial populations, and aerobic stability. In all treatments, silage pH declined rapidly within 7 d, but the rate of decline seemed greatest with the inoculum. The lactic acid content of inoculated HMEC was higher (P < .05) than that of control of PA-treated HMEC. Regardless of treatment, the population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased (P < .1) up to 7 to 21 d of fermentation then declined; LAB counts decreased (P < .05) up to 42 d in control and PA-treated silage but continued to decline until 138 d for inoculated silage. Yeast and mold counts tended to decrease up to 42 d of ensiling then decreased (P < .05) as fermentation progressed. Between 138 and 202 d of ensiling, the control silage showed a marked increase (P < .10) in pH and yeast and mold populations, providing evidence of secondary fermentation; PA treatment and bacterial inoculation prevented secondary fermentation. Inoculation tended to reduce estimates of sample temperature for silage stored for 138 d and exposed to air, but not for the corresponding silage stored for 202 d. Treatment with PA prevented the loss (P > .05) of acetic acid and the rise (P > .05) in pH during air exposure of the 138-d silage; both control and PA-treated silage showed an increase (P < .05) in yeast and mold populations, but the increments were 38% and 23%, respectively. Compared with PA, the relative efficacy of inoculation in improving aerobic spoilage of HMEC depended on the period of silo storage and the criterion used to assess aerobic stability.

  3. Production and Reutilization of Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter by a Marine Bacterial Strain, Alteromonas macleodii

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Shuji; Tada, Yuya; Suzuki, Koji; Yamashita, Youhei

    2017-01-01

    The recalcitrant fraction of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in carbon storage on the earth’s surface. Bacterial production of recalcitrant DOM (RDOM) has been proposed as a carbon sequestration process. It is still unclear whether bacterial physiology can affect RDOM production. In this study, we conducted a batch culture using the marine bacterial isolate Alteromonas macleodii, a ubiquitous gammaproteobacterium, to evaluate the linkage between bacterial growth and DOM production. Glucose (1 mmol C L-1) was used as the sole carbon source, and the bacterial number, the DOM concentration in terms of carbon, and the excitation–emission matrices (EEMs) of DOM were monitored during the 168-h incubation. The incubation period was partitioned into the exponential growth (0–24 h) and stationary phases (24–168 h) based on the growth curve. Although the DOM concentration decreased during the exponential growth phase due to glucose consumption, it remained stable during the stationary phase, corresponding to approximately 4% of the initial glucose in terms of carbon. Distinct fluorophores were not evident in the EEMs at the beginning of the incubation, but DOM produced by the strain exhibited five fluorescent peaks during exponential growth. Two fluorescent peaks were similar to protein-like fluorophores, while the others could be categorized as humic-like fluorophores. All fluorophores increased during the exponential growth phase. The tryptophan-like fluorophore decreased during the stationary phase, suggesting that the strain reused the large exopolymer. The tyrosine-like fluorophore seemed to be stable during the stationary phase, implying that the production of tyrosine-containing small peptides through the degradation of exopolymers was correlated with the reutilization of the tyrosine-like fluorophore. Two humic-like fluorophores that showed emission maxima at the longer wavelength (525 nm) increased during the stationary phase

  4. The influence of treatment with dual purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Salawu, M B; Dean, D B; Staples, C R

    2004-10-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of an inoculant (BB), molasses, or a mixture of either BB and molasses (BBM) or BB and fibrolytic enzymes (BBE) for improving the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass. A 6-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved in quadruplicate mini silos alone or after treatment application. The inoculant contained a mixture of P. pentosaceus 12455, 1 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, L. buchneri 40788, 4 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, and xylanase; BBE contained similar bacteria and enzymes as BB, but greater enzyme activities. Chemical composition was quantified after 2, 4, 7, 30, and 60 d of ensiling. Microbial composition and aerobic stability were measured after 60 d of ensiling, at which point the pH of additive-treated silages was consistently lower and DM recovery was higher than in untreated silages. The BB, BBM, and molasses-treated silages had less ammonia N than untreated silages, and BB, BBM, and BBE-treated silages had less residual water-soluble carbohydrates than untreated silages. All silages had high acetic acid (47.5 g/kg DM) and low lactic acid (1.7 g/kg DM) concentrations. However, untreated and BBE-treated silages had more butyric acid and ammonia N, suggesting that a clostridial fermentation had occurred. These butyric forages were more aerobically stable (27 d) but less desirable for feeding than those ensiled with BB or molasses, which were stable for 6.9 d. In conclusion, BB and molasses treatments improved the digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass and produced higher quality silages that were stable for 6.9 d. Mixing BB with molasses or the inoculant tested was not more beneficial than BB or molasses alone.

  5. Engineering of bacterial strains and vectors for the production of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Bower, Diana M; Prather, Kristala L J

    2009-04-01

    The demand for plasmid DNA (pDNA) is anticipated to increase significantly as DNA vaccines and non-viral gene therapies enter phase 3 clinical trials and are approved for use. This increased demand, along with renewed interest in pDNA as a therapeutic vector, has motivated research targeting the design of high-yield, cost-effective manufacturing processes. An important aspect of this research is engineering bacterial strains and plasmids that are specifically suited to the production of plasmid biopharmaceuticals. This review will survey recent innovations in strain and vector engineering that aim to improve plasmid stability, enhance product safety, increase yield, and facilitate downstream purification. While these innovations all seek to enhance pDNA production, they can vary in complexity from subtle alterations of the host genome or vector backbone to the investigation of non-traditional host strains for higher pDNA yields.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Isolated from Prunus persica Which Are Dissimilar to Strains That Cause Bacterial Spot Disease on Prunus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas arboricola, isolated from asymptomatic peach trees in Spain, are reported here. These strains are avirulent and do not belong to the same phylogroup as X. arboricola pv. pruni, a causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almonds. PMID:27609931

  7. Metabolic control of respiratory levels in coenzyme Q biosynthesis-deficient Escherichia coli strains leading to fine-tune aerobic lactate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-08-01

    A novel strategy to finely control the electron transfer chain (ETC) activity of Escherichia coli was established. In this study, the fine-tuning of the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway was applied to further controlling ETC function in coenzyme Q8 biosynthesis-deficient E. coli strains, HW108 and HW109, which contain mutations in ubiE and ubiG, respectively. A competing pathway on the intermediate substrates of the Q8 synthesis pathway, catalyzed by diphosphate:4-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase (PGT-1) of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, was introduced into these mutant strains. A nearly theoretical yield of lactate production can be achieved under fully aerobic conditions via an in vivo, genetically fine-tunable means to further control the activity of the ETC of the Q8 biosynthesis-deficient E. coli strains.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance and Plasmid Profile of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Urbanized Eltsovka-1 River (Russia).

    PubMed

    Lobova, Tatiana I; Yemelyanova, Elena; Andreeva, Irina S; Puchkova, Larisa I; Repin, Vladimir Ye

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profile of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains isolated from the urbanized Eltsovka-1 River (Russia) were investigated. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA of of G+ strains showed 99-100% identity to that of Bacillus aerophilus, Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus anthrancis, Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus flexus, Bacillus indriensis, Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Streptomyces albidoflavus, Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces exfoliatus, Streptomyces odorifer, and Streptomyces sampsonii. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA of G-strains was similar in 99-100% to that of Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas encheleia, Aeromonas hydrophila, A. hydrophila subsp. anaerogenes, A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis, Aeromonas media, Aeromonas molluscorum, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida, A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Aeromonas punctata, Aeromonas sobria, and Shewanella putrefaciens. The highest percentage (88.4%) of strains was resistant to polymyxin B followed by 69% to lincomycin, 61.5% to benzilpenicillin, 57.7% to ampicillin, and 50% to carbenicillin. A low level of resistance (4%) was found to kanamycin (8%), to streptomycin (11.5%), to neomycin and tetracycline, and (15%) to erythromycin. No resistance was found to gentamycin, monomycin, and chloroamphenicol. The majority (80.7%) of strains was multidrug-resistant. Ninety-two percent of all strains carried plasmid DNA of various sizes.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial community in a full scale autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) treating mixed domestic wastewater sludge for land spread.

    PubMed

    Piterina, Anna V; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, J Tony

    2012-05-15

    The bacterial community associated with a full scale autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) treating sludge, originating from domestic wastewater and destined for land spread, was analysed using a number of molecular approaches optimised specifically for this high temperature environment. 16S rDNA genes were amplified directly from sludge with universally conserved and Bacteria-specific rDNA gene primers and a clone library constructed that corresponded to the late thermophilic stage (t = 23 h) of the ATAD process. Sequence analyses revealed various 16S rDNA gene sequence types reflective of high bacterial community diversity. Members of the bacterial community included α- and β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria with High G + C content and Gram-Positive bacteria with a prevalence of the Firmicutes (Low G + C) division (class Clostridia and Bacillus). Most of the ATAD clones showed affiliation with bacterial species previously isolated or detected in other elevated temperature environments, at alkaline pH, or in cellulose rich environments. Several phylotypes associated with Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing anaerobes were also detected. The presence of anaerobes was of interest in such large scale systems where sub-optimal aeration and mixing is often the norm while the presence of large amounts of capnophiles suggest the possibility of limited convection and entrapment of CO(2) within the sludge matrix during digestion. Comparative analysis with organism identified in other ATAD systems revealed significant differences based on optimised techniques. The abundance of thermophilic, alkalophilic and cellulose-degrading phylotypes suggests that these organisms are responsible for maintaining the elevated temperature at the later stages of the ATAD process.

  10. Saponaria officinalis L. extract: Surface active properties and impact on environmental bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Pacholak, Amanda; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Marczak, Łukasz; Jarzębski, Maciej; Kaczorek, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    Plant-derived surfactants are characterised by low toxicity, high biodegradability and environmental compatibility. They therefore have many applications; for instance, they can be used in bioremediation to accelerate biodegradation processes, especially of hydrophobic pollutants. This paper analyses the properties of an extract from Saponaria officinalis L. containing saponins and its impact on bacterial strains isolated from soil, as well as its potential for application in hydrocarbon bioremediation. The tested extract from Saponaria officinalis L. contains gypsogenin, hederagenin, hydroxyhederagenin and quillaic acid aglycone structures and demonstrates good emulsification properties. Contact with the extract led to modification of bacterial cell surface properties. A decrease in cell surface hydrophobicity and an increase in membrane permeability were recorded in the experiments. An increase of up to 63% in diesel oil biodegradation was also recorded for Pseudomonas putida DA1 on addition of 1gL(-1) of saponins from Saponaria officinalis L. Saponaria extract showed no toxic impact on the tested environmental bacterial strains at the concentration used in the biodegradation process.

  11. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections. PMID:27340653

  12. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.

  13. A Catalytic DNA Activated by a Specific Strain of Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhifa; Wu, Zaisheng; Chang, Dingran; Zhang, Wenqing; Tram, Kha; Lee, Christine; Kim, Peter; Salena, Bruno J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pathogenic strains of bacteria are known to cause various infectious diseases and there is a growing demand for molecular probes that can selectively recognize them. Here we report a special DNAzyme (catalytic DNA), RFD‐CD1, that shows exquisite specificity for a pathogenic strain of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). RFD‐CD1 was derived by an in vitro selection approach where a random‐sequence DNA library was allowed to react with an unpurified molecular mixture derived from this strain of C. difficle, coupled with a subtractive selection strategy to eliminate cross‐reactivities to unintended C. difficile strains and other bacteria species. RFD‐CD1 is activated by a truncated version of TcdC, a transcription factor, that is unique to the targeted strain of C. difficle. Our study demonstrates for the first time that in vitro selection offers an effective approach for deriving functional nucleic acid probes that are capable of achieving strain‐specific recognition of bacterial pathogens. PMID:26676768

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica) †

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  15. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Oxygen-Tolerant Strain Lactobacillus casei N87

    PubMed Central

    Ianniello, Rocco G.; Matera, Attilio; Genovese, Francesco; Parente, Eugenio; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic and respiratory cultivations provide benefits for some lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Growth, metabolites, enzymatic activities (lactate dehydrogenase; pyruvate and NADH oxidases, NADH peroxidase; catalase), antioxidant capability and stress tolerance of Lactobacillus casei N87 were evaluated in anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory (aerobiosis with heme and menaquinone supplementation) batch cultivations with different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The expression of pox (pyruvate oxidase) and cydABCD operon (cytochrome bd oxidase complex) was quantified by quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction. Respiration increased biomass production compared to anaerobiosis and unsupplemented aerobiosis, and altered the central metabolism rerouting pyruvate away from lactate accumulation. All enzymatic activities, except lactate dehydrogenase, were higher in respiratory cultures, while unsupplemented aerobiosis with 60% of DO promoted H2O2 and free radical accumulation. Respiration improved the survival to oxidative and freeze-drying stresses, while significant numbers of dead, damaged and viable but not cultivable cells were found in unsupplemented aerobic cultures (60% DO). Analysis of gene expression suggested that the activation of aerobic and respiratory pathways occurred during the exponential growth phase, and that O2 and hemin induced, respectively, the transcription of pox and cydABCD genes. Respiratory cultivation might be a natural strategy to improve functional and technological properties of L. casei. PMID:27812097

  16. Adhesion of different bacterial strains to low-temperature plasma treated biomedical PVC catheter surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yousefi Rad, A; Ayhan, H; Kisa, U; Pişkin, E

    1998-01-01

    In this study, firstly five different bacteria (i.e. Coagulase positive and negative staphylococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with their different strains were isolated and used. The contact angle, surface free energy, p-xylene adhesion, and zeta potential of these bacteria were in the range of 43-69 deg, 45.4-61.8 erg cm(-2), 2.3-80.3%, and from -650.2 to + 17.5 mV, respectively. Most of the bacteria were negatively charged. Attachment of these bacteria to PVC catheter and its DMAEMA- and AAc-plasma treated forms were investigated. Bacterial attachment to the hydrophobic PVC catheter was high. Both plasma treatments caused significant drops in bacterial attachment in most of the cases. The effects of AAc-plasma treatment was more significant.

  17. Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Rheum Spiciformis against Pathogenic Bacterial and Fungal Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Khalid Bashir; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Amin, Shajrul; Anees, Suhail; Masood, Akbar; Zargar, Mohammed Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheum spiciformis is a newly identified edible medicinal plant of genus Rheum. The plant is used to treat various diseases on traditional levels in Kashmir Valley, India. Aim To evaluate the phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antifungal potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Rheum spiciformis, a traditionally used edible medicinal plant. Materials and Methods Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum spiciformis were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli and four fungal strains Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility of microbial strains to the two extracts was determined using agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening was carried out by using various standard procedures. Results Methanolic extract showed potent antimicrobial activity as compared to aqueous extract at the concentrations of 10, 30, 50, 80 and 100mg/ml. The most susceptible bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition (25±0.10mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (23±0.25mm), Proteus vulgaris (22±0.10mm) at the concentration of 100mg/ml. Aqueous extracts at the higher concentration were found effective against Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis with zone of inhibition (17±0.24mm) and (17±0.10mm), respectively. Among fungal strains the most susceptible were Aspergillus fumigatus (21±0.10mm), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (20±0.20mm) and Penicillium Chrysogenum (17±0.15mm) at the concentration of 100mg/ml methanol extract. The zone of inhibition for aqueous extract against fungal strains ranged between 14±0.13mm to 16±0.19mm at the highest concentration of plant extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites like flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils, phenols, steroids

  18. Chemical, physical and morphological properties of bacterial biofilms affect survival of encased Campylobacter jejuni F38011 under aerobic stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinsong; Lamour, Guillaume; Xue, Rui; Mirvakliki, Mehr Negar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Xu, Jie; Li, Hongbin; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-12-05

    Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic pathogen and leading cause of human gastroenteritis. The presence of C. jejuni encased in biofilms found in meat and poultry processing facilities may be the major strategy for its survival and dissemination in aerobic environment. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with C. jejuni F38011 as a culture to form dual-species biofilms. After 4days' exposure to aerobic stress, no viable C. jejuni cells could be detected from mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. In contrast, at least 4.7logCFU/cm(2) of viable C. jejuni cells existed in some dual-species biofilms. To elucidate the mechanism of protection mode, chemical, physical and morphological features of biofilms were characterized. Dual-species biofilms contained a higher level of extracellular polymeric substances with a more diversified chemical composition, especially for polysaccharides and proteins, than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. Structure of dual-species biofilms was more compact and their surface was >8 times smoother than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm, as indicated by atomic force microscopy. Under desiccation stress, water content of dual-species biofilms decreased slowly and remained at higher levels for a longer time than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. The surface of all biofilms was hydrophilic, but total surface energy of dual-species biofilms (ranging from 52.5 to 56.2mJ/m(2)) was lower than that of mono-species C. jejuni biofilm, leading to more resistance to wetting by polar liquids. This knowledge can aid in developing intervention strategies to decrease the survival and dispersal of C. jejuni into foods or environment.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582), an Efficient Producer of Bacterial Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the release of the complete nucleotide sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582). This strain was isolated by R. Malcolm Brown, Jr. in a sugar mill in North Queensland, Australia, and is an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516505

  20. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L; Heimlich, Derek R; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E; Justice, Sheryl S; Thompson, J Will; Mason, Kevin M

    2016-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  1. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment*

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G.; St. John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M. Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L.; Heimlich, Derek R.; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E.; Justice, Sheryl S.; Thompson, J. Will; Mason, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  2. New bacterial strain of the genus Ochrobactrum with glyphosate-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Faranak; Mousavi, Amir; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Tabar, Hadi Ghaderi; Salmanian, Ali Hatef

    2013-01-01

    Thirty bacterial strains with various abilities to utilize glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source were isolated from farm soils using the glyphosate enrichment cultivation technique. Among them, a strain showing a remarkable glyphosate-degrading activity was identified by biochemical features and 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum sp. (GDOS). Herbicide (3 mM) degradation was induced by phosphate starvation, and was completed within 60 h. Aminomethylphosphonic acid was detected in the exhausted medium, suggesting glyphosate oxidoreductase as the enzyme responsible for herbicide breakdown. As it grew even in the presence of glyphosate concentrations as high as 200 mM, Ochrobactrum sp. could be used for bioremediation purposes and treatment of heavily contaminated soils.

  3. Exposure to bacterial endotoxin generates a distinct strain of α-synuclein fibril

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changyoun; Lv, Guohua; Lee, Jun Sung; Jung, Byung Chul; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Hong, Chul-Suk; Valera, Elvira; Lee, He-Jin; Paik, Seung R.; Hasegawa, Masato; Masliah, Eliezer; Eliezer, David; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    A single amyloidogenic protein is implicated in multiple neurological diseases and capable of generating a number of aggregate “strains” with distinct structures. Among the amyloidogenic proteins, α-synuclein generates multiple patterns of proteinopathies in a group of diseases, such as Parkinson disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, the link between specific conformations and distinct pathologies, the key concept of the strain hypothesis, remains elusive. Here we show that in the presence of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), α-synuclein generated a self-renewable, structurally distinct fibril strain that consistently induced specific patterns of synucleinopathies in mice. These results suggest that amyloid fibrils with self-renewable structures cause distinct types of proteinopathies despite the identical primary structure and that exposure to exogenous pathogens may contribute to the diversity of synucleinopathies. PMID:27488222

  4. Modular microfluidic system fabricated in thermoplastics for the strain-specific detection of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Witek, Makgorzata; Dharmasiri, Udara; Pingle, Maneesh R; Barany, Francis; Soper, Steven A

    2012-09-21

    The recent outbreaks of a lethal E. coli strain in Germany have aroused renewed interest in developing rapid, specific and accurate systems for detecting and characterizing bacterial pathogens in suspected contaminated food and/or water supplies. To address this need, we have designed, fabricated and tested an integrated modular-based microfluidic system and the accompanying assay for the strain-specific identification of bacterial pathogens. The system can carry out the entire molecular processing pipeline in a single disposable fluidic cartridge and detect single nucleotide variations in selected genes to allow for the identification of the bacterial species, even its strain with high specificity. The unique aspect of this fluidic cartridge is its modular format with task-specific modules interconnected to a fluidic motherboard to permit the selection of the target material. In addition, to minimize the amount of finishing steps for assembling the fluidic cartridge, many of the functional components were produced during the polymer molding step used to create the fluidic network. The operation of the cartridge was provided by electronic, mechanical, optical and hydraulic controls located off-chip and packaged into a small footprint instrument (1 ft(3)). The fluidic cartridge was capable of performing cell enrichment, cell lysis, solid-phase extraction (SPE) of genomic DNA, continuous flow (CF) PCR, CF ligase detection reaction (LDR) and universal DNA array readout. The cartridge was comprised of modules situated on a fluidic motherboard; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and used for cell lysis, SPE, CF PCR and CF LDR. The modules were task-specific units and performed universal zip-code array readout or affinity enrichment of the target cells with both made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA. Two genes, uidA and sipB/C, were used to discriminate between E. coli and Salmonella, and evaluated as a model system. Results showed that the fluidic

  5. [Colonization and disease control and fruit preservation functions of endophytic bacterial strains in lychee].

    PubMed

    Cai, Xue-qing; Chen, Wei; Lin, Na; Lin, Tong; Hu, Fang-ping

    2011-08-01

    By spraying the GFP-marked endophytic bacterial strains BS-2-gfp and TB2-gfp, this paper studied their colonization in lychee organs and the functions of the strains in disease control and fruit preservation. The BS-2-gfp and TB2-gfp could colonize and propagate in lychee leaves, flowers, un-matured fruits, and matured fruits, and transfer from the flowers to un-matured fruits. The colonization of BS-2-gfp and TB2-gfp in lychee leaves varied with season and growth stage, being larger in quantity and longer in duration in spring than in autumn. The colonization quantity and duration of the strains also differed in other organs. Both the BS-2-gfp and the TB2-gfp could be isolated and recovered from lychee leaves after 37 d inoculation, the BS-2-gfp could not be isolated from the flowers after inoculation for 10 d, and the BS-2-gfp and TB2-gfp had the largest colonization quantity in matured fruits. The colonization quantity of TB2-gfp in lychee pericarp reached to the maximum (1.90 x 10(6) CFU x g(-1) FM) when the disease index of litchi downy blight had a sharp increase, and, compared with BS-2-gfp, the TB2-gfp had better fruit preservation efficiency, and its colonization quantity in lychee pericarp was also higher. It was suggested that there was a positive correlation between the colonization quantity of test bacterial strains in lychee pericarp and the disease control and fruit preservation effect.

  6. Detection of Bacterial and Yeast Species with the Bactec 9120 Automated System with Routine Use of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Fungal Media▿

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Palmeri, Angelo; Amato, Teresa; Immordino, Rita; Distefano, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2006 and 2007, all blood cultures required by four units at high infective risk and most of those required by other units of the University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy were performed using a Bactec 9120 automated blood culture system with a complete set of Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Mycosis IC/F bottles. The aim of the study was to enable the authors to gain firsthand experience of the culture potentialities of the three different media, to obtain information regarding the overall and specific recovery of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures in the hospital, and to reach a decision as to whether and when to utilize anaerobic and fungal bottles. Although very few bloodstream infections (1.8%) were associated with obligate anaerobes, the traditional routine use of anaerobic bottles was confirmed because of their usefulness, not only in the detection of anaerobes, but also in that of gram-positive cocci and fermentative gram-negative bacilli. In this study, Mycosis IC/F bottles detected 77.4% of all the yeast isolates, 87.0% of yeasts belonging to the species Candida albicans, and 45.7% of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli resistant to chloramphenicol and tobramycin. In order to improve the diagnosis of fungemia in high-risk patients, the additional routine use of fungal bottles was suggested when, as occurred in the intensive-care unit and in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Palermo, high percentages of bloodstream infections are associated with yeasts, and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or multiple bacterial isolates capable of inhibiting yeast growth in aerobic bottles. PMID:18923011

  7. Selective growth promotion of bloom-forming raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo by a marine bacterial strain.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Aiko; Fujitani, Yoshiko; Nakayama, Natsuko; Tani, Akio; Ueki, Shoko

    2016-12-01

    Algal bloom is typically caused by aberrant propagation of a single species, resulting in its predomination in the local population. While environmental factors including temperature and eutrophication are linked to bloom, the precise mechanism of its formation process is still obscure. Here, we isolated a bacterial strain that promotes growth of Heterosigma akashiwo, a Raphidophyceae that causes harmful algal blooms. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was identified as Altererythrobacter ishigakiensis, a member of the class Alphaproteobacteria. When added to culture, this strain facilitated growth of H. akashiwo and increased its cell culture yield significantly. Importantly, this strain did not affect the growth of other raphidophytes, Chattonella ovate and C. antiqua, indicating that it promotes growth of H. akashiwo in a species-specific manner. We also found that, in co-culture, H. akashiwo suppressed the growth of C. ovate. When A. ishigakiensis was added to the mixed culture, H. akashiwo growth was facilitated while C. ovate propagation was markedly suppressed, indicating that the presence of the bacterium enhances the dominance of H. akashiwo over C. ovate. This is the first example of selective growth promotion of H. akashiwo by a marine bacterium, and may exemplify importance of symbiotic bacterium on algal bloom forming process in general.

  8. Acute oral toxicity and bacterial translocation studies on potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-01-01

    Three potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20(TM)), Lb. acidophilus HN017 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10()), have recently been identified and characterized. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of these strains to mice, and also to investigate bacterial translocation and gut mucosal pathology in BALB/c mice fed HN019, HN001 or HN017 for 8 consecutive days at a high dose of 10(11)cfu/mouse/day. Results showed that these probiotic strains had no adverse effect on general health status, feed intake, body weight gain and intestinal mucosal morphology (villus height, crypt depth, epithelial cell height and mucosal thickness). No viable bacteria were recovered from blood and tissue samples (mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen) of mice, and no treatment-associated illness or death was observed. According to these results, the oral LD(50) of HN019, HN001 and HN017 is more than 50g/kg/day for mice, and their acceptable daily intake (ADI) value is 35g dry bacteria per day for a 70-kg person. This suggests that the probiotic strains HN019, HN001 and HN017 are non-pathogenic and likely to be safe for human consumption.

  9. Bacterial structure of aerobic granules is determined by aeration mode and nitrogen load in the reactor cycle.

    PubMed

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated how the microbial composition of biomass and kinetics of nitrogen conversions in aerobic granular reactors treating high-ammonium supernatant depended on nitrogen load and the number of anoxic phases in the cycle. Excellent ammonium removal and predomination of full nitrification was observed in the reactors operated at 1.1 kg TKN m(-3) d(-1) and with anoxic phases in the cycle. In all reactors, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria predominated, comprising between 90.14% and 98.59% of OTUs. Extracellular polymeric substances-producing bacteria, such as Rhodocyclales, Xanthomonadaceae, Sphingomonadales and Rhizobiales, were identified in biomass from all reactors, though in different proportions. Under constant aeration, bacteria capable of autotrophic nitrification were found in granules, whereas under variable aeration heterotrophic nitrifiers such as Pseudomonas sp. and Paracoccus sp. were identified. Constant aeration promoted more even bacteria distribution among taxa; with 1 anoxic phase, Paracoccus aminophilus predominated (62.73% of OTUs); with 2 phases, Corynebacterium sp. predominated (65.10% of OTUs).

  10. How fitness reduced, antimicrobial resistant bacteria survive and spread: a multiple pig-multiple bacterial strain model.

    PubMed

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2014-01-01

    More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given that there are multiple susceptible and resistant bacterial strains in the pig intestines, how can we describe their coexistence? To what extent does the composition of these multiple strains in individual pigs influence the total bacterial population of the pig pen? What happens to a complex population when antimicrobials are used? To investigate these questions, we created a model where multiple strains of bacteria coexist in the intestines of pigs sharing a pen, and explored the parameter limits of a stable system; both with and without an antimicrobial treatment. The approach taken is a deterministic bacterial population model with stochastic elements of bacterial distributions and transmission. The rates that govern the model are process-oriented to represent growth, excretion, and uptake from environment, independent of herd and meta-population structures. Furthermore, an entry barrier and elimination process for the individual strains in each pig were implemented. We demonstrate how competitive growth between multiple bacterial strains in individual pigs, and the transmission between pigs in a pen allow for strains of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to persist in a pig population to different extents, and how quickly they can become dominant if antimicrobial treatment is initiated. The level of spread depends in a non-linear way of the parameters that govern excretion and uptake. Furthermore, the sampling of initial distributions of strains and stochastic transmission events give rise to large variation in how homogenous and how resistant the bacterial population becomes. Most important: resistant bacteria are demonstrated to survive with a disadvantage in growth rate of well over 10%.

  11. Evidence of polyethylene biodegradation by bacterial strains from the guts of plastic-eating waxworms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Jiao; Jiang, Lei

    2014-12-02

    Polyethylene (PE) has been considered nonbiodegradable for decades. Although the biodegradation of PE by bacterial cultures has been occasionally described, valid evidence of PE biodegradation has remained limited in the literature. We found that waxworms, or Indian mealmoths (the larvae of Plodia interpunctella), were capable of chewing and eating PE films. Two bacterial strains capable of degrading PE were isolated from this worm's gut, Enterobacter asburiae YT1 and Bacillus sp. YP1. Over a 28-day incubation period of the two strains on PE films, viable biofilms formed, and the PE films' hydrophobicity decreased. Obvious damage, including pits and cavities (0.3-0.4 μm in depth), was observed on the surfaces of the PE films using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formation of carbonyl groups was verified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and microattenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared (micro-ATR/FTIR) imaging microscope. Suspension cultures of YT1 and YP1 (10(8) cells/mL) were able to degrade approximately 6.1 ± 0.3% and 10.7 ± 0.2% of the PE films (100 mg), respectively, over a 60-day incubation period. The molecular weights of the residual PE films were lower, and the release of 12 water-soluble daughter products was also detected. The results demonstrated the presence of PE-degrading bacteria in the guts of waxworms and provided promising evidence for the biodegradation of PE in the environment.

  12. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter). Materials and Methods: Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI) without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI) were considered as Cr resistant. Results: The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI) concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Conclusion: Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI). PMID:20976016

  13. Bacterial Species- and Strain-Dependent Induction of Tissue Factor in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Veltrop, M. H. A. M.; Beekhuizen, H.; Thompson, J.

