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Sample records for aerobic bench scale

  1. Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in bench scale aerobic biobarriers for gasoline contaminated groundwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Daghio, Matteo; Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Papacchini, Maddalena; Careghini, Alessandro; Sezenna, Elena; Saponaro, Sabrina; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2015-07-01

    BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are some of the main constituents of gasoline and can be accidentally released in the environment. In this work the effect of bioaugmentation on the microbial communities in a bench scale aerobic biobarrier for gasoline contaminated water treatment was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Catabolic genes (tmoA and xylM) were quantified by qPCR, in order to estimate the biodegradation potential, and the abundance of total bacteria was estimated by the quantification of the number of copies of the 16S rRNA gene. Hydrocarbon concentration was monitored over time and no difference in the removal efficiency for the tested conditions was observed, either with or without the microbial inoculum. In the column without the inoculum the most abundant genera were Acidovorax, Bdellovibrio, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudoxanthomonas and Serpens at the beginning of the column, while at the end of the column Thauera became dominant. In the inoculated test the microbial inoculum, composed by Rhodococcus sp. CE461, Rhodococcus sp. CT451 and Methylibium petroleiphilum LMG 22953, was outcompeted. Quantitative PCR results showed an increasing in xylM copy number, indicating that hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were selected during the treatment, although only a low increase of the total biomass was observed. However, the bioaugmentation did not lead to an increase in the degradative potential of the microbial communities.

  2. Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in bench scale aerobic biobarriers for gasoline contaminated groundwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Daghio, Matteo; Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Papacchini, Maddalena; Careghini, Alessandro; Sezenna, Elena; Saponaro, Sabrina; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2015-07-01

    BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are some of the main constituents of gasoline and can be accidentally released in the environment. In this work the effect of bioaugmentation on the microbial communities in a bench scale aerobic biobarrier for gasoline contaminated water treatment was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Catabolic genes (tmoA and xylM) were quantified by qPCR, in order to estimate the biodegradation potential, and the abundance of total bacteria was estimated by the quantification of the number of copies of the 16S rRNA gene. Hydrocarbon concentration was monitored over time and no difference in the removal efficiency for the tested conditions was observed, either with or without the microbial inoculum. In the column without the inoculum the most abundant genera were Acidovorax, Bdellovibrio, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudoxanthomonas and Serpens at the beginning of the column, while at the end of the column Thauera became dominant. In the inoculated test the microbial inoculum, composed by Rhodococcus sp. CE461, Rhodococcus sp. CT451 and Methylibium petroleiphilum LMG 22953, was outcompeted. Quantitative PCR results showed an increasing in xylM copy number, indicating that hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were selected during the treatment, although only a low increase of the total biomass was observed. However, the bioaugmentation did not lead to an increase in the degradative potential of the microbial communities. PMID:25747304

  3. Textile wastewater treatment in a bench-scale anaerobic-biofilm anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor combined with nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Selene; Piscitelli, Daniela; Mattioli, Davide; Casu, Stefania; Spagni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatability of textile wastewaters in a bench-scale experimental system, comprising an anaerobic biofilter, an anoxic reactor and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The MBR effluent was thereafter treated by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. The proposed system was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the textile wastewater under the operating conditions applied in the study. The MBR system achieved a good COD (90-95%) removal; due to the presence of the anaerobic biofilter, also effective color removal was obtained (70%). The addition of the NF membrane allowed the further improvement in COD (50-80%), color (70-90%) and salt removal (60-70% as conductivity). In particular the NF treatment allowed the almost complete removal of the residual color and a reduction of the conductivity such as to achieve water quality suitable for reuse.

  4. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  5. Model based evaluation of a contaminant plume development under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in 2D bench-scale tank experiments.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, E; Beyer, C; Bauer, R D; Griebler, C; Bauer, S

    2014-06-01

    The influence of transverse mixing on competitive aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume was investigated using a two-dimensional, bench-scale flow-through laboratory tank experiment. In the first part of the experiment aerobic degradation of increasing toluene concentrations was carried out by the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1. Successively, ethylbenzene (injected as a mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopologues) substituted toluene; nitrate was added as additional electron acceptor and the anaerobic denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was inoculated to study competitive degradation under aerobic /anaerobic conditions. The spatial distribution of anaerobic degradation was resolved by measurements of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation induced by the anaerobic strain as well as compound concentrations. A fully transient numerical reactive transport model was employed and calibrated using measurements of electron donors, acceptors and isotope fractionation. The aerobic phases of the experiment were successfully reproduced using a double Monod kinetic growth model and assuming an initial homogeneous distribution of P. putida F1. Investigation of the competitive degradation phase shows that the observed isotopic pattern cannot be explained by transverse mixing driven biodegradation only, but also depends on the inoculation process of the anaerobic strain. Transient concentrations of electron acceptors and donors are well reproduced by the model, showing its ability to simulate transient competitive biodegradation. PMID:24122285

  6. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified.

  7. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

  8. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  9. Bench-scale co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Nafis, D.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Lea, C.; Miller, M.A.

    1990-03-27

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. Particular emphasis is given to defining and improving catalyst utilization and costs, evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems, and improving catalyst recycle and recovery techniques. The work during this quarter involved a series of temperature studies with different concentrations of Mo slurry catalyst. The results of bench-scale Runs 26 and 27 are discussed in the following report. 25 figs.

  10. Manganese removal during bench-scale biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Burger, Mark S; Mercer, Stephen S; Shupe, Gordon D; Gagnon, Graham A

    2008-12-01

    As biological manganese (Mn) removal becomes a more popular water treatment technology, there is still a large gap in understanding the key mechanisms and range of operational characteristics. This research aimed to expand on previous bench-scale experiments by directly comparing small filtration columns inoculated with indigenous biofilms from a Mn filtration plant and filtration columns inoculated with a liquid suspension of Leptothrix discophora SP-6. Batch tests found that in the absence of manganese oxidizing bacteria Mn was not removed by air alone, whereas a mixed population and Leptothrix strain achieved greater than 90% removal of Mn. The bench-scale biofiltration experiments found that biological filters can be inoculated with a pure culture of L. discophora SP-6 and achieve a similar removal of indigenous biofilm. While Mn oxidizing bacteria (MOB) seem to be necessary for the auto-catalytic nature of these biological filters, Mn removal is achieved with a combination of adsorption to Mn oxides and biological oxidation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that biological Mn removal is possible over a broader "field of activity" (e.g., Mn removal occurred at a pH level as low as 6.5) than has previously been reported. The ability of this treatment technology to work over a broader range of influent conditions allows for more communities to consider biological treatment as an option to remove Mn from their drinking water. PMID:18809196

  11. Bench-scale co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP's single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  12. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

  13. Bench-Scale Co-Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1993-11-08

    This topical report is the first for the UOP Bench-Scale Co-processing contract. The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize the UOP single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. UOP co-processing uses a single-stage, slurry-catalyzed scheme in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active, well-dispersed catalyst permits operations at moderate- and high-severity reaction conditions with minimum detrimental thermal reactions. In this process, finely ground coal, petroleum resid, and catalyst are mixed, combined with hydrogen, and then directed to a single-stage reactor, where the simultaneous upgrading of the petroleum resid and coal occurs. The reactor effluent is directed to a series of separators, where a hydrogen-rich gas is recovered and recycled back to the reactor inlet. The balance of the material is sent to a series of separators, where the light gasses, light oil, vacuum gas on (VGO), catalyst, unconverted coal, ash, and residues are recovered. The catalyst is recycled back to the reactor. The UOP co-processing scheme is designed to be integrated into a conventional petroleum refinery. the hydrocarbon products from the co-processing unit will be sent to the refinery for final upgrading to finished products. A major focus of this contract is to investigate ways to reduce the catalyst and catalyst recovery costs and improve the overall economics of the process. This report documents the work completed under Task 2.0, Laboratory Support. The overall objective of Task 2.0 was to obtain and characterize the feedstocks for the contract and to provide a screening mechanism to test new catalyst systems prior to testing in the continuous pilot plant. The main elements of the experimental program for task 2.0 include: Feedstock procurement and analysis; catalyst improvements; and catalyst recycle screening.

  14. 14. PIPE MACHINE, WORK BENCH, SCALE, RADIAL DRILL AND STOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PIPE MACHINE, WORK BENCH, SCALE, RADIAL DRILL AND STOVE (L TO R) LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  15. Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. F.; Darab, J. G.; Matson, D. W.; Linehan, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), uniquely combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was initially demonstrated on a laboratory scale and was subsequently scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 sq m/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO2 produced by RTDS are included.

  16. Bench-scale synthesis of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, M.F.; Darab, J.G.; Matson, D.W.; Linehan, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    A novel flow-through hydrothermal method used to synthesize nanoscale powders is introduced by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The process, Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS), combines high-pressure and high-temperature conditions to rapidly form nanoscale particles. The RTDS process was demonstrated on a laboratory scale and scaled up to accommodate production rates attractive to industry. The process is able to produce a wide variety of metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The powders are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods, surface-area measurements, and x-ray diffraction. Typical crystallite sizes are less than 20 nanometers, with BET surface areas ranging from 100 to 400 m{sup 2}/g. A description of the RTDS process is presented along with powder characterization results. In addition, data on the sintering of nanoscale ZrO{sub 2} produced by RTDS are included.