    1999-01-01

    A cardinal process in bacterial endocarditis (BE) is the activation of the clotting system and the formation of a fibrin clot on the inner surface of the heart, the so-called endocardial vegetation. The processes that lead to the activation of the clotting system on endothelial surfaces upon exposure to bacteria are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated in an in vitro model whether infection of human endothelial cells (EC) with bacteria that are relevant to BE, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, leads to induction of tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity (TFA) and whether this process is influenced by host factors, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), that are produced in response to the bacteremia in vivo. The results show that S. aureus binds to and is internalized by EC, resulting in expression of TF mRNA and TF surface protein as well as generation of TFA within 4 to 8 h after infection. No TFA was found when EC were exposed to UV-irradiated S. aureus or bacterial cell wall fragments. S. sanguis and S. epidermidis, although also binding to EC, did not induce endothelial TFA. This indicates a species and strain dependency. EC also expressed TFA after exposure to IL-1. The enhanced TFA of EC after exposure to S. aureus was not prevented by IL-1 receptor antagonist, arguing against an auto- or paracrine contribution of endogenous IL-1. When IL-1 was applied together with bacteria, this had a synergistic effect on the induction of EC TFA. This was found in particular with S. aureus but also, although to a lesser degree, with S. sanguis and S. epidermidis. This influence of IL-1 on the species- and strain-dependent induction of EC TFA suggests that bacterial factors as well as host factors orchestrate the induction of coagulation in an early stage in the pathogenesis of endovascular disease, such as BE. PMID:10531276

  14. Analytical performance issues: comparison of ATP bioluminescence and aerobic bacterial count for evaluating surface cleanliness in an Italian hospital.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Emanuele; Cannova, Lucia; Villafrate, Maria Rosaria; Merendino, Anna Maria; Aprea, Luigi; Calamusa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated hospital surfaces have been demonstrated to be an important environmental reservoir of microorganisms that can increase the risk of nosocomial infection in exposed patients. As a consequence, cleaning and disinfecting hospital environments play an important role among strategies for preventing healthcare-associated colonization and infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) presence, measured by bioluminescence methods, can predict microbiological contamination of hospital surfaces. The study was carried out between September and December 2012 at the University Hospital "P. Giaccone" of Palermo. A total of 193 randomly selected surfaces (tables, lockers, furnishings) were sampled and analyzed in order to assess ATP levels (expressed as relative light units or RLU) and aerobic colony count (ACC) or presence of S. aureus. ACC had median values of 1.85 cfu/cm(2)(interquartile range = 4.16) whereas ATP median was 44.6 RLU/cm(2)(interquartile range = 92.3). Overall, 85 (44.0%) surfaces exceeded the established microbial benchmark: 73 (37.8%) exceeded the 2.5 cfu/cm(2)ACC standard, 5 (2.6%) surfaces were positive for S. aureus and 7 (3.6%) showed both the presence of S. aureus and an ACC of more than 2.5 cfu/cm(2). ACC and bioluminescence showed significant differences in the different surface sites (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between ACC and RLU values (p-value < 0.001; R(2)= 0.29) and increasing RLU values were significantly associated with a higher risk of failing the benchmark (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that bioluminescence could help in measuring hygienic quality of hospital surfaces using a quick and sensitive test that can be an useful proxy of microbial contamination; however, further analysis will be necessary to assess the cost-efficacy of this methodology before requiring incorporation in hospital procedures.

  15. Single bacterial strain capable of significant contribution to carbon cycling in the surface ocean

    PubMed Central

    Pedler, Byron E.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Azam, Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) encompasses one of the largest reservoirs of carbon on Earth. Heterotrophic bacteria are the primary biotic force regulating the fate of this material, yet the capacity of individual strains to significantly contribute to carbon cycling is unknown. Here we quantified the ability of a single Alteromonas strain [Alteromonas sp. strain Scripps Institution of Oceanography (AltSIO)] to drawdown ambient DOC in a coastal ecosystem. In three experiments, AltSIO alone consumed the entire pool of labile DOC, defined here as the quantity consumed by the submicron size fraction of ambient microbial assemblages within 5 d. These findings demonstrate that complete removal of the labile DOC pool in coastal surface seawater can be achieved by a single taxon. During long-term incubations (>1 y) testing semilabile DOC consumption, AltSIO entered dormancy but remained viable, while the diverse assemblages continued to consume carbon. Given that AltSIO is a large bacterium and thus subject to increased grazing pressure, we sought to determine the ecological relevance of this phenotype. Growth dynamics in natural seawater revealed that AltSIO rapidly outgrew the native bacteria, and despite intense grazing pressure, was never eliminated from the population. A survey in the California Current Ecosystem revealed that large bacteria (≥40 fg C⋅cell−1) were persistent, accounting for up to 12% of total bacterial abundance and 24% of total bacterial biomass. We conclude that large, rapidly growing bacteria have the potential to disproportionately alter the fate of carbon in the mesotrophic ocean and play an important role in ecosystem function. PMID:24733921

  16. Single bacterial strain capable of significant contribution to carbon cycling in the surface ocean.

    PubMed

    Pedler, Byron E; Aluwihare, Lihini I; Azam, Farooq

    2014-05-20

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) encompasses one of the largest reservoirs of carbon on Earth. Heterotrophic bacteria are the primary biotic force regulating the fate of this material, yet the capacity of individual strains to significantly contribute to carbon cycling is unknown. Here we quantified the ability of a single Alteromonas strain [Alteromonas sp. strain Scripps Institution of Oceanography (AltSIO)] to drawdown ambient DOC in a coastal ecosystem. In three experiments, AltSIO alone consumed the entire pool of labile DOC, defined here as the quantity consumed by the submicron size fraction of ambient microbial assemblages within 5 d. These findings demonstrate that complete removal of the labile DOC pool in coastal surface seawater can be achieved by a single taxon. During long-term incubations (>1 y) testing semilabile DOC consumption, AltSIO entered dormancy but remained viable, while the diverse assemblages continued to consume carbon. Given that AltSIO is a large bacterium and thus subject to increased grazing pressure, we sought to determine the ecological relevance of this phenotype. Growth dynamics in natural seawater revealed that AltSIO rapidly outgrew the native bacteria, and despite intense grazing pressure, was never eliminated from the population. A survey in the California Current Ecosystem revealed that large bacteria (≥40 fg C⋅cell(-1)) were persistent, accounting for up to 12% of total bacterial abundance and 24% of total bacterial biomass. We conclude that large, rapidly growing bacteria have the potential to disproportionately alter the fate of carbon in the mesotrophic ocean and play an important role in ecosystem function.

  17. Biodegradation of endosulfan isomers and its metabolite endosulfate by two biosurfactant producing bacterial strains of Bordetella petrii.

    PubMed

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the investigation was to study the biodegradation of endosulfan isomers and its major metabolite endosulfate by two biosurfactant producing bacterial strains of Bordetella petrii. The significance of the study is to evaluate the capability of biosurfactant producing bacterial strains in enhancing the bioavailability of endosulfan. Sixty bacterial strains were isolated from the endosulfan degrading bacterial consortium and were screened for endosulfan degradation and biosurfactant production. Among those, two strains Bordetella petrii I GV 34 (Gene bank Accession No KJ02262) and Bordetella petrii II GV 36 (Gene bank Accession No KJ022625) were capable of degrading endosulfan with simultaneous biosurfactant production. Bordetella petrii I degraded 89% of α and 84% of β isomers of endosulfan whereas Bordetella petrii II degraded 82% of both the isomers. Both the strains were able to reduce the surface tension up to 19.6% and 21.4% with a minimum observed surface tension of 45 Dynes/cm and 44 Dynes/cm, respectively. The study revealed that the strains have the potential to enhance the degradation endosulfan residues in contaminated sites and water by biosurfactant production.

  18. Purification and characterization of three parathion hydrolases from gram-negative bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, W W; Karns, J S

    1989-02-01

    Three unique parathion hydrolases were purified from gram-negative bacterial isolates and characterized. All three purified enzymes had roughly comparable affinities for ethyl parathion and had broad temperature optima at ca. 40 degrees C. The membrane-bound hydrolase of Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 35,000 daltons (Da) and was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and by metal salts such as CuCl2. The cytosolic hydrolase of strain B-1 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 43,000 Da and was stimulated by DTT and inhibited by CuCl2. The membrane-bound hydrolase of strain SC was composed of four identical subunits of 67,000 Da and was inhibited by DTT and stimulated by CuCl2. The substrate ranges of the three enzymes also differed, as evidenced by their relative affinities for parathion and the related organophosphate insecticide O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). The B-1 hydrolase displayed equal affinity for both compounds, the Flavobacterium enzyme showed twofold-lower affinity for EPN than for parathion, and the SC hydrolase displayed no activity toward EPN. The range in characteristics of these three enzymes can be exploited in different waste disposal strategies.

  19. Purification and characterization of three parathion hydrolases from gram-negative bacterial strains.

    PubMed Central

    Mulbry, W W; Karns, J S

    1989-01-01

    Three unique parathion hydrolases were purified from gram-negative bacterial isolates and characterized. All three purified enzymes had roughly comparable affinities for ethyl parathion and had broad temperature optima at ca. 40 degrees C. The membrane-bound hydrolase of Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 35,000 daltons (Da) and was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and by metal salts such as CuCl2. The cytosolic hydrolase of strain B-1 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 43,000 Da and was stimulated by DTT and inhibited by CuCl2. The membrane-bound hydrolase of strain SC was composed of four identical subunits of 67,000 Da and was inhibited by DTT and stimulated by CuCl2. The substrate ranges of the three enzymes also differed, as evidenced by their relative affinities for parathion and the related organophosphate insecticide O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). The B-1 hydrolase displayed equal affinity for both compounds, the Flavobacterium enzyme showed twofold-lower affinity for EPN than for parathion, and the SC hydrolase displayed no activity toward EPN. The range in characteristics of these three enzymes can be exploited in different waste disposal strategies. Images PMID:2541658

  20. Bioremediation potential of a highly mercury resistant bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain, SA2, was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate showed 99% sequence similarity to the genera Sphingobium and Sphingomonas of α-proteobacteria group. However, the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with the genus Sphingobium suggesting the strain belongs to Sphingobium sp. Toxicity studies indicated resistance to high levels of mercury with estimated EC50 values 4.5 mg L(-1) and 44.15 mg L(-1) and MIC values 5.1 mg L(-1) and 48.48 mg L(-1) in minimal and rich media, respectively. The strain SA2 was able to volatilize mercury by producing mercuric reductase enzyme which makes it potential candidate for remediating mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of Hg supplemented culture solutions confirmed that almost 79% mercury in the culture suspension was volatilized in 6 h. A very small amount of mercury was observed to accumulate in cell pellets which was also evident according to ESEM-EDX analysis. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated sequence homology with α-proteobacteria and Ascomycota group.

  1. Isolation and characterization of marine bacterial strain degrading fucoidan from Korean Undaria pinnatifida Sporophylls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Jung; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Hyun Guell; Kim, Hyung-Kwon; Moon, Seong Hoon; Suh, Hyun-Hyo; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Park, Yong-Il

    2008-04-01

    In spite of an increasing interest in fucoidans as biologically active compounds, no convenient commercial sources with fucoidanase activity are yet available. A marine bacterial strain that showed confluent growth on a minimal medium containing fucoidan, prepared from Korean Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls, as the sole carbon source was isolated and identified based on a 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a strain of Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and named Sphingomonas paucimobilis PF-1. The strain depolymerized fucoidan into more than 7 distinct lowmolecular- mass fucose-containing oligosaccharides, ranging from 305 to 3,749 Da. The enzyme activity was shown to be associated with the whole cell, suggesting the possibility of a surface display of the enzyme. However, a whole-cell enzyme preparation neither released the monomer Lfucose from the fucoidan nor hydrolyzed the chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-fucoside, indicating that the enzyme may be an endo-acting fucoidanase rather than an alpha-L-fucosidase. Therefore, this would appear to be the first report on fucoidanolytic activity by a Sphingomonas species and also the first report on the enzymatic degradation of the Korean Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll fucoidan. Moreover, this enzyme activity may be very useful for structural analyses of fucose-containing polysaccharides and the production of bioactive fucooligosaccharides.

  2. Assessing the bioremediation potential of arsenic tolerant bacterial strains in rice rhizosphere interface.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Srivastava, Shubhi; Rathaur, Sushma; Singh, Nandita

    2016-10-01

    The arsenic tolerant bacterial strains Staphylococcus arlettae (NBRIEAG-6), Staphylococcus sp. (NBRIEAG-8) and Brevibacillus sp. (NBRIEAG-9) were tested for their roles in enhancing plant growth and induction of stress-related enzymes in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. NDR-359) plants at two different concentrations, 30 and 15mg/kg of As(V) and As(III), respectively. An experiment was conducted to test the effect of these strains on plant growth promotion and arsenic uptake. We found 30%-40% reduction in total As uptake in bacteria-inoculated plants, with increased plant growth parameters compared to non-inoculated plants. Moreover, the bacteria-inoculated plants showed reduced activity of total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) compared to their respective controls, which suggests the bacteria-mediated reduction of oxidative stress in plants. Thus, these strains were found to be beneficial in terms of the biochemical and physiological status of the plants under arsenic stress conditions. Furthermore, one-way ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA) on enzymatic and non-enzymatic assays also revealed clear variations. The results support the distinction between control and treatments in both shoots and roots. Therefore, this study demonstrates the potential of rhizobacteria in alleviating arsenic stress in rice plants.

  3. Epidemiological analysis of bacterial strains involved in hospital infection in a university hospital from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, B A; Cravo, C A; Loureiro, M M; Solari, C A; Asensi, M D

    2000-01-01

    Hospital infections cause an increase in morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients with significant rise in hospital costs. The aim of this work was an epidemiological analysis of hospital infection cases occurred in a public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Hence, 238 strains were isolated from 14 different clinical materials of 166 patients hospitalized in the period between August 1995 and July 1997. The average age of the patients was 33.4 years, 72.9% used antimicrobials before having a positive culture. The most common risk conditions were surgery (19.3%), positive HIV or AIDS (18.1%) and lung disease (16.9%). 24 different bacterial species were identified, S. aureus (21%) and P. aeruginosa (18.5%) were predominant. Among 50 S. aureus isolated strains 36% were classified as MRSA (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus). The Gram negative bacteria presented high resistance to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. A diarrhea outbreak, detected in high-risk neonatology ward, was caused by Salmonella serovar Infantis strain, with high antimicrobial resistance and a plasmid of high molecular weight (98Mda) containing virulence genes and positive for R factor.

  4. Bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages from lipopolysaccharide responder and nonresponder mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Cuffini, A; Carlone, N A; Forni, G

    1980-01-01

    The phagocytic capacity of macrophages from C3H/H3J mice was assessed against lipopolysaccharide-producing (Escherichia coli) and -nonproducing (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Despite their gene-coded unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and lymphokines and their defective tumoricidal activity, proteose peptone-induced C3H/HeJ macrophages did not display a defective phagocytic capacity, but rather displayed an enhanced phagocytosis of both bacterial strains compared with macrophages from closely related C3H/HeN mice. Unstimulated peritoneal resident C3H/HeJ macrophages, on the other hand, displayed a normal phagocytic activity toward E. coli and enhanced phagocytosis toward S. aureus. PMID:6995321

  5. Selected bacterial strains protect Artemia spp. from the pathogenic effects of Vibrio proteolyticus CW8T2.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, L; Heang, H; Criel, G; Sorgeloos, P; Verstraete, W

    2000-03-01

    In this study Vibrio proteolyticus CW8T2 has been identified as a virulent pathogen for Artemia spp. Its infection route has been visualized with transmission electron microscopy. The pathogen affected microvilli and gut epithelial cells, disrupted epithelial cell junctions, and reached the body cavity, where it devastated cells and tissues. In vivo antagonism tests showed that preemptive colonization of the culture water with nine selected bacterial strains protected Artemia juveniles against the pathogenic effects. Two categories of the selected strains could be distinguished: (i) strains providing total protection, as no mortality occurred 2 days after the experimental infection with V. proteolyticus CW8T2, with strain LVS8 as a representative, and (ii) strains providing partial protection, as significant but not total mortality was observed, with strain LVS2 as a representative. The growth of V. proteolyticus CW8T2 in the culture medium was slowed down in the presence of strains LVS2 and LVS8, but growth suppression was distinctly higher with LVS8 than with LVS2. It was striking that the strains that gave only partial protection against the pathogen in the in vivo antagonism test showed also a restricted capability to colonize the Artemia compared to the strains providing total protection. The in vivo antagonism tests and the filtrate experiments showed that probably no extracellular bacterial compounds were involved in the protective action but that the living cells were required to protect Artemia against V. proteolyticus CW8T2.

  6. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  7. Production of volatile aroma compounds by bacterial strains isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses.

    PubMed

    Deetae, Pawinee; Bonnarme, Pascal; Spinnler, Henry E; Helinck, Sandra

    2007-10-01

    Twelve bacterial strains belonging to eight taxonomic groups: Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium foliorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus equorum, Brachybacterium sp., Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses, were investigated for their abilities to generate volatile aroma compounds. Out of 104 volatile compounds, 54 volatile compounds (identified using dynamic headspace technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) appeared to be produced by the different bacteria on a casamino acid medium. Four out of eight species used in this study: B. linens, M. foliorum, P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showed a high flavouring potential. Among these four bacterial species, P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest varieties but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds having low olfactive thresholds such as sulphur compounds. Branched aldehydes, alcohols and esters were produced in large amounts by P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showing their capacity to breakdown the branched amino acids. This investigation shows that some common but rarely mentioned bacteria present on the surface of ripened cheeses could play a major role in cheese flavour formation and could be used to produce cheese flavours.

  8. Biodegradation of hexazinone by two isolated bacterial strains (WFX-1 and WFX-2).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuedong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Huili; Yang, Shao

    2006-08-01

    Two hexazinone-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from soil by enrichment culture technique, and identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Enterobacter cloacap, respectively. The two purified isolates, designated as WFX-1 and WFX-2, could rapidly degrade hexazinone with half-lives of 3.08 and 2.95 days in mineral salts medium (hereafter referred to as MSM). In contrast, their mixed bacterial culture (herein abbreviated as MBC) was found to degrade hexazinone, at an initial concentration of 50 mg l(-1), by enhancing 2.3-fold over that when the isolates were used alone. The degradation of hexazinone by MBC in MSM clearly decreased concomitant with the increase of initial concentration, and the level of hexazinone that was toxic enough to totally inhibit degradation was in the range of 150-200 mg l(-1). The appropriately combined conditions for hexazinone degradation by MBC in MSM were studied, and found to be pH 5.5, 30 degrees C and at agitation of 120 rpm. The addition of MBC to soil had a greater impact on disappearance of hexazinone, which nearly increased fivefold over that of the control set. As a result, findings in the present investigation provide useful information for soil and water decontamination of hexazinone.

  9. Degradation and metabolism of hexazinone by two isolated bacterial strains from soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuedong; Wang, Huili; Tan, Chengxia

    2005-12-01

    Two hexazinone-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from soil by enrichment culture technique, and identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Enterobacter cloacap. The two purified isolates, designated as WFX-1 and WFX-2, could rapidly degrade hexazinone with a half-life of 3.08 days and 2.95 days in mineral salt medium (MSM), while their mixed bacterial culture was found to degrade hexazinone, at an initial concentration of 50 microg/ml, by enhancing 2.3-fold over that when the isolates were used alone. Two microbial metabolites (A and D) were obtained by preparative TLC and identified on the basis of the spectral data of IR, 1H NMR and HPLC-ESI-MS, but both of them were known products as they had been reported in soil and vegetation metabolites of hexazinone. However, metabolites B and C were new degradates, whose molecular weights (MW) were 157 and 156, respectively, being reported from microbial metabolism for the first time.

  10. Nitrogen-removal efficiency of a novel aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain ZF31, isolated from a drinking-water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tinglin; Guo, Lin; Zhang, Haihan; Su, Junfeng; Wen, Gang; Zhang, Kai

    2015-11-01

    An aerobic denitrifier, identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri strain ZF31, was isolated from the Zhoucun drinking-water reservoir. Strain ZF31 removed 97% of nitrate nitrogen after 16h, without nitrite accumulation. Sequence amplification indicated the presence of the denitrification genes napA, nirS, norB, and nosZ. Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that approximately 75% of the initial nitrogen was removed as gas products. Response surface methodology (RSM) experiments showed that maximum removal of total nitrogen (TN) occurred at pH 8.23, a C/N ratio of 6.68, temperature of 27.72°C, and with shaking at 54.15rpm. The TN removal rate at low C/N ratio (i.e., 3) and low temperature (i.e., 10°C) was 73.30% and 60.08%, respectively. These results suggest that strain ZF31 has potential applications for the bioremediation of slightly polluted drinking-water reservoirs.

  11. The effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on model bacterial strains and isolates from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Sotirova, Anna; Galabova, Danka

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on bacterial strains, laboratory strains, and isolates from industrial wastewater was investigated. It was shown that biosurfactant, depending on the concentration, has a neutral or detrimental effect on the growth and protein release of model Gram (+) strain Bacillus subtilis 168. The growth and protein release of model Gram (-) strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1390 was not influenced by the presence of biosurfactant in the medium. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant at the used concentrations supported the growth of some slow growing on hexadecane bacterial isolates, members of the microbial community. Changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and permeability of some Gram (+) and Gram (-) isolates in the presence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were followed in experiments in vitro. It was found that bacterial cells treated with biosurfactant became more or less hydrophobic than untreated cells depending on individual characteristics and abilities of the strains. For all treated strains, an increase in the amount of released protein was observed with increasing the amount of biosurfactant, probably due to increased cell permeability as a result of changes in the organization of cell surface structures. The results obtained could contribute to clarify the relationships between members of the microbial community as well as suggest the efficiency of surface properties of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas fluorescens making it potentially applicable in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments.

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    PubMed Central

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  13. Detection of low-abundance bacterial strains in metagenomic datasets by eigengenome partitioning.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Brian; Brito, Ilana Lauren; Huang, Katherine; Gevers, Dirk; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Alm, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Analyses of metagenomic datasets that are sequenced to a depth of billions or trillions of bases can uncover hundreds of microbial genomes, but naive assembly of these data is computationally intensive, requiring hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes of RAM. We present latent strain analysis (LSA), a scalable, de novo pre-assembly method that separates reads into biologically informed partitions and thereby enables assembly of individual genomes. LSA is implemented with a streaming calculation of unobserved variables that we call eigengenomes. Eigengenomes reflect covariance in the abundance of short, fixed-length sequences, or k-mers. As the abundance of each genome in a sample is reflected in the abundance of each k-mer in that genome, eigengenome analysis can be used to partition reads from different genomes. This partitioning can be done in fixed memory using tens of gigabytes of RAM, which makes assembly and downstream analyses of terabytes of data feasible on commodity hardware. Using LSA, we assemble partial and near-complete genomes of bacterial taxa present at relative abundances as low as 0.00001%. We also show that LSA is sensitive enough to separate reads from several strains of the same species.

  14. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. PMID:23593573

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    DOE PAGES

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; ...

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceaemore » (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.« less

  16. Rapid identification of ESKAPE bacterial strains using an autonomous microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jack Y; Cira, Nate J; Crooks, John A; Baeza, Josue; Weibel, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Bacteria ID Chips ('BacChips'): an inexpensive, portable, and autonomous microfluidic platform for identifying pathogenic strains of bacteria. BacChips consist of a set of microchambers and channels molded in the elastomeric polymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Each microchamber is preloaded with mono-, di-, or trisaccharides and dried. Pressing the layer of PDMS into contact with a glass coverslip forms the device; the footprint of the device in this article is ∼6 cm(2). After assembly, BacChips are degased under large negative pressure and are stored in vacuum-sealed plastic bags. To use the device, the bag is opened, a sample containing bacteria is introduced at the inlet of the device, and the degased PDMS draws the sample into the central channel and chambers. After the liquid at the inlet is consumed, air is drawn into the BacChip via the inlet and provides a physical barrier that separates the liquid samples in adjacent microchambers. A pH indicator is admixed with the samples prior to their loading, enabling the metabolism of the dissolved saccharides in the microchambers to be visualized. Importantly, BacChips operate without external equipment or instruments. By visually detecting the growth of bacteria using ambient light after ∼4 h, we demonstrate that BacChips with ten microchambers containing different saccharides can reproducibly detect the ESKAPE panel of pathogens, including strains of: Enterococcus faecalis, Enteroccocus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae. This article describes a BacChip for point-of-care detection of ESKAPE pathogens and a starting point for designing multiplexed assays that identify bacterial strains from clinical samples and simultaneously determine their susceptibility to antibiotics.

  17. Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H₂O₂was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance

  18. Biotransformation of arsenic by bacterial strains mediated by oxido-reductase enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, N; Singh, D P

    2014-12-24

    The present study deals with the enzyme mediated biotransformation of arsenic in five arsenic tolerant strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus macerans and Escherichia coli). Biotransformation ability of these isolates was evaluated by monitoring arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. Results showed that arsenic oxidase activity was exclusively present in P. macerans and B. pumilus while B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli strains showed presence of Arsenic oxido-reductase enzyme. The reversible nature of arsenic oxido- reductase suggested that same enzyme can carry out oxidation and reduction of arsenic depending upon the relative concentration of arsenic species. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the arsenite oxidase activity in P. macerans showed highest Km value (Km- 200 μM) and lower Vmax (0.012 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) indicating lowest affinity of the enzyme for arsenite. On the contrary, E. coli showed the lower Km value ( Km- 38.46 μM) and higher Vmax (0.044 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) suggesting for higher affinity for the arsenite. Lineweaver-Burk plot of arsenate reductase activity showed the presence of this enzyme in B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli which were in the range of 200-360 μM Km and Vmax value between 0.256- 0.129 mmol mg-1 protein min-1. These results suggested that affinity of the as reductase enzyme is lowest for arsenate than that for the arsenite. Thus, arsenite oxidase system appears to be a predominant mechanism of cellular defense in these bacterial strains.

  19. Use of plant growth promoting bacterial strains to improve Cytisus striatus and Lupinus luteus development for potential application in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Kidd, Petra S; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele; Monterroso, Carmen; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2017-03-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterial strains possess different mechanisms to improve plant development under common environmental stresses, and are therefore often used as inoculants in soil phytoremediation processes. The aims of the present work were to study the effects of a collection of plant growth promoting bacterial strains on plant development, antioxidant enzyme activities and nutritional status of Cytisus striatus and/or Lupinus luteus plants a) growing in perlite under non-stress conditions and b) growing in diesel-contaminated soil. For this, two greenhouse experiments were designed. Firstly, C. striatus and L. luteus plants were grown from seeds in perlite, and periodically inoculated with 6 PGP strains, either individually or in pairs. Secondly, L. luteus seedlings were grown in soil samples of the A and B horizons of a Cambisol contaminated with 1.25% (w/w) of diesel and inoculated with best PGP inoculant selected from the first experiment. The results indicated that the PGP strains tested in perlite significantly improved plant growth. Combination treatments provoked better growth of L. luteus than the respective individual strains, while individual inoculation treatments were more effective for C. striatus. L. luteus growth in diesel-contaminated soil was significantly improved in the presence of PGP strains, presenting a 2-fold or higher increase in plant biomass. Inoculants did not provoke significant changes in plant nutritional status, with the exception of a subset of siderophore-producing and P-solubilising bacterial strains that resulted in significantly modification of Fe or P concentrations in leaf tissues. Inoculants did not cause significant changes in enzyme activities in perlite experiments, however they significantly reduced oxidative stress in contaminated soils suggesting an improvement in plant tolerance to diesel. Some strains were applied to non-host plants, indicating a non-specific performance of their plant growth promotion

  20. Long-term exposure of bacterial and protozoan communities to TiO2 nanoparticles in an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supha, Chitpisud; Boonto, Yuphada; Jindakaraked, Manee; Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowders at different concentrations (0-50 mg L-1) were injected into an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to nanoparticles on bacterial and protozoan communities. The detection of nanoparticles in the bioflocs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The SBR wastewater experiments were conducted under the influence of ultraviolet light with photocatalytic TiO2. The intrusion of TiO2 nanoparticles was found both on the surface and inside of the bioflocs. The change of microbial population in terms of mixed liquor-suspended solids and the sludge volume index was monitored. The TiO2 nanoparticles tentatively exerted an adverse effect on the microbial population, causing the reduction of microorganisms (both bacteria and protozoa) in the SBR. The respiration inhibition rate of the bacteria was increased, and the viability of the microbial population was reduced at the high concentration (50 mg L-1) of TiO2. The decreasing number of protozoa in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles during 20 days of treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 TiO2 is clearly demonstrated. The measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent tends to increase with a long-term operation. The increase of COD in the system suggests a decrease in the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. However, the SBR can effectively remove the TiO2 nanoparticles (up to 50 mg L-1) from the effluent.

  1. Long-term exposure of bacterial and protozoan communities to TiO2 nanoparticles in an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor

    PubMed Central

    Supha, Chitpisud; Boonto, Yuphada; Jindakaraked, Manee; Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowders at different concentrations (0–50 mg L−1) were injected into an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to nanoparticles on bacterial and protozoan communities. The detection of nanoparticles in the bioflocs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The SBR wastewater experiments were conducted under the influence of ultraviolet light with photocatalytic TiO2. The intrusion of TiO2 nanoparticles was found both on the surface and inside of the bioflocs. The change of microbial population in terms of mixed liquor-suspended solids and the sludge volume index was monitored. The TiO2 nanoparticles tentatively exerted an adverse effect on the microbial population, causing the reduction of microorganisms (both bacteria and protozoa) in the SBR. The respiration inhibition rate of the bacteria was increased, and the viability of the microbial population was reduced at the high concentration (50 mg L−1) of TiO2. The decreasing number of protozoa in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles during 20 days of treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 mg L−1 TiO2 is clearly demonstrated. The measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent tends to increase with a long-term operation. The increase of COD in the system suggests a decrease in the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. However, the SBR can effectively remove the TiO2 nanoparticles (up to 50 mg L−1) from the effluent. PMID:27877796

  2. Degradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil, Prajeesh; Vijaya Nadaraja, Anupama; Bhasi, Arya; Khan, Sudheer; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2012-07-01

    Triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyl diphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent present in a number of house hold consumables. Aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures tolerating triclosan were developed and 77 bacterial strains tolerating triclosan at different levels were isolated from different inoculum sources. Biodegradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic (denitrifying and sulphate reducing conditions), and anaerobic conditions was studied in batch cultures with isolated pure strains and enrichment consortium developed. Under aerobic conditions, the isolated strains tolerated triclosan up to 1 g/L and degraded the compound in inorganic-mineral-broth and agar media. At 10 mg/L level triclosan, 95 ± 1.2% was degraded in 5 days, producing phenol, catechol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol as the degradation products. The strains were able to metabolize triclosan and its degradation products in the presence of monooxygenase inhibitor 1-pentyne. Under anoxic/anaerobic conditions highest degradation (87%) was observed in methanogenic system with acetate as co-substrate and phenol, catechol, and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were among the products. Three of the isolated strains tolerating 1 g/L triclosan were identified as Pseudomonas sp. (BDC 1, 2, and 3).

  3. Aerobic secondary utilization of a non-growth and inhibitory substrate 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and sphingopyxis-like strain S32.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos; Godoy, Félix; Becerra, José; Barra, Ricardo; Martínez, Miguel

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246TCP) degradation by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Sphingopyxis chilensis-like strain S32, which were unable to use 246TCP as the sole carbon and energy source. In R2A broth, the strains degraded 246TCP up to 0.5 mM. Results with mixtures of different 246TCP and glucose concentrations in mineral salt media demonstrated dependence on glucose to allow bacterial growth and degradation of 246TCP. Strain S32 degraded halophenol up to 0.2 mM when 5.33 mM glucose was simultaneously added, while strain S37 degraded the compound up to 0.1 mM when 1.33 mM glucose was added. These 246TCP concentrations were lethal for inocula in absence of glucose. Stoichiometric releases of chloride and analysis by HPLC, GC-ECD and GC-MS indicated 246TCP mineralisation by both strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteria able to mineralize a chlorophenol as a non-growth and inhibitory substrate. The concept of secondary utilization instead of cometabolism is proposed for this activity.

  4. Ciliates rapidly enhance the frequency of conjugation between Escherichia coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Junji; Oguri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinji; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Akizawa, Kouzi; Suzuki, Haruki; Simizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism underlying bacterial conjugation through protozoa was investigated. Kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli SM10λ+ carrying pRT733 with TnphoA was used as donor bacteria and introduced by conjugation into ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli clinical isolate recipient bacteria. Equal amounts of donor and recipient bacteria were mixed together in the presence or absence of protozoa (ciliates, free-living amoebae, myxamoebae) in Page's amoeba saline for 24 h. Transconjugants were selected with Luria broth agar containing kanamycin and ciprofloxacin. The frequency of conjugation was estimated as the number of transconjugants for each recipient. Conjugation frequency in the presence of ciliates was estimated to be approximately 10⁻⁶, but in the absence of ciliates, or in the presence of other protozoa, it was approximately 10⁻⁸. Conjugation also occurred in culture of ciliates at least 2 h after incubation. Successful conjugation was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. Addition of cycloheximide or latrunculin B resulted in suppression of conjugation. Heat killing the ciliates or bacteria had no effect on conjugation frequency. Co-localization of green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli and PKH-67-vital-stained E. coli was observed in the same ciliate vesicles, suggesting that both donor and recipient bacteria had accumulated in the same vesicle. In this study, the conjugation frequency of bacteria was found to be significantly higher in vesicles purified from ciliates than those in culture suspension. We conclude that ciliates rapidly enhance the conjugation of E. coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

  5. Isolation and characterization of different bacterial strains for bioremediation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Guermouche M'rassi, A; Bensalah, F; Gury, J; Duran, R

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is a common environmental pollutant composed of a large number of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation is carried out by microbial communities that are important in determining the fate of pollutants in the environment. The intrinsic biodegradability of the hydrocarbons and the distribution in the environment of competent degrading microorganisms are crucial information for the implementation of bioremediation processes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of various bacteria toward aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from contaminated soil of a refinery in Arzew, Algeria. A collection of 150 bacterial strains was obtained; the bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and their ability to degrade hydrocarbon compounds characterized. The isolated strains were mainly affiliated to the Gamma-Proteobacteria class. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the ability to metabolize high molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds such as pristane (C19) at 35.11 % by strain LGM22 and benzo[a] pyrene (C20) at 33.93 % by strain LGM11. Some strains were able to grow on all the hydrocarbons tested including octadecane, squalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Some strains were specialized degrading only few substrates. In contrast, the strain LGM2 designated as Pseudomonas sp. was found able to degrade both linear and branched alkanes as well as low and high poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The alkB gene involved in alkane degradation was detected in LGM2 and other Pseudomonas-related isolates. The capabilities of the isolated bacterial strains to degrade alkanes and PAHs should be of great practical significance in bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments.

  6. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  7. The Kolumbo submarine volcano of Santorini island is a large pool of bacterial strains with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bourbouli, Maria; Katsifas, Efstathios A; Papathanassiou, Evangelos; Karagouni, Amalia D

    2015-05-01

    Microbes in hydrothermal vents with their unique secondary metabolism may represent an untapped potential source of new natural products. In this study, samples were collected from the hydrothermal field of Kolumbo submarine volcano in the Aegean Sea, in order to isolate bacteria with antimicrobial activity. Eight hundred and thirty-two aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and then differentiated through BOX-PCR analysis at the strain level into 230 genomic fingerprints, which were screened against 13 different type strains (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Forty-two out of 176 bioactive-producing genotypes (76 %) exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least four different type strains and were selected for 16S rDNA sequencing and screening for nonribosomal peptide (NRPS) and polyketide (PKS) synthases genes. The isolates were assigned to genus Bacillus and Proteobacteria, and 20 strains harbored either NRPS, PKS type I or both genes. This is the first report on the diversity of culturable mesophilic bacteria associated with antimicrobial activity from Kolumbo area; the extremely high proportion of antimicrobial-producing strains suggested that this unique environment may represent a potential reservoir of novel bioactive compounds.

  8. [Effect of the inoculant strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis 20006FA on the bacterial composition of a phenanthrene-degrading consortium].

    PubMed

    Madueño, L; Coppotelli, B M; Morelli, I S

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the inoculant strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis 20006FA on the bacterial composition of a phenanthrene-degrading consortium obtained from a pristine soil in sequencing batch cultures was studied. Inoculated (F200+1) and non-inoculated (F200) phenanthrene-degrading consortia, were obtained. Bacterial diversity of consortia was studied at cultivable (phenotype and genotype characterization) and non-cultivable (PCR-DGGE) levels. During the successive cultures, a loss in the phenanthrene-degrading capacity and a decrease in the bacterial diversity were observed in both consortia. Although inoculation did not produce any significant changes in the consortia phenanthrene-degrading capacity (29.9% F200 and 27.6% F200+1), it did produce changes in the bacterial composition, showing a differential structural dynamics in the DGGE profiles of the inoculated consortium. In both consortia, a dominant band placed at the same position as that of the DNA of the inoculant strain in the DGGE gel could be observed. However, isolated cultures from the consortia which had an identical band position to that of S. paucimobilis 20006FA in the PCR-DGGE profile showed low similarity with respect to the inoculant strain (RAPD).

  9. Plant domestication and the assembly of bacterial and fungal communities associated with strains of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Leff, Jonathan W; Lynch, Ryan C; Kane, Nolan C; Fierer, Noah

    2017-04-01

    Root and rhizosphere microbial communities can affect plant health, but it remains undetermined how plant domestication may influence these bacterial and fungal communities. We grew 33 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) strains (n = 5) that varied in their extent of domestication and assessed rhizosphere and root endosphere bacterial and fungal communities. We also assessed fungal communities in the sunflower seeds to investigate the degree to which root and rhizosphere communities were influenced by vertical transmission of the microbiome through seeds. Neither root nor rhizosphere bacterial communities were affected by the extent of sunflower domestication, but domestication did affect the composition of rhizosphere fungal communities. In particular, more modern sunflower strains had lower relative abundances of putative fungal pathogens. Seed-associated fungal communities strongly differed across strains, but several lines of evidence suggest that there is minimal vertical transmission of fungi from seeds to the adult plants. Our results indicate that plant-associated fungal communities are more strongly influenced by host genetic factors and plant breeding than bacterial communities, a finding that could influence strategies for optimizing microbial communities to improve crop yields.

  10. Application of two bacterial strains for wastewater bioremediation and assessment of phenolics biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Paisio, Cintia E; Quevedo, María R; Talano, Melina A; González, Paola S; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    The use of native bacteria is a useful strategy to decontaminate industrial effluents. In this work, two bacterial strains isolated from polluted environments constitutes a promising alternative since they were able to remove several phenolic compounds not only from synthetic solutions but also from effluents derived from a chemical industry and a tannery which are complex matrices. Acinetobacter sp. RTE 1.4 showed ability to completely remove 2-methoxyphenol (1000 mg/L) while Rhodococcus sp. CS 1 not only degrade the same concentration of this compound but also removed 4- chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol with high efficiency. Moreover, both bacteria degraded phenols naturally present or even exogenously added at high concentrations in effluents from the chemical industry and a tannery in short time (up to 5 d). In addition, a significant reduction of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values was achieved after 7 d of treatment for both effluents using Acinetobacter sp. RTE 1.4 and Rhodococcus sp. CS1, respectively. These results showed that Acinetobacter sp. RTE1.4 and Rhodococcus sp. CS 1 might be considered as useful biotechnological tools for an efficient treatment of different effluents, since they showed wide versatility to detoxify these complex matrices, even supplemented with high phenol concentrations.

  11. Degradation of metal-EDTA complexes by resting cells of the bacterial strain DSM 9103

    SciTech Connect

    Satroutdinov, A.D.; Dedyukhina, E.G.; Chistyakova, T.I.; Witschel, M.; Minkevich, I.G.; Eroshin, V.K.; Egli, T.

    2000-05-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), an industrially important chelating agent, forms very stable complexes with di- and trivalent metal ions, and in both wastewater and natural waters it is normally present in the metal-associated form. Therefore, the influence of EDTA speciation on its utilization by the EDTA-degrading bacterial strain DSM 9103 was investigated. EDTA-grown cells harvested from the exponential phase of a batch culture were incubated with 1 mM of various EDTA species and the EDTA concentration in the assay was monitored as a function of time. Uncomplexed EDTA as well as complexes with low stability constants were found to be readily degraded to completion at a constant rate. For more stable EDTA chelates (i.e., chelates of Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}) the data suggest that these complexes were not used directly by the cells but that they had to dissociate prior to degradation. The rate of this dissociation step possibly determined the microbial degradation of these complexes. CdEDTA{sup 2{minus}} and Fe(III)EDTA{sup {minus}} were not degraded within 48 h. In case of CdEDTA{sup 2{minus}} the toxicity of freed Cd{sup 2+} ions most likely prevented a significant degradation of the complex, whereas in case of Fe(III)EDTA{sup {minus}} a combination of metal or complex toxicity and the very slow dissociation of the complex might explain the absence of degradation.

  12. Evaluation of the angiogenic potency of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the MK1 bacterial strain.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yun; Kim, Beom Su; Lee, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential physiological step in wound healing and other regenerative processes. Here, we evaluated the angiogenic properties of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted by MK1 (MK1-EPS), a novel bacterial strain isolated from Neungee mushrooms. MK1-EPS significantly increased human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration, and vascular tube formation. MK1-EPS enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, which are mitogen-activated protein kinases. In addition, the expression of p21 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not of protein kinase B (AKT), were increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK (PD98059), and JNK (SP600125) inhibited MK1-EPS-induced HUVEC proliferation, tube formation, and cell migration, and partially attenuated MKI-EPS-induced expression of p21 and ICAM1, and STAT3 phosphorylation. After surgical implantation into rabbit calvarial bone defects, new blood vessel formation was significantly higher with MK1-EPS composite bone granules than with granules alone, and new bone formation increased significantly. Therefore, MK1-EPS induces angiogenesis and may have potential for use as a bone regeneration agent in bone tissue engineering applications.

  13. Mutagenicity spectra in bacterial strains of airborne and engine exhaust particulate extracts.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Fuselli, S; Conti, G; Conti, L; Carere, A

    1991-12-01

    The mutagenicity spectra of the organic extracts of both airborne particulate matter and diesel and gasoline soot particles were determined using a battery of 9 bacterial strains of different genetic specificity. The assays with crude extracts and with fractionated acidic, neutral and basic components revealed striking differences in the patterns of mutagenic responses produced by each of the complex mixtures investigated. The mutagenicity of air particulate matter was shown to depend mainly on direct-acting acidic and neutral compounds, with a lesser contribution of basic promutagens which required exogenous metabolic activation by liver S9. The assays with a diesel soot extract indicated the prevailing contribution of direct-acting acidic and neutral compounds, and suggested an important role also for nitro derivatives other than nitropyrenes. The gasoline exhaust was characterized by powerful promutagenic compounds, belonging to either the acidic, neutral or basic fractions. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the contribution of engine exhausts to air pollution, and the possible use of mutagenicity spectra in the analysis of environmental complex mixtures.

  14. Biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial community and bioaugmentation of selected bacterial strains for the depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a historically contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, Simona; Ruffini Castglione, Monica; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was (1) to validate the biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial population by the amendment of lignocellulosic matrices inoculated with white rot fungi, to be exploited for the depletion of PAHs (5687 ppm) in a historical contaminated soil. (2) to validate the isolation of autochthonous bacterial strains capable to use PAHs as sole carbon source and their massive bioaugmentation for PAH depletion in a historical contaminated soil. The validation has been performed at mesocosm and pilot scale (7 tons of soil in a biopile). The two approaches end up with the complete depletion of the PAHs. A genotoxicological assessment of the process and of the soil at the end of the process of decontamination has been performed. The process of soil decontamination showed an increase in the genotoxicity of either the soil and the deriving elutriates. The bioaugmetation of selected bacterial strains determined the complete detoxification of the decontaminated soil after 21 weeks. The microbial ecology of the system during the process of decontamination has been monitored.

  15. Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly MS; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes. PMID:18351724

  16. Seasonal variations in bacterial communities and antibiotic-resistant strains associated with green bottle flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Ishida, Ryuichi; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-05-01

    Green bottle flies occur frequently around human environments in Japan. Many species of green bottle flies have been studied with regard to their importance in forensic examinations or clinical therapies, but the bacterial communities associated with this group of flies have not been comprehensively investigated. In this research, 454 pyrosequencing was used to reveal the bacterial communities in green bottle flies collected in different seasons. Meanwhile, the bacteria were screened with selective media and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Samples collected in three different seasons harbored distinctive bacterial communities. The predominant genera associated with green bottles flies were Staphylococcus in spring, Ignatzschineria in summer, and Vagococcus, Dysgonomonas, and an unclassified Acetobacteraceae in autumn. An upward trend in bacterial community diversity was observed from spring to autumn. Changes in climatic conditions could be the cause of these seasonal variations in fly-associated bacterial communities. The species of isolated antibiotic-resistant bacteria also differed across seasons, but it was difficult to correlate seasonal changes in antibiotic-resistant bacteria with changes in whole communities. A number of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria were isolated, and some of these strains were closely affiliated with pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, which could cause serious threats to public health. Overall, this research provided us with information about the composition and seasonality of bacterial communities in green bottle flies, and highlighted the risks of fly-mediated dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  17. Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacterial and Archaeal Type Strains, Phase III: the genomes of soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains.

    PubMed

    Whitman, William B; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhou, Yuguang; Lilburn, Timothy G; Beck, Brian J; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Eisen, Jonathan A; Garrity, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project was launched by the JGI in 2007 as a pilot project to sequence about 250 bacterial and archaeal genomes of elevated phylogenetic diversity. Herein, we propose to extend this approach to type strains of prokaryotes associated with soil or plants and their close relatives as well as type strains from newly described species. Understanding the microbiology of soil and plants is critical to many DOE mission areas, such as biofuel production from biomass, biogeochemistry, and carbon cycling. We are also targeting type strains of novel species while they are being described. Since 2006, about 630 new species have been described per year, many of which are closely aligned to DOE areas of interest in soil, agriculture, degradation of pollutants, biofuel production, biogeochemical transformation, and biodiversity.

  18. Protease and lipase activities of fungal and bacterial strains derived from an artisanal raw ewe's milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Ozturkoglu-Budak, Sebnem; Wiebenga, Ad; Bron, Peter A; de Vries, Ronald P

    2016-11-21

    We previously identified the microbiota present during cheese ripening and observed high protease and lipase activity in Divle Cave cheese. To determine the contribution of individual isolates to enzyme activities, we investigated a range of species representing this microbiota for their proteolytic and lipolytic ability. In total, 17 fungal, 5 yeast and 18 bacterial strains, previously isolated from Divle Cave cheese, were assessed. Qualitative protease and lipase activities were performed on skim-milk agar and spirit-blue lipase agar, respectively, and resulted in a selection of strains for quantitative assays. For the quantitative assays, the strains were grown on minimal medium containing irradiated Divle Cave cheese, obtained from the first day of ripening. Out of 16 selected filamentous fungi, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium cavernicola and Penicillium olsonii showed the highest protease activity, while Mucor racemosus was the best lipase producer. Yarrowia lipolytica was the best performing yeast with respect to protease and lipase activity. From the 18 bacterial strains, 14 and 11 strains, respectively showed protease and lipase activity in agar plates. Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus stratosphericus, Brevibacterium antiquum, Psychrobacter glacincola and Pseudomonas proteolytica displayed the highest protease and lipase activity. The proteases of yeast and filamentous fungi were identified as mainly aspartic protease by specific inhibition with Pepstatin A, whereas inhibition by PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) indicated that most bacterial enzymes belong to serine type protease. Our results demonstrate that aspartic proteases, which usually have high milk clotting activity, are predominantly derived from fungal strains, and therefore fungal enzymes appear to be more suitable for use in the cheese industry. Microbial enzymes studied in this research might be alternatives for rennin (chymosin) from animal source because of their low cost and stable

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., Strain CCRI-22567T, Isolated from a Vaginal Sample from a Woman with Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Maheux, Andrée F.; Bérubé, Ève; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Raymond, Frédéric; Corbeil, Jacques; Roy, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., CCRI-22567 is the type strain of the new genus Criibacterium. The strain was isolated from a woman with bacterial vaginosis. The genome assembly comprised 2,384,460 bp, with 34.4% G+C content. This is the first genome announcement of a strain belonging to the genus Criibacterium. PMID:27587833

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., Strain CCRI-22567T, Isolated from a Vaginal Sample from a Woman with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Maheux, Andrée F; Bérubé, Ève; Boudreau, Dominique K; Raymond, Frédéric; Corbeil, Jacques; Roy, Paul H; Boissinot, Maurice; Omar, Rabeea F

    2016-09-01

    Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., CCRI-22567 is the type strain of the new genus Criibacterium The strain was isolated from a woman with bacterial vaginosis. The genome assembly comprised 2,384,460 bp, with 34.4% G+C content. This is the first genome announcement of a strain belonging to the genus Criibacterium.

  1. A genome-wide association study identifies a horizontally transferred bacterial surface adhesin gene associated with antimicrobial resistant strains

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masato; Shibayama, Keigo; Yahara, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems are a class of last-resort antibiotics; thus, the increase in bacterial carbapenem-resistance is a serious public health threat. Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the microorganisms that can acquire carbapenem-resistance; it causes severe nosocomial infection, and is notoriously difficult to control in hospitals. Recently, a machine-learning approach was first used to analyze the genome sequences of hundreds of susceptible and resistant A. baumannii strains, including those carrying commonly acquired resistant mechanisms, to build a classifier that can predict strain resistance. A complementary approach is to explore novel genetic elements that could be associated with the antimicrobial resistance of strains, independent of known mechanisms. Therefore, we carefully selected A. baumannii strains, spanning various genotypes, from public genome databases, and conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of carbapenem resistance. We employed a recently developed method, capable of identifying any kind of genetic variation and accounting for bacterial population structure, and evaluated its effectiveness. Our study identified a surface adhesin gene that had been horizontally transferred to an ancestral branch of A. baumannii, as well as a specific region of that gene that appeared to accumulate multiple individual variations across the different branches of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains. PMID:27892531

  2. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  3. Metagenomic characterization of 'Candidatus Defluviicoccus tetraformis strain TFO71', a tetrad-forming organism, predominant in an anaerobic-aerobic membrane bioreactor with deteriorated biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-09-01

    In an acetate-fed anaerobic-aerobic membrane bioreactor with deteriorated enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organisms (DTFO) were observed to predominate in the microbial community. Using metagenomics, a partial genome of the predominant DTFO, 'Candidatus Defluviicoccus tetraformis strain TFO71', was successfully constructed and characterized. Examining the genome confirmed the presence of genes related to the synthesis and degradation of glycogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which function as energy and carbon storage compounds. TFO71 and 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' (CAP) UW-1 and CAP UW-2, representative polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), have PHA metabolism-related genes with high homology, but TFO71 has unique genes for PHA synthesis, gene regulation and granule management. We further discovered genes encoding DTFO polyphosphate (polyP) synthesis, suggesting that TFO71 may synthesize polyP under untested conditions. However, TFO71 may not activate these genes under EBPR conditions because the retrieved genome does not contain all inorganic phosphate transporters that are characteristic of PAOs (CAP UW-1, CAP UW-2, Microlunatus phosphovorus NM-1 and Tetrasphaera species). As a first step in characterizing EBPR-associated DTFO metabolism, this study identifies important differences between DTFO and PAO that may contribute to EBPR community competition and deterioration.

  4. Hydrogen production from organic substrates in an aerobic nitrogen-fixing marine unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.H.; Mitsui, A. )

    1994-11-20

    Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511 exhibits very high H[sub 2] photoproduction from water, but the H[sub 2] photo-production capability is lost rapidly with the age of the batch culture. The decrease of the capability coincides with the decrease of cellular glucose content. However, H[sub 2] photoproduction capability can be restored by the addition of organic substrates. Among 40 organic compounds tested, carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose were effective electron donors. Among organic acids tested, only pyruvate was an effective electron donor. Among alcohols tested, glycerol was a good electron donor, whereas ethanol was a poor but positive electron donor. These results demonstrate that this unicellular cyanobacterium exhibits a wide substrate specificity for H[sub 2] photoproduction but has a different substrate specificity compared to photosynthetic bacteria. The maximum rates of H[sub 2] photoproduction from a 6-day-old batch culture with 25 mmol of pyruvate, glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and glycerol were 1.11, 0.62, 0.05, 0.47, 0.30, and 0.39 [mu]moles per mg cell dry weight per hour respectively. Therefore, this cyanobacterial strain may have a potential significance in removing organic materials from the wastewater and simultaneously transforming them to H[sub 2] gas, a pollution-free energy. The activity of nitrogenase, which catalyzes hydrogen production, completely disappeared when intracellular glucose was used up, but it could be restored by the addition of organic substrates such as glucose and pyruvate.

  5. Pan-proteomics, a concept for unifying quantitative proteome measurements when comparing closely-related bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, James A; Broszczak, Daniel A; Tennakoon, Imalka U K; Huygens, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of proteomes between genetically heterogeneous bacterial strains may offer valuable insights into physiological diversity and function, particularly where such variation aids in the survival and virulence of clinically-relevant strains. However, reports of such comparisons frequently fail to account for underlying genetic variance. As a consequence, the current knowledge regarding bacterial physiological diversity at the protein level may be incomplete or inaccurate. To address this, greater consideration must be given to the impact of genetic heterogeneity on proteome comparisons. This may be possible through the use of pan-proteomics, an analytical concept that permits the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the proteomes of genetically heterogeneous organisms. Limited examples of this emerging technology highlight currently unmet analytical challenges. In this article we define pan-proteomics, where its value lies in microbiology, and discuss the technical considerations critical to its successful execution and potential future application.

  6. High-throughput genomic sequencing of cassava bacterial blight strains identifies conserved effectors to target for durable resistance.

    PubMed

    Bart, Rebecca; Cohn, Megan; Kassen, Andrew; McCallum, Emily J; Shybut, Mikel; Petriello, Annalise; Krasileva, Ksenia; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Medina, Cesar; Alicai, Titus; Kumar, Lava; Moreira, Leandro M; Rodrigues Neto, Júlio; Verdier, Valerie; Santana, María Angélica; Kositcharoenkul, Nuttima; Vanderschuren, Hervé; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bernal, Adriana; Staskawicz, Brian J

    2012-07-10

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), is the most important bacterial disease of cassava, a staple food source for millions of people in developing countries. Here we present a widely applicable strategy for elucidating the virulence components of a pathogen population. We report Illumina-based draft genomes for 65 Xam strains and deduce the phylogenetic relatedness of Xam across the areas where cassava is grown. Using an extensive database of effector proteins from animal and plant pathogens, we identify the effector repertoire for each sequenced strain and use a comparative sequence analysis to deduce the least polymorphic of the conserved effectors. These highly conserved effectors have been maintained over 11 countries, three continents, and 70 y of evolution and as such represent ideal targets for developing resistance strategies.

  7. Colour removal from aqueous solutions of metal-complex azo dyes using bacterial cells of Shewanella strain J18 143.

    PubMed

    Li, Tie; Guthrie, James Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The decoloration treatment of textile dye effluents through biodegradation, using bacterial cells, has been studied as a possible means of solving some of the problems that are associated with the pollution of water sources by colorants. In this paper, the use of whole bacterial cells of Shewanella J18 143 for the reduction of aqueous solutions of selected mono-azo, metal-complex dyes, namely Irgalan Grey GLN, Irgalan Black RBLN and Irgalan Blue 3GL, was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH and dye concentration on colour removal were also investigated and shown to be important. The operative conditions for the removal of colour were 30 degrees C, at pH 6.8, with a final dye concentration of 0.12 g/L in the colour reduction system. This study provides an extension to the application of Shewanella strain J18 143 bacterial cells in the decoloration of textile wastewaters.

  8. Genome Sequence of a Copper-Resistant Strain of Acidovorax citrulli Causing Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Melons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tielin; Yang, Yuwen; Zhao, Tingchang

    2015-04-23

    Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of melons is a seed-borne disease caused by Acidovorax citrulli. We determined the draft genome of A. citrulli Tw6. The strain was isolated from a watermelon collected from Beijing, China. The A. citrulli Tw6 genome contains 5,080,614 bp and has a G+C content of 68.7 mol%.

  9. Addition of transcription activator-like effector binding sites to a pathogen strain-specific rice bacterial blight resistance gene makes it effective against additional strains and against bacterial leaf streak.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Aaron W; Doyle, Erin L; Bogdanove, Adam J

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors promote disease in plants by binding to and activating host susceptibility genes. Plants counter with TAL effector-activated executor resistance genes, which cause host cell death and block disease progression. We asked whether the functional specificity of an executor gene could be broadened by adding different TAL effector binding elements (EBEs) to it. We added six EBEs to the rice Xa27 gene, which confers resistance to strains of the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) that deliver the TAL effector AvrXa27. The EBEs correspond to three other effectors from Xoo strain PXO99(A) and three from strain BLS256 of the bacterial leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Stable integration into rice produced healthy lines exhibiting gene activation by each TAL effector, and resistance to PXO99(A) , a PXO99(A) derivative lacking AvrXa27, and BLS256, as well as two other Xoo and 10 Xoc strains virulent toward wildtype Xa27 plants. Transcripts initiated primarily at a common site. Sequences in the EBEs were found to occur nonrandomly in rice promoters, suggesting an overlap with endogenous regulatory sequences. Thus, executor gene specificity can be broadened by adding EBEs, but caution is warranted because of the possible coincident introduction of endogenous regulatory elements.

  10. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs.

  11. Frequent major errors in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial strains distributed under the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Quality Assurance Program.

    PubMed

    Boot, R

    2012-07-01

    The Quality Assurance Program (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) was a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. The QAP comprised the distribution of bacterial strains from various species of animals for identification to species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Identification capabilities were below acceptable standards. This study evaluated AST results using the DKFZ compilations of test results for all bacterial strains showing the number of participants reporting the strain as resistant (R), sensitive (S) or intermediate susceptible (I) to each antibiotic substance used. Due to lack of information about methods used, it was assumed that what the majority of the participants reported (R or S) was the correct test result and that an opposite result was a major error (ME). MEs occurred in 1375 of 14,258 (9.7%) of test results and ME% ranged from 0% to 23.2% per bacterial group-agent group combination. Considerable variation in MEs was found within groups of bacteria and within groups of agents. In addition to poor performance in proper species classification, the quality of AST in laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories seems far below standards considered acceptable in human diagnostic microbiology.

  12. Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyung Uk; Mun, Hye Yeon; Oh, Hyung Keun; Kim, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2010-08-01

    To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the diamondback moth was investigated on a Chinese cabbage leaf housed in a round plastic cage (Ø 10 x 6 cm). 72 h after spraying the cabbage leaf with LBB and NB cultures containing the bacterial strain, the mortalities of the larvae were determined to be 91.7% and 88.3%, respectively. In addition, the insecticidal activity on potted cabbage containing 14 leaves in a growth cage (165 x 83 x 124 cm) was found to be similar to that of the plastic cage experiment. The results of this study provided valuable information on the insecticidal activity of the liquid culture of a Serratia species against the diamondback moth.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF A FLAVOBACTERIUM STRAIN VIRULENT AGAINT GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have isolated a bacterial strain capable of killing the cyst form of Giardia lamblia, from a Kentucky stream. This bacterium, designated Sun4, is a Gram negative, aerobic rod which produces a yellow pigment, but not of the flexirubin-type. Although true gliding motility has no...

  14. Simultaneous Transport of Two Bacterial Strains in Intact Cores from Oyster, Virginia: Biological Effects and Numerical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hailiang; Rothmel, Randi; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fuller, Mark E.; DeFlaun, Mary F.; Streger, Sheryl H.; Dunlap, Robb; Fletcher, Madilyn

    2002-01-01

    The transport characteristics of two adhesion-deficient, indigenous groundwater strains, Comamonas sp. strain DA001 and Erwinia herbicola OYS2-A, were studied by using intact sediment cores (7 by 50 cm) from Oyster, Va. Both strains are gram-negative rods (1.10 by 0.56 and 1.56 by 0.46 μm, respectively) with strongly hydrophilic membranes and a slightly negative surface charge. The two strains exhibited markedly different behaviors when they were transported through granular porous sediment. To eliminate any effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on bacterial transport and thus isolate the biological effect, the two strains were simultaneously injected into the same core. DA001 cells were metabolically labeled with 35S and tagged with a vital fluorescent stain, while OYS2-A cells were metabolically labeled with 14C. The fast decay of 35S allowed deconvolution of the two isotopes (and therefore the two strains). Dramatic differences in the transport behaviors were observed. The breakthrough of DA001 and the breakthrough of OYS2-A both occurred before the breakthrough of a conservative tracer (termed differential advection), with effluent recoveries of 55 and 30%, respectively. The retained bacterial concentration of OYS2-A in the sediment was twofold higher than that of DA001. Among the cell properties analyzed, the statistically significant differences between the two strains were cell length and diameter. The shorter, larger-diameter DA001 cells displayed a higher effluent recovery than the longer, smaller-diameter OYS2-A cells. CXTFIT modeling results indicated that compared to the DA001 cells, the OYS2-A cells experienced lower pore velocity, higher porosity, a higher attachment rate, and a lower detachment rate. All these factors may contribute to the observed differences in transport. PMID:11976080

  15. Implications of Genome-Based Discrimination between Clostridium botulinum Group I and Clostridium sporogenes Strains for Bacterial Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Michael R.; Pena-Gonzalez, Angela; Shirey, Timothy B.; Broeker, Robin G.; Ishaq, Maliha K.; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic classification of Clostridium botulinum is based on the production of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), while closely related, nontoxic organisms are classified as Clostridium sporogenes. However, this taxonomic organization does not accurately mirror phylogenetic relationships between these species. A phylogenetic reconstruction using 2,016 orthologous genes shared among strains of C. botulinum group I and C. sporogenes clearly separated these two species into discrete clades which showed ∼93% average nucleotide identity (ANI) between them. Clustering of strains based on the presence of variable orthologs revealed 143 C. sporogenes clade-specific genetic signatures, a subset of which were further evaluated for their ability to correctly classify a panel of presumptive C. sporogenes strains by PCR. Genome sequencing of several C. sporogenes strains lacking these signatures confirmed that they clustered with C. botulinum strains in a core genome phylogenetic tree. Our analysis also identified C. botulinum strains that contained C. sporogenes clade-specific signatures and phylogenetically clustered with C. sporogenes strains. The genome sequences of two bont/B2-containing strains belonging to the C. sporogenes clade contained regions with similarity to a bont-bearing plasmid (pCLD), while two different strains belonging to the C. botulinum clade carried bont/B2 on the chromosome. These results indicate that bont/B2 was likely acquired by C. sporogenes strains through horizontal gene transfer. The genome-based classification of these species used to identify candidate genes for the development of rapid assays for molecular identification may be applicable to additional bacterial species that are challenging with respect to their classification. PMID:26048939

  16. Implications of Genome-Based Discrimination between Clostridium botulinum Group I and Clostridium sporogenes Strains for Bacterial Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Michael R; Pena-Gonzalez, Angela; Shirey, Timothy B; Broeker, Robin G; Ishaq, Maliha K; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Raphael, Brian H

    2015-08-15

    Taxonomic classification of Clostridium botulinum is based on the production of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), while closely related, nontoxic organisms are classified as Clostridium sporogenes. However, this taxonomic organization does not accurately mirror phylogenetic relationships between these species. A phylogenetic reconstruction using 2,016 orthologous genes shared among strains of C. botulinum group I and C. sporogenes clearly separated these two species into discrete clades which showed ∼93% average nucleotide identity (ANI) between them. Clustering of strains based on the presence of variable orthologs revealed 143 C. sporogenes clade-specific genetic signatures, a subset of which were further evaluated for their ability to correctly classify a panel of presumptive C. sporogenes strains by PCR. Genome sequencing of several C. sporogenes strains lacking these signatures confirmed that they clustered with C. botulinum strains in a core genome phylogenetic tree. Our analysis also identified C. botulinum strains that contained C. sporogenes clade-specific signatures and phylogenetically clustered with C. sporogenes strains. The genome sequences of two bont/B2-containing strains belonging to the C. sporogenes clade contained regions with similarity to a bont-bearing plasmid (pCLD), while two different strains belonging to the C. botulinum clade carried bont/B2 on the chromosome. These results indicate that bont/B2 was likely acquired by C. sporogenes strains through horizontal gene transfer. The genome-based classification of these species used to identify candidate genes for the development of rapid assays for molecular identification may be applicable to additional bacterial species that are challenging with respect to their classification.