  17. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-12-06

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  18. Bench-scale Analysis of Surrogates for Anaerobic Digestion Processes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C

    2016-05-01

    Frequent monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes for pathogen destruction is both cost and time prohibitive. The use of surrogates to supplement regulatory monitoring may be one solution. To evaluate surrogates, a semi-batch bench-scale anaerobic digester design was tested. Bench-scale reactors were operated under mesophilic (36 °C) and thermophilic (53-55 °C) conditions, with a 15 day solids retention time. Biosolids from different facilities and during different seasons were examined. USEPA regulated pathogens and surrogate organisms were enumerated at different times throughout each experiment. The surrogate organisms included fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, male-specific and somatic coliphages, Clostridium perfringens, and bacterial spores. Male-specific coliphages tested well as a potential surrogate organism for virus inactivation. None of the tested surrogate organisms correlated well with helminth inactivation under the conditions studied. There were statistically significant differences in the inactivation rates between the facilities in this study, but not between seasons. PMID:27131309

  19. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing media and amendments in larger pilot- or full-scale rain garden installations. The bench-scale study conclude...

  20. Task 3 -- Bench-scale char upgrading and utilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.

    1989-08-02

    This report describes the results of the bench-scale char upgrading study conducted as Task 3 of Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts. A process where the char is gasified to produce methane in a first stage reactor was investigated. This methane is then decomposed to produce carbon and hydrogen for recycle in a second stage. The results indicate that both reaction steps are feasible using mild gasification char as the starting feedstock. Conditions for methanation are 700 to 800 C and 200 to 400 psig. Carbon formation conditions are 1,200 to 1,400 C at atmospheric pressure. The carbon produced has properties similar to those of carbons which are commercially marketed as carbon black.

  1. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  2. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous

  3. Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0°C.

  4. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a one- or two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98 percent or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of coal gas to effect the desired reduction. In this project the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal gas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous studies) in a 75-mm, 1-L size fixed-bed reactor. Integrated with this testing, a US Department of Energy/Research Triangle Institute (DOE/RTI) patented zinc titanate-based fluidizable sorbent formulation was tested in a 75-mm (3-in.) diameter fluidized-bed reactor, and the regeneration offgas from that test was treated with the bench-unit DSRP. The testing was conducted at the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown in conjunction with test campaigns of the pilot-scale gasifier there. The test apparatus was housed in a mobile laboratory built in a specially equipped office trailer that facilitated moving the equipment from RTI in North Carolina to the West Virginia test site. A long duration test of the DSRP using actual coal gas and simulated regeneration offgas showed no degradation in efficiency of conversion to elemental sulfur after 160 h of catalyst exposure. An additional exposure (200 h) of that same catalyst charge at the General Electric pilot gasifier showed only a small decline in performance. That problem is believed to have been caused by tar and soot deposits on the catalyst, which were caused by the high tar content of the atypical fixed-bed gasifier gas. A six-fold larger, single-stage skid-mounted DSRP apparatus was fabricated for additional, larger-scale slipstream testing.

  5. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  6. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOX{sup SM} catalyzed wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX{sup SM} catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals` fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes.

  7. Quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts: Bench-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

    1991-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operations procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale. The organic material that remained after retorting was most effectively removed from the retort by the use of reverse combustion. The removal of the organic material in this manner cracked the oil on the unretorted shale and removed heat from the bottom of the retort. Both were then transported toward the top of the retort. Unretorted kerogen was coked as it emerged from the shale near the reverse-combustion front. The reverse-combustion technique had an additional benefit in that the carbon deposited on the spent shale in the combusted zone appeared to provide a barrier to rehydration of the shale on introduction of water into the retorts. A hot quench immediately following retorting was also relatively effective in removing organic material from the retort. However, the quench did leave some organic material on the unretorted shale. This material was not readily removed by water leaching during laboratory testing. A deluge of water on a cool retort did not efficiently remove the organic material from the unretorted shale nor did the addition of a biodegradable detergent.

  8. BENCH-SCALE RECOVERY OF LEAD USING AND ELECTRO- MEMBRANE/CHELATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a bench-scale treatability test to investigate key process parameters influencing an innovative chelation electrodeposition process for recovery of lead from contaminated sons. thylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta...

  9. Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process

    SciTech Connect

    Edward R. Torak; Peter J. Suardini

    1997-11-01

    A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated with coal fines. In 1992, three cost-shared contracts were awarded to industry, under the first High-Efficiency Preparation (HEP I) solicitation. All three projects involved bench-scale testing of various emerging technologies, at the Federal Energy Technology Center*s (FETC*s), Process Research Facility (PRF). The first HEP I project, completed in mid-1993, was conducted by Process Technology, Inc., with the objective of developing a computerized, on-line system for monitoring and controlling the operation of a column flotation circuit. The second HEP I project, completed in mid-1994, was conducted by a team led by Virginia Polytechnic Institute to test the Mozely Multi-Gravity Separator in combination with the Microcel Flotation Column, for improved removal of mineral matter and pyritic sulfur from fine coal. The last HEP I project, of which the findings are contained in this report, was conducted by Custom Coals Corporation to evaluate and advance a micronized-magnetite-based, fine-coal cycloning technology. The micronized-magnetite coal cleaning technology, also know as the Micro-Mag process, is based on widely used conventional dense-medium cyclone applications, in that it utilizes a finely ground magnetite/water suspension as a separating medium for cleaning fine coal, by density, in a cyclone. However, the micronized-magnetite cleaning technology differs from conventional systems in several ways: ! It utilizes significantly finer magnetite (about 5 to 10 micron mean particle size), as compared to normal mean particle sizes of 20 microns. ! It can effectively beneficiate coal particles down to 500M in size, as compared to the most advanced, existing conventional systems that are limited to a particle bottom

  10. Fast Pyrolysis Process Development Unit for Validating Bench Scale Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to prepare and operate a fast pyrolysis process development unit (PDU) that can validate experimental data generated at the bench scale. In order to do this, a biomass preparation system, a modular fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor, modular gas clean-up systems, and modular bio-oil recovery systems were designed and constructed. Instrumentation for centralized data collection and process control were integrated. The bio-oil analysis laboratory was upgraded with the addition of analytical equipment needed to measure C, H, O, N, S, P, K, and Cl. To provide a consistent material for processing through the fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor, the existing biomass preparation capabilities of the ISU facility needed to be upgraded. A stationary grinder was installed to reduce biomass from bale form to 5-10 cm lengths. A 25 kg/hr rotary kiln drier was installed. It has the ability to lower moisture content to the desired level of less than 20% wt. An existing forage chopper was upgraded with new screens. It is used to reduce biomass to the desired particle size of 2-25 mm fiber length. To complete the material handling between these pieces of equipment, a bucket elevator and two belt conveyors must be installed. The bucket elevator has been installed. The conveyors are being procured using other funding sources. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from an 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection system that produced multiple fractions of bio-oil. This bio-oil was fractionated through two separate, but equally important, mechanisms within the collection system. The aerosols and vapors were selectively collected by utilizing laminar flow conditions to prevent aerosol collection and electrostatic precipitators to collect the aerosols. The vapors were successfully collected through a selective condensation process. The combination of these two mechanisms

  11. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Oak via Pyroprobe and Bench Scale, Packed Bed Pyrolysis Reactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrolytic conversion of oak sawdust at 500°C in flowing He over eight proprietary catalysts is described and compared to the control bed material, quartz sand. The reactions were conducted and compared in two reactors, an analytical, ug-scale pyroprobe reactor and a bench, g-scale packed bed re...

  12. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing.

  13. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

  14. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  15. MULTICOMPONENT AEROSOL DYNAMICS OF THE PB-O2 SYSTEM IN A BENCH SCALE FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was carried out to understand the formation and growth of lead particles in a flame incinerator. A bench scale flame incinerator was used to perform controlled experiments with lead acetate as a test compound. A dilution probe in conjunction with real-time aerosol instrum...

  16. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  17. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  19. COMPARING RBF WITH BENCH-SCALE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT FOR PRECURSOR REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors upon riverbank filtration (RBF) at three drinking water utilities in the mid-Western United States was compared with that obtained using a bench-scale conventional treatment train on the corresponding river waters. The riv...

  20. Catalytic Products from a Bench-Scale, Simulated Fluidized-Bed Pyrolyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass (e.g. lignocellulosics and lipids) were catalytically converted under thermochemical conditions to bio-based, fungible industrial chemicals and products. The focus was on high temperature catalytic conversions of feedstocks in a bench-scale reactor designed to replicate a packed- or fluidiz...

  1. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  2. Bench-Scale Evaluation Of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Technology To Stabilize Mercury Waste Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization of mercury (Hg) and mercuric chloride-containing surrogate test materials by the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics technology. This study was performed as part of a U.S. EPA program to evaluate treatment and d...

  3. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  4. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oral presentation will be at the EWRI International LID Conference in San Francisco, on April 11-14, 2010. The slides discuss the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing...

  5. Bench-scale solid phase biotreatment: Benfield Industries Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Marlowe, M.W.; Harper, T.R.; Semenak, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund site located in Hazelwood, North Carolina has been found to have approximately 15,000 cubic yards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Risk based clean up goals were specified at the site for eight target PAH compounds including benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, and pentachlorophenol. Treatability studies were performed to evaluate solid phase bioremediation, which includes ex-situ and in-situ land treatment processes, for treatment of the site soil. All treatments were conducted using only indigenous microorganisms maintained under aerobic conditions. Two soil samples with different levels of PAH contamination were collected from the site for use in the treatability evaluations. The two soil samples were contaminated with total PAHs at concentrations of approximately 30 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 6,000 mg/kg, respectively. Three solid phase bioremediation studies were conducted over a one and one half year period using starting concentrations of total PAHs of approximately 30; 600; and 6,000 mg/kg. The objectives of the studies included determining (1) if clean up goals could be achieved, (2) the approximate biodegradation rate of PAHs in the site soils, and (3) the optimum environmental conditions for biodegradation of the PAHs. Some of the environmental parameters which were varied during the testing included moisture levels, soil conditioners, nutrients and pH. The results of the testing indicated that total and target PAHs can be reduced by up to 90 percent in less than 50 days, depending on environmental conditions maintained in the reactors. Clean up goals for all of the target compounds were achieved at some point during the study.

  6. A long-term bench-scale investigation of permanganate consumption by aquifer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiuyuan; Thomson, Neil R.

    2009-11-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications using permanganate involve the injection or release of permanganate into the subsurface to destroy various target contaminants. Naturally occurring reduced components associated with aquifer materials can exert a significant oxidant demand thereby reducing the amount of permanganate available for the destruction of contaminants as well as reducing the overall rate of oxidation. Quantification of this natural oxidant demand (NOD) is a requirement for site-specific assessment and the design of cost-effective oxidant delivery systems. To further our understanding of the interaction between permanganate and aquifer materials, aerobic and anaerobic aquifer materials from eight representative sites throughout North America were tested in a series of systematic bench-scale experiments. Various permanganate to aquifer solids mass loading ratios at different initial permanganate concentrations in well-mixed batch reactors were monitored for > 300 days. All NOD temporal profiles demonstrated an initial fast consumption rate followed by a persistent slower consumption rate. The data generated show that the mass loading ratio, the initial permanganate concentration, and the nature and quantity of reduced aquifer material species are the main factors controlling permanganate consumption rates. A higher initial permanganate concentration or a larger mass loading ratio produced a larger fast NOD consumption rate and generated a corresponding higher maximum NOD value. Hence, both the NOD temporal profile and the maximum NOD are not single-valued but are heavily dependent on the experimental conditions. Predictive relationships were developed to estimate the maximum NOD and the NOD at 7 days based on aquifer material properties. The concentration of manganese oxides deposited on the aquifer solids was highly correlated with the mass of permanganate consumed suggesting that passivation of NOD reaction sites occurred due to the formation

  7. Bench-scale studies of in-duct mercury capture using cupric chloride-impregnated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sang-Sup Lee; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener

    2009-04-15

    A brominated activated carbon (Darco Hg-LH) and cupric chloride-impregnated activated carbon (CuCl{sub 2}-ACs) sorbent have been tested in a bench-scale entrained-flow reactor system which was developed for simulating in-flight mercury capture in ducts upstream of particulate matter control devices. The bench-scale experimental system has been operated with the conditions of a residence time of 0.75 s and a gas temperature of 140{sup o}C to simulate typical conditions in the duct of coal-fired exhaust gas. In addition, sorbent deposition on walls which can occur in a laboratory-scale system more than in a full-scale system was significantly reduced so that additional mercury capture by the deposited sorbent was minimized. In the entrained-flow system, CuCl{sub 2}-ACs demonstrated similar performance in Hg adsorption and better performance in Hg{sup 0} oxidation than Darco Hg-LH. In addition, the carbon content of those sorbents was found to determine their Hg adsorption capability in the entrained-flow system. The bench-scale entrained-flow system was able to demonstrate the important Hg adsorption and oxidation characteristics of the tested sorbents. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  9. REMOVAL OF METHYL T-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: BENCH-SCALE AND PILOT SCALE EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of pervaporation to remove methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from water was evaluated at bench- and pilot-scales. Process parameters studied included flow rate, temperature, MTBE concentration, membrane module type, and permeate pressure. Pervaporation performance was ass...

  10. Bench-scale studies on gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Wilcox, W.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of bench-scale studies on the development of catalysts for conversion of biomass to specific gas products. The primary objective of these studies was to define operating conditions that allow long lifetimes for secondary catalysts used in biomass gasification. Nickel-based catalysts that were found to be active for conversion of wood to synthesis gases in previous studies were evaluated. These catalysts remained active indefinitely in laboratory studies but lost activity rapidly when evaluated in a process research unit. Bench-scale equipment was designed and installed to resolve the differences between laboratory and PRU results. Primary catalysts (alkali carbonates) were also evaluated for their effectiveness in improving conversion yields from biomass gasification. 21 refs., 27 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Bench-scale co-oxidative production of propylene oxide by methanotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.H.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.; Akin, C.A. ); Hayes, T.D.; Frank, J.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of the co-oxidative production of value-added chemicals using methanotrophs has been investigated by the authors. Several of these co-oxidative products have been evaluated for stereo- or regiospecific properties. Propylene oxide (1,2-epoxypropane) is one of the products that has been selected for further evaluation. This paper describes the first steps toward bench-scale production of propylene oxide. Propylene oxide has been produced stereospecifically (60% R-form, 40% S-form) in gram quantities in bench-scale liquid culture reactors. Several operational parameters and conditions have been determined for both a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and a packed-bed bubble-column reactor (PBR). The production phase of the propylene oxide has been significantly extended by intermittent addition of propylene and regeneration with methane. The paper also describes the performance of the CSTR and PBR for propylene oxide production.

  12. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    SciTech Connect

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  13. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Drira, Anis; Reed, Frederick K.

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  14. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  15. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-11-01

    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production.

  16. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  17. Comprehensive bench- and pilot-scale investigation of trace organic compounds rejection by forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Nathan T; Xu, Pei; Heil, Dean M; Bellona, Christopher; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2011-10-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane separation technology that has been studied in recent years for application in water treatment and desalination. It can best be utilized as an advanced pretreatment for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from scaling and fouling. In the current study the rejection of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, and flame-retardants by FO and a hybrid FO-RO system was investigated at both the bench- and pilot-scales. More than 30 compounds were analyzed, of which 23 nonionic and ionic TOrCs were identified and quantified in the studied wastewater effluent. Results revealed that almost all TOrCs were highly rejected by the FO membrane at the pilot scale while rejection at the bench scale was generally lower. Membrane fouling, especially under field conditions when wastewater effluent is the FO feed solution, plays a substantial role in increasing the rejection of TOrCs in FO. The hybrid FO-RO process demonstrated that the dual barrier treatment of impaired water could lead to more than 99% rejection of almost all TOrCs that were identified in reclaimed water.

  18. Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moss, T. A.

    During 1989-90, a 75-kW(sub t) sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include the following: (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium, and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750 C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/sq cm. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. Results of these studies are presented.

  19. Bench-scale bioethanol production from eucalyptus by high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose fermentation method.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Murakami, Katsuji; Endo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Minowa, Tomoaki; Matsushika, Akinori; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    In the bioethanol production process, high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation are important technologies for obtaining increased ethanol concentrations; however, bench-scale studies using combinations of these methods are limited. In this study, we hydrolyzed high solid concentration of milled eucalyptus using commercial enzymes and obtained 138.4 g/L total monomeric sugar concentration. These sugars were fermented to 53.5 g/L of ethanol by a xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, MA-R4. These experiments were performed in bench scale (using 50 L scale solid mixer and 70 L scale fermenter). The results obtained in this study were comparable to our previous results in laboratory scale, indicating that we successfully achieved an efficient high solid saccharification and glucose/xylose co-fermentation system in bench scale. PMID:23917411

  20. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

  1. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  2. Design of Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Benjamin

    2012-06-30

    The major goal of the project is to design and optimize a bench-scale process for novel silicone CO{sub 2}-capture solvents and establish scalability and potential for commercialization of post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. This system should be capable of 90% capture efficiency and demonstrate that less than 35% increase in the cost of energy services can be achieved upon scale-up. Experiments were conducted to obtain data required for design of the major unit operations. The bench-scale system design has been completed, including sizing of major unit operations and the development of a detailed Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID). The system has been designed to be able to operate over a wide range of process conditions so that the effect of various process variables on performance can be determined. To facilitate flexibility in operation, the absorption column has been designed in a modular manner, so that the height of the column can be varied. The desorber has also been designed to allow for a range of residence times, temperatures, and pressures. The system will be fabricated at Techniserv Inc.