  17. Isolation of a bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. from centrate wastewater and study of its cooperation with algae in nutrients removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Lu, Qian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Wen; Wei, Qian; Ren, Hongyan; Ming, Caibing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-22

    Algae were able to grow healthy on bacteria-containing centrate wastewater in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The batch experiment indicated that the co-cultivation of algae and wastewater-borne bacteria improved the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand and total phosphorus in centrate wastewater to 93.01% and 98.78%, respectively. A strain of beneficial aerobic bacteria, Acinetobacter sp., was isolated and its biochemical characteristics were explored. Synergistic cooperation was observed in the growth of algae and Acinetobacter sp. Removal efficiencies of some nutrients were improved significantly by the co-cultivation of algae and Acinetobacter sp. After treatment, residual nutrients in centrate wastewater reached the permissible discharge limit. The cooperation between algae and Acinetobacter sp. was in part attributed to the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the algae and bacteria. This synergetic relationship between algae and Acinetobacter sp. provided a promising way to treat the wastewater by improving the nutrients removal and biomass production.

  18. Differential neutrophil responses to bacterial stimuli: Streptococcal strains are potent inducers of heparin-binding protein and resistin-release.

    PubMed

    Snäll, Johanna; Linnér, Anna; Uhlmann, Julia; Siemens, Nikolai; Ibold, Heike; Janos, Marton; Linder, Adam; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Herwald, Heiko; Johansson, Linda; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2016-02-18

    Neutrophils are critical for the control of bacterial infections, but they may also contribute to disease pathology. Here we explore neutrophil responses, in particular the release of sepsis-associated factors heparin-binding protein (HBP) and resistin in relation to specific bacterial stimuli and sepsis of varying aetiology. Analyses of HBP and resistin in plasma of septic patients revealed elevated levels as compared to non-infected critically ill patients. HBP and resistin correlated significantly in septic patients, with the strongest association seen in group A streptococcal (GAS) cases. In vitro stimulation of human neutrophils revealed that fixed streptococcal strains induced significantly higher release of HBP and resistin, as compared to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. Similarly, neutrophils stimulated with the streptococcal M1-protein showed a significant increase in co-localization of HBP and resistin positive granules as well as exocytosis of these factors, as compared to LPS. Using a GAS strain deficient in M1-protein expression had negligible effect on neutrophil activation, while a strain deficient in the stand-alone regulator MsmR was significantly less stimulatory as compared to its wild type strain. Taken together, the findings suggest that the streptococcal activation of neutrophils is multifactorial and involves, but is not limited to, proteins encoded by the FCT-locus.

  19. Influence of temperature, oxygen and bacterial strain identity on the association of Campylobacter jejuni with Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Baré, Julie; Sabbe, Koen; Huws, Sharon; Vercauteren, Dries; Braeckmans, Kevin; van Gremberghe, Ineke; Favoreel, Herman; Houf, Kurt

    2010-11-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne disease in the industrialized world, mainly through consumption of contaminated chicken meat. To date, no information is available on the primary infection sources of poultry. In this study, the ability of five Campylobacter jejuni strains with different invasion potential towards Caco-2 cells to survive and replicate in the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii was tested under simulated in situ conditions (i.e. chicken broiler houses). Results indicate that environmental conditions play a crucial role in C. jejuni-A. castellanii interactions. Co-culture in general did not result in an increase of either bacteria or amoebae. However, co-culture with Acanthamoeba did result in a delayed decline and an increased long-term survival of Campylobacter. Bacterial strain-specific effects were observed, with higher survival rates for low-invasive strains. The presence of C. jejuni in general did not affect A. castellanii viability, except at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions, where the presence of the reference and low-invasive Campylobacter strains resulted in a significant decline in amoebal viability. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that intra-amoebal campylobacters were not always colocated with acidic organelles, suggesting potential bacterial interference with digestive processes. As Acanthamoeba enhances the persistence of C. jejuni, the presence of the amoeba in broiler house environments may have important implications for the ecology and epidemiology of this food pathogen.

  20. Protein Expression Profile of an Environmentally Important Bacterial Strain: the Chromate Response of Arthrobacter Species Strain FB24

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, Kristene L.; Turse, Joshua E.; Nakatsu, C. H.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-05-03

    The global proteomic response of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 to different levels of chromate stress was evaluated with both two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) [Henne et al. 2009b]. Proteome coverage of 22% and 71% was obtained with 2-DGE and LC/LC-MS/MS, respectively. The strong response of strain FB24 to chromate suggests a condition of sulfur limitation, which could be driven by competition for the sulfate transporter by the structurally similar chromate ion. Additionally, the involvement of genes hypothesized to be directly involved in chromate resistance in strain FB24 was supported at the protein level.

  1. Endophytic Colonization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by a Novel Competent Bacterial Endophyte, Pseudomonas putida Strain P9, and Its Effect on Associated Bacterial Communities▿

    PubMed Central

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Araújo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João L.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Overbeek, Leonard S.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain P9 is a novel competent endophyte from potato. P9 causes cultivar-dependent suppression of Phytophthora infestans. Colonization of the rhizoplane and endosphere of potato plants by P9 and its rifampin-resistant derivative P9R was studied. The purposes of this work were to follow the fate of P9 inside growing potato plants and to establish its effect on associated microbial communities. The effects of P9 and P9R inoculation were studied in two separate experiments. The roots of transplants of three different cultivars of potato were dipped in suspensions of P9 or P9R cells, and the plants were planted in soil. The fate of both strains was followed by examining colony growth and by performing PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Colonies of both strains were recovered from rhizoplane and endosphere samples of all three cultivars at two growth stages. A conspicuous band, representing P9 and P9R, was found in all Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE fingerprints for treated plants. The numbers of P9R CFU and the P9R-specific band intensities for the different replicate samples were positively correlated, as determined by linear regression analysis. The effects of plant growth stage, genotype, and the presence of P9R on associated microbial communities were examined by multivariate and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analyses of PCR-DGGE fingerprints. The presence of strain P9R had an effect on bacterial groups identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans, Pseudomonas veronii, and Pseudomonas syringae. In conclusion, strain P9 is an avid colonizer of potato plants, competing with microbial populations indigenous to the potato phytosphere. Bacterization with a biocontrol agent has an important and previously unexplored effect on plant-associated communities. PMID:19329656

  2. Co-variations of bacterial composition and catabolic genes related to PAH degradation in a produced water treatment system consisting of successive anoxic and aerobic units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jian; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; He, Shaowu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zijian; Yang, Min

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of concentration levels of PAHs, community structure, as well as the abundance of PAH-related catabolic genes including upper-pathway dioxygenase genes (nahAc and phnAc) and down-pathway catechol dioxygenase genes (C12O and C23O) in a successive anoxic and aerobic treatment of produced water from the Jidong Oilfield, China. 93% of total PAHs were removed, almost equally contributed by the anoxic and aerobic units. However, PAHs of more than 3 benzene rings remained almost unchanged. The signals for phnAc and C12O were undetectable in this biological system, whereas the existence of nahAc and C23O was confirmed in the system and the copies of the two genes in the aerobic tank were 2 or 3 orders higher than those in the influent water sample. The different behavior of C23O demonstrated that mineralization of PAHs might mainly occur in the aerobic unit. The existence of nahAc and C23O genes in the influent and the high similarity of genotype between the influent and the two sludge samples suggested that bacteria existing in the influent contributed to PAH removal and bacteria harboring PAH catabolic genes were enriched in the sludge.

  3. NorB, an efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2, contributes to bacterial fitness in abscesses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanpeng; Onodera, Yoshikuni; Lee, Jean C; Hooper, David C

    2008-11-01

    While remaining a major problem in hospitals, Staphylococcus aureus is now spreading in communities. Strain MW2 (USA400 lineage) and other community methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains most commonly cause skin infections with abscess formation. Multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps contribute to antimicrobial resistance but may also contribute to bacterial survival by removal of environmental toxins. In S. aureus, NorA, NorB, NorC, and Tet38 are chromosomally encoded efflux pumps whose overexpression can confer MDR to quinolones and other compounds (Nor pumps) or tetracyclines alone (Tet38), but the natural substrates of these pumps are not known. To determine the role of these efflux pumps in a natural environment in the absence of antibiotics, we used strain MW2 in a mouse subcutaneous abscess model and compared pump gene expression as determined by reverse transcription-PCR in the abscesses and in vitro. norB and tet38 were selectively upregulated in vivo more than 171- and 24-fold, respectively, whereas norA and norC were downregulated. These changes were associated with an increase in expression of mgrA, which encodes a transcriptional regulator known to affect pump gene expression. In competition experiments using equal inocula of a norB or tet38 mutant and parent strain MW2, each mutant exhibited growth defects of about two- to threefold in vivo. In complementation experiments, a single-copy insertion of norB (but not a single-copy insertion of tet38) in the attB site within geh restored the growth fitness of the norB mutant in vivo. Our findings indicate that some MDR pumps, like NorB, can facilitate bacterial survival when they are overexpressed in a staphylococcal abscess and may contribute to the relative resistance of abscesses to antimicrobial therapy, thus linking bacterial fitness and resistance in vivo.

  4. Appraising bacterial strains for rapid BOD sensing--an empirical test to identify bacterial strains capable of reliably predicting real effluent BODs.

    PubMed

    Webber, Judith B; Noonan, Mike; Pasco, Neil F; Hay, Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    The measured response of rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensors is often not identical to those measured using the conventional 5-day BOD assay. This paper highlights the efficacy of using both glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) BOD standards as a rapid screen for microorganisms most likely to reliably predict real effluent BODs when used in rapid BOD devices. Using these two synthetic BOD standards, a microorganism was identified that produced comparable BOD response profiles for two assays, the MICREDOX® assay and the conventional 5-day BOD(5) test. A factorial experimental design systematically evaluated the impact of four factors (microbial strain, growth media composition, media strength, and microbial growth phase) on the BOD response profiles using GGA and OECD synthetic standard substrates. An outlier was identified that showed an improved correlation between the MICREDOX® BOD (BOD(sens)) and BOD(5) assays for both the synthetic standards and for real wastewater samples. Microbial strain was the dominant factor influencing BOD(sens) values, with Arthrobacter globiformis single cultures clearly demonstrating superior rapid BOD(sens) response profiles for both synthetic and real waste samples. It was the only microorganism to approach the BOD(5) response for the OECD substrate (171 mg O(2)L(-1)), and also reported BOD values for real waste samples that were comparable to those produced by the BOD(5) test, including discriminating between filtered and unfiltered samples.

  5. Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sarita; Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Varma, Ajit; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the overproducing mutant of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU (MTCC-12057) for significant drought tolerance in mung bean plants. Five mutants namely AU-M1, AU-M2, AU-M3, AU-M4 and AU-M5 were made after treatment of wild type strain with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutant strain AU-M4 was recorded for enhanced ACC deaminase (ACC-D) activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production and inorganic phosphate (Pi) solubilization compared to wild strain and other four mutant strains under drought condition. AU-M4 showed higher phosphate solubilization index (8.17) together with higher ACC-D activity (98 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (69.35 µg/ml) compared with the wild type P. simiae strain AU ACC-D activity (79 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (38.98 µg/ml) respectively. In this report, we investigated the effect of both wild and mutant type bacterial strain on mung bean plants under drought stress. Results showed that mutant AU-M4 and wild type strain AU inoculated plants exhibited superior tolerance against drought stress, as shown by their enhanced plant biomass (fresh weight), higher water content, higher proline accumulation and lower osmotic stress injury. Mutant AU-M4 and wild strain AU inoculated plants reduced the ethylene level by 59 and 45% respectively, compared to the control under stress condition. Furthermore, bacterial inoculated plants showed enhanced induced systemic drought tolerance by reducing stomata size and net photosynthesis resulting higher water content in mung bean plants that may help in survival of plants during drought condition. To mitigate the effects of drought stress, use of PGPR will be needed to ensure sufficient production of food from crop plants. Taking current leads available, concerted future research is needed in this area, particularly on field evaluation with application of potential microorganisms.

  6. Influence of bacterial strains isolated from lead-polluted soil and their interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizae on the growth of Trifolium pratense L. under lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vivas, A; Azcón, R; Biró, B; Barea, J M; Ruiz-Lozano, J M

    2003-10-01

    We isolated two bacterial strains from an experimentally lead (Pb)-polluted soil in Hungary, 10 years after soil contamination. These strains represented the two most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in such soil, and we tested their influence on Trifolium pratense L. growth and on the functioning of native mycorrhizal fungi under Pb toxicity in a second Pb-spiked soil. Our results showed that bacterial strain A enhanced plant growth, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulations, nodule formation, and mycorrhizal infection, demonstrating its plant-growth-promoting activity. In addition, strain A decreased the amount of Pb absorbed by plants, when expressed on a root weight basis, because of increased root biomass due to the production of indoleacetic acid. The positive effect of strain A was not only evident after a single inoculation but also in dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Strain A also exhibited higher tolerance than strain B when cultivated under increasing Pb levels in the spiked soil. Molecular identification unambiguously placed strain A within the genus Brevibacillus. We showed that it is important to select the most tolerant and efficient bacterial strain for co-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to promote effective symbiosis and thus stimulate plant growth under adverse environmental conditions, such as heavy-metal contamination.

  7. Loss of SigB in Listeria monocytogenes Strains EGD-e and 10403S Confers Hyperresistance to Hydrogen Peroxide in Stationary Phase under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boura, Marcia; Keating, Ciara; Royet, Kevin; Paudyal, Ranju; O'Donoghue, Beth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT SigB is the main stress gene regulator in Listeria monocytogenes affecting the expression of more than 150 genes and thus contributing to multiple-stress resistance. Despite its clear role in most stresses, its role in oxidative stress is uncertain, as results accompanying the loss of sigB range from hyperresistance to hypersensitivity. Previously, these differences have been attributed to strain variation. In this study, we show conclusively that unlike for all other stresses, loss of sigB results in hyperresistance to H2O2 (more than 8 log CFU ml−1 compared to the wild type) in aerobically grown stationary-phase cultures of L. monocytogenes strains 10403S and EGD-e. Furthermore, growth at 30°C resulted in higher resistance to oxidative stress than that at 37°C. Oxidative stress resistance seemed to be higher with higher levels of oxygen. Under anaerobic conditions, the loss of SigB in 10403S did not affect survival against H2O2, while in EGD-e, it resulted in a sensitive phenotype. During exponential phase, minor differences occurred, and this result was expected due to the absence of sigB transcription. Catalase tests were performed under all conditions, and stronger catalase results corresponded well with a higher survival rate, underpinning the important role of catalase in this phenotype. Furthermore, we assessed the catalase activity in protein lysates, which corresponded with the catalase tests and survival. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed no differences in transcription between the wild type and the ΔsigB mutant in various oxidative stress genes. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism behind this phenotype and its possible consequences for the overall phenotype of L. monocytogenes are under way. IMPORTANCE SigB is the most important stress gene regulator in L. monocytogenes and other Gram-positive bacteria. Its increased expression during stationary phase results in resistance to multiple stresses. However

  8. Biomineralization of calcium carbonate polymorphs by the bacterial strains isolated from calcareous sites.

    PubMed

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-05-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has various applications in remediation and restoration of a range of building materials. In the present investigation, five ureolytic bacterial isolates capable of inducing calcium carbonate precipitation were isolated from calcareous soils on the basis of production of urease, carbonic anhydrase, extrapolymeric substances, and biofilm. Bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. subtilis, and Lysinibacillus fusiformis based on 16S rRNA analysis. The calcium carbonate polymorphs produced by various bacterial isolates were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X ray diffraction, and Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy. A strainspecific precipitation of calcium carbonate forms was observed from different bacterial isolates. Based on the type of polymorph precipitated, the technology of MICCP can be applied for remediation of various building materials.

  9. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  10. Comparative Proteomics of Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analyses for Bacterial Strains Identification and Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    induced dissociation (CID), Electron transfer dissociation , or post-source decay (PSD) of ionized tryptic peptides derived from bacterial proteins , i.e...fingerprints of the bacterial proteins , i.e. MALDI-TOF-MS technique, or amino acid sequences, from tandem MS/MS analysis, of proteins from collision ...William 2002), present in biological threat microorganisms. The vast amount of protein and peptide data generated from a typical LC- tandem MS

  11. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  12. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J.

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production. PMID:26716833

  13. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology.

  14. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  15. Relating Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Effects to Reaction Mechanisms during Aerobic or Anaerobic Degradation of RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) by Pure Bacterial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Heraty, Linnea; Condee, Charles W.; Vainberg, Simon; Sturchio, Neil C.; Böhlke, J. K.; Hatzinger, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kinetic isotopic fractionation of carbon and nitrogen during RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation was investigated with pure bacterial cultures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Relatively large bulk enrichments in 15N were observed during biodegradation of RDX via anaerobic ring cleavage (ε15N = −12.7‰ ± 0.8‰) and anaerobic nitro reduction (ε15N = −9.9‰ ± 0.7‰), in comparison to smaller effects during biodegradation via aerobic denitration (ε15N = −2.4‰ ± 0.2‰). 13C enrichment was negligible during aerobic RDX biodegradation (ε13C = −0.8‰ ± 0.5‰) but larger during anaerobic degradation (ε13C = −4.0‰ ± 0.8‰), with modest variability among genera. Dual-isotope ε13C/ε15N analyses indicated that the three biodegradation pathways could be distinguished isotopically from each other and from abiotic degradation mechanisms. Compared to the initial RDX bulk δ15N value of +9‰, δ15N values of the NO2− released from RDX ranged from −7‰ to +2‰ during aerobic biodegradation and from −42‰ to −24‰ during anaerobic biodegradation. Numerical reaction models indicated that N isotope effects of NO2− production were much larger than, but systematically related to, the bulk RDX N isotope effects with different bacteria. Apparent intrinsic ε15N-NO2− values were consistent with an initial denitration pathway in the aerobic experiments and more complex processes of NO2− formation associated with anaerobic ring cleavage. These results indicate the potential for isotopic analysis of residual RDX for the differentiation of degradation pathways and indicate that further efforts to examine the isotopic composition of potential RDX degradation products (e.g., NOx) in the environment are warranted. IMPORTANCE This work provides the first systematic evaluation of the isotopic fractionation of carbon and nitrogen in the organic explosive RDX during degradation by different pathways. It also

  16. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Rhamnolipid-Producing Bacterial Strains from a Biodiesel Facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, E. hormaecheii, Pantoea stewartii and Pseudomona...

  18. Selective modification of the 3''-amino group of kanamycin prevents significant loss of activity in resistant bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Santana, Andrés G; Zárate, Sandra G; Asensio, Juan Luis; Revuelta, Julia; Bastida, Agatha

    2016-01-14

    Aminoglycosides are highly potent, wide-spectrum bactericidals. N-1 modification of aminoglycosides has thus far been the best approach to regain bactericidal efficiency of this class of antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains. In the present study we have evaluated the effect that both, the number of modifications and their distribution on the aminoglycoside amino groups (N-1, N-3, N-6' and N-3''), have on the antibiotic activity. The modification of N-3'' in the antibiotic kanamycin A is the key towards the design of new aminoglycoside antibiotics. This derivative maintains the antibiotic activity against aminoglycoside acetyl-transferase- and nucleotidyl-transferase-expressing strains, which are two of the most prevalent modifying enzymes found in aminoglycoside resistant bacteria.

  19. Pseudomonas reactans, a bacterial strain isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica with anti-Beauveria bassiana activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yan Hong; Liu, Shu Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Bo Tai; Zhao, Xiao Xu; Fu, Ying; Liu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Xue Xia

    2013-06-01

    Anti-Beauveria bassiana activity of aqueous fecal extracts from conventional German cockroaches [Blattella germanica (L.)] was detected, but was not detected in samples from germ-free German cockroaches. Subsequently, bacterial strain BGI-14 was isolated from the gut of conventional German cockroaches and was identified as Pseudomonas reactans based on 16S rDNA sequence. The strain BGI-14 not only inhibited the germination of conidia, but also inhibited the growth of B. bassiana hyphae. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-14 fermentation were significantly weakened. Compared with the control group, the cumulative mortality rate of treatment group was reduced by 10.3% at 20 d postinoculation. These studies imply that intestinal flora with anti-B. bassiana activity might contribute to resistance of infection by entomopathogenic fungi.

  20. Binary Interactions of Antagonistic Bacteria with Candida albicans Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Benadé, Eliska; Stone, Wendy; Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    We used both aerobic and anaerobic liquid co-cultures, prepared with Luria Bertani broth, to study the effect of bacteria on the survival of Candida albicans in the external environment, away from an animal host. The bacteria were represented by Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata and Serratia marcescens. Under aerobic conditions, the yeast's growth was inhibited in the presence of bacterial growth; however, under anaerobic conditions, yeast and bacterial growth in co-cultures was similar to that observed for pure cultures. Subsequent assays revealed that the majority of bacterial strains aerobically produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes capable of yeast cell wall hydrolysis, including chitinases and mannan-degrading enzymes. In contrast, except for the A. hydrophila strain, these enzymes were not detected in anaerobic bacterial cultures, nor was the antimicrobial compound prodigiosin found in anaerobic cultures of S. marcescens. When we suspended C. albicans cells in crude extracellular enzyme preparations from K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens, we detected no negative effect on yeast viability. However, we found that these preparations enhance the toxicity of prodigiosin towards the yeast, especially in combination with mannan-degrading enzymes. Analyses of the chitin and mannan content of yeast cell walls revealed that less chitin was produced under anaerobic than aerobic conditions; however, the levels of mannan, known for its low permeability, remained the same. The latter phenomenon, as well as reduced production of the bacterial enzymes and prodigiosin, may contribute to anaerobic growth and survival of C. albicans in the presence of bacteria.

  1. Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Culture Conditions for Hydrogen Production by an Anaerobic Bacterial Strain from Soluble Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieu, Hoa Thi Quynh; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Dang, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Binh Thanh

    2016-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean source of energy that produces no harmful byproducts during combustion, being a potential sustainable energy carrier for the future. Therefore, biohydrogen produced by anaerobic bacteria via dark fermentation has attracted attention worldwide as a renewable energy source. However, the hydrogen production capability of these bacteria depends on major factors such as substrate, iron-containing hydrogenase, reduction agent, pH, and temperature. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was employed to improve the hydrogen production by an anaerobic bacterial strain isolated from animal waste in Phu Linh, Soc Son, Vietnam (PL strain). The hydrogen production process was investigated as a function of three critical factors: soluble starch concentration (8 g L-1 to 12 g L-1), ferrous iron concentration (100 mg L-1 to 200 mg L-1), and l-cysteine concentration (300 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1). RSM analysis showed that all three factors significantly influenced hydrogen production. Among them, the ferrous iron concentration presented the greatest influence. The optimum hydrogen concentration of 1030 mL L-1 medium was obtained with 10 g L-1 soluble starch, 150 mg L-1 ferrous iron, and 400 mg L-1 l-cysteine after 48 h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen concentration produced by the PL strain was doubled after using RSM. The obtained results indicate that RSM with CCD can be used as a technique to optimize culture conditions for enhancement of hydrogen production by the selected anaerobic bacterial strain. Hydrogen production from low-cost organic substrates such as soluble starch using anaerobic fermentation methods may be one of the most promising approaches.

  2. Physiological and genetic characteristics of two bacterial strains utilizing phenoxypropionate and phenoxyacetate herbicides.

    PubMed

    Müller, R H; Kleinsteuber, S; Babel, W

    2001-01-01

    Two strains, Rhodoferax sp. P230 and Delftia (Comamonas) acidovorans MCI, have previously been shown to carry activities for the degradation of the two enantiomers of (RS)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy-)propionate (dichlorprop) and (RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy-)propionate (mecoprop) and, in addition, are capable of degrading phenoxyacetate derivatives 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA). Metabolism of the herbicides is initiated by alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases for both enantiomers of the phenoxypropionate herbicides and for 2,4-D. These activities were constitutively expressed for both enantiomers of dichlorprop in strain MC1 and for the Renantiomer in strain P230. Enzyme activities for the complete degradation of phenoxyacetate and phenoxypropionate herbicides were induced during incubation on either of these herbicides. Strain MC1 has about threefold higher activities for the degradation of dichlorprop and for growth on this substrate (mumax = 0.15 h(-1)) than strain P230; the maximum growth rate on 2,4-D amounts to 0.045 h(-1) with strain MC1. Dichlorprop is utilized faster than mecoprop and the R-enantiomers are cleaved with higher rates than the S-enantiomers. The degradation of the chlorophenolic intermediates seems to proceed via the modified ortho cleavage pathway as indicated by activities of the respective enzymes. The enzymatic results were supported by genetic investigations by which the presence of the genes tfdB (encoding a dichlorophenol hydroxylase), tfdC (encoding a chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase) and tfdD (encoding a chloromuconate cycloisomerase) could be demonstrated in both strains by PCR after application of respective primers. The presence of the tfdA gene (encoding a 2,4-D/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase) was only shown for strain P230 but was lacking in strain MC1. Sequence analysis of the tfd gene fragments revealed high homology to the degradative genes of other proteobacterial strains

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  4. A mixture of bacterial mechanical lysates is more efficient than single strain lysate and of bacterial-derived soluble products for the induction of an activating phenotype in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Barbara; Agazzi, Alessia; D'Agostino, Antonella; Antonini, Francesca; Costa, Gregorio; Sabatini, Federica; Ferlazzo, Guido; Melioli, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), following an optimal maturation, are able to drive an efficient immune-response. For this, both co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), activation molecules (CD83) and peptide presenting molecules (HLA) are over-expressed. The in vitro treatment of immature DC with fragments of bacterial strains, obtained by using a mechanical lysis as well as with bacterial-derived molecules (such as lipopolysaccharide and protido-glycan), induced the maturation of DCs and the secretion of a panel of cytokines and chemokines. Of note, ex vivo treated circulating DCs and plasmacytoid DCs were also activated by these bacterial bodies. However, while the particulate fraction of single bacterial strains or soluble bacterial-derived molecules induced a sub-optimal maturation (as evaluated by the expression of an activating phenotype on DCs and the amount of cytokine secretion), the addition of the mixture of the particulate fractions of the different bacterial strains was able to mediate an optimal maturation. These results were also confirmed by using the secretion of both cytokines and chemokines as markers of DC activation. All these findings suggest that the particulate fraction of bacterial lysate mixtures, because of their ability to interact with different surface structures, might be exploited not only as an immunogen, but also as an adjuvant treatment to boost an immune-response to poorly "antigenic" proteins, such as cancer antigens or allergens.

  5. Newly isolated bacterial strains belonging to Bacillaceae (Bacillus sp.) and Micrococcaceae accelerate death of the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor (V. jacobsoni), in laboratory assays.

    PubMed

    Tsagou, Vasiliki; Lianou, Alexandra; Lazarakis, Dimitrios; Emmanouel, Nikolaos; Aggelis, George

    2004-03-01

    Newly isolated bacterial strains belonging to Bacillaceae (Bacillus sp.), Micrococcaceae and three unidentified strains were tested for their pathogenicity against the mite, Varroa destructor. The Bacillus sp. strain and two of the strains belonging to the Micrococcaceae family significantly decreased the time for 50% mortality of the mite population (up to 57%) and hence may be potential control agents. In in vitro bioassay whole cells, extracellular broth and cellular extract of the Bacillus sp. strain effectively killed the mites, suggesting that both endotoxins and exotoxins contributed to the killing.

  6. Aggregate formation in a freshwater bacterial strain induced by growth state and conspecific chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Blom, Judith F; Horňák, Karel; Simek, Karel; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the induction of aggregate formation in the freshwater bacterium Sphingobium sp. strain Z007 by growth state and protistan grazing. Dialysis bag batch culture experiments were conducted in which these bacteria were grown spatially separated from bacteria or from co-cultures of bacteria and predators. In pure cultures of Sphingobium sp. strain Z007, the concentrations of single cells and aggregates inside and outside the dialysis membranes developed in a similar manner over 3 days of incubation, and the proportions of aggregates were highest during the exponential growth phase. Cell production of Sphingobium sp. strain Z007 was enhanced in the presence of another isolate, Limnohabitans planktonicus, from an abundant freshwater lineage (R-BT065) outside the bags, and even more so if that strain was additionally grazed upon by the bacterivorous flagellate Poterioochromonas sp. However, the ratios of single cells to aggregates of Sphingobium sp. strain Z007 were not affected in either case. By contrast, the feeding of flagellates on Sphingobium sp. strain Z007 outside the dialysis bags led to significantly higher proportions of aggregates inside the bags. This was not paralleled by an increase in growth rates, and all cultures were in a comparable growth state at the end of the experiment. We conclude that two mechanisms, growth state and the possible release of infochemicals by the predator, may induce aggregate formation of Sphingobium sp. strain Z007. Moreover, these infochemicals only appeared to be generated by predation on cells from the same species.