  3. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 3, July--September, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, K.

    1993-10-29

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  4. Bench-Scale Filtration Testing in Support of the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP testing program specifies that bench-scale testing is to be performed in support of specific operations, including filtration, caustic leaching, and oxidative leaching.

  5. Bench-scale operation of the DETOX wet oxidation process for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. A means of destroying hazardous organic components while safely containing and concentrating metals would be extremely useful in mixed waste volume reduction or conversion to a radioactive-only form. Previous studies have found the DETOX, a patented process utilizing a novel catalytic wet oxidation by iron(III) oxidant, cold have successful application to mixed wastes, and to many other waste types. This paper describes the results of bench scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for the design of a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders, and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on the contact area, were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. It was found that reaction rate was proportional to contact area above about 2.% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4 liter. volume, mixed bench top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999+% for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixedbench top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10. to 100.+ grams of organic per liter-hour,depending on the nature and concentration of the organic.

  6. Bench-scale operation of the DETOX wet oxidation process for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-03-01

    Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. A means of destroying hazardous organic components while safely containing and concentrating metals would be extremely useful in mixed waste volume reduction or conversion to a radioactive-only form. Previous studies have found the DETOX, a patented process utilizing a novel catalytic wet oxidation by iron(III) oxidant, cold have successful application to mixed wastes, and to many other waste types. This paper describes the results of bench scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for the design of a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders, and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on the contact area, were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. It was found that reaction rate was proportional to contact area above about 2.% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4 liter. volume, mixed bench top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999+% for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixedbench top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10. to 100.+ grams of organic per liter-hour,depending on the nature and concentration of the organic.

  7. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  8. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract.

  9. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Suardini, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  10. Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Traul, Donald L; Yuk, Inn H

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.

  11. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  12. Temperature control of bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Hai-peng; Song, Yi-ming

    2014-04-01

    An advanced control concept, Predictive Functional Control (PFC), is applied for temperature control of a bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with monofluid heating/cooling system. First principles process models are developed. Based on achieved models, significant process variables, which are difficult or impossible to measure online, are estimated from easily measured variables, and cascade PFC control strategy has been projected and implemented in Matlab R14. The dynamics of individual subunits is explicitly taken into consideration by internal model in the control algorithms, and model uncertainty, various process disturbances are compensated by modification of internal model. The experimental results present an excellent capability of tracking the set point, and the success of PFC technique as a process control paradigm is illustratively demonstrated.

  13. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  14. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-22

    This document contains the first quarterly technical progress report for PTI's Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI's KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI's On-Line Quality Monitor Control System. The twelve-month project will involve installation of a 300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC's Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) and testing of two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelvemonth project. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I - Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI's Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing. Phase II - ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project will be performed at PETC's CPPRF from January through May, 1993, and will be the major focus of the project. It will involve testing of the continuous 300 lb/hr. circuit. Phase II - Project Finalization: The project finalization phase will occur from June through September, 1993, at PTI's Calumet offices and will involve finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This quarterly progress report principally summarizes the results from the Phase I preparation work and the plan for the early portions of the Phase 11 installation and commissioning, which will occur in January and the first week of February, 1993.

  15. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot press sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric discharge machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical, dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  16. Simulating maar-diatreme volcanic systems in bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R. G.; White, J. D. L.; Dürig, T.; Zimanowski, B.

    2015-12-01

    Maar-diatreme eruptions are incompletely understood, and explanations for the processes involved in them have been debated for decades. This study extends bench-scale analogue experiments previously conducted on maar-diatreme systems and attempts to scale the results up to both field-scale experimentation and natural volcanic systems in order to produce a reconstructive toolkit for maar volcanoes. These experimental runs produced via multiple mechanisms complex deposits that match many features seen in natural maar-diatreme deposits. The runs include deeper single blasts, series of descending discrete blasts, and series of ascending blasts. Debris-jet inception and diatreme formation are indicated by this study to involve multiple types of granular fountains within diatreme deposits produced under varying initial conditions. The individual energies of blasts in multiple-blast series are not possible to infer from the final deposits. The depositional record of blast sequences can be ascertained from the proportion of fallback sedimentation versus maar ejecta rim material, the final crater size and the degree of overturning or slumping of accessory strata. Quantitatively, deeper blasts involve a roughly equal partitioning of energy into crater excavation energy versus mass movement of juvenile material, whereas shallower blasts expend a much greater proportion of energy in crater excavation.

  17. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF PHOTOLYSIS, CHEMICAL OXIDATION AND BIODEGRADATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS AND PHOTOLYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of bench-scale testing on degradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD using W photolysis, and PCB degradation using UV photolysis, chemical oxidation and biological treatment. Bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of a two-phase detoxifi...

  18. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil.

  19. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil. PMID:27047705

  20. Bench scale studies: Ozonation as a potential treatment for waters contaminated with hydrocarbons or dioxins and furans

    SciTech Connect

    Schaal, W.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of the bench scale studies was to examine the destruction efficiency and efficacy of ozone on chemicals of concern (COC`s) commonly found in contaminated ground water and rhenoformer wash water. The ground water used in these tests contained aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits. The rhenoformer wash water used in these tests contained a variety of dioxins (including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and furans. Summaries are presented of the bench scale studies by describing the COCs, methodologies, test reactors, observations, and results. The summaries also detail which applications hold promise with respect to ozonation and which ones do not. Bench test results for the experiments in which aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits where the COCs were relatively successful. Concentrations for the COCs ranging from 300 to 3,400 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) were brought below levels specified for storm sewer discharge per the National Priority Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit requirements. Bench test results for the experiments in which dioxins and furans were the COCs were less promising and revealed that additional processes would have to be used in conjunction with ozonation to bring the concentration of COCs within the targeted ranges. It was realized, however, that the effectiveness and efficacy of ozonation were diminished by the presence of particulates, to which some of the dioxin and furan compounds adhered.

  1. Bench-Scale Experiments to Evaluate ERT as a Monitoring Tool for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, S. J.; Detwiler, R. L.; Carrigan, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring changing saturations in the near subsurface. Despite the challenges of implementing ERT in the deep subsurface, it has potential as a surveying technology for visualizing sequestered CO2, in part because it can be localized within the target reservoir. Currently, the technology is being evaluated as part of a geologic sequestration project in Cranfield, MS, where supercritical CO2 is injected to ten thousand feet below the surface. In support of this field-scale activity, we have designed an analog bench-scale experimental system to further evaluate the ability of ERT to quantify both the volume and spatial distribution of gas injected into a saline aquifer. Our translucent sand chambers measure 58cm x 30cm x 1cm and are lined with twenty-one stainless steel electrodes on each long side, inserted into a nonconductive plastic gasket. We fill the chamber with quartz sand with different grain sizes with a filling procedure that generates small-scale layering within the injection zone, which is overlain by a fine-grained layer that serves as a capillary barrier. Prior to gas injection, the porous medium is saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. We then inject gas into the bottom of the injection zone. Buoyant forces drive gas migration into the chamber, resulting in a combination of small-scale trapping in horizontal layers, fingering between the horizontal layers, and large-scale trapping of the gas plume along the upper capillary barrier. During pauses in gas injection, a CCD camera captures high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scans the chamber. Quantitative visualization techniques are used to process the CCD images resulting in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution of the injected gas. These results are directly compared to resistivity fields that result from the inversion

  2. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  3. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  4. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG, (HOC(2)H(4))2S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  5. Bench-scale reactor tests of low temperature, catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, D.C.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr. )

    1993-02-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES[reg sign]), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2 percent para-cresol or 5 percent and 10 percent lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to [gt] 99 percent reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence lime is less than 5 min at 360C and 3,000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40 percent to 55 percent methane, 35 percent to 50 percent carbon dioxide, and 5 percent to 10 percent hydrogen with as much as 2 percent ethane, but less than 0.1 percent ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD.

  6. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently sporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. the proposed program is composed of three major technical task. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  7. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  8. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion. (VC)

  9. Bench- and pilot-scale evaluation of mercury speciation measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K.; Nott, B.R.; Brown, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess the health risks associated with mercury. Since the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend on the type of mercury species emitted, a proven sampling method that can reliably and accurately speciate mercury at the very low concentrations found in coal combustion flue gas is necessary. A number of mercury speciation methods have been proposed, including wet-chemistry methods, such as EPA Method 29, the Ontario Hydro method, and the tris-buffer method, as well as dry methods such as the Mercury Speciation Absorption method (MESA). In addition, a number of companies are developing continuous emissions monitors to speciate mercury by difference. Bench- and pilot-scale tests, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), are currently under way at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to determine the most accurate and precise mercury speciation method available. The overall objective of the test program is to determine whether EPA Method 29 or other sampling methods can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in flue gas from coal-fired boilers at both the inlet and outlet of a particulate control device such as a pulse-jet baghouse. A specific goal of the project is to determine the precision and bias of the various mercury speciation methods as a function of process variables.

  10. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Synthetic lightweight aggregate from cool water slag: Bench-scale confirmation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S.R. )

    1990-05-01

    This report analyzes the potential for production of synthetic lightweight aggregate (SLA) from a Texaco coal gasification solid residue. The objective of the project was to develop a replacement for conventional lightweight aggregates typically derived from expanded clays and shales or natural lightweight aggregates. The sequence of tests performed to develop SLA from slag began with the crushing of samples of slag, followed by either extrusion or pelletization. The level of clay binder required for sufficient aggregate strength was evaluated. Using a tube furnace, expansion characteristics were studied as a function of temperature and residence time. Next, a large batch of SLA was produced in a muffle furnace and used to form concrete test cylinders. The unit weight of the resultant concrete was 105 lb/ft{sup 3}, with a compressive strength of 3100 psi, which meets the requirements specified in ASTM C 330 for lightweight aggregate of a comparable density. When the same sequence of tests was performed using a slag from which the bulk of the char had been removed, the concrete test cylinders showed an improved relationship between strength and density. Based on the results of bench-scale tests and the similarity to conventional LWA production, the conceptual design of an SLA processing plant was formulated. A comparative estimate of operating costs was prepared by analyzing data from plants using clays and shales to produce lightweight aggregates. 24 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Optimal sludge retention time for a bench scale MBR treating municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Pollice, A; Laera, G; Saturno, D; Giordano, C; Sandulli, R

    2008-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors allow for higher sludge concentrations and improved degradation efficiencies with respect to conventional activated sludge. However, in the current practice these systems are often operated under sub-optimal conditions, since so far no precise indications have yet been issued on the optimal operating conditions of MBR for municipal wastewater treatment. This paper reports some results of four years of operation of a bench scale membrane bioreactor where steady state conditions were investigated under different sludge retention times. The whole experimental campaign was oriented towards the investigation of optimal process conditions in terms of COD removal and nitrification, biomass activity and growth, and sludge characteristics. The membrane bioreactor treated real municipal sewage, and four different sludge ages were tested (20, 40, 60, and 80 days) and compared with previous data on complete sludge retention. The results showed that the the biology of the system, as assessed by the oxygen uptake rate, is less affected than the sludge physical parameters. In particular, although the growth yield was observed to dramatically drop for SRT higher than 80 days, the biological activity was maintained under all the tested conditions. These considerations suggest that high SRT are convenient in terms of limited excess sludge production without losses of the treatment capacity. Physical characteristics such as the viscosity and the filterability appear to be negatively affected by prolonged sludge retention times, but their values remain within the ranges normally reported for conventional activated sludge.

  13. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  14. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  15. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  16. Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with microcel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-03-01

    It was the purpose of this investigation to test a new fine coal cleaning system, in which a coal is cleaned first by column flotation to remove primarily ash-forming minerals and then by an enhanced gravity separation technique to remove the pyrite remaining in the flotation product. Of the various column flotation technologies developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, the Microcel{sup TM} flotation column was chosen because it is being used commercially in the US coal industry, particularly by low-sulfur coal producers. Of the various enhanced gravity separation technologies used in minerals industry, Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS) was chosen because it shows promise for pyrite rejection from fine coal streams containing a wide range of particle sizes. The bench-scale tests were conducted using three different circuit configurations, i.e.; Microcel{sup TM} column alone; MGS alone; and Microcel{sup Tm} and MGS in series. In general, high ash-rejections were achieved using Microcel{sup TM} column and an MGS unit in series, both the ash and pyritic sulfur rejections exceeded what can be achieved using either the Microcel{sup TM} column or the MGS unit alone, demonstrating a synergistic effect.

  17. Bench-Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both cabin and space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of bench-scale SA9T testing that was performed under a variety of test conditions and with several different trace contaminants. Tests were conducted to determine if the capacity of the SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O is compromised after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Tests also were conducted to evaluate the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream. In addition, testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures (29.6 KPa/4.3 psia) during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load.

  18. Bench-scale testing of selected remediation alternatives for contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, D L; Garbaciak, S

    1995-01-01

    The Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Program within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) contained a component for demonstrating and evaluating sediment remediation technologies. Toward this end, bench-scale tests of solvent extraction, thermal desorption, and wet air oxidation technologies were conducted. Contaminated sediments were tested from the Grand Calumet River, Indiana; Buffalo River, New York; Saginaw River, Michigan; and Ashtabula River, Ohio. The primary contaminants of concern in these sediments were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The solvent extraction tests were conducted with sediments from the Grand Calumet, Buffalo, and Saginaw rivers. The thermal desorption studies were conducted with sediments from the Grand Calumet, Buffalo, and Ashtabula rivers. The wet air oxidation testing was performed with the Grand Calumet River sediment. Raw sediment contaminant concentrations ranged from 0.32-21.9 mg/kg dry mass for PCBs and 2.70-266 mg/kg dry mass for PAHs. PCB removal or destruction efficiencies ranged from approximately 6-99%. PAH removal or destruction efficiencies ranged from 65-99%. Mass balance closures ranged from 40-99% for solids; 59-139% for water; 29-3500% for oil; 16-129% for PCBs; and 69-3170% for PAHs.

  19. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  20. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form.

  1. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, K.P; Myers, R.L; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of {sup 137}Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including {sup 90}Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in {sup 90}Sr.

  2. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  3. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing.

  4. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  5. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius. PMID:26144866

  6. A bench-scale assessment of ozone pre-treatments for landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yu; Do, Anh; Yeh, Daniel; Watt, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Leachate from stabilized landfill can pose unique challenges to conventional biological wastewater treatment. Ozone-based advanced oxidation processes have garnered recent consideration as an option to reduce the organic strength and recalcitrance of aged landfill leachate. With a bench-scale investigation, the reported work examines the potential for leachate conditioning for further biological treatment by treatment with low-mg/L doses of ozone (0-7.5 mg/L 03). While not sufficient for significant organics mineralization, the tested ozone doses could potentially produce both selective and non-selective oxidation of recalcitrant leachate organic compounds leaving bio-available products in the pre-treated leachate. Leachate conditioning by 03 or 03/H202 was assessed via monitoring of three anthropogenic organic leachate contaminants(tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris-(butoxyethyl)-phosphate and 17beta-estradiol (E2)) with ozonation, and ozonation followed by anaerobic incubation. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and BOD5 analysis of the ozonated leachate, and methane and total gas formation during the anaerobic incubation were used to assess the degree of leachate conditioning. When treated with O3 alone, 58% removal of E2 was observed with an ozone dose of 4.5-5.4mg/L. Direct oxidation of the three leachate contaminants was limited with O3/H202 pre-treatment. However, this pre-treatment was observed to have significantly improved degradation of E2 during anaerobic incubation of ozonated leachates (removal rate of E2 was 53.7% with 15 days of incubation), indicating the potential for ozone synthesized co-metabolism. However, overall anaerobic microbial activity was not significantly impacted by the applied ozone pre-treatments, as measured by methane formation, total gas formation, and COD removal during incubation. PMID:24600851

  7. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 ± 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

  8. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius.

  9. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene.

    PubMed

    Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.233±0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development. PMID:25084057

  10. A bench-scale assessment of ozone pre-treatments for landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yu; Do, Anh; Yeh, Daniel; Watt, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Leachate from stabilized landfill can pose unique challenges to conventional biological wastewater treatment. Ozone-based advanced oxidation processes have garnered recent consideration as an option to reduce the organic strength and recalcitrance of aged landfill leachate. With a bench-scale investigation, the reported work examines the potential for leachate conditioning for further biological treatment by treatment with low-mg/L doses of ozone (0-7.5 mg/L 03). While not sufficient for significant organics mineralization, the tested ozone doses could potentially produce both selective and non-selective oxidation of recalcitrant leachate organic compounds leaving bio-available products in the pre-treated leachate. Leachate conditioning by 03 or 03/H202 was assessed via monitoring of three anthropogenic organic leachate contaminants(tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris-(butoxyethyl)-phosphate and 17beta-estradiol (E2)) with ozonation, and ozonation followed by anaerobic incubation. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and BOD5 analysis of the ozonated leachate, and methane and total gas formation during the anaerobic incubation were used to assess the degree of leachate conditioning. When treated with O3 alone, 58% removal of E2 was observed with an ozone dose of 4.5-5.4mg/L. Direct oxidation of the three leachate contaminants was limited with O3/H202 pre-treatment. However, this pre-treatment was observed to have significantly improved degradation of E2 during anaerobic incubation of ozonated leachates (removal rate of E2 was 53.7% with 15 days of incubation), indicating the potential for ozone synthesized co-metabolism. However, overall anaerobic microbial activity was not significantly impacted by the applied ozone pre-treatments, as measured by methane formation, total gas formation, and COD removal during incubation.

  11. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  12. Bench-scale biofilter for removing ammonia from poultry house exhaust.