  7. Soil type affects plant colonization, activity and catabolic gene expression of inoculated bacterial strains during phytoremediation of diesel.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Yousaf, Sohail; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Kuffner, Melanie; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-02-28

    The combined use of plants and associated microorganisms has great potential for cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Apart from environmental conditions the physicochemical properties of the soil are the main factors influencing the survival and activity of an inoculated strain as well as the growth of plants. This study examined the effect of different soil types (sandy, loamy sand and loam) on the survival, gene abundance and catabolic gene expression of two inoculated strains (Pseudomonas sp. strain ITRI53 and Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79) in the rhizosphere and shoot interior of Italian ryegrass vegetated in diesel contaminated soils. High colonization, gene abundance and expression in loamy soils were observed. By contrast, low colonization, gene abundance and absence of gene expression in sandy soil were found. The highest levels of genes expression and hydrocarbon degradation were seen in loamy soil that had been inoculated with BTRH79 and were significantly higher compared to those in other soils. A positive correlation was observed between gene expression and hydrocarbon degradation indicating that catabolic gene expression is necessary for contaminant degradation. These results suggest that soil type influences the bacterial colonization and microbial activities and subsequently the efficiency of contaminant degradation.

  8. Natural history of the infant gut microbiome and impact of antibiotic treatment on bacterial strain diversity and stability.

    PubMed

    Yassour, Moran; Vatanen, Tommi; Siljander, Heli; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa J; Franzosa, Eric A; Vlamakis, Hera; Huttenhower, Curtis; Gevers, Dirk; Lander, Eric S; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2016-06-15

    The gut microbial community is dynamic during the first 3 years of life, before stabilizing to an adult-like state. However, little is known about the impact of environmental factors on the developing human gut microbiome. We report a longitudinal study of the gut microbiome based on DNA sequence analysis of monthly stool samples and clinical information from 39 children, about half of whom received multiple courses of antibiotics during the first 3 years of life. Whereas the gut microbiome of most children born by vaginal delivery was dominated by Bacteroides species, the four children born by cesarean section and about 20% of vaginally born children lacked Bacteroides in the first 6 to 18 months of life. Longitudinal sampling, coupled with whole-genome shotgun sequencing, allowed detection of strain-level variation as well as the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. The microbiota of antibiotic-treated children was less diverse in terms of both bacterial species and strains, with some species often dominated by single strains. In addition, we observed short-term composition changes between consecutive samples from children treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes carried on microbial chromosomes showed a peak in abundance after antibiotic treatment followed by a sharp decline, whereas some genes carried on mobile elements persisted longer after antibiotic therapy ended. Our results highlight the value of high-density longitudinal sampling studies with high-resolution strain profiling for studying the establishment and response to perturbation of the infant gut microbiome.

  9. Strain Dependent Genetic Networks for Antibiotic-Sensitivity in a Bacterial Pathogen with a Large Pan-Genome

    PubMed Central

    van Opijnen, Tim; Bento, José

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an antibiotic and bacterium is not merely restricted to the drug and its direct target, rather antibiotic induced stress seems to resonate through the bacterium, creating selective pressures that drive the emergence of adaptive mutations not only in the direct target, but in genes involved in many different fundamental processes as well. Surprisingly, it has been shown that adaptive mutations do not necessarily have the same effect in all species, indicating that the genetic background influences how phenotypes are manifested. However, to what extent the genetic background affects the manner in which a bacterium experiences antibiotic stress, and how this stress is processed is unclear. Here we employ the genome-wide tool Tn-Seq to construct daptomycin-sensitivity profiles for two strains of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Remarkably, over half of the genes that are important for dealing with antibiotic-induced stress in one strain are dispensable in another. By confirming over 100 genotype-phenotype relationships, probing potassium-loss, employing genetic interaction mapping as well as temporal gene-expression experiments we reveal genome-wide conditionally important/essential genes, we discover roles for genes with unknown function, and uncover parts of the antibiotic’s mode-of-action. Moreover, by mapping the underlying genomic network for two query genes we encounter little conservation in network connectivity between strains as well as profound differences in regulatory relationships. Our approach uniquely enables genome-wide fitness comparisons across strains, facilitating the discovery that antibiotic responses are complex events that can vary widely between strains, which suggests that in some cases the emergence of resistance could be strain specific and at least for species with a large pan-genome less predictable. PMID:27607357

  10. Characterization of CRISPR-Cas system in clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains revealed its potential association with bacterial infection sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuchun; Xie, Xiaolei; Yin, Kequan; Tang, Yueyuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Chen, Yun; Xia, Jie; Hu, Yachen; Ingmer, Hanne; Li, Yang; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered as a major cause of nosocomial infections, bringing an immense burden to healthcare systems. Virulent phages have been confirmed to be efficient in combating the pathogen, but the prensence of CRISPR-Cas system, which is a bacterial immune system eliminating phages was reported in few S. epidermidis strains. In this study, the CRISPR-Cas system was detected in 12 from almost 300 published genomes in GenBank and by PCR of cas6 gene in 18 strains out of 130 clinical isolates obtained in Copenhagen. Four strains isolated in 1965-1966 harboured CRISPR elements confirming that this immunity system was not recently acquired by S. epidermidis. In these CRISPR-positive strains, 44 and 12 spacers were found to belong to CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 elements, respectively. However, only 15 spacers displayed homology to reported phages and plasmids DNA. Interestingly, 5 different spacers located in the CRISPR1 locus with homolgy to virulent phage 6ec DNA sequences, and 19 strains each carrying 2 or 3 different spacers recognizing this phage, implied that the CRISPR-Cas immunity could be abrogated by nucleotide mismatch between the spacer and its target phage sequence, while new spacers obtained from the evolved phage could recover the CRISPR interference. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the 29 CRISPR-positive isolates divided them into four lineages, with 81% human blood isolates as a distinct sub-lineage, suggesting that the CRISPR difference is closely related to diverse habitats. Knowledge of CRISPR and its prevalence may ultimately be applied in the understanding of origin and evolution of CRISPR-positive S. epidermidis strains.

  11. Strain Dependent Genetic Networks for Antibiotic-Sensitivity in a Bacterial Pathogen with a Large Pan-Genome.

    PubMed

    van Opijnen, Tim; Dedrick, Sandra; Bento, José

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between an antibiotic and bacterium is not merely restricted to the drug and its direct target, rather antibiotic induced stress seems to resonate through the bacterium, creating selective pressures that drive the emergence of adaptive mutations not only in the direct target, but in genes involved in many different fundamental processes as well. Surprisingly, it has been shown that adaptive mutations do not necessarily have the same effect in all species, indicating that the genetic background influences how phenotypes are manifested. However, to what extent the genetic background affects the manner in which a bacterium experiences antibiotic stress, and how this stress is processed is unclear. Here we employ the genome-wide tool Tn-Seq to construct daptomycin-sensitivity profiles for two strains of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Remarkably, over half of the genes that are important for dealing with antibiotic-induced stress in one strain are dispensable in another. By confirming over 100 genotype-phenotype relationships, probing potassium-loss, employing genetic interaction mapping as well as temporal gene-expression experiments we reveal genome-wide conditionally important/essential genes, we discover roles for genes with unknown function, and uncover parts of the antibiotic's mode-of-action. Moreover, by mapping the underlying genomic network for two query genes we encounter little conservation in network connectivity between strains as well as profound differences in regulatory relationships. Our approach uniquely enables genome-wide fitness comparisons across strains, facilitating the discovery that antibiotic responses are complex events that can vary widely between strains, which suggests that in some cases the emergence of resistance could be strain specific and at least for species with a large pan-genome less predictable.

  12. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  13. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J.S.A.; Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro Júnior, J.W.; Almeida, M.C.S.; Silva, D.R.; Ferreira, D.R.A.; Azevedo, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca’s samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms’ participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians. PMID:24031343

  14. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.

  15. A novel, sensitive method to evaluate potato germplasm for bacterial wilt resistance using a luminescent Ralstonia solanacearum reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andrea Paola Zuluaga; Ferreira, Virginia; Pianzzola, María Julia; Siri, María Inés; Coll, Núria S; Valls, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Several breeding programs are under way to introduce resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in solanaceous crops. The lack of screening methods allowing easy measurement of pathogen colonization and the inability to detect latent (i.e., symptomless) infections are major limitations when evaluating resistance to this disease in plant germplasm. We describe a new method to study the interaction between R. solanacearum and potato germplasm that overcomes these restrictions. The R. solanacearum UY031 was genetically modified to constitutively generate light from a synthetic luxCDABE operon stably inserted in its chromosome. Colonization of this reporter strain on different potato accessions was followed using life imaging. Bacterial detection in planta by this nondisruptive system correlated with the development of wilting symptoms. In addition, we demonstrated that quantitative detection of the recombinant strain using a luminometer can identify latent infections on symptomless potato plants. We have developed a novel, unsophisticated, and accurate method for high-throughput evaluation of pathogen colonization in plant populations. We applied this method to compare the behavior of potato accessions with contrasting resistance to R. solanacearum. This new system will be especially useful to detect latency in symptomless parental lines before their inclusion in long-term breeding programs for disease resistance.

  16. Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli Group 1 Strain pslb65 Causing Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Melons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tielin; Sun, Baixin; Yang, Yuwen; Zhao, Tingchang

    2015-04-23

    Acidovorax citrulli is typed into two groups, mainly based on the host. We determined the draft genome of A. citrulli group 1 strain pslb65. The strain was isolated from melon collected from Xinjiang province, China. The A. citrulli pslb65 genome contains 4,903,443 bp and has a G+C content of 68.8 mol%.

  17. Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli Group 1 Strain pslb65 Causing Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Melons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tielin; Sun, Baixin; Yang, Yuwen

    2015-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is typed into two groups, mainly based on the host. We determined the draft genome of A. citrulli group 1 strain pslb65. The strain was isolated from melon collected from Xinjiang province, China. The A. citrulli pslb65 genome contains 4,903,443 bp and has a G+C content of 68.8 mol%. PMID:25908136

  18. Production of putrescine-capped stable silver nanoparticle: its characterization and antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Saswati; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gupta, Kamala; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Integration of biology with nanotechnology is now becoming attention-grabbing area of research. The antimicrobial potency of silver has been eminent from antiquity. Due to the recent desire for the enhancement of antibacterial efficacy of silver, various synthesis methods of silver in their nano dimensions are being practiced using a range of capping material. The present work highlights a facile biomimetic approach for production of silver nanoparticle being capped and stabilized by putrescine, possessing a diameter of 10-25 ± 1.5 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been analyzed spectrally and analytically. Morphological studies are carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and crystallinity by selected area electron diffraction patterns. Moreover, the elemental composition of the capped nanoparticles was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. A comparative study (zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration) regarding the interactions and antibacterial potentiality of the capped silver nanoparticles with respect to the bare ones reveal the efficiency of the capped one over the bare one. The bacterial kinetic study was executed to monitor the interference of nanoparticles with bacterial growth rate. The results also highlight the efficacy of putrescine-capped silver nanoparticles as effective growth inhibitors against multi-drug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains, which may, thus, potentially be applicable as an effective antibacterial control system to fight diseases.

  19. Comparative Genomics between Two Xenorhabdus bovienii Strains Highlights Differential Evolutionary Scenarios within an Entomopathogenic Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Bisch, Gaëlle; Ogier, Jean-Claude; Médigue, Claudine; Rouy, Zoé; Vincent, Stéphanie; Tailliez, Patrick; Givaudan, Alain; Gaudriault, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus are symbionts of soil entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema. This symbiotic association constitutes an insecticidal complex active against a wide range of insect pests. Within Xenorhabdus bovienii species, the X. bovienii CS03 strain (Xb CS03) is nonvirulent when directly injected into lepidopteran insects, and displays a low virulence when associated with its Steinernema symbiont. The genome of Xb CS03 was sequenced and compared with the genome of a virulent strain, X. bovienii SS-2004 (Xb SS-2004). The genome size and content widely differed between the two strains. Indeed, Xb CS03 had a large genome containing several specific loci involved in the inhibition of competitors, including a few NRPS-PKS loci (nonribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases) producing antimicrobial molecules. Consistently, Xb CS03 had a greater antimicrobial activity than Xb SS-2004. The Xb CS03 strain contained more pseudogenes than Xb SS-2004. Decay of genes involved in the host invasion and exploitation (toxins, invasins, or extracellular enzymes) was particularly important in Xb CS03. This may provide an explanation for the nonvirulence of the strain when injected into an insect host. We suggest that Xb CS03 and Xb SS-2004 followed divergent evolutionary scenarios to cope with their peculiar life cycle. The fitness strategy of Xb CS03 would involve competitor inhibition, whereas Xb SS-2004 would quickly and efficiently kill the insect host. Hence, Xenorhabdus strains would have widely divergent host exploitation strategies, which impact their genome structure. PMID:26769959

  20. Competitive ability and survival in soil of Pseudomonas strain 679-2, a dominant, nonobligate bacterial predator of bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Casida, L.E. )

    1992-01-01

    A copper-resistant, nonobligate, bacterial predator of bacteria was isolated from soil. It was a Pseudomonas species, designated strain 679-2. It attacked most other nonobligate bacterial predators and hence could control their predatory and other activities in nature. It also inhibited various fungi. It attached to prey cells and produced a toxic, copper-related, growth initiation factor like that produced by Cupriavidus necator. In addition, it produced a second, novel compound that was both antibacterial and antifungal. Strain 679-2 appeared to have only a very limited natural occurrence. It was found only in the soil from one small area in one field. It was absent on the leaves of the plant species that were examined. An inoculum consisting of only a few cells added to soil multiplied rapidly to become a major component of the soil microflora within 24 h. A small amount of glutamic acid could be added along with the cells to stimulate production of the toxic compounds noted above, but this was not necessary. After this multiplication, or when large numbers of cells were added to soil, the numbers decreased only slowly during the next several months. Cell survival also was good on plant leaves. The survival in soil and on plant leaves occurred in both laboratory and field experiments. Other than desiccation, the natural mechanism for controlling the numbers or activities of strain 679-2 in soil is not known. The various characteristics of this bacterium, as noted above, are of particular interest because they indicate a possible use of the cells or inhibitor compounds for controlling organisms in soil or on plant surfaces.

  1. Development of unique bacterial strains for use as positive controls in the food microbiology testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blais, Burton W; Martinez-Perez, Amalia; Gauthier, Martine; Allain, Raymond; Pagotto, Franco; Tyler, Kevin

    2008-11-01

    Nalidixic acid-resistant (NalR) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Berta and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were derived from wild-type laboratory cultures to serve as distinguishable control strains for routine use in food microbiology testing programs. The prevalence of the NalR phenotype among different bacteria was verified using panels of related and unrelated strains with the ability to grow vigorously on plating media containing nalidixic acid, being restricted to the NalR mutants. The NalR phenotype was stable in both mutant strains over several generations in the absence of selective pressure and enabled their differentiation from wild-type bacteria on the basis of their ability to grow on plating media containing nalidixic acid. A similar approach for the development of a distinguishable Listeria monocytogenes control strain was not possible due to the inherent resistance of this organism to nalidixic acid. Instead, an L. monocytogenes isolate with rare genotypic and serologic features was identified as a possible candidate to serve as a unique and distinguishable positive control strain.

  2. Electrically conductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 and other microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Yuri A; Yanina, Svetlana; McLean, Jeffrey S; Rosso, Kevin M; Moyles, Dianne; Dohnalkova, Alice; Beveridge, Terry J; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung Hong; Kim, Kyung Shik; Culley, David E; Reed, Samantha B; Romine, Margaret F; Saffarini, Daad A; Hill, Eric A; Shi, Liang; Elias, Dwayne A; Kennedy, David W; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Watanabe, Kazuya; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Logan, Bruce; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2006-07-25

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced electrically conductive pilus-like appendages called bacterial nanowires in direct response to electron-acceptor limitation. Mutants deficient in genes for c-type decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA, and those that lacked a functional Type II secretion pathway displayed nanowires that were poorly conductive. These mutants were also deficient in their ability to reduce hydrous ferric oxide and in their ability to generate current in a microbial fuel cell. Nanowires produced by the oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and the thermophilic, fermentative bacterium Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum reveal that electrically conductive appendages are not exclusive to dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and may, in fact, represent a common bacterial strategy for efficient electron transfer and energy distribution.

  3. Electrically conductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 and other microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Gorby, Yuri A.; Yanina, Svetlana; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Moyles, Dianne; Dohnalkova, Alice; Beveridge, Terry J.; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung Hong; Kim, Kyung Shik; Culley, David E.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad A.; Hill, Eric A.; Shi, Liang; Elias, Dwayne A.; Kennedy, David W.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Watanabe, Kazuya; Ishii, Shun’ichi; Logan, Bruce; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2006-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced electrically conductive pilus-like appendages called bacterial nanowires in direct response to electron-acceptor limitation. Mutants deficient in genes for c-type decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA, and those that lacked a functional Type II secretion pathway displayed nanowires that were poorly conductive. These mutants were also deficient in their ability to reduce hydrous ferric oxide and in their ability to generate current in a microbial fuel cell. Nanowires produced by the oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and the thermophilic, fermentative bacterium Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum reveal that electrically conductive appendages are not exclusive to dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and may, in fact, represent a common bacterial strategy for efficient electron transfer and energy distribution. PMID:16849424

  4. Enhanced production of bacterial cellulose by using Gluconacetobacter hansenii NCIM 2529 strain under shaking conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohite, Bhavna V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a biopolymer, due to its unique properties is valuable for production of vital products in food, textile, medicine, and agriculture. In the present study, the optimal fermentation conditions for enhanced BC production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii NCIM 2529 were investigated under shaking conditions. The investigation on media components and culture parameters revealed that 2 % (w/v) sucrose as carbon source, 0.5 % (w/v) potassium nitrate as nitrogen source, 0.4 % (w/v) disodium phosphate as phosphate source, 0.04 % (w/v) magnesium sulfate, and 0.8 % (w/v) calcium chloride as trace elements, pH5.0, temperature 25 °C, and agitation speed 170 rpm with 6 days of fermentation period are optimal for maximum BC production. Production of BC using optimized media components and culture parameters was 1.66 times higher (5.0 g/l) than initial non optimized media (3.0 g/l). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum and comparison with the available literature suggests that the produced component by G. hansenii in the present study is pure bacterial cellulose. The specific action of cellulase out of the investigated hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase, amylase, and protease) further confirmed purity of the produced BC. These findings give insight into conditions necessary for enhanced production of bacterial cellulose, which can be used for a variety of applications.

  5. MetaMLST: multi-locus strain-level bacterial typing from metagenomic samples

    PubMed Central

    Zolfo, Moreno; Tett, Adrian; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Segata, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomic characterization of microbial communities has the potential to become a tool to identify pathogens in human samples. However, software tools able to extract strain-level typing information from metagenomic data are needed. Low-throughput molecular typing schema such as Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) are still widely used and provide a wealth of strain-level information that is currently not exploited by metagenomic methods. We introduce MetaMLST, a software tool that reconstructs the MLST loci of microorganisms present in microbial communities from metagenomic data. Tested on synthetic and spiked-in real metagenomes, the pipeline was able to reconstruct the MLST sequences with >98.5% accuracy at coverages as low as 1×. On real samples, the pipeline showed higher sensitivity than assembly-based approaches and it proved successful in identifying strains in epidemic outbreaks as well as in intestinal, skin and gastrointestinal microbiome samples. PMID:27651451

  6. Bacillus rubiinfantis sp. nov. strain mt2T, a new bacterial species isolated from human gut

    PubMed Central

    Tidjiani Alou, M.; Rathored, J.; Khelaifia, S.; Michelle, C.; Brah, S.; Diallo, B.A.; Raoult, D.; Lagier, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus rubiinfantis sp. nov. strain mt2T is the type strain of B. rubiinfantis sp. nov., isolated from the fecal flora of a child with kwashiorkor in Niger. It is Gram-positive facultative anaerobic rod belonging to the Bacillaceae family. We describe the features of this organism alongside the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4 311 083 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid) contains 4028 protein-coding gene and 121 RNA genes including nine rRNA genes. PMID:27076912

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii Strain MB3, a Denitrifying Aerobic Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Mangrove Trees in the Andaman Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Shubham K; Saxena, Rituja; Mittal, Parul; Gupta, Ankit; Sharma, Vineet K

    2017-02-02

    The genome sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii MB3, isolated from the rhizospheric region of mangroves in the Andaman Islands, is comprised of 3,644,788 bp and 3,159 protein coding genes. Draft genome analysis indicates that MB3 is an aerobic bacterium capable of performing assimilatory sulfate reduction, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and denitrification.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii Strain MB3, a Denitrifying Aerobic Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Mangrove Trees in the Andaman Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Shubham K.; Saxena, Rituja; Mittal, Parul; Gupta, Ankit

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Pseudomonas hussainii MB3, isolated from the rhizospheric region of mangroves in the Andaman Islands, is comprised of 3,644,788 bp and 3,159 protein coding genes. Draft genome analysis indicates that MB3 is an aerobic bacterium capable of performing assimilatory sulfate reduction, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and denitrification. PMID:28153890

  9. The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yizu; Hasegawa, Mizuho; Moon, Henry; Núñez, Gabriel; Inohara, Naohiro; Raes, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Strain NI1060 is an oral bacterium responsible for periodontitis in a murine ligature-induced disease model. To better understand its pathogenicity, we have determined the complete sequence of its 2,553,982 bp genome. Although closely related to Pasteurella pneumotropica, a pneumonia-associated rodent commensal based on its 16S rRNA, the NI1060 genomic content suggests that they are different species thriving on different energy sources via alternative metabolic pathways. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that strain NI1060 is distinct from the genera currently described in the family Pasteurellaceae, and is likely to represent a novel species. In addition, we found putative virulence genes involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due to a frameshift mutation. The in-depth analysis of its genome thus provides critical insights for the development of NI1060 as a prime model system for infectious disease. PMID:27409077

  10. Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW.

  11. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin.

  12. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  13. Genomic Survey of Pathogenicity Determinants and VNTR Markers in the Cassava Bacterial Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis Strain CIO151

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario L.; Rodríguez-R, Luis M.; Pérez-Quintero, Álvaro L.; Poulin, Lucie; Díaz, Ana C.; Arias Rojas, Nathalia; Trujillo, Cesar; Restrepo Benavides, Mariana; Bart, Rebecca; Boch, Jens; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; David, Perrine; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Fontanilla, Paula; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Medina, Cesar; Medina, Edgar; Montenegro, Nathaly; Muñoz Bodnar, Alejandra; Noël, Laurent D.; Ortiz Quiñones, Juan F.; Osorio, Daniela; Pardo, Carolina; Patil, Prabhu B.; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Ryan, Robert P.; Tabima, Javier; Urrego Morales, Oscar G.; Vernière, Christian; Carrere, Sébastien; Verdier, Valérie; Szurek, Boris; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi-locus VNTR analysis

  14. Genomic survey of pathogenicity determinants and VNTR markers in the cassava bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis strain CIO151.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario L; Rodríguez-R, Luis M; Pérez-Quintero, Álvaro L; Poulin, Lucie; Díaz, Ana C; Arias Rojas, Nathalia; Trujillo, Cesar; Restrepo Benavides, Mariana; Bart, Rebecca; Boch, Jens; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; David, Perrine; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Fontanilla, Paula; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Medina, Cesar; Medina, Edgar; Montenegro, Nathaly; Muñoz Bodnar, Alejandra; Noël, Laurent D; Ortiz Quiñones, Juan F; Osorio, Daniela; Pardo, Carolina; Patil, Prabhu B; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Ryan, Robert P; Tabima, Javier; Urrego Morales, Oscar G; Vernière, Christian; Carrere, Sébastien; Verdier, Valérie; Szurek, Boris; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo; Koebnik, Ralf; Bernal, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi-locus VNTR analysis

  15. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Janek, Daniela; Zipperer, Alexander; Kulik, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84%) was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota. PMID:27490492

  16. Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratibha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment in two step bioreactor was performed for removal of colour in the pulp and paper mill effluent. In anaerobic treatment, colour 50%, lignin 62%, COD 29%, absordable organic halides (AOX) 25% and phenol 29% were reduced in eight days. The anaerobically treated effluent was separately applied in bioreactor in presence of fungal strain, Paecilomyces sp., and bacterial strain, Microbrevis luteum. Data of study indicated reduction in colour 80%, AOX 74%, lignin 81%, COD 93% and phenol 76 per cent by Paecilomyces sp. where as Microbrevis luteum showed removal in colour 59%, lignin 71%, COD 86%, AOX 84% and phenol 88% by day third when 7 days anaerobically treated effluent was further treated by aerobic microorganisms. Change in pH of the effluent and increase in biomass of microorganism's substantiated results of the study, which was concomitant to the treatment method.

  17. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C.; Lancheros, Cesar A. C.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; Nakamura, Celso V.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; Andrade, Célia G. T. J.; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low

  18. Cooperative Mn(II) oxidation between two bacterial strains in an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Yaohui; Hu, Chengzhi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-02-01

    In natural or engineered environments, diverse interspecific interactions among two or more microbial taxa may profoundly affect the transformation of organic compounds in the media. Little is known, however, about how these organisms and interactions affect the transformation of heavy metals. Recently, we found an interaction between two non-Mn(II)-oxidizing (when in monoculture) strains, Arthrobacter sp. QXT-31 and Sphingopyxis sp. QXT-31, which, when cultured in combination, resulted in Mn(II)-oxidizing activity in synthetic media. In order to study the occurrence likelihood of cooperative Mn(II) oxidation in natural water and discharged effluent, we initially identified an optimal ratio of the two strains in a combined culture, as well as the impacts of external factors on the cooperative oxidation. Once preferred initial conditions were established, we assessed the degree and rate of Mn(II) oxidation mediated by the combined QXT-31 strains (henceforth referred to as simply 'QXT-31') in three different water types: groundwater, domestic sewage and coking wastewater. Results showed that Mn(II) oxidation only occurred when the two strains were within a specific ratios range. When introduced to the test waters at the preferred ratio, QXT-31 demonstrated high Mn(II)-oxidizing activities, even when relative abundance of QXT-31 was very low (roughly 1.6%, calculated by 454 pyrosequencing events on 16S rcDNA). Interestingly, even under low relative abundance of QXT-31, removal of total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the test waters was significantly higher than the control treatments that were not inoculated with QXT-31. Data from our study indicate that cooperative Mn(II) oxidation is most likely to occur in natural aquatic ecosystems, and also suggests an alternative method to treat wastewater containing high concentrations of Mn(II).

  19. Degradation of nicosulfuron by a novel isolated bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1: condition optimization, kinetics and degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1 was isolated from the soil of a constructed wetland, and it was identified based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The co-metabolic degradation of nicosulfuron with glucose by Klebsiella sp. Y1 was investigated. The response surface methodology analysis indicated that the optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 35 °C, respectively, for the degradation of nicosulfuron. Under the optimal conditions, the degradation of nicosulfuron fitted Haldane kinetics model well. The removal of nicosulfuron was triggered by the acidification of glucose, which accelerated the hydrolysis of nicosulfuron. Then, the C-N bond of the sulfonylurea bridge was attacked and cleaved. Finally, the detected intermediate 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine was further biodegraded.

  20. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

  1. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1

    PubMed Central

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  2. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications.

  3. Towards a tolerance toolkit: Gene expression signatures enabling the emergence of resistant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Keesha; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    Microbial pathogens are able to rapidly acquire tolerance to chemical toxins. Developing next-generation antibiotics that impede the emergence of resistance will help avoid a world-wide health crisis. Conversely, the ability to induce rapid tolerance gains could lead to high-yielding strains for sustainable production of biofuels and commodity chemicals. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the general mechanisms allowing microbes to become resistant to diverse toxins. We apply top-down and bottom-up methodologies to identify biological network changes leading to adaptation and tolerance. Using a top-down approach, we perform evolution experiments to isolate resistant strains, collect samples for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis, and use the omics data to inform mathematical gene regulatory models. Using a bottom-up approach, we build and test synthetic genetic devices that enable increased or decreased expression of selected genes. Unique patterns in gene expression are identified in cultures actively gaining resistance, especially in pathways known to be involved with stress response, efflux, and mutagenesis. Genes correlated with tolerance could potentially allow the design of resistance-free antibiotics or robust chemical production strains.

  4. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.

    PubMed

    Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized.

  5. Survival of model bacterial strains and helminth eggs in the course of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Juris, P; Tóth, F; Lauková, A; Plachý, P; Dubinský, P; Sokol, J

    1996-05-01

    The effect of methanogenesis on the survival of model bacterial strains (Escherichia coli EC 5, Staphylococcus aureus SA 11, Enterococcus faecium CCM 4231) and non-embryonated helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) was investigated in pig slurry. Two pilot-plant experiments were carried out in two anaerobic digesters (800 and 1,000 litre) in a mesophilic thermal range (35-37 degrees C). The mean hydraulic retention time of the digesters was 20 days. The methanogenesis process was monitored by determining the following chemical parameters: pH, N-NH3, total dry matter (kg/day), organic matter (kg/day) production of methane by supplied and degraded organic matter (m3/kg). The results obtained allow us to state that the anaerobic stabilization of pig slurry in the mesophilic temperature range resulted in total devitalization of model bacterial strains E. coli EC 5 and Ent. faecium CCM 4231. St. aureus SA 11 cells, exposed to the above mentioned conditions, were also reduced in their number from 10.04 to 3.27 and from 8.69 to 2.77 log cfu/ml. It is assumed that the longer retention time of excrements in the digester could also result in total devitalization of St. aureus SA 11 cells. From the microbiological point of view, the above mentioned facts indicate a sufficient hygienization effect of the anaerobic fermentation on the contaminated pig excrements. The survival of A. suum eggs was little affected by the 20-day anaerobic mesophilic digestion of pig slurry. Only 17 or 18% (F1, F2) of the non-embryonated A. suum eggs were damaged after the 20-day exposure.

  6. Investigation of the biotransformation of pentachlorophenol and pulp paper mill effluent decolorisation by the bacterial strains in a mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shail; Chandra, R; Patel, D K; Reddy, M M K; Rai, Vibhuti

    2008-09-01

    Mixed culture of two bacterial strains Bacillus sp. and Serratia marcescens showed potential pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation and decolorisation of pulp paper mill effluent. The physico-chemical quality of pulp paper mill effluent has been analyzed after 168 h incubation period degraded by mixed culture. The study revealed that it has decreased high load of BOD, COD, TS, TDS, TSS, sulphate, phosphate, total nitrogen, total phenols, metals and different salts (i.e. chloride, sodium, nitrate, potassium) at 168 h incubation period. PCP degradation in pulp paper mill effluent was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Mixed culture was found to degrade PCP up to (94%) present in pulp paper mill effluent with 1% glucose and 0.5% peptone (w/v) at 30+/-1 degrees C, pH 8.0+/-0.2 at 120 rpm in 168 h incubation period. The simultaneous release of chloride ion up to 1,200 mg/l at 168 h emphasized the bacterial dechlorination in the medium. The pulp paper mill effluent degradation was also supported by decline in pH, AOX (absorbable organic halides), color, D.O., BOD, COD and PCP. The analysis of pulp paper mill effluent degradation products by GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of low molecular weight compound like 2-chlorophenol (RT=3.8 min) and tetrachlorohydroquinone (RT=11.86 min) from PCP extracted degraded sample. Further, mixed culture may be used for bioremediation of PCP containing pulp paper mill waste in the environment.