    PubMed

    Shah, S B; Basden, T J; Bhumbla, D K

    2003-01-01

    A bench-scale biofilter was evaluated for removing ammonia (NH3) from poultry house exhaust. The biofilter system was equipped with a compost filter to remove NH3 and calcium oxide (CaO) filter to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Removal of NH3 and CO2 from poultry house exhaust could allow treated air with residual heat to be recirculated back into the poultry house to conserve energy during winter months. Apart from its use as a plant nutrient, NH3 removal from poultry house exhaust could lessen the adverse environmental impacts of NH3 emissions. Ammonia and CO2 were measured daily with gas detector tubes while temperatures in the poultry pen and compost filter were monitored to evaluate the thermal impact of the biofilter on treated air. During the first 37 days of the 54-day study, exhaust air from 33 birds housed in a pen was treated in the biofilter; for the final 17 days, NH3-laden exhaust, obtained by applying urea to the empty pen was treated in the biofilter. The biofilter system provided near-complete attenuation of a maximum short-term NH3 concentration of 73 ppm. During the last 17 days, with a mean influent NH3 concentration of 26 ppm, the biofilter provided 97% attenuation. The CaO filter was effective in attenuating CO2. Compared with a biofilter sized only for NH3 removal, an oversized biofilter would be required to provide supplemental heat to the treated air through exothermic biochemical reactions in the compost. The biofilter could conserve energy in poultry production and capture NH3 for use as plant nutrient. Based on this study, a house for 27,000 broilers would require a compost filter with a volume of approximately 34 m3.

  13. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

  14. In-situ Subaqueous Capping of Mercury-Contaminated Sediments in a Fresh-Water Aquatic System, Part I-Bench-Scale Microcosm Study to Assess Methylmercury Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absenc...

  15. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Paul; Bhandari, Dhaval; Narang, Kristi; McCloskey, Pat; Singh, Surinder; Ananthasayanam, Balajee; Howson, Paul; Lee, Julia; Wroczynski, Ron; Stewart, Frederick; Orme, Christopher; Klaehn, John; McNally, Joshua; Rownaghi, Ali; Lu, Liu; Koros, William; Goizueta, Roberto; Sethi, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  16. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  17. Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.

    PubMed

    Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

    2005-01-01

    Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s

  18. Bench-scale evaluation of drinking water treatment parameters on iron particles and water quality.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Safiur; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Discoloration of water resulting from suspended iron particles is one of the main customer complaints received by water suppliers. However, understanding of the mechanisms of discoloration as well as role of materials involved in the process is limited. In this study, an array of bench scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the most common variables (pH, PO4, Cl2 and DOM) on the properties of iron particles and suspensions derived from the oxygenation of Fe(II) ions in NaHCO3 buffered synthetic water systems. The most important factors as well as their rank influencing iron suspension color and turbidity formation were identified for a range of water quality parameters. This was accomplished using a 2(4) full factorial design approach at a 95% confidence level. The statistical analysis revealed that phosphate was found to be the most significant factor to alter color (contribution: 37.9%) and turbidity (contribution: 45.5%) in an iron-water system. A comprehensive study revealed that phosphate and chlorine produced iron suspension with reduced color and turbidity, made ζ-potential more negative, reduced the average particle size, and increased iron suspension stability. In the presence of DOM, color was observed to increase but a reverse trend was observed to decrease the turbidity and to alter particle size distribution. HPSEC results suggest that higher molecular weight fractions of DOM tend to adsorb onto the surfaces of iron particles at early stages, resulting in alteration of the surface charge of iron particles. This in turn limits particles aggregation and makes iron colloids highly stable. In the presence of a phosphate based corrosion inhibitor, this study demonstrated that color and turbidity resulting from suspended iron were lower at a pH value of 6.5 (compared to pH of 8.5). The same trend was observed in presence of DOM. This study also suggested that iron colloid suspension color and turbidity in chlorinated drinking water

  19. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P.; Besmer, M.

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  20. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    PubMed

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. PMID:20006492

  1. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  2. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  3. Bench scale studies of the soil aeration process for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchee, R.E.; Arthur, M.

    1991-12-31

    An alternative to traditional hydrocarbon bioremediation is to pump air through unsaturated soils to create aerobic conditions and induce biodegradation. This study examines the effects of moisture and nutrient augmentation on biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in aerated soils. Findings indicate that forced aeration, coupled with additions of nutrients and moisture, stimulate hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and present a feasible approach to bioremediation management.

  4. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    At the start of the current project, the DSRP (Direct Sulfur Recovery Process) technology was at the bench-scale development stage with a skid-mounted system ready for field testing. The process had been extended to fluidized-bed operation in the Stage 1 reactor. A preliminary economic study for a 100 MW plant in which the two-stage DSRP was compared to conventional processes indicated the economic attractiveness of the DSRP. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and DSRP technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. The demonstrations prior to the start of this project, however, had only been conducted using simulated (rather than real) coal gas and simulated regeneration off-gas. Thus, the effect of trace contaminants in real coal gases on the sorbent and DSRP catalyst was not known. Also, the zinc titanate desulfurization unit and DSRP had not been demonstrated in an integrated manner. The overall goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by scale-up and field testing (with actual coal gas) of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed reactor system, and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process.

  5. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2010-08-19

    ) was found to be comparable to immobilized low-activity waste glass waste form in the initial supplemental LAW treatment technology risk assessment (Mann 2003). To confirm this hypothesis, DOE is funding a treatability study where three actual Hanford tank waste samples (containing both {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}I) will be processed in Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) to form the mineral product, similar to the granular NAS waste form, that will then be subject to a number of waste form qualification tests. In previous tests, SRNL have demonstrated that the BSR product is chemically and physically equivalent to the FBSR product (Janzen 2005). The objective of this paper is to describe the sample selection, sample preparation, and environmental and regulatory considerations for treatability studies of the FBSR process using Hanford tank waste samples at the SNRL. The SNRL will process samples in its BSR. These samples will be decontaminated in the 222-S Laboratory to remove undissolved solids and selected radioisotopes to comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping regulations and to ensure worker safety by limiting radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). These decontamination levels will also meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) definition of low activity waste (LAW). After the SNRL has processed the tank samples to a granular mineral form, SRNL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will conduct waste form testing on both the granular material and monoliths prepared from the granular material. The tests being performed are outlined in Appendix A.

  6. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  7. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1992--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1994-03-31

    The present work effort relates to an investigation of surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in overall coal conversions and the product quality. Based on the results of a Phase 1 preliminary study on the effect of several surfactants on coal liquefaction, sodium lignosulfonate was chosen as the surfactant for a detailed parametric study to be conducted at JPL using a batch autoclave reactor. These tests primarily related to thermal liquefaction of coal. The results of JPL autoclave test runs showed an increase in overall conversions from 5 to 15% due to surfactant addition over the base case of coal alone. A continuous-flow bench scale coal liquefaction process run was conducted over a 5-day period at Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated (HRI). This test showed that the surfactant is suitable for an industrial continuous recycle process, and does not interfere with the supported catalyst. After the bench scale test, a series of autoclave runs were conducted with coprocessing the surfactant and the Ni-Mo catalyst. These experiments showed that high conversions and product quality can be maintained at milder processing conditions. Based on results of the autoclave test runs, the overall product values were obtained for two stage reactors at 400{degrees}C. The best product value was realized for the two-stage case (e) which showed an 8% improvement over the base case.

  8. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment.

  9. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment. PMID:26056780

  10. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark; Stauber, Christine E; DiGiano, Francis A; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006-2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets. PMID:26308036

  11. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Mark; Stauber, Christine E.; DiGiano, Francis A.; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006–2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets. PMID:26308036

  12. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark; Stauber, Christine E; DiGiano, Francis A; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-08-25

    The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006-2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets.

  13. Effect of temperature and disinfection strategies on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a bench-scale drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Slawson, Robin M

    2003-04-01

    The establishment of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), a group of autotrophic microorganisms responsible for nitrification in chloraminated distribution systems, was studied in a bench-scale distribution system. The potential significance of temperature and disinfectant residual associated with chloramination in full-scale drinking water distribution systems was assessed. Biofilm development was primarily monitored using AOB abundance and nitrite concentrations. The bench-scale system was initially operated under typical North American summer (22 degrees C) and fall (12 degrees C) temperatures, representing optimal and less optimal growth ranges for these microorganisms. Additional experimentation investigated AOB establishment at a suboptimal winter distribution system temperature of 6 degrees C. The effect of chloramine residual on AOB establishment was studied at higher (0.2-0.6mg/L) and lower (0.05-0.1mg/L) ranges, using a 3:1 (w/w) chlorine:ammonia dosing ratio. Conditions were selected to represent those typically found in a North American distribution system, in areas of low flow and longer retention times, respectively. Finally, the effect of a free chlorine residual on an established nitrifying biofilm was briefly examined. Results clearly indicate that AOB development occurs at all examined temperatures, as well as at selected monochloramine residuals. The maintenance of a disinfectant residual was difficult at times, but was more inhibitory to the nitrifying biofilm than the lower temperature. It can be concluded from the data that nitrification may not be adequately inhibited during the winter months, which may result in more advanced stages of nitrification the following season. Free chlorination can be effective in controlling AOB activity in the short term, but may not prevent reestablishment of a nitrifying biofilm upon return to chloramination.

  14. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation. PMID:24822190

  15. Evaluation of quicklime incorporation in bench-scale and full-scale lime stabilized biosolids using a flat surface pH electrode.

    PubMed

    Burns, Benjamin; Krach, Kenneth; Cole, Charles; Mangus, Jessica; Butler, Howard; Li, Baikun

    2007-07-01

    Uniform lime incorporation into sewage sludge is critical for biosolid lime stabilization processes. There is no class B biosolids regulation for lime incorporation. The slurry method is currently used to evaluate the pH of limed biosolids, but this method homogenizes the biosolids and potentially masks poor lime mixing. In this study, a flat-surface pH electrode was used in bench-scale and full-scale experiments to measure the pH of lime-stabilized biosolids without creating slurries. The standard deviation of 15 pH measurements at different locations in a biosolid sample was used to assess mixing quality. The bench-scale experimental study showed that well-mixed limed biosolids had consistently high pHs (approximately 12) with low standard deviations (< 0.5 pH units), whereas poorly mixed biosolids had areas with low pH (< 10) and high standard deviations (> 2 pH units). Poorly mixed biosolids exhibited rapid and marked pH reduction, as well as offensive odor generation, whereas well-mixed biosolids resisted pH reduction and offensive odor generation. The full-scale study aimed at improving lime incorporation and biosolids quality confirmed the use of a flat surface pH electrode to capture low pH regions in biosolids that were masked by the current slurry method.

  16. Evaluation of the role of heterogeneities on transverse mixing in bench-scale tank experiments by numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, E; Bauer, S; Eberhardt, C; Beyer, C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, numerical modeling is used to evaluate and interpret a series of detailed and well-controlled two-dimensional bench-scale conservative tracer tank experiments performed to investigate transverse mixing in porous media. The porous medium used consists of a fine matrix and a more permeable lens vertically aligned with the tracer source and the flow direction. A sensitivity analysis shows that the tracer distribution after passing the lens is only slightly sensitive to variations in transverse dispersivity, but strongly sensitive to the contrast of hydraulic conductivities. A unique parameter set could be calibrated to closely fit the experimental observations. On the basis of calibrated and validated model, synthetic experiments with different contrasts in hydraulic conductivity and more complex setups were performed and the efficiency of mixing evaluated. Flux-related dilution indices derived from these simulations show that the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between matrix and high-permeable lenses as well as the spatial configuration of tracer plumes and lenses dominate mixing, rather than the actual pore scale dispersivities. These results indicate that local material distributions, the magnitude of permeability contrasts, and their spatial and scale relation to solute plumes are more important for macro-scale transverse dispersion than the micro-scale dispersivities of individual materials. Local material characterization by thorough site investigation hence is of utmost importance for the evaluation of mixing-influenced or -governed problems in groundwater, such as tracer test evaluation or an assessment of contaminant natural attenuation. PMID:23675977

  17. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films.

  18. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films. PMID:26572370

  19. Development of a standard bench-scale cell for electrochemical studies on inert anodes. Inert Anode/Cathode Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Boget, D.I.

    1986-07-01

    Objective of this work was to develop a standard bench-scale cell for performing short-term ac and dc polarization studies on inert anode candidate materials in molten cryolite. Two designs for electrochemical cells were developed and successfully evaluated in short-term experiments. Both cells consisted on the inert anode as a small cylindrical specimen partially sheathed in alumina, an Al/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ reference electrode, and a cryolite bath saturated in alumina. The difference between the two cells was in the design of the cathode. One cell used a bare solid metal cathode; the other used an aluminum pad similar to the Hall-Heroult configuration.

  20. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-07-23

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant- assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the fourth quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) Completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs and related analysis with Illinois {number_sign}6 coal with time as a variable at 375{degree}C, and pressures of 1800 psig; (2) an investigation into the mechanism of the effect that the lignosulfonate surfactant has in enhancing liquefaction yields; and (3) completion of a bench-scale test with the surfactant in the continuous flow Catalytic Two Stage Liquefaction Process (CTSL) reactor at HRI.

  1. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic-oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-05-15

    A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic-oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m(3) h(-1)) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD5/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L(-1) for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L(-1) for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L(-1) on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L(-1). There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  2. A microwell platform for the scale-up of a multistep bioconversion to bench-scale reactors: sitosterol side-chain cleavage.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marco P C; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Fernandes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    The microwell-scale approach is widely used for screening purposes and one-pot biotransformations, but it has seldom been applied to complex whole cell multistep bioconversions, requiring prolonged incubation periods. The present study aims to contribute to filling this gap. The side-chain cleavage of sitosterol to androstenedione (AD) with Mycobacterium sp. NRRL B-3805 cells was used as a model system, and focus was given to the screening of suitable bioconversion media with 24-well microwell plates. Results show that to perform this particular bioconversion growing cells are preferred over resting cells due to higher conversion yields obtained in aqueous medium. The use of resting cells may nevertheless present an interesting approach provided catalytic activity is retained throughout successive runs. Maintaining suitable aeration levels (air flow of 1 mL/min) allowed minimizing the decay of catalytic activity typically observed alongside consecutive bioconversion runs with resting cells. Microwell plates with dedicated oxygen and pH monitoring capabilities proved effective in media development for complex multistep bioconversions using relatively slow-growing bacteria. Under constant k(L)a (0.044/s) similar AD production and dissolved oxygen profiles were observed in microwell plates and in a bench-scale reactor. Selection of a suitable k(L)a value proved critical, since under lower k(L)a values scale-up proved unsuccessful. The same pattern was observed when other scale-up criteria were evaluated to perform the scale-up of this particular bioconversion. Results gathered seem to validate the proposed approach "from microwell plate to bench-scale fermentor". PMID:20235144

  3. Development of Bench and Full-Scale Temperature and pH Responsive Functionalized PVDF Membranes with Tunable Properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Isner, Austin; Waldrop, Krysta; Saad, Anthony; Takigawa, Doreen; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and pH responsive polymers (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), and polyacrylic acid, PAA) were synthesized in one common macrofiltration PVDF membrane platform by pore-filling method. The microstructure and morphology of the PNIPAAm-PVDF, and PNIPAAm-FPAA-PVDF membranes were studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The membrane pore size was controlled by the swelling and shrinking of the PNIPAAm at the temperature around lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The composite membrane demonstrated a rapid and reversible swelling and deswelling change within a small temperature range. The controllable flux makes it possible to utilize this temperature responsive membrane as a valve to regulate filtration properties by temperature change. Dextran solution (Mw=2,000,000g/mol, 26 nm diameter) was used to evaluate the separation performance of the temperature responsive membranes. The ranges of dextran rejection are from 4% to 95% depending on the temperature, monomer amount and pressure. The full-scale membrane was also developed to confirm the feasibility of our bench-scale experimental results. The full-scale membrane also exhibited both temperature and pH responsivity. This system was also used for controlled nanoparticles synthesis and for dechlorination reaction. PMID:24944434

  4. Development of Bench and Full-Scale Temperature and pH Responsive Functionalized PVDF Membranes with Tunable Properties.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Isner, Austin; Waldrop, Krysta; Saad, Anthony; Takigawa, Doreen; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-05-01

    Temperature and pH responsive polymers (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), and polyacrylic acid, PAA) were synthesized in one common macrofiltration PVDF membrane platform by pore-filling method. The microstructure and morphology of the PNIPAAm-PVDF, and PNIPAAm-FPAA-PVDF membranes were studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The membrane pore size was controlled by the swelling and shrinking of the PNIPAAm at the temperature around lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The composite membrane demonstrated a rapid and reversible swelling and deswelling change within a small temperature range. The controllable flux makes it possible to utilize this temperature responsive membrane as a valve to regulate filtration properties by temperature change. Dextran solution (Mw=2,000,000g/mol, 26 nm diameter) was used to evaluate the separation performance of the temperature responsive membranes. The ranges of dextran rejection are from 4% to 95% depending on the temperature, monomer amount and pressure. The full-scale membrane was also developed to confirm the feasibility of our bench-scale experimental results. The full-scale membrane also exhibited both temperature and pH responsivity. This system was also used for controlled nanoparticles synthesis and for dechlorination reaction.

  5. Bench-scale evaluation of aerosol delivery for biostimulation and bioaugmentation in the vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Murdoch, Lawrence C; Freedman, David L; Looney, Brian B; Riha, Brian D

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol delivery was evaluated for distributing biostimulation and bioaugmentation amendments in vadose zones. This technique involves transporting amendments as micron-scale aerosol droplets in injected gas. Microcosm experiments were designed to characterize reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) under unsaturated conditions when delivering components as aerosols. Delivering amendments and/or microbes as aqueous aerosols resulted in complete dechlorination of TCE, similar to controls operated under saturated conditions. Reductive dechlorination was achieved with manual injection of a bioaugmentation culture suspended in soybean oil into microcosms. However, aerosol delivery of the culture in soybean oil induced little reductive dechlorination activity. Overall, the results indicate that delivery as aqueous aerosols may be a viable option for delivery of amendments to enhance vadose zone bioremediation at the field-scale.