  7. Microbiological aspects of aerobic thermophilic treatment of swine waste.

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, R; Gagnon, C; Bisaillon, J G; Ishaque, M

    1990-01-01

    A thermophilic strain (D2) identified as a Bacillus sp. was isolated from an aerobic digestor of swine waste after several months of operation at 55 degrees C. Aerobic thermophilic batch treatment of swine waste inoculated with strain D2 was studied in a 4-liter fixed-bed reactor. Stabilization of the waste was achieved in less than 30 h when the original chemical oxygen demand (COD) was between 15 and 20 g/liter or in less than 48 h when the COD was around 35 g/liter. When the COD was higher than 30 g/liter, the pH of the waste reached 9.2 to 9.5 during the treatment, and periodic adjustment of the pH to 8.5 was necessary to maintain the activity of the biofilm. In this reactor, ammoniacal nitrogen was completely eliminated by desorption in less than 72 h of incubation. The different packing materials used resulted in similar rates of degradation of organic matter. The thermophilic treatment was also efficient in the 75-liter digestor, and stabilization was achieved in approximately 50 h. A bank of 22 thermophilic bacterial strains originating from different environments and adapted to the thermophilic treatment of swine waste was established. This thermophilic treatment allows, in one step, rapid stabilization of the waste, elimination of the bad smell, and complete elimination of ammonia nitrogen by stripping. PMID:2339880

  8. Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32 ± 4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29 ± 2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2 × 10(-3) to 28.6 × 10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation.

  9. Bioconversion of Styrene to Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) by the New Bacterial Strain Pseudomonas putida NBUS12

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Chen, Chia-Lung; Ge, Liya; Li, Ling; Tan, Swee Ngin; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Styrene is a toxic pollutant commonly found in waste effluents from plastic processing industries. We herein identified and characterized microorganisms for bioconversion of the organic eco-pollutant styrene into a valuable biopolymer medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA). Twelve newly-isolated styrene-degrading Pseudomonads were obtained and partial phaC genes were detected by PCR in these isolates. These isolates assimilated styrene to produce mcl-PHA, forming PHA contents between 0.05±0.00 and 23.10±3.25% cell dry mass (% CDM). The best-performing isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida NBUS12. A genetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phaZ genes revealed P. putida NBUS12 as a genetically-distinct strain from existing phenotypically-similar bacterial strains. This bacterium achieved a final biomass of 1.28±0.10 g L−1 and PHA content of 32.49±2.40% CDM. The extracted polymer was mainly comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ), and 3-hydroxytetradecanoate (C14 ) monomers at a ratio of 2:42:1257:17:1. These results collectively suggested that P. putida NBUS12 is a promising candidate for the biotechnological conversion of styrene into mcl-PHA. PMID:25740622

  10. Activation of Macrophages by Exopolysaccharide Produced by MK1 Bacterial Strain Isolated from Neungee Mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun-A; Wang, Wenxia; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2010-01-01

    Background The MK1 strain, a novel bacterial isolate from soft-rotten tissue of the Neungee mushroom, produces copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in a dextrose minimal medium. This study examined the molecular characteristics and immunomodulatory activity of MK1 EPS. Methods The EPS in the culture supernatant was purified by cold ethanol precipitation, and characterized by SDS-PAGE/silver staining and Bio-HPLC. The immunomodulatory activities of the EPS were examined using the mouse monocytic cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. Results The molecular weights of the purified EPS were rather heterogeneous, ranging from 10.6 to 55 kDa. The EPS was composed of glucose, rhamnose, mannose, galactose, and glucosamine at an approximate molar ratio of 1.00:0.8:0.71:0.29:0.21. EPS activated the RAW cells to produce cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, and nitric oxide (NO). EPS also induced the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, such as B7-1, B7-2 and ICAM-1, and increased the phagocytic activity. The macrophage-activating activity of EPS was not due to endotoxin contamination because the treatment of EPS with polymyin B did not reduce the macrophage-activating activity. Conclusion The EPS produced from the MK1 strain exerts macrophage-activating activity. PMID:21286384

  11. Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-03-01

    A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics.

  12. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    PubMed

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.

  13. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    López, P; Sánchez, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2005-08-24

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), basil (Ocimum basillicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), dill (Anethum graveolens), and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was evaluated over a range of concentrations in two types of contact tests (solid and vapor diffusion). The EOs were tested against an array of four Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three fungi (a yeast, Candida albicans, and two molds, Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus). The rationale for this work was to test the possibility of creating a protective atmosphere by using natural compounds that could extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs while minimizing organoleptic alterations. In the solid diffusion tests, cinnamon and clove gave the strongest (and very similar) inhibition, followed by basil and rosemary, with dill and ginger giving the weakest inhibition. The fungi were the most sensitive microorganisms, followed by the Gram-positive bacterial strains. The Gram-negative strain P. aeruginosa was the least inhibited. The composition of the atmosphere generated by the EOs, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were determined using a disk volatilization method, in which no inhibition from rosemary or basil was observed. Cinnamon and clove, once again, gave similar results for every microorganism. As a general rule, MIC (fungi) < MIC (bacteria) with no clear differences between Gram-positive or -negative strains except for P. aeruginosa, which was not inhibited by any of the EOs in the vapor phase. The atmosphere generated from the EOs was analyzed by means of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Differences among the volatiles in the EOs

  14. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  15. Application of Routine Diagnostic Procedure, VITEK 2 Compact, MALDI-TOF MS, and PCR Assays in Identification Procedure of Bacterial Strain with Ambiguous Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Książczyk, Marta; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Korzekwa, Kamila; Tobiasz, Anna; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Paluch, Emil; Wieliczko, Alina; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2016-05-01

    In diagnostic microbiology as well as in microbiological research, the identification of a microorganism is a crucial and decisive stage. A broad choice of methods is available, based on both phenotypic and molecular properties of microbes. The aim of this study was to compare the application of phenotypic and molecular tools in bacterial identification on the example of Gram-negative intestine rod with an ambiguous phenotype. Different methods of identification procedure, which based on various properties of bacteria, were applied, e.g., microscopic observation of single-bacterial cells, macroscopic observation of bacterial colonies morphology, the automated system of microorganism identification (biochemical tests), the mass spectrometry method (analysis of bacterial proteome), and genetic analysis with PCR reactions. The obtained results revealed discrepancies in the identification of the tested bacterial strain with an atypical phenotype: mucous morphology of colonies, not characteristic for either E. coli and Citrobacter spp., mass spectrometry analysis of proteome initially assigned the tested strain to Citrobacter genus (C. freundii) and biochemical profiles pointed to Escherichia coli. A decisive method in the current study was genetic analysis with PCR reactions which identified conserved genetic sequences highly specific to E. coli species in the genome of the tested strain.

  16. Endozoicomonas genomes reveal functional adaptation and plasticity in bacterial strains symbiotically associated with diverse marine hosts

    PubMed Central

    Neave, Matthew J.; Michell, Craig T.; Apprill, Amy; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Endozoicomonas bacteria are globally distributed and often abundantly associated with diverse marine hosts including reef-building corals, yet their function remains unknown. In this study we generated novel Endozoicomonas genomes from single cells and metagenomes obtained directly from the corals Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora verrucosa, and Acropora humilis. We then compared these culture-independent genomes to existing genomes of bacterial isolates acquired from a sponge, sea slug, and coral to examine the functional landscape of this enigmatic genus. Sequencing and analysis of single cells and metagenomes resulted in four novel genomes with 60–76% and 81–90% genome completeness, respectively. These data also confirmed that Endozoicomonas genomes are large and are not streamlined for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle, implying that they have free-living stages. All genomes show an enrichment of genes associated with carbon sugar transport and utilization and protein secretion, potentially indicating that Endozoicomonas contribute to the cycling of carbohydrates and the provision of proteins to their respective hosts. Importantly, besides these commonalities, the genomes showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification, including genes for the production of amino acids. Given this metabolic diversity of Endozoicomonas we propose that different genotypes play disparate roles and have diversified in concert with their hosts. PMID:28094347

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus jensenii Strain SNUV360, a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis Isolated from the Vagina of a Healthy Korean Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunghee; You, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Bomi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus jensenii SNUV360 is a potential probiotic strain that shows antimicrobial activity for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we present the complete genomic sequence of L. jensenii SNUV360, isolated from a vaginal sample from a healthy Korean woman. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:28280032

  18. Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater in an industrial three-reactor plant: effect of aeration regime on performances and on protozoan and bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Tocchi, Carlo; Federici, Ermanno; Fidati, Laura; Manzi, Rodolfo; Vinciguerra, Vittorio; Vincigurerra, Vittorio; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2012-06-15

    An industrial three-reactor plant treating 45 m(3) d(-1) of dairy wastewater was monitored to investigate the effect of different aeration regimes on performance efficiency and to find relationships with bacterial and protozoan communities in the activated sludge. During the study, the plant was maintained at six different "on/off" cycles of the blower (45/15, 15/15, 15/45, 30/30, 30/45 and 30/60 min), providing between 30.2 and 90.6 kg O(2) d(-1), and the main chemical/biochemical parameters (COD, BOD, NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), etc.) were determined. When at least 45.4 kg O(2) d(-1) (30/45) were provided, COD removal efficiencies were always in the range 88-94% but decreased to about 70% under aeration regimes 15/45 and 30/60. Ammonium ion degradation performance was compromised only in the lowest aeration regime (15/45). Total number of protozoa and their species richness, and bacterial viable counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were used to characterize the microbiota of the activated sludge. Cell abundances and community structures of protozoa and bacteria were very similar in the three aerated reactors but changed with the aeration regimes. In particular, the 15/45 and 30/60 regimes led to low protozoan diversity with prevalence of flagellates of the genus Trepomonas at the expense of the mobile and sessile forms and, thus, to a less efficient activated sludge as indicated by Sludge Biotic Index values (3 and 4.5 for the two regimes, respectively). The structure of the bacterial community strongly changed when the aeration regimes varied, as indicated by the low similarity values between the DGGE profiles. On the contrary, number of viable bacteria and values of the biodiversity index remained stable throughout the whole experimentation. Taken together, the results of the present study clearly indicate that aeration regime variations strongly influence the structure of both protozoan and bacterial communities and

  19. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses. PMID:22196374

  20. Characterization and evaluation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain WF02 regarding its biocontrol activities and genetic responses against bacterial wilt in two different resistant tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu-Ning; Lin, Chan-Pin; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Lee, Sook-Kuan; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Liu, Chi-Te

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain WF02, isolated from soil collected at Wufeng Mountain, Taiwan, has siderophore-producing ability and in vitro antagonistic activity against bacterial wilt pathogen. To determine the impact of plant genotype on biocontrol effectiveness, we treated soil with this strain before infecting susceptible (L390) and moderately resistant (Micro-Tom) tomato cultivars with Ralstonia solanacearum strain Pss4. We also compared the efficacy of this strain with that of commercial Bacillus subtilis strain Y1336. Strain WF02 provided longer lasting protection against R. solanacearum than did strain Y1336 and controlled the development of wilt in both cultivars. To elucidate the genetic responses in these plants under WF02 treatment, we analyzed the temporal expression of defense-related genes in leaves. The salicylic acid pathway-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and pathogenesis-related protein 1a were up-regulated in both cultivars, whereas expression of the jasmonic acid pathway-related gene lipoxygenase was only elevated in the susceptible tomato cultivar (L390). These results suggest that WF02 can provide protection against bacterial wilt in tomato cultivars with different levels of disease resistance via direct and indirect modes of action.

  1. Metschnikowia Strains Isolated from Botrytized Grapes Antagonize Fungal and Bacterial Growth by Iron Depletion▿

    PubMed Central

    Sipiczki, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Noble-rotted grapes are colonized by complex microbial populations. I isolated pigment-producing Metschnikowia strains from noble-rotted grapes that had antagonistic activity against filamentous fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. A red-maroon pigment was formed from a diffusible colorless precursor released by the cells into the medium. The conversion of the precursor required iron and could occur both in the cells (red colonies) and in the medium (red halos around colonies). The intensity of pigmentation was correlated with the intensity of the antimicrobial activity. Mutants that did not form pigment also lacked antifungal activity. Within the pigmented halos, conidia of the sensitive fungi did not germinate, and their hyphae did not grow and frequently lysed at the tips. Supplementation of the medium with iron reduced the size of the halos and the inhibition zones, while it increased the pigment accumulation by the colonies. The iron-binding agent tropolone had a similar effect, so I hypothesize that pigmented Metschnikowia isolates inhibit the growth of the sensitive microorganisms by pigment formation, which depletes the free iron in the medium. As the pigment is a large nondiffusible complex produced in the presence of both low and high concentrations of ferric ions, the proposed mechanism is different from the mechanisms operating in microbes that release siderophores into the environment for iron acquisition. PMID:17021223

  2. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of CuO nanoparticles against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, M; Khan, MS; Memic, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Background CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species. Here we synthesized different sized CuO nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antibacterial activity of each CuO nanoparticles preparation. Methods CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using a gel combustion method. In this approach, cupric nitrate trihydrate and citric acid were dissolved in distilled water with a molar ratio of 1:1. The resulting solution was stirred at 100°C, until gel was formed. The gel was allowed to burn at 200°C to obtain amorphous powder, which was further annealed at different temperatures to obtain different size CuO nanoparticles. We then tested the antibacterial properties using well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Results XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO nanoparticles. Crystallite size was found to increase with an increase in annealing temperature due to atomic diffusion. A minimum crystallite size of 20 nm was observed in the case of CuO nanoparticles annealed at 400°C. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. All CuO nanoparticles exhibited inhibitory effects against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The size of the particles was correlated with its antibacterial activity. Conclusion The antibacterial activity of CuO nanoparticles was found to be size-dependent. In addition, the highly stable minimum-sized monodispersed copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized during this study demonstrated a significant increase in antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. PMID:22848176

  3. Standoff laser-induced fluorescence of suspensions from different bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschek, Frank; Walter, Arne; Fellner, Lea; Grünewald, Karin; Pargmann, Carsten; Handke, Jürgen; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Biological hazardous substances like certain fungi and bacteria represent a high risk for the broad public if fallen into wrong hands. Incidents based on bio agents are commonly considered to have incalculable and complex consequences for first responders and people. The impact of such an event can be minimized by a combination of different sensor technologies that have been developed to detect bio-threats and to gather information after an incident. Sensors for bio-agents can be grouped into two categories. Sampling devices collect material from locations supposed to be contaminated, and they are able to identify biological material with high sensitivity and selectivity. However, these point sensors need to be positioned correctly in advance of an attack, and moving sources of biological material cannot be tracked. A different approach is based on optical standoff detection. For biological samples laser induced florescence (LIF) has been proven to get real time data on location and type of hazards without being in contact with the suspicious substance. This work is based on a bio-detector developed at the DLR Lampoldshausen. The LIF detection has been designed for outdoor operation at standoff distances from 20 m up to more than 100 m. The detector acquires LIF spectral data for two different excitation wavelengths (280 and 355 nm) as well as time resolved information for the fluorescence decay which can be used to classify suspicious samples. While the classification device had been trained on uncritical samples (like amino acids, NADH, yeast, chemicals, oils), this work presents the progress to more relevant, living bacteria of different strains. The low risk and non-pathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringensis, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacillus brevis, Micrococcus luteus, Oligella urethralis, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Escherichia coli (K12) have been investigated with the above set-up at both excitation wavelengths

  4. Plant growth promotion by inoculation with selected bacterial strains versus mineral soil supplements.

    PubMed

    Wernitznig, S; Adlassnig, W; Sprocati, A R; Turnau, K; Neagoe, A; Alisi, C; Sassmann, S; Nicoara, A; Pinto, V; Cremisini, C; Lichtscheidl, I

    2014-01-01

    In the process of remediation of mine sites, the establishment of a vegetation cover is one of the most important tasks. This study tests two different approaches to manipulate soil properties in order to facilitate plant growth. Mine waste from Ingurtosu, Sardinia, Italy rich in silt, clay, and heavy metals like Cd, Cu, and Zn was used in a series of greenhouse experiments. Bacteria with putative beneficial properties for plant growth were isolated from this substrate, propagated and consortia of ten strains were used to inoculate the substrate. Alternatively, sand and volcanic clay were added. On these treated and untreated soils, seeds of Helianthus annuus, of the native Euphorbia pithyusa, and of the grasses Agrostis capillaris, Deschampsia flexuosa and Festuca rubra were germinated, and the growth of the seedlings was monitored. The added bacteria established well under all experimental conditions and reduced the extractability of most metals. In association with H. annuus, E. pithyusa and D. flexuosa bacteria improved microbial activity and functional diversity of the original soil. Their effect on plant growth, however, was ambiguous and usually negative. The addition of sand and volcanic clay, on the other hand, had a positive effect on all plant species except E. pithyusa. Especially the grasses experienced a significant benefit. The effects of a double treatment with both bacteria and sand and volcanic clay were rather negative. It is concluded that the addition of mechanical support has great potential to boost revegetation of mining sites though it is comparatively expensive. The possibilities offered by the inoculation of bacteria, on the other hand, appear rather limited.

  5. Biodecolorization of Reactive Black-5 by a metal and salt tolerant bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. RA20 isolated from Paharang drain effluents in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sabir; Maqbool, Zahid; Ali, Shafaqat; Yasmeen, Tahira; Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Faisal; Abbas, Farhat

    2013-12-01

    Discharge of untreated azo dyes contaminated textile wastewater into soil and water bodies causes severe contamination. The present study was conducted to isolate dye degrading bacterial strains from a textile industry wastewater carrying drain in the neighborhood of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Seventy six bacterial strains were initially isolated and was screened using liquid mineral salts medium spiked with Reactive Black-5 azo dye. The strain RA20 was found to be the most efficient azo dye degrading bacterial isolate and was identified by amplifying and sequencing its 16S rRNA. Analysis indicated that this strain belonged to genus Pseudomonas and was designated as Pseudomonas sp. RA20. It had the highest decolorization activity at pH 8 and 25 °C incubation temperature under static conditions using yeast extract as an additional C source. This strain was also effective in decolorizing structurally related other reactive dyes including Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Yellow 2 and Reactive Red 120 but with varying efficacy. RA20 decolorized Reactive Black-5 significantly in the presence of up to 30 g L⁻¹ NaCl; however, the decolorization rate was significantly (p≤0.05) reduced beyond this salt concentration. Moreover, this bacterial strain also exhibited moderate tolerance to different heavy metals including zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu). RA20 also decolorized Reactive Black-5 in the presence of a mixture of the selected heavy metals depending upon their concentrations. This study highlights the importance of Pseudomonas sp. RA20 as a prospective biological resource for bioremediation of water and soils contaminated with azo dyes.

  6. Expression of a Heterologous Xylose Transporter in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Engineered to Utilize Xylose Improves Aerobic Xylose Co-consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered to utilize xylose by expression of the genes for xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase, or xylose isomerase. These strains are still limited in their ability to efficiently use xylose. Unlike native xylose assimilating yeasts such as Pi...

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    SciTech Connect

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T.; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2015-09-22

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. As a result, our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  8. Effects of Bacterial Community Members on the Proteome of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. Strain Is79

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Christopher J.; Nielsen, Susanne; Greis, Kenneth D.; Haffey, Wendy D.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ticak, Tomislav; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms in the environment do not exist as the often-studied pure cultures but as members of complex microbial communities. Characterizing the interactions within microbial communities is essential to understand their function in both natural and engineered environments. In this study, we investigated how the presence of a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB) and heterotrophic bacteria affect the growth and proteome of the chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79. We investigated Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 in co-culture with Nitrobacter winogradskyi, in co-cultures with selected heterotrophic bacteria, and as a member of the nitrifying enrichment culture G5-7. In batch culture, N. winogradskyi and heterotrophic bacteria had positive effects on the growth of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach was used to investigate the effect of N. winogradskyi and the co-cultured heterotrophic bacteria from G5-7 on the proteome of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79. In co-culture with N. winogradskyi, several Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 oxidative stress response proteins changed in abundance, with periplasmic proteins increasing and cytoplasmic proteins decreasing in abundance. In the presence of heterotrophic bacteria, the abundance of proteins directly related to the ammonia oxidation pathway increased, while the abundance of proteins related to amino acid synthesis and metabolism decreased. In summary, the proteome of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 was differentially influenced by the presence of either N. winogradskyi or heterotrophic bacteria. Together, N. winogradskyi and heterotrophic bacteria reduced the oxidative stress for Nitrosomonas sp. Is79, which resulted in more efficient metabolism. IMPORTANCE Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms play an important role in the global nitrogen cycle, converting ammonia to

  9. Changes in the aerobic vaginal bacterial mucous load after treatment with intravaginal sponges in anoestrous ewes: effect of medroxiprogesterone acetate and antibiotic treatment use.

    PubMed

    Gatti, M; Zunino, P; Ungerfeld, R

    2011-04-01

    Intravaginal sponges (IS) impregnated with progestagens are widely used for oestrous synchronization in ewes. As progestogens depress the immuno response, the first aim was to determine whether medroxiprogesterone acetate (MAP) content affects the vaginal bacteria number (VBN) in IS-treated anoestrous ewes. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of different antibiotic treatments to control the VBN increase caused by IS. In both experiments, IS were inserted during 14 days in anoestrous ewes. In the first, 11 ewes received commercial sponges (50 mg MAP), and 10 ewes received placebo sponges. For the second experiment, IS were inserted in three groups (n = 12/group), containing oxytetracycline im (20 mg/kg); injected into the sponge (0.02 mg), or control (no antibiotic). At sponge withdrawal, all ewes received 300 UI eCG. Mucous samples were collected from the vagina before sponge insertion, at sponge withdrawal, 24, 48 and 72 h later, and the VBN (colony-forming units per ml; CFU/ml) was counted after 48-h incubation. Medroxiprogesterone content did not affect VBN (log CFU/ml: 4.3 ± 0.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.2 with and without MAP, respectively). Bacterial number increased from 3.5 ± 0.2 at sponge insertion to 6.9 ± 0.1 at sponge withdrawal (p < 0.0001) and decreased the following day to 4.3 ± 0.2 (p < 0.0001). In the second experiment, VBN increased at sponge withdrawal (p < 0.0001) in all groups and decreased the following day (p < 0.0001). The CFU/ml at sponge withdrawal was lower in ewes treated with antibiotics (p < 0.0001), being even lower when local rather than systemic antibiotic was administered (log CFU/ml: 3.3 ± 1.8 vs 7.2 ± 1.8). The day of oestrous VBN was similar for all treatments and similar to that observed before sponge insertion. We concluded that MAP does not influence the increase in VBN, as the main effect is provoked by the sponge device itself, and local antibiotic treatment resulted in a lower bacterial growth than systemic treatments.

  10. Safety assessment of potential probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Birtles, M J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-05-25

    The general safety of immune-enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20), Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10) was investigated in a feeding trial. Groups of BALB/c mice were orally administered test LAB strains or the commercial reference strain Lb. acidophilus LA-1 at 2.5 x 10(9), 5 x 10(10) or 2.5 x 10(12) colony forming units (CFU)/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Throughout this time, their feed intake, water intake, and live body weight were monitored. At the end of the 4 week observation period, samples of blood, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut tissues (ileum, caecum, and colon) were collected to determine: haematological parameters (red blood cell and platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration); differential leukocyte counts; blood biochemistry (plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and glucose); mucosal histology (epithelial cell height, mucosal thickness, and villus height); and bacterial translocation to extra-gut tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes). DNA finger printing techniques were used to identify any viable bacterial strains recovered from these tissues. The results demonstrated that 4 weeks consumption of these LAB strains had no adverse effects on animals' general health status, haematology, blood biochemistry, gut mucosal histology parameters, or the incidence of bacterial translocation. A few viable LAB cells were recovered from the tissues of animals in both control and test groups, but DNA fingerprinting did not identify any of these as the inoculated strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic LAB strains HN001, HN017, and HN019 are non-toxic for mice and are therefore likely to be safe for human use.

  11. Structural Characterization of a Model Gram-Negative Bacterial Surface Using Lipopolysaccharides from Rough Strains of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) make up approximately 75% of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (OM) surface, but because of the complexity of the molecule, there are very few model OMs that include LPS. The LPS molecule consists of lipid A, which anchors the LPS within the OM, a core polysaccharide region, and a variable O-antigen polysaccharide chain. In this work we used RcLPS (consisting of lipid A plus the first seven sugars of the core polysaccharide) from a rough strain of Escherichia coli to form stable monolayers of LPS at the air–liquid interface. The vertical structure RcLPS monolayers were characterized using neutron and X-ray reflectometry, while the lateral structure was investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Brewster angle microscopy. It was found that RcLPS monolayers at surface pressures of 20 mN m–1 and above are resolved as hydrocarbon tails, an inner headgroup, and an outer headgroup of polysaccharide with increasing solvation from tails to outer headgroups. The lateral organization of the hydrocarbon lipid chains displays an oblique hexagonal unit cell at all surface pressures, with only the chain tilt angle changing with surface pressure. This is in contrast to lipid A, which displays hexagonal or, above 20 mN m–1, distorted hexagonal packing. This work provides the first complete structural analysis of a realistic E. coli OM surface model. PMID:23617615

  12. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1T) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, A; Gu, Wei; Yasawong, Montri; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Pagani, Ioanna; Tapia, Roxanne; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Pan, Chongle; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Sikorski, Johannes; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1 T was the first isolate within the phylum ThermusDeinococcus to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1 T is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  13. Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (HT), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva

    PubMed Central

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C.; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was established as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spirochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:23991255

  14. Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (HT), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva

    SciTech Connect

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was es- tablished as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spi- rochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first com- plete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  15. Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (H(T)), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva.

    PubMed

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was established as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spirochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13(th) member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  16. Co-administration of attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 168 strain with bacterial DNA enhances the local and systemic immune response after intranasal vaccination in pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xueping; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2012-03-09

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. M. hyopneumoniae infects pigs at mucosal surfaces of respiratory tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the protection rate against M. hyopneumoniae infection following intranasal immunization with attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain is improved by administration of bacterial DNA containing CpG motifs. Thirty pigs were immunized intranasally or intramuscularly and the levels of local respiratory tract and systemic immune responses were detected. The results showed that the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the tracheal fork, the levels of cytokine IL-6, and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA in local nasal cavity increased respectively after intranasal vaccination with the attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain alone. However, the levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in local nasal cavity, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in trachea, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the lung and hilar lymph nodes, the specific IgG antibody level in serum on 35 day post immunization were all increased significantly after intranasal vaccination of the attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain adjuvanted with bacterial DNA. We concluded that intranasal administration of attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain adjuvanted with bacterial DNA may be effective in evoking the local cellular and humoral immune response in the respiratory tract and the systemic immune response. Intranasal vaccination will be effective in prevention of the transmission and prevalence of MPS.

  17. Strain Library Imaging Protocol for high-throughput, automated single-cell microscopy of large bacterial collections arrayed on multiwell plates.

    PubMed

    Shi, Handuo; Colavin, Alexandre; Lee, Timothy K; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2017-02-01

    Single-cell microscopy is a powerful tool for studying gene functions using strain libraries, but it suffers from throughput limitations. Here we describe the Strain Library Imaging Protocol (SLIP), which is a high-throughput, automated microscopy workflow for large strain collections that requires minimal user involvement. SLIP involves transferring arrayed bacterial cultures from multiwell plates onto large agar pads using inexpensive replicator pins and automatically imaging the resulting single cells. The acquired images are subsequently reviewed and analyzed by custom MATLAB scripts that segment single-cell contours and extract quantitative metrics. SLIP yields rich data sets on cell morphology and gene expression that illustrate the function of certain genes and the connections among strains in a library. For a library arrayed on 96-well plates, image acquisition can be completed within 4 min per plate.

  18. Comparative Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Reveals Insights into the Infection Process of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, a quarantinable pathogen in several areas worldwide, including the European Union. In order to develop efficient control methods for this disease, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the key determinants associated with host restriction, colonization and the development of pathogenesis. After an initial characterization, by multilocus sequence analysis, of 15 strains of X. arboricola isolated from Prunus, one strain did not group into the pathovar pruni or into other pathovars of this species and therefore it was identified and defined as a X. arboricola pv. pruni look-a-like. This non-pathogenic strain and two typical strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni were selected for a whole genome and phenotype comparative analysis in features associated with the pathogenesis process in Xanthomonas. Comparative analysis among these bacterial strains isolated from Prunus spp. and the inclusion of 15 publicly available genome sequences from other pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of X. arboricola revealed variations in the phenotype associated with variations in the profiles of TonB-dependent transporters, sensors of the two-component regulatory system, methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, components of the flagella and the type IV pilus, as well as in the repertoire of cell-wall degrading enzymes and the components of the type III secretion system and related effectors. These variations provide a global overview of those mechanisms that could be associated with the development of bacterial spot disease. Additionally, it pointed out some features that might influence the host specificity and the variable virulence observed in X. arboricola. PMID:27571391

  19. Aerobic intestinal flora of wild-caught African dwarf crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Henton, M M; Riley, J; Agnagna, M

    2000-09-01

    Intestinal contents were collected from wild-caught African dwarf crocodiles (Osteolaemus tetraspis) in 1993 and 1995 which were slaughtered at urban markets in the Congo Republic. The samples were kept frozen and brought back to Onderstepoort for aerobic culture. Out of 29 specimens, 33 species of bacteria and 20 species of fungi were isolated. The bacteria included three isolates of Salmonella and eight isolates of Escherichia coli, most of the latter being rough strains. The flora of individual specimens contained 1-5 bacterial and 0-5 fungal species. Neither Aeromonas hydrophila nor Edwardsiella tarda were isolated from any of the samples.

  20. Bacterial Density, Serotype Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance of Pneumococcal Strains from the Nasopharynx of Peruvian Children Before and After Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 7

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Christiane R.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Chochua, Sopio; Pletz, Mathias W.; Hornberg, Claudia; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Griffin, Marie R.; Verastegui, Hector; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Klugman, Keith P.; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have decreased nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-types but little data exists from rural areas. We investigated bacterial density, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of pneumococcal strains within the nasopharynx of young children in the Peruvian Andes, two years after PCV7 was introduced. Methods Pneumococcal strains were isolated from a subset of 125 children from our Peruvian cohort, who entered the study in 2009 and had pneumococcus detected in the nasopharynx in both 2009 and during follow-up in 2011. Strains were quellung-serotyped and tested for susceptibility to antibiotics. Bacterial density was determined by qPCR. Results The prevalence of PCV7 strains decreased from 48% in 2009 to 28.8% in 2011, whereas non-PCV7 types increased from 52% to 71.2% (p=0.002). There was a 3.5-fold increase in carriage of serotype 6C in 2011 (p=0.026). Vaccination with PCV7 did not affect pneumococcal density in children colonized by a PCV7 type but did increased density in those colonized with a non-PCV7 type. Antibiotic resistance did not change after vaccine introduction; strains were non-susceptible to tetracycline (97.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (56.4%), penicillin (34%), erythromycin (22.4%), chloramphenicol (18.8%) and clindamycin (12.4%). Conclusions Serotype replacement was observed post-PCV7 vaccination with a concomitant, not previously recognized, increased nasopharyngeal density. PMID:26974749

  1. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  2. The efficacy of different anti-microbial metals at preventing the formation of, and eradicating bacterial biofilms of pathogenic indicator strains.

    PubMed

    Gugala, Natalie; Lemire, Joe A; Turner, Raymond J

    2017-02-15

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the prevalence of biofilm-related infections have generated a demand for alternative anti-microbial therapies. Metals have not been explored in adequate detail for their capacity to combat infectious disease. Metal compounds can now be found in textiles, medical devices and disinfectants-yet, we know little about their efficacy against specific pathogens. To help fill this knowledge gap, we report on the anti-microbial and antibiofilm activity of seven metals: silver, copper, titanium, gallium, nickel, aluminum and zinc against three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To evaluate the capacity of metal ions to prevent the growth of, and eradicate biofilms and planktonic cells, bacterial cultures were inoculated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (minimal biofilm eradication concentration) in the presence of the metal salts. Copper, gallium and titanium were capable of preventing planktonic and biofilm growth, and eradicating established biofilms of all tested strains. Further, we observed that the efficacies of the other tested metal salts displayed variable efficacy against the tested strains. Further, contrary to the enhanced resistance anticipated from bacterial biofilms, particular metal salts were observed to be more effective against biofilm communities versus planktonic cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that the identity of the bacterial strain must be considered before treatment with a particular metal ion. Consequent to the use of metal ions as anti-microbial agents to fight multidrug-resistant and biofilm-related infections increases, we must aim for more selective deployment in a given infectious setting.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.10.

  3. A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism.

  4. [Biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ilknur; Alpay Karaoğlu, Sengül; Ciftçi, Hasan; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Aydin, Faruk; Kiliç, Ali Osman; Ertürk, Murat

    2007-01-01

    As Gardnerella vaginalis is accepted as a member of normal vaginal flora, it is one of the dominant species which has been related to bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate, biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of G.vaginalis from the vaginal swab samples of 408 women who were admitted to the outpatient clinics of Family Planning Center. Hippurate hydrolysis, lipase and beta-galactosidase tests were performed for biotyping the isolates, and agar dilution (for metronidazole) and disk diffusion (for clindamycin) tests were used for the detection of antibiotic resistance patterns. As a result, by Nugent's BV scoring protocol, 122 (29.9%), 20 (29.4%), 137 (33.6%), and 18 (4.4%) of the women were diagnosed as BV, intermediate form, normal vaginal flora (NVF) and mycotic vaginosis, respectively. The overall isolation rate of G.vaginalis was found as 23% (94/408). Of them, 56.4% (53/94) and 8.5% (8/94) were isolated from samples of BV cases and subjects with NVF, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The biotyping results showed that the most frequently detected types were biotype 1 (44%), 5 (20%) and 4 (18%). There was no statistically significant difference between the biotype distribution of BV patients and the subjects who have NVF (p=0.687). The results of antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 70% and 53% of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole and clindamycin, respectively. It was of interest that MIC values for metronidazole was > or =128 microg/ml in 57% of resistant strains. The data of this study has emphasized that the metronidazole resistance is very high in our population, and the large scale studies are needed to clarify the relationship between BV and G.vaginalis biotypes, which can be found in the normal vaginal flora.

  5. Genetic engineering using fungal flavohemoglobin for constructing Pseudomonas stutzeri strain emitting less nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Naoki; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) due to insufficient anaerobiosis. We constructed a recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri strain producing Fusarium oxysporum flavohemoglobin (fhb) and found that it emitted less N2O than the wild-type strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rate of N2 production was higher than in the wild-type strain after the depletion of oxygen in culture, suggesting that fhb enhanced the reduction of N2O to N2. The strain is the first recombinant bacterial denitrifier that reduces N2O production.

  6. Colonization of Vitis vinifera by a Green Fluorescence Protein-Labeled, gfp-Marked Strain of Xylophilus ampelinus, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Necrosis of Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Grall, Sophie; Manceau, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of Xylophilus ampelinus were studied in Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc using gfp-marked bacterial strains to evaluate the relative importance of epiphytic and endophytic phases of plant colonization in disease development. Currently, bacterial necrosis of grapevine is of economic importance in vineyards in three regions in France: the Cognac, Armagnac, and Die areas. This disease is responsible for progressive destruction of vine shoots, leading to their death. We constructed gfp-marked strains of the CFBP2098 strain of X. ampelinus for histological studies. We studied the colonization of young plants of V. vinifera cv. Ugni blanc by X. ampelinus after three types of artificial contamination in a growth chamber and in a greenhouse. (i) After wounding of the stem and inoculation, the bacteria progressed down to the crown through the xylem vessels, where they organized into biofilms. (ii) When the bacteria were forced into woody cuttings, they rarely colonized the emerging plantlets. Xylem vessels could play a key role in the multiplication and conservation of the bacteria, rather than being a route for plant colonization. (iii) When bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the plants, bacteria progressed in two directions: both in emerging organs and down to the crown, thus displaying the importance of epiphytic colonization in disease development. PMID:12676663

  7. Mercury resistance in bacterial strains isolated from tailing ponds in a gold mining area near El Callao (Bolívar State, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Ball, María Mercedes; Carrero, Pablo; Castro, David; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to mercury (Hg) was investigated in strains isolated from Hg-contaminated tailing ponds located in the gold mining area of El Callao (Bolívar State, Venezuela). High frequencies of resistance were detected to both inorganic-Hg and organomercurials among these strains. A broad range of resistance levels was observed when determining minimal inhibitory concentrations of Hg(2+). Some strains were able to grow in liquid medium containing 25 muM: Hg(2+), whereas others grew at 300 muM: Hg(2+). Of 190 Hg-resistant strains tested, 58.2% were additionally shown to be resistant to ampicillin (40 mg/L), 33.3% to chloramphenicol (30 mg/L), 24.9% to streptomycin (30 mg/L), 23.3% to tetracycline (30 mg/L), and 1.6% to kanamycin (30 mg/L). Furthermore, we found that 20% of the Hg-resistant strains were simultaneously resistant to as many as four of these antibiotics, at the concentrations tested. The presence of large plasmids in 62.9% of 53 Hg-resistant strains screened prompted us to investigate the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants. Mating experiments were performed using Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as recipient strains. The results obtained confirmed that indigenous Hg-resistant bacteria colonizing the tailing ponds can effectively transfer the phenotype to potentially pathogenic species.

  8. Assessment of functional and genetic diversity of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus L.

    PubMed

    Kadyan, Sangeeta; Panghal, Manju; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Khushboo; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2013-09-01

    Fifty two aerobic and endospore forming Bacilli (AEFB) strains were recovered from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA gene sequencing has shown that these bacterial strains belong to six different genera of AEFB i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Terribacillus and Jeotgalibacillus. Analysis of their PGP activities has shown that 92.30 % strains produced indole acetic acid hormone, 86.53 % of the strains solubilized Phosphate and 44.23 % strains produced siderophore. Chitinase production activity was shown by 42.30 % of the strains and 21.15 % of the strains produced 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. 46.15 % of isolates have shown antagonistic activity against common fungal pathogen of the plant i.e. Corynespora cassiicola. Among all of the isolated strains B. Cereus JP44SK22 and JP44SK42 have shown all of the six plant growth promoting traits tested. B. megaterium strains (JP44SK18 and JP44SK35), Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains (JP44SK3 and JP44SK4) and Brevibacillus laterosporus strain JP44SK51 have also shown multiple PGP activities except ACC deaminase production activity. In the present study bacterial strain belonging to genera Jeotgalibacillus sp. JP44SK37 has been reported first time as a member of rhizospheric soil habitat and has also shown PGP activities. It can be concluded that Rhizosphere of P. amarus has harboured a good diversity of AEFB bacterial strains having a lot of biofertilizing and biocontrol abilities.

  9. A new common bacterial blight resistance QTL in VAX 1 common bean and interaction of the new QTL, SAP6 and SU91 with bacterial strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight (CBB) is a severe disease in common bean. New resistance QTL should facilitate development of cultivars with high levels of resistance. Our objectives were to (i) identify new resistance QTL in VAX 1 and verify presence in VAX 3, (ii) determine interaction of new QTL with exi...

  10. The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    PubMed

    Barret, M; Frey-Klett, P; Boutin, M; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, A-Y; Martin, F; Guillot, L; Sarniguet, A

    2009-01-01

    In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact.

  11. Regioselective Synthesis of Quinazolinone-/Phenanthridine-Fused Heteropolycycles by Pd-Catalyzed Direct Intramolecular Aerobic Oxidative C-H Amination from Aromatic Strained Amides.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Biswadip; Bera, Suvankar; Chatterjee, Satadru; Killi, Sunil Kumar; Adhikary, Saswati

    2016-03-01

    A new route for the expedient synthesis of specific regioisomer of quinazolinone- and phenanthridine-fused heterocycles through a palladium-catalyzed regioselective intramolecular oxidative C-H amination from cyclic strained amides of aromatic amido-amidine systems (quinazolinones) has been developed. The amine functionalization of an aromatic C-H bond from a strained amide nitrogen involved in aromaticity has been a challenging work so far. The fusion of two heterocyclic cores, quinazolinone and phenanthridine, can occur in two different ways (linear and angular), but under the conditions reported here, only linear type isomer is exclusively produced. This approach provides a variety of substituted quinazolinone- and phenanthridine-fused derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. Moreover, such fused molecules show excellent fluorescent properties and have great potential to be a new type of fluorophores for the use in medicinal and material science.

  12. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli M6, a Group I Strain of the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbits

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Shkedy, Dafna; Gershovits, Michael; Da Silva, Gustavo M.; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Walcott, Ron; Pupko, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbit plants including watermelon and melon. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two major groups based on DNA fingerprint analyses and biochemical properties. Group I strains have been generally isolated from non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In the present study, we report the genome sequence of M6, a group I model A. citrulli strain, isolated from melon. We used comparative genome analysis to investigate differences between the genome of strain M6 and the genome of the group II model strain AAC00-1. The draft genome sequence of A. citrulli M6 harbors 139 contigs, with an overall approximate size of 4.85 Mb. The genome of M6 is ∼500 Kb shorter than that of strain AAC00-1. Comparative analysis revealed that this size difference is mainly explained by eight fragments, ranging from ∼35–120 Kb and distributed throughout the AAC00-1 genome, which are absent in the M6 genome. In agreement with this finding, while AAC00-1 was found to possess 532 open reading frames (ORFs) that are absent in strain M6, only 123 ORFs in M6 were absent in AAC00-1. Most of these M6 ORFs are hypothetical proteins and most of them were also detected in two group I strains that were recently sequenced, tw6 and pslb65. Further analyses by PCR assays and coverage analyses with other A. citrulli strains support the notion that some of these fragments or significant portions of them are discriminative between groups I and II strains of A. citrulli. Moreover, GC content, effective number of codon values and cluster of orthologs’ analyses indicate that these fragments were introduced into group II strains by horizontal gene transfer events. Our study reports the genome sequence of a model group I strain of A. citrulli, one of the most important pathogens of cucurbits. It also provides the first comprehensive comparison at the genomic level between

  13. Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sammer, Ulrike F; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate

    2012-01-01

    The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b wild-type indicating the influence of APV in the antagonism. In plant experiments with the soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea both, Pa48b and the APV-negative mutant, successfully suppressed the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the P. agglomerans strain Pa48b is an efficient biocontrol organism against plant pathogens, and we prove its ability for fast colonization of plant surfaces over a wide temperature range. PMID:23233458

  14. Degradation of toluene by a mixed population of archetypal aerobes, microaerophiles, and denitrifiers: laboratory sand column experiment and multispecies biofilm model formulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Su; Jaffé, Peter R

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in a saturated sand column with three bacterial strains that have different growth characteristics on toluene, Pseudomonas putida F1 which degrades toluene only under aerobic conditions, Thauera aromatica T1 which degrades toluene only under denitrifying conditions, and Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 has a facultative nature and can perform nitrate-enhanced biodegradation of toluene under hypoxic conditions (DO <2 mg/L). Steady-state concentration profiles showed that oxygen and nitrate appeared to be utilized simultaneously, regardless of the dissolved oxygen concentration and the results from fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that PKO1 maintained stable cells numbers throughout the column, even when the pore water oxygen concentration was high. Since PKO1's growth rate under aerobic condition is much lower than that of F1, except under hypoxic conditions, these observations were not anticipated. Therefore these observations require a mechanistic explanation that can account for localized low oxygen concentrations under aerobic conditions. To simulate the observed dynamics, a multispecies biofilm model was implemented. This model formulation assumes the formation of a thin biofilm that is composed of the three bacterial strains. The individual strains grow in response to the substrate and electron acceptor flux from bulk fluid into the biofilm. The model was implemented such that internal changes in bacterial composition and substrate concentration can be simulated over time and space. The model simulations from oxic to denitrifying conditions compared well to the experimental profiles of the chemical species and the bacterial strains, indicating the importance of accounting for the biological activity of individual strains in biofilms that span different redox conditions.

  15. Isolation of bacterial strains able to degrade biphenyl, diphenyl ether and the heat transfer fluid used in thermo-solar plants.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Moreno, Rafael; Sáez, Lara P; Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Roldán, M Dolores; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado

    2017-03-25

    Thermo-solar plants use eutectic mixtures of diphenyl ether (DE) and biphenyl (BP) as heat transfer fluid (HTF). Potential losses of HTF may contaminate soils and bioremediation is an attractive tool for its treatment. DE- or BP-degrading bacteria are known, but up to now bacteria able to degrade HTF mixture have not been described. Here, five bacterial strains which are able to grow with HTF or its separate components DE and BP as sole carbon sources have been isolated, either from soils exposed to HTF or from rhizospheric soils of plants growing near a thermo-solar plant. The organisms were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Achromobacter piechaudii strain BioC1, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain 6.1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains HBD1 and HBD3, and Pseudomonas oleovorans strain HBD2. Activity of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (BphC), a key enzyme of the biphenyl upper degradation pathway, was detected in all isolates. Pseudomonas strains almost completely degraded 2000ppm HTF after 5-day culture, and even tolerated and grew in the presence of 150,000ppm HTF, being suitable candidates for in situ soil bioremediation. Degradation of both components of HTF is of particular interest since in the DE-degrader Sphingomonas sp. SS3, growth on DE or benzoate was strongly inhibited by addition of BP.

  16. Strains of the Group I Lineage of Acidovorax citrulli, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbitaceous Crops, are Predominant in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gustavo M; Souza, Ricardo M; Yan, Lichun; Júnior, Rui S; Medeiros, Flavio H V; Walcott, Ron R

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), caused by the seedborne bacterium Acidovorax citrulli, is an economically important threat to cucurbitaceous crops worldwide. Since the first report of BFB in Brazil in 1990, outbreaks have occurred sporadically on watermelon and, more frequently, on melon, resulting in significant yield losses. At present, the genetic diversity and the population structure of A. citrulli strains in Brazil remain unclear. A collection of 74 A. citrulli strains isolated from naturally infected tissues of different cucurbit hosts in Brazil between 2000 and 2014 and 18 A. citrulli reference strains from other countries were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of housekeeping and virulence-associated genes, and pathogenicity tests on seedlings of different cucurbit species. The Brazilian population comprised predominantly group I strains (98%), regardless of the year of isolation, geographical region, or host. Whole-genome restriction digestion and PFGE analysis revealed that three unique and previously unreported A. citrulli haplotypes (assigned as haplotypes B22, B23, and B24) occurred in Brazil. The greatest diversity of A. citrulli (four haplotypes) was found among strains collected from the northeastern region of Brazil, which accounts for more than 90% of the country's melon production. MLSA clearly distinguished A. citrulli strains into two well-supported clades, in agreement with observations based on PFGE analysis. Five Brazilian A. citrulli strains, representing different group I haplotypes, were moderately aggressive on watermelon seedlings compared with four group II strains that were highly aggressive. In contrast, no significant differences in BFB severity were observed between group I and II A. citrulli strains on melon and squash seedlings. Finally, we observed a differential effect of temperature on in vitro growth of representative group I and II A. citrulli haplotypes. Specifically, of

  17. Exploration and grading of possible genes from 183 bacterial strains by a common protocol to identification of new genes: Gene Trek in Prokaryote Space (GTPS).

    PubMed

    Kosuge, Takehide; Abe, Takashi; Okido, Toshihisa; Tanaka, Naoto; Hirahata, Masaki; Maruyama, Yutaka; Mashima, Jun; Tomiki, Aki; Kurokawa, Motoyoshi; Himeno, Ryutaro; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Tateno, Yoshio; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2006-12-31

    A large number of complete microorganism genomes has been sequenced and submitted to the public database and then incorporated into our complete genome database, Genome Information Broker (GIB, http://gib.genes.nig.ac.jp/). However, when comparative genomics is carried out, researchers must be aware that there are protein-coding genes not confirmed by homology or motif search and that reliable protein-coding genes are missing. Therefore, we developed a protocol (Gene Trek in Prokaryote Space, GTPS) for finding possible protein-coding genes in bacterial genomes. GTPS assigns a degree of reliability to predicted protein-coding genes. We first systematically applied the protocol to the complete genomes of all 123 bacterial species and strains that were publicly available as of July 2003, and then to those of 183 species and strains available as of September 2004. We found a number of incorrect genes and several new ones in the genome data in question. We also found a way to estimate the total number of orthologous genes in the bacterial world.

  18. Effectiveness of Polyvalent Bacterial Lysate and Autovaccines Against Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Colonization by Potential Pathogens: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Zagólski, Olaf; Stręk, Paweł; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Białecka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Polyvalent bacterial lysate (PBL) is an oral immunostimulating vaccine consisting of bacterial standardized lysates obtained by lysis of different strains of bacteria. Autovaccines are individually prepared based on the results of smears obtained from the patient. Both types of vaccine can be used to treat an ongoing chronic infection. This study sought to determine which method is more effective against nasal colonization by potential respiratory tract pathogens. Material/Methods We enrolled 150 patients with aerobic Gram stain culture and count results indicating bacterial colonization of the nose and/or throat by potential pathogens. The participants were randomly assigned to each of the following groups: 1. administration of PBL, 2. administration of autovaccine, and 3. no intervention (controls). Results Reduction of the bacterial count in Streptococcus pneumoniae-colonized participants was significant after the autovaccine (p<0.001) and PBL (p<0.01). Reduction of the bacterial count of other β-hemolytic streptococcal strains after treatment with the autovaccine was significant (p<0.01) and was non-significant after PBL. In Haemophilus influenzae colonization, significant reduction in the bacterial count was noted in the PBL group (p<0.01). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization did not respond to either treatment. Conclusions The autovaccine is more effective than PBL for reducing bacterial count of Streptococcus pneumoniae and β-hemolytic streptococci, while PBL was more effective against Haemophilus influenzae colonization. PMID:26434686

  19. Thermal resistance of thirty strains of Salmonella in liquid whole egg: are the optimal bacterial strains being used in challenge studies?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Bacterial inactivation studies are conducted to determine the survival of a target pathogen, such as Salmonella, to any number of intervention treatments (e.g., high pressure, antimicrobials, UV light, gamma irradiation, heat, etc.). Resistance of a species of pathogen, such as Salmo...

  20. Application of a vital fluorescent staining method for simultaneous, near-real-time concentration monitoring of two bacterial strains in an Atlantic coastal plain aquifer in Oyster, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Mailloux, Brian J; Streger, Sheryl H; Hall, James A; Zhang, Pengfei; Kovacik, William P; Vainberg, Simon; Johnson, William P; Onstott, Tullis C; DeFlaun, Mary F

    2004-03-01

    Two differentially labeled bacterial strains were monitored in near-real time during two field-scale bacterial transport experiments in a shallow aquifer in July 2000 and July 2001. Comamonas sp. strain DA001 and Acidovorax sp. strain OY-107 were grown and labeled with the vital fluorescent stain TAMRA/SE (5 [and -6]-carboxytetramethylrhodamine, succinimidyl ester) or CFDA/SE (5 [and -6]-carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester). Fluorescently labeled cells and a conservative bromide tracer were introduced into a suboxic superficial aquifer, followed by groundwater collection from down-gradient multilevel samplers. Cells were enumerated in the field by microplate spectrofluorometry, with confirmatory analyses for selected samples done in the laboratory by epifluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and ferrographic capture. There was general agreement in the results from all of the vital-stain-based enumeration methods, with differences ranging from <10% up to 40% for the analysis of identical samples between different tracking methods. Field analysis by microplate spectrofluorometry was robust and efficient, allowing thousands of samples to be analyzed in quadruplicate for both of the injected strains. The near-real-time data acquisition allowed adjustments to the predetermined sampling schedule to be made. The microplate spectrofluorometry data sets for the July 2000 and July 2001 experiments allowed the transport of the injected cells to be related to the site hydrogeology and injection conditions and enabled the assessment of differences in the transport of the two strains. This near-real-time method should prove effective for a number of microbial ecology applications.

  1. Remote detection of laser-induced autofluorescence on pure cultures of fungal and bacterial strains and their analysis with multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Palombi, Lorenzo; Cecchi, Giovanna; Lognoli, David; Trambusti, Massimo; Gomoiu, Ioana

    2007-05-01

    Remotely sensed laser-induced autofluorescence spectra of pure cultures of fungal strains ( Aureobasidium pullulans, Verticillium sp.) and of bacterial strains ( Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp.) are presented. The strains were isolated from samples collected in a Roman archaeological site ( Tropaeum Traiani) near Constanta, Romania. The fluorescence spectra were detected in vivo from a distance of 25 m in the outdoor, using a high spectral resolution fluorescence LIDAR featuring a UV laser (XeCl@308 nm) as an excitation source. All the examined strains, except for the A. pullulans, showed fluorescence features such to allow their characterisation by processing data with multivariate techniques. Both Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were applied to the data set and compared to discriminate between the examined strains. Results demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence-based detection and characterisation of fungi and bacteria in the outdoor with a high spectral resolution fluorescence LIDAR. In addition, they show that the proposed processing methods offer a means to discriminate between the fluorescence features due to the investigated samples and that of a fluorescence background of a known spectral shape, as that of the culture medium. This can be exploited for the remote fluorescence mapping of heterotrophic organisms on stone surfaces when the latter show a typical broad fluorescence band.

  2. Preliminary data on antibacterial activity of Echinacea purpurea-associated bacterial communities against Burkholderia cepacia complex strains, opportunistic pathogens of Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Maggini, Valentina; Bosi, Emanuele; Mocali, Stefano; Emiliani, Giovanni; Perrin, Elena; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2017-03-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria (Bcc) represent a serious threat for immune-compromised patient affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF) since they are resistant to many substances and to most antibiotics. For this reason, the research of new natural compounds able to inhibit the growth of Bcc strains has raised new interest during the last years. A source of such natural compounds is represented by medicinal plants and, in particular, by bacterial communities associated with these plants able to produce molecules with antimicrobial activity. In this work, a panel of 151 (endophytic) bacteria isolated from three different compartments (rhizospheric soil, roots, and stem/leaves) of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea were tested (using the cross-streak method) for their ability to inhibit the growth of 10 Bcc strains. Data obtained revealed that bacteria isolated from the roots of E. purpurea are the most active in the inhibition of Bcc strains, followed by bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric soil, and endophytes from stem/leaf compartment. At the same time, Bcc strains of environmental origin showed a higher resistance toward inhibition than the Bcc strains with clinical (i.e. CF patients) origin. Differences in the inhibition activity of E. purpurea-associated bacteria are mainly linked to the environment -the plant compartment- rather than to their taxonomical position.

  3. Enzymes produced by halotolerant spore-forming gram-positive bacterial strains isolated from a resting habitat (Restinga de Jurubatiba) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: focus on proteases.

    PubMed

    D Santos, Anderson Fragoso; Pacheco, Clarissa Almeida; Valle, Roberta D Santos; Seldin, Lucy; D Santos, André Luis Souza

    2014-12-01

    The screening for hydrolases-producing, halotolerant, and spore-forming gram-positive bacteria from the root, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soil of Blutaparon portulacoides, a plant found in the Restinga de Jurubatiba located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, resulted in the isolation of 22 strains. These strains were identified as Halobacillus blutaparonensis (n = 2), Oceanobacillus picturae (n = 5), and Oceanobacillus iheyensis (n = 15), and all showed the ability to produce different extracellular enzymes. A total of 20 isolates (90.9 %) showed activity for protease, 5 (22.7 %) for phytase, 3 (13.6 %) for cellulase, and 2 (9.1 %) for amylase. Some bacterial strains were capable of producing three (13.6 %) or two (9.1 %) distinct hydrolytic enzymes. However, no bacterial strain with ability to produce esterase and DNase was observed. The isolate designated M9, belonging to the species H. blutaparonensis, was the best producer of protease and also yielded amylase and phytase. This strain was chosen for further studies regarding its protease activity. The M9 strain produced similar amounts of protease when grown either without or with different NaCl concentrations (from 0.5 to 10 %). A simple inspection of the cell-free culture supernatant by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the presence of three major alkaline proteases of 40, 50, and 70 kDa, which were fully inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (two classical serine protease inhibitors). The secreted proteases were detected in a wide range of temperature (from 4 to 45 °C) and their hydrolytic activities were stimulated by NaCl (up to 10 %). The serine proteases produced by the M9 strain cleaved gelatin, casein, albumin, and hemoglobin, however, in different extensions. Collectively, these results suggest the potential use of the M9 strain in biotechnological

  4. A multi-channel bioluminescent bacterial biosensor for the on-line detection of metals and toxicity. Part I: design and optimization of bioluminescent bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Thomas; Durand, Marie-José; Jouanneau, Sulivan; Dion, Michel; Pernetti, Mimma; Poncelet, Denis; Thouand, Gérald

    2011-05-01

    This study describes the construction of inducible bioluminescent strains via genetic engineering along with their characterization and optimization in the detection of heavy metals. Firstly, a preliminary comparative study enabled us to select a suitable carbon substrate from pyruvate, glucose, citrate, diluted Luria-Bertani, and acetate. The latter carbon source provided the best induction ratios for comparison. Results showed that the three constructed inducible strains, Escherichia coli DH1 pBzntlux, pBarslux, and pBcoplux, were usable when conducting a bioassay after a 14-h overnight culture at 30 °C. Utilizing these sensors gave a range of 12 detected heavy metals including several cross-detections. Detection limits for each metal were often close to and sometimes lower than the European standards for water pollution. Finally, in order to maintain sensitive bacteria within the future biosensor-measuring cell, the agarose immobilization matrix was compared to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Agarose was selected because the detection limits of the bioluminescent strains were not affected, in contrast to PVA. Specific detection and cross-detection ranges determined in this study will form the basis of a multiple metals detection system by the new multi-channel Lumisens3 biosensor.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Copper-Resistant Xanthomonas Strains Causing Bacterial Spot of Solaneous Plants, Belonging to X. gardneri, X. euvesicatoria, and X. vesicatoria, Using Long-Read Technology

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Damien; Boyer, Claudine; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Canteros, Blanca I.; Beni-Madhu, Shyam; Portier, Perrine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, and Xanthomonas gardneri cause bacterial spot disease. Copper has been applied since the 1920s as part of integrated management programs. The first copper-resistant strains were reported some decades later. Here, we fully sequenced six Xanthomonas strains pathogenic to tomato and/or pepper and having a copper-resistant phenotype. PMID:28232425

  6. View of the bacterial strains of Escherichia coli M-17 and its interaction with the nanoparticles of zinc oxide by means of atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagitova, A.; Yaminsky, I.; Meshkov, G.

    2016-08-01

    Visualization of the structure of biological objects plays a key role in medicine, biotechnology, nanotechnology and IT-technology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a promising method of studying of objects’ morphology and structure. In this work, AFM was used to determine the size and shape of the bacterial strains of Escherichia coli M-17 and visualization its interaction with the nanoparticles of zinc oxide. The suspension of E.coli bacteria was applied to natural mica and studied by contact mode using the FemtoScan multifunctional scanning probe microscope.

  7. Caprolactam-silica network, a strong potentiator of the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Ficai, Denisa; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Gheorghe, Irina; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2013-03-25

    Here, we report the fabrication of a novel ε-caprolactam-silica (ε-SiO2) network and assessed its biocompatibility and ability to improve the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin. The results of the quantitative antimicrobial assay demonstrate that the obtained ε-SiO2 network has efficiently improved the kanamycin activity on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 strains, with a significant decrease of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The ε-SiO2 network could be feasibly obtained and represents an alternative for the design of new antibiotic drug carriers or delivery systems to control bacterial infections.

  8. Bacterial survival, lymph node pathology, and serological responses of bison (Bison bison) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or strain 19.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F; Kunkle, R A; Palmer, M V; Jensen, A E

    1997-01-01

    From August 1993 to June 1994, 3 month-old bison (Bison bison) were vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51, n = 6), strain 19 (S19, n = 3), or with saline (n = 1) and serologic responses and persistence of vaccine strains within lymph nodes were monitored. Bison vaccinated with S19 had granulomatous lymphadenitis and greater peak numbers of B. abortus than those vaccinated with SRB51. Bison vaccinated with RB51 had similar histological lesions and B. abortus were still present in lymph nodes at 16 weeks. Although antibodies against RB51 were produced, standard tube agglutination test responses of RB51-vaccinates remained negative. The histological lesions of B. abortus infections in bison were similar to those observed in cattle, but bison did not clear SRB51 as rapidly as cattle.

  9. Bacterial degradation of styrene involving a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent styrene monooxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmans, S; van der Werf, M J; de Bont, J A

    1990-01-01

    By using styrene as the sole source of carbon and energy in concentrations of 10 to 500 microM, 14 strains of aerobic bacteria and two strains of fungi were isolated from various soil and water samples. In cell extracts of 11 of the bacterial isolates, a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-requiring styrene monooxygenase activity that oxidized styrene to styrene oxide (phenyl oxirane) was detected. In one bacterial strain (S5), styrene metabolism was studied in more detail. In addition to styrene monooxygenase, cell extracts from strain S5 contained styrene oxide isomerase and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. A pathway for styrene degradation via styrene oxide and phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetic acid is proposed. PMID:2339888

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica.

  11. Introduction of mercury resistant bacterial strains to Hg(II) amended soil microcosms increases the resilience of the natural microbial community to mercury stress

    SciTech Connect

    de Lipthay, Julia R.; Rasmussen, Lasse D.; Serensen, Soren J.

    2004-03-17

    Heavy metals are among the most important groups of pollutant compounds, and they are highly persistent in the soil environment. Techniques that can be used for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments thus need to be evolved. In the present study we evaluated the effect of introducing a Hg resistance plasmid in subsurface soil communities. This was done in microcosms with DOE subsurface soils amended with 5-10 ppm of HgCl2. Two microcosms were set up. In microcosm A we studied the effect of adding strain S03539 containing either the Hg resistance conjugative plasmid, pJORD 70, or the Hg resistance mobilizable plasmid, pPB117. In microcosm B we studied the effect of adding strain KT2442 with and without pJORD70. For both microcosms, the effect on the resilience of the indigenous bacterial community as well as the effect on the soil concentration of Hg was evaluated.

  12. The identification of a bacterial strain BGI-1 isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica, and its anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y H; Wang, X J; Zhang, F; Huo, X B; Fu, R S; Liu, J J; Sun, W B; Kang, D M; Jing, X

    2013-02-01

    A bacterial strain BGI-1 was isolated from the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) and was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characters. The strain BGI-1 inhibited the growth of Beauveria bassiana; the diameter of the inhibition zone exceeded 30 mm. Vesicles were observed in B. bassiana hyphae on the edge of the inhibition zone. Fermentation of BGI-1 reduced the conidial germination rate by 12%. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-1 fermentation were significantly weakened. Cumulative mortality rate was 49.5% in the treatment group at the 20 d, while that of the control group was 62.3%. The study intends to understand the relationship between the intestinal flora and the cockroach. Those microbes with anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity might contribute to resisting the infection of pathogenic fungi.

  13. Polyester production by halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains obtained from mangrove soil samples located in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van-Thuoc, Doan; Huu-Phong, Tran; Thi-Binh, Nguyen; Thi-Tho, Nguyen; Minh-Lam, Duong; Quillaguamán, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This research article reports halophilic and halotolerant bacteria isolated from mangrove forests located in Northern Vietnam. Several of these bacteria were able to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHAs are polyesters stored by microorganisms under the presence of considerable amounts of a carbon source and deficiency of other essential nutrient such as nitrogen or phosphorous. Mangrove forests in Northern Vietnam are saline coastal habitats that have not been microbiologically studied. Mangrove ecosystems are, in general, rich in organic matter, but deficient in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. We have found about 100 microorganisms that have adapted to mangrove forests by accumulating PHAs. The production of polyesters might therefore be an integral part of the carbon cycle in mangrove forests. Three of the strains (ND153, ND97, and QN194) isolated from the Vietnamese forests were identified as Bacillus species, while other five strains (QN187, ND199, ND218, ND240, and QN271) were phylogenetically close related to the α-proteobacterium Yangia pacifica. These strains were found to accumulate PHAs in noticeable amounts. Polymer inclusions and chemical structure were studied by transmission electron microscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses, respectively. Strains ND153, ND97, QN194, QN187, ND240, and QN271 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from glucose, whereas strains ND199 and ND218 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from this carbohydrate. With the exception of strain QN194, the strains accumulated PHBV when a combination of glucose and propionate was included in the culture medium. The polymer yields and cell growth reached by one Bacillus isolate, strain ND153, and one Gram-negative bacterium, strain QN271, were high and worth to be researched further. For experiments performed in shake flasks, strain ND153 reached a maximum PHBV yield of 71 wt% and a cell dry weight

  14. Polyester production by halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains obtained from mangrove soil samples located in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van-Thuoc, Doan; Huu-Phong, Tran; Thi-Binh, Nguyen; Thi-Tho, Nguyen; Minh-Lam, Duong; Quillaguamán, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    This research article reports halophilic and halotolerant bacteria isolated from mangrove forests located in Northern Vietnam. Several of these bacteria were able to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHAs are polyesters stored by microorganisms under the presence of considerable amounts of a carbon source and deficiency of other essential nutrient such as nitrogen or phosphorous. Mangrove forests in Northern Vietnam are saline coastal habitats that have not been microbiologically studied. Mangrove ecosystems are, in general, rich in organic matter, but deficient in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. We have found about 100 microorganisms that have adapted to mangrove forests by accumulating PHAs. The production of polyesters might therefore be an integral part of the carbon cycle in mangrove forests. Three of the strains (ND153, ND97, and QN194) isolated from the Vietnamese forests were identified as Bacillus species, while other five strains (QN187, ND199, ND218, ND240, and QN271) were phylogenetically close related to the α-proteobacterium Yangia pacifica. These strains were found to accumulate PHAs in noticeable amounts. Polymer inclusions and chemical structure were studied by transmission electron microscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses, respectively. Strains ND153, ND97, QN194, QN187, ND240, and QN271 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from glucose, whereas strains ND199 and ND218 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from this carbohydrate. With the exception of strain QN194, the strains accumulated PHBV when a combination of glucose and propionate was included in the culture medium. The polymer yields and cell growth reached by one Bacillus isolate, strain ND153, and one Gram-negative bacterium, strain QN271, were high and worth to be researched further. For experiments performed in shake flasks, strain ND153 reached a maximum PHBV yield of 71 wt% and a cell dry weight

  15. A peptide identification-free, genome sequence-independent shotgun proteomics workflow for strain-level bacterial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenguang; Zhang, Min; Lam, Henry; Lau, Stanley C K

    2015-09-23

    Shotgun proteomics is an emerging tool for bacterial identification and differentiation. However, the identification of the mass spectra of peptides to genome-derived peptide sequences remains a key issue that limits the use of shotgun proteomics to bacteria with genome sequences available. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a novel bacterial fingerprinting method that enjoys the resolving power and accuracy of mass spectrometry without the burden of peptide identification (i.e. genome sequence-independent). This method uses a similarity-clustering algorithm to search for mass spectra that are derived from the same peptide and merge them into a unique consensus spectrum as the basis to generate proteomic fingerprints of bacterial isolates. In comparison to a traditional peptide identification-based shotgun proteomics workflow and a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method targeting the repetitive extragenic palindromes elements in bacterial genomes, the novel method generated fingerprints that were richer in information and more discriminative in differentiating E. coli isolates by their animal sources. The novel method is readily deployable to any cultivable bacteria, and may be used for several fields of study such as environmental microbiology, applied microbiology, and clinical microbiology.

  16. Evaluation of assembling methods on determination of whole genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa blueberry bacterial leaf scorch strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry bacterial leaf scorch (BBLS) disease, a threat to blueberry production in the Southern USA and potentially elsewhere, is caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Efficient control of BBLS requires knowledge of the pathogen. However, this is challenging because Xylella fastidiosa is difficult to cultu...

  17. A peptide identification-free, genome sequence-independent shotgun proteomics workflow for strain-level bacterial differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wenguang; Zhang, Min; Lam, Henry; Lau, Stanley C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is an emerging tool for bacterial identification and differentiation. However, the identification of the mass spectra of peptides to genome-derived peptide sequences remains a key issue that limits the use of shotgun proteomics to bacteria with genome sequences available. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a novel bacterial fingerprinting method that enjoys the resolving power and accuracy of mass spectrometry without the burden of peptide identification (i.e. genome sequence-independent). This method uses a similarity-clustering algorithm to search for mass spectra that are derived from the same peptide and merge them into a unique consensus spectrum as the basis to generate proteomic fingerprints of bacterial isolates. In comparison to a traditional peptide identification-based shotgun proteomics workflow and a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method targeting the repetitive extragenic palindromes elements in bacterial genomes, the novel method generated fingerprints that were richer in information and more discriminative in differentiating E. coli isolates by their animal sources. The novel method is readily deployable to any cultivable bacteria, and may be used for several fields of study such as environmental microbiology, applied microbiology, and clinical microbiology. PMID:26395646

  18. Cloning of a very virulent plus, 686 strain of Marek’s disease virus as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments. This technology was later used to clone full-length genomes of large DNA viruses to study viral gene function. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic herpe...

  19. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests.

  20. Genetically modified bacterial strains and novel bacterial artificial chromosome shuttle vectors for constructing environmental libraries and detecting heterologous natural products in multiple expression hosts.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Asuncion; Kolvek, Steven J; Yip, Choi Lai Tiong; Hopke, Joern; Brown, Kara A; MacNeil, Ian A; Osburne, Marcia S

    2004-04-01

    The enormous diversity of uncultured microorganisms in soil and other environments provides a potentially rich source of novel natural products, which is critically important for drug discovery efforts. Our investigators reported previously on the creation and screening of an Escherichia coli library containing soil DNA cloned and expressed in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector. In that initial study, our group identified novel enzyme activities and a family of antibacterial small molecules encoded by soil DNA cloned and expressed in E. coli. To continue our pilot study of the utility and feasibility of this approach to natural product drug discovery, we have expanded our technology to include Streptomyces lividans and Pseudomonas putida as additional hosts with different expression capabilities, and herein we describe the tools we developed for transferring environmental libraries into all three expression hosts and screening for novel activities. These tools include derivatives of S. lividans that contain complete and unmarked deletions of the act and red endogenous pigment gene clusters, a derivative of P. putida that can accept environmental DNA vectors and integrate the heterologous DNA into the chromosome, and new BAC shuttle vectors for transferring large fragments of environmental DNA from E. coli to both S. lividans and P. putida by high-throughput conjugation. Finally, we used these tools to confirm that the three hosts have different expression capabilities for some known gene clusters.

  1. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment.

  2. Resistance in Lycopersicon esculentum Intraspecific Crosses to Race T1 Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Causing Bacterial Spot of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wencai; Sacks, Erik J; Lewis Ivey, Melanie L; Miller, Sally A; Francis, David M

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT We used molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that confer resistance in the field to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria race T1, a causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato. An F(2) population derived from a cross between Hawaii 7998 (H 7998) and an elite breeding line, Ohio 88119, was used for the initial identification of an association between molecular markers and resistance as measured by bacterial populations in individual plants in the greenhouse. Polymorphism in this cross between a Lycopersicon esculentum donor of resistance and an elite L. esculentum parent was limited. The targeted use of a core set of 148 polymerase chain reaction-based markers that were identified as polymorphic in L. esculentum x L. esculentum crosses resulted in the identification of 37 markers that were polymorphic for the cross of interest. Previous studies using an H 7998 x L. pennellii wide cross implicated three loci, Rx1, Rx2, and Rx3, in the hypersensitive response to T1 strains. Markers that we identified were linked to the Rx1 and Rx3 loci, but no markers were identified in the region of chromosome 1 where Rx2 is located. Single marker-trait analysis suggested that chromosome 5, near the Rx3 locus, contributed to reduced bacterial populations in lines carrying the locus from H 7998. The locus on chromosome 5 explained 25% of the phenotypic variation in bacterial populations developing in infected plants. An advanced backcross population and subsequent inbred backcross lines developed using Ohio 88119 as a recurrent parent were used to confirm QTL associations detected in the F(2) population. Markers on chromosome 5 explained 41% of the phenotypic variation for resistance in replicated field trials. In contrast, the Rx1 locus on chromosome 1 did not play a role in resistance to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria race T1 strains as measured by bacterial populations in the greenhouse or symptoms in the field. A locus from H 7998 on chromosome 4 was

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo F1, which causes citrus bacterial spot disease, and related strains provides insights into virulence and host specificity.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Neha; Aritua, Valente; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B; Graham, James H; Setubal, João C; Wang, Nian

    2011-11-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo is a citrus pathogen causing citrus bacterial spot disease that is geographically restricted within the state of Florida. Illumina, 454 sequencing, and optical mapping were used to obtain a complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain F1, 4.9 Mb in size. The strain lacks plasmids, in contrast to other citrus Xanthomonas pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the tomato bacterial spot pathogen X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10, with a completely different host range. We also compared X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to the genome of citrus canker pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri 306. Comparative genomic analysis showed differences in several gene clusters, like those for type III effectors, the type IV secretion system, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and others. In addition to pthA, effectors such as xopE3, xopAI, and hrpW were absent from X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo while present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These effectors might be responsible for survival and the low virulence of this pathogen on citrus compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. We also identified unique effectors in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo that may be related to the different host range as compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo also lacks various genes, such as syrE1, syrE2, and RTX toxin family genes, which were present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These may be associated with the distinct virulences of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo and X. axonopodis pv. citri. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to those of X. axonopodis pv. citri and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria provides valuable insights into the mechanism of bacterial virulence and host specificity.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol by soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Cavalca, Lucia; Letizia Colarieti, M; Scelza, Rosalia; Scotti, Riccardo; Rao, Maria A; Andreoni, Vincenza; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Greco, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component of aircraft deicing fluids and its extensive use in Northern airports is a source of soil and groundwater contamination. Bacterial consortia able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source were selected from soil samples taken along the runways of Oslo Airport Gardermoen site (Norway). DGGE analysis of enrichment cultures showed that PG-degrading populations were mainly composed by Pseudomonas species, although Bacteroidetes were found, as well. Nineteen bacterial strains, able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source, were isolated and identified as different Pseudomonas species. Maximum specific growth rate of mixed cultures in the absence of nutrient limitation was 0.014 h(-1) at 4 °C. Substrate C:N:P molar ratios calculated on the basis of measured growth yields are in good agreement with the suggested values for biostimulation reported in literature. Therefore, the addition of nutrients is suggested as a suitable technique to sustain PG aerobic degradation at the maximum rate by autochthonous microorganisms of unsaturated soil profile.

  5. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  6. Soil type dependent rhizosphere competence and biocontrol of two bacterial inoculant strains and their effects on the rhizosphere microbial community of field-grown lettuce.

    PubMed

    Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 10(6) colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected

  7. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Tan, Deguan; Fu, Lili; Han, Bingyin; Sun, Xuepiao; Zheng, Peng; Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). Microscopic observation revealed that the cell wall of the FOC4 mycelium close to the co-cultured bacterium was partially decomposed, and the conidial formation was prohibited. The inhibition ratio of the culture fluid of ITBB B5-1 against the pathogenic fungus was 95.4% as estimated by tip culture assay. Chitinase and glucanase activity was detected in the culture fluid, and the highest activity was obtained at Day 2 and Day 3 of incubation for chitinase and glucanase, respectively. The filtrated cell-free culture fluid degraded the cell wall of FOC4 mycelium. These results indicated that chitinase and glucanase were involved in the antifungal mechanism of ITBB B5-1. The potted banana plants that were inoculated with ITBB B5-1 before infection with FOC4 showed 78.7% reduction in the disease severity index in the green house experiments. In the field trials, ITBB B5-1 showed a control effect of approximately 70.0% against the disease. Therefore, the endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 could be applied in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt.

  8. Biomimetic synthesis of selenium nanospheres by bacterial strain JS-11 and its role as a biosensor for nanotoxicity assessment: a novel se-bioassay.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) were synthesized by green technology using the bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain JS-11. The bacteria exhibited significant tolerance to selenite (SeO3(2-)) up to 100 mM concentration with an EC50 value of 140 mM. The spent medium (culture supernatant) contains the potential of reducing soluble and colorless SeO3(2-) to insoluble red elemental selenium (Se(0)) at 37°C. Characterization of red Se° product by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX) analysis revealed the presence of stable, predominantly monodispersed and spherical selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) of an average size of 21 nm. Most likely, the metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) released by strain JS-11 in culture supernatant along with the known redox agents like NADH and NADH dependent reductases are responsible for biomimetic reduction of SeO3(2-) to Se° nanospheres. Based on the bioreduction of a colorless solution of SeO3(2-) to elemental red Se(0), a high throughput colorimetric bioassay (Se-Assay) was developed for parallel detection and quantification of nanoparticles (NPs) cytotoxicity in a 96 well format. Thus, it has been concluded that the reducing power of the culture supernatant of strain JS-11 could be effectively exploited for developing a simple and environmental friendly method of Se-NPs synthesis. The results elucidated that the red colored Se° nanospheres may serve as a biosensor for nanotoxicity assessment, contemplating the inhibition of SeO3(2-) bioreduction process in NPs treated bacterial cell culture supernatant, as a toxicity end point.

  9. Biomimetic Synthesis of Selenium Nanospheres by Bacterial Strain JS-11 and Its Role as a Biosensor for Nanotoxicity Assessment: A Novel Se-Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; AlKhedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) were synthesized by green technology using the bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain JS-11. The bacteria exhibited significant tolerance to selenite (SeO32−) up to 100 mM concentration with an EC50 value of 140 mM. The spent medium (culture supernatant) contains the potential of reducing soluble and colorless SeO32− to insoluble red elemental selenium (Se0) at 37°C. Characterization of red Se° product by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX) analysis revealed the presence of stable, predominantly monodispersed and spherical selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) of an average size of 21 nm. Most likely, the metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) released by strain JS-11 in culture supernatant along with the known redox agents like NADH and NADH dependent reductases are responsible for biomimetic reduction of SeO32− to Se° nanospheres. Based on the bioreduction of a colorless solution of SeO32− to elemental red Se0, a high throughput colorimetric bioassay (Se-Assay) was developed for parallel detection and quantification of nanoparticles (NPs) cytotoxicity in a 96 well format. Thus, it has been concluded that the reducing power of the culture supernatant of strain JS-11 could be effectively exploited for developing a simple and environmental friendly method of Se-NPs synthesis. The results elucidated that the red colored Se° nanospheres may serve as a biosensor for nanotoxicity assessment, contemplating the inhibition of SeO32− bioreduction process in NPs treated bacterial cell culture supernatant, as a toxicity end point. PMID:23483909

  10. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuepiao; Zheng, Peng; Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). Microscopic observation revealed that the cell wall of the FOC4 mycelium close to the co-cultured bacterium was partially decomposed, and the conidial formation was prohibited. The inhibition ratio of the culture fluid of ITBB B5-1 against the pathogenic fungus was 95.4% as estimated by tip culture assay. Chitinase and glucanase activity was detected in the culture fluid, and the highest activity was obtained at Day 2 and Day 3 of incubation for chitinase and glucanase, respectively. The filtrated cell-free culture fluid degraded the cell wall of FOC4 mycelium. These results indicated that chitinase and glucanase were involved in the antifungal mechanism of ITBB B5-1. The potted banana plants that were inoculated with ITBB B5-1 before infection with FOC4 showed 78.7% reduction in the disease severity index in the green house experiments. In the field trials, ITBB B5-1 showed a control effect of approximately 70.0% against the disease. Therefore, the endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 could be applied in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt. PMID:26133557

  11. Time series community genomics analysis reveals rapid shifts in bacterial species, strains, and phage during infant gut colonization

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Itai; Morowitz, Michael J.; Thomas, Brian C.; Costello, Elizabeth K.; Relman, David A.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiome undergoes shifts in species and strain abundances, yet dynamics involving closely related microorganisms remain largely unknown because most methods cannot resolve them. We developed new metagenomic methods and utilized them to track species and strain level variations in microbial communities in 11 fecal samples collected from a premature infant during the first month of life. Ninety six percent of the sequencing reads were assembled into scaffolds of >500 bp in length that could be assigned to organisms at the strain level. Six essentially complete (∼99%) and two near-complete genomes were assembled for bacteria that comprised as little as 1% of the community, as well as nine partial genomes of bacteria representing as little as 0.05%. In addition, three viral genomes were assembled and assigned to their hosts. The relative abundance of three Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, as well as three phages that infect them, changed dramatically over time. Genes possibly related to these shifts include those for resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and phage. At the species level, we observed the decline of an early-colonizing Propionibacterium acnes strain similar to SK137 and the proliferation of novel Propionibacterium and Peptoniphilus species late in colonization. The Propionibacterium species differed in their ability to metabolize carbon compounds such as inositol and sialic acid, indicating that shifts in species composition likely impact the metabolic potential of the community. These results highlight the benefit of reconstructing complete genomes from metagenomic data and demonstrate methods for achieving this goal. PMID:22936250

  12. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Bacillus and Sporosarcina Strains Isolated from Concrete and Analysis of the Bacterial Community of Concrete.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jaejoon; Shin, Bora; Kim, Wook; Chung, Namhyun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP) is a long-standing but re-emerging environmental engineering process for production of self-healing concrete, bioremediation, and long-term storage of CO2. CCP-capable bacteria, two Bacillus strains (JH3 and JH7) and one Sporosarcina strain (HYO08), were isolated from two samples of concrete and characterized phylogenetically. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitated by the three strains were morphologically distinct according to field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping confirmed biomineralization via extracellular calcium carbonate production. The three strains differed in their physiological characteristics: growth at alkali pH and high NaCl concentrations, and urease activity. Sporosarcina sp. HYO08 and Bacillus sp. JH7 were more alkali- and halotolerant, respectively. Analysis of the community from the same concrete samples using barcoded pyrosequencing revealed that the relative abundance of Bacillus and Sporosarcina species was low, which indicated low culturability of other dominant bacteria. This study suggests that calcium carbonate crystals with different properties can be produced by various CCP-capable strains, and other novel isolates await discovery.

  13. Promising Biological Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution: Bioluminescent Bacterial Strains Isolated and Characterized from Marine Niches of Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Neha A; Shanware, Arti S

    2015-09-01

    In present study, several marine water samples collected from the North Goa Beaches, India for isolation of luminescent bacterial species. Isolates obtained labelled as DP1-5 and AB1-6. Molecular characterization including identification of a microbial culture using 16S rRNA gene based molecular technique and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that DP3 & AB1 isolates were Vibrio harveyi. All of the isolates demonstrated multiple metal resistances in terms of growth, with altered luminescence with variable metal concentration. Present investigations were an attempt towards exploring and reporting an updated diversity of bioluminescent bacterial species from various sites around the Goa, India which would be explored in future for constructing luminescence based biosensor for efficiently monitoring the level of hazardous metals in the environment.

  14. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains causing bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the Anhui Province of China, and determination of their streptomycin sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yi, X-K; Chen, Y; Zhang, A-F; Zhang, J-Y; Gao, Z-H; Qi, Y-J; Xu, Y-L

    2015-07-27

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, is one of the most severe diseases of kiwifruit. It has become an international pandemic and threatens the sustainable development of kiwifruit production in all main kiwi-growing regions worldwide. Streptomycin has been the major bactericide for the control of kiwifruit canker, especially in Anhui Province, one of the main kiwifruit production regions in China. However, until now, no studies on the baseline sensitivity to streptomycin of field isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae from China have been available. During 2012-2013, a total of 102 single-colony P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were isolated: 36, 12, 13, 26, and 15 strains from Yuexi, Jinzhai, Huoshan, Qianshan, and Taihu counties, respectively. All strains were confirmed by production of a 280-bp fragment using the specific primers PsaF1/R2 upon polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by an assay for confirmation of pathogenicity to fulfill Koch's postulates. In this study, the streptomycin sensitivity of the 102 isolated strains was determined. The half-maximal effective concentration values for inhibition of growth by streptomycin were 0.03-0.42 μg/mL (average 0.12 ± 0.06 μg/mL). The baseline sensitivity curve was unimodal, representing range-of-variation factors of 14.0. No resistant subpopulation was identified among the strains used in the study. Thus, these sensitivity data could be used as a baseline for monitoring the shift in sensitivity of P. syringae pv. actinidiae populations to streptomycin in Anhui Province. Continuous resistance monitoring should be carried out, as streptomycin is an at-risk bactericide agent.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Lacinutrix Genomes and Their Association with Bacterial Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung Mi; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Ahn, Do Hwan; Kim, Han-Woo; Park, Hyun; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The genus Lacinutrix, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae, consists of seven bacterial species that were mainly isolated from marine life and sediments. As most bacteria in the family Flavobacteriaceae favor aerobic conditions, the seven bacterial species in the genus Lacinutrix also showed aerobic growth. We selected four monophyletic bacterial species living in a polar environment. Two of these species were isolated from sediment and two types were isolated from algae. In a comparative analysis, we investigated how these different environments were related to genomic features of these four species in the genus Lacinutrix. We found that the gene sets for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation were conserved in these four type strains. However, the presence of nitrous oxide reductase for denitrification and the absence of essential components related to thiamin biosynthesis for aerobic respiration were only found in isolates from sediment. Elevated bacterial metabolism on the surface of marine sediments might limit the oxygen penetration into sediment, and such an environment might affect the genomes of bacteria isolated from these habitats. PMID:26882010

  16. Transfer between an Algerian and a French hospital of four multi-drug resistant bacterial strains together via a single patient

    PubMed Central

    Moissenet, Didier; Richard, Patrick; Granados, Maria; Mérens, Audrey; Fournier, Damien; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Arlet, Guillaume; Vu-Thien, Hoang

    2015-01-01

    A 5 years-old girl, seriously burnt with fire, was first hospitalized during four days in an hospital at Alger, and then transferred to our hospital at Paris. Admitted in our intensive care burns unit, she was third degree burnt on 78% of total body surface area, already treated with imipenem and vancomycin at her arrival. Clinical aggravation was rapidly observed and death occurred within 24 hours. Cultures of blood and multiple wound swabs yielded 3 multi-drug resistant bacterial strains: Acinetobacter baumannii with carbapenemase OXA-23, Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O11 with metallo-ß-lactamase VIM-4 and Klebsiella pneumoniae with CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase. Culture of a rectal swab showed colonization by Enterococcus faecium with vanA glycopeptides resistance. Patients colonized with one or two multi-drug-resistant strains were not rare in our burns unit, especially those transferred from Algeria, but this case of a single patient harboring four multi-drug-resistant strains is exceptional. PMID:26550534

  17. Initial reductive reactions in aerobic microbial metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Vorbeck, C; Lenke, H; Fischer, P; Spain, J C; Knackmuss, H J

    1998-01-01

    Because of its high electron deficiency, initial microbial transformations of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are characterized by reductive rather than oxidation reactions. The reduction of the nitro groups seems to be the dominating mechanism, whereas hydrogenation of the aromatic ring, as described for picric acid, appears to be of minor importance. Thus, two bacterial strains enriched with TNT as a sole source of nitrogen under aerobic conditions, a gram-negative strain called TNT-8 and a gram-positive strain called TNT-32, carried out nitro-group reduction. In contrast, both a picric acid-utilizing Rhodococcus erythropolis strain, HL PM-1, and a 4-nitrotoluene-utilizing Mycobacterium sp. strain, HL 4-NT-1, possessed reductive enzyme systems, which catalyze ring hydrogenation, i.e., the addition of a hydride ion to the aromatic ring of TNT. The hydride-Meisenheimer complex thus formed (H-TNT) was further converted to a yellow metabolite, which by electrospray mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses was established as the protonated dihydride-Meisenheimer complex of TNT (2H-TNT). Formation of hydride complexes could not be identified with the TNT-enriched strains TNT-8 and TNT-32, or with Pseudomonas sp. clone A (2NT), for which such a mechanism has been proposed. Correspondingly, reductive denitration of TNT did not occur.

  18. Initial Reductive Reactions in Aerobic Microbial Metabolism of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Vorbeck, Claudia; Lenke, Hiltrud; Fischer, Peter; Spain, Jim C.; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim

    1998-01-01

    Because of its high electron deficiency, initial microbial transformations of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are characterized by reductive rather than oxidation reactions. The reduction of the nitro groups seems to be the dominating mechanism, whereas hydrogenation of the aromatic ring, as described for picric acid, appears to be of minor importance. Thus, two bacterial strains enriched with TNT as a sole source of nitrogen under aerobic conditions, a gram-negative strain called TNT-8 and a gram-positive strain called TNT-32, carried out nitro-group reduction. In contrast, both a picric acid-utilizing Rhodococcus erythropolis strain, HL PM-1, and a 4-nitrotoluene-utilizing Mycobacterium sp. strain, HL 4-NT-1, possessed reductive enzyme systems, which catalyze ring hydrogenation, i.e., the addition of a hydride ion to the aromatic ring of TNT. The hydride-Meisenheimer complex thus formed (H−-TNT) was further converted to a yellow metabolite, which by electrospray mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses was established as the protonated dihydride-Meisenheimer complex of TNT (2H−-TNT). Formation of hydride complexes could not be identified with the TNT-enriched strains TNT-8 and TNT-32, or with Pseudomonas sp. clone A (2NT−), for which such a mechanism has been proposed. Correspondingly, reductive denitration of TNT did not occur. PMID:16349484

  19. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobics can reach up to six times the force of gravity, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate ...

  20. Deposition of extreme-tolerant bacterial strains isolated during different phases of phoenix spacecraft assembly in a public culture collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme-tolerant bacteria (82 strains; 67 species) isolated during various assembly phases of the Phoenix spacecraft were permanently archived within the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection in Peoria, Illinois. This represents the first microbial collect...

  1. Control of foodborne pathogens and soft-rot bacteria on bell pepper by three strains of bacterial antagonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two representative strains of native bacteria associated with fresh peeled baby carrots were isolated and characterized. Two of them identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens AG3A (Pf AG3A) and Bacillus YD1 were evaluated in conjunction with another known antagonist, P. fluorescens 2-79 (Pf 2-79)...

  2. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megasphaera elsdenii (Me) is a lactate-utilizing bacterium whose ruminal abundance has been shown to be greatly elevated during milk fat depression (MFD). To further examine this association, a total of 25 cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were examined in three studies in which strains of Me wer...

  3. Genomic Insights into Aquimarina sp. Strain EL33, a Bacterial Symbiont of the Gorgonian Coral Eunicella labiata

    PubMed Central

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Silva, Rúben; Lago-Lestón, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    To address the metabolic potential of symbiotic Aquimarina spp., we report here the genome sequence of Aquimarina sp. strain EL33, a bacterium isolated from the gorgonian coral Eunicella labiata. This first-described (to our knowledge) animal-associated Aquimarina genome possesses a sophisticated repertoire of genes involved in drug/antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis. PMID:27540075

  4. The role of different strain backgrounds in bacterial endotoxin-mediated sensitization to neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Ferreira, E.; Phillips, E.; Francesch-Domenech, E.; Thei, L.; Peebles, D.M.; Raivich, G.; Hristova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic background is known to influence the outcome in mouse models of human disease, and previous experimental studies have shown strain variability in the neonatal mouse model of hypoxia–ischemia. To further map out this variability, we compared five commonly used mouse strains: C57BL/6, 129SVJ, BALB/c, CD1 and FVB in a pure hypoxic–ischemic setup and following pre-sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Postnatal day 7 pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by continuous 30 min 8% oxygen exposure at 36 °C. Twelve hours prior, a third of the pups received a single intraperitoneal LPS (0.6 μg/g) or a saline (vehicle) administration, respectively; a further third underwent hypoxia–ischemia alone without preceding injection. Both C57BL/6 and 129SVJ strains showed minimal response to 30 min hypoxia–ischemia alone, BALB/c demonstrated a moderate response, and both CD1 and FVB revealed the highest brain damage. LPS pre-sensitization led to substantial increase in overall brain infarction, microglial and astrocyte response and cell death in four of the five strains, with exception of BALB/c that only showed a significant effect with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Saline administration prior to hypoxia–ischemia resulted in an increase in inflammatory-associated markers, particularly in the astroglial activation of C57BL/6 mice, and in combined microg