  6. Biostimulated uranium immobilization within aquifers – from bench scale to field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Veeramani, Harish; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Suvorova, Elena; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Barrows, Charles J.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Campbell, Kate M.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Long, Philip E.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Giammar, Daniel E.; Bargar, John R.

    2011-12-29

    In situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers through microbially catalyzed reduction of mobile U(VI) species can only be successful if the U(IV) products are immobilized over long time-scales. Although uraninite is known for its low solubility and has been produced in nano-particulate form by several species of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in laboratory studies, little is known about the stability of biogenic U(IV) in the subsurface. Using an up-scaling approach, we investigated the chemical and environmental stability of biogenic UO₂ nano-solids. Our results show that diffusive limitations due to aquifer porosity and microstructure may retard uraninite corrosion. Corrosion was also retarded by adsorption or incorporation of manganese. On the other hand, U(VI) bioreduction in field sediments generated U(IV) that was more labile than biogenic UO₂.

  7. Process Development of Adenoviral Vector Production in Fixed Bed Bioreactor: From Bench to Commercial Scale.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Hanna P; Heikkilä, Kati M; Lipponen, Eevi M; Valonen, Piia; Müller, Achim; Räsänen, Eva; Tuunanen, Tarja; Hassinen, Minna M; Parker, Nigel; Karhinen, Minna; Shaw, Robert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale vector manufacturing for phase III and beyond has proven to be challenging. Upscaling the process with suspension cells is increasingly feasible, but many viral production applications are still applicable only in adherent settings. Scaling up the adherent system has proven to be troublesome. The iCELLis(®) disposable fixed-bed bioreactors offer a possible option for viral vector manufacturing in large quantities in an adherent environment. In this study, we have optimized adenovirus serotype 5 manufacturing using iCELLis Nano with a cultivation area up to 4 m(2). HEK293 cell cultivation, infection, and harvest of the virus (by lysing the cells inside the bioreactor) proved possible, reaching total yield of up to 1.6×10(14) viral particles (vp)/batch. The iCELLis 500 is designed to satisfy demand for large-scale requirements. Inoculating a large quantity of cell mass into the iCELLis 500 was achieved by first expanding the cell mass in suspension. Upscaling the process into an iCELLis 500/100 m(2) cultivation area cassette was practical and produced up to 6.1×10(15) vp. Flask productivity per cm(2) in iCELLis Nano and iCELLis 500 was in the same range. As a conclusion, we showed for the first time that iCELLis 500 equipment has provided an effective way to manufacture large batches of adenoviral vectors. PMID:26176404

  8. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. PMID:26751253

  9. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended.

  10. Pilot- and bench-scale testing of faecal indicator bacteria survival in marine beach sand near point sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mika, K.B.; Imamura, G.; Chang, C.; Conway, V.; Fernandez, G.; Griffith, J.F.; Kampalath, R.A.; Lee, C.M.; Lin, C.-C.; Moreno, R.; Thompson, S.; Whitman, R.L.; Jay, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Factors affecting faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogen survival/persistence in sand remain largely unstudied. This work elucidates how biological and physical factors affect die-off in beach sand following sewage spills. Methods and Results: Solar disinfection with mechanical mixing was pilot-tested as a disinfection procedure after a large sewage spill in Los Angeles. Effects of solar exposure, mechanical mixing, predation and/or competition, season, and moisture were tested at bench scale. First-order decay constants for Escherichia coli ranged between -0??23 and -1??02 per day, and for enterococci between -0??5 and -1??0 per day. Desiccation was a dominant factor for E. coli but not enterococci inactivation. Effects of season were investigated through a comparison of experimental results from winter, spring, and fall. Conclusions: Moisture was the dominant factor controlling E. coli inactivation kinetics. Initial microbial community and sand temperature were also important factors. Mechanical mixing, common in beach grooming, did not consistently reduce bacterial levels. Significance and Impact of the Study: Inactivation rates are mainly dependent on moisture and high sand temperature. Chlorination was an effective disinfection treatment in sand microcosms inoculated with raw influent. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Laboratory/bench-scale testing and evaluation of A. P. T. dry-plate scrubber. 10th quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, K.

    1982-09-17

    The A.P.T. Dry Plate Scrubber uses a shallow, dense mobile bed of solid collector granules which move across a perforated plate. The gas stream containing fine particles and vapors is moved upward through the perforations to form high velocity gas jets. The fine particles are removed by inertial deposition onto the collector granules or by direct interception. Electrostatic forces also can be used to improve the collection efficiency and increase the adhesive forces between the particles and collectors. The DPS column consists of a series of collection stages (perforated plates) with the collectors either passing sequentially over each stage or being fed separately to each stage. The stages can be designed so as to promote the collection of large particles on the lower stages and the collection of fine particles and alkali vapors on the upper stages. The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the DPS at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes. The project is divided into two phases and seven major tasks as listed.

  12. Bench-scale column experiments to study the containment of Cr(VI) in confined aquifers by bio-transformation.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, T; Philip, Ligy; Murty Bhallamudi, S

    2006-04-17

    Bench-scale soil column experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of Cr(VI) containment in confined aquifers using in situ bio-transformation. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to estimate the adsorption capacities of two different soils for Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Bio-kinetic parameters were evaluated for the enriched microbial system. The inhibition constant, evaluated using Monod's inhibition model, was found to be 11.46 mg/L of Cr(VI). Transport studies indicated that it would not be possible to contain Cr(VI) by adsorption alone. Transport and bio-transformation studies indicated that the pore velocity and the initial bio-mass concentration significantly affect the containment process. In situ bio-remediation is effective in the case of silty aquifers. Cr(VI) concentration of 25 mg/L was effectively contained within 60 cm of a confined silty aquifer. Cr(VI) containment could be achieved in sandy aquifers when the pore velocity was very low and the initial augmented bio-mass was high. A bio-barrier of approximately one meter width would be able to contain Cr(VI) if the initial Cr(VI) concentration is as much as 25 mg/L.

  13. Bench-scale co-processing. Technical progress report No. 22, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Duttlinger, M.L.M.; Commisaris, S.E.; Davis, L.A.; Yurek, R.W.; Gatsis, J.G.; Roemisch, R.; Kojima, M.

    1993-12-31

    The major objective of this contract is to establish a database for the optimization of the co-processing concept by improving the effectiveness of the co-processing catalyst system. Two major mechanisms for improving the catalyst system are to be investigated: employment of more effective catalysts and utilization of improved catalytic environments. This report covers the period of October 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. During this period work on Subtask 3.2.2, Improvement in Catalytic Environment, was carried out and the bench-scale co-processing pilot plant was operated in the co-current mode with product recycle and increased catalyst concentration. The project objective was to achieve 90+ % conversion of the 510{degrees}C+ non-distillables at 2800 psig. Currently work is on-going in a stirred autoclave at the same catalyst concentration as that in the runs reported here, and the results of these autoclave runs will be summarized in Technical Progress Report No. 23.

  14. Bench-scale co-processing, Technical progress report No. 21, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Duttlinger, M.L.M.; Commissaris, S.E.; Davis, L.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Roemisch, R.; Yurek, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to establish a database for optimizing the co-processing concept by improving the effectiveness of the co-processing catalyst system. Two major mechanisms for improving the catalyst system are to be investigated: more effective catalysts (subtask 3.2.1) and improved catalytic environments (3.2.2). During this period, work on 3.2.2 was carried out and the bench-scale co-processing pilot plant was operated in the counter-current mode. The counter-current process in presence and absence of a packing material under different operating conditions was evaluated. Project objective of achieving 90+% conversion of the 510 C nondistillate at 2000 psig was not met due to plant limitations. Because of reactor size and throughput, flow regime within the reactor is laminar. It is believed that without turbulent flow, there was insufficient mixing to keep the catalyst in solution; it probably attaches to the reactor walls, forming a restriction which causes all material entering the reactor to immediately exit through the reactor outlet. No additional counter- current co-processing experiments are planned, and the pilot plant will be reconfigured to operate in the co-current mode.

  15. In situ encapsulation bench-scale demonstration report FY-94 (for TTP-ID 142012)

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the test objectives, procedures, and results of the laboratory-scale tests of in situ waste encapsulation of buried waste using a synthetic analogue of natural cement. The products of the reaction FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O + Ca(OH){sub 2} = gypsum and iron oxide/hydroxide were examined as a possible waste encapsulation material for application at the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This technique for transuranic waste encapsulation is being pursued by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration as a possible candidate containment and stabilization method for geologic time. The data indicate that the iron waste encapsulation materials tested are appropriate choices for the intended purpose. Based on these observations and conclusions, full-scale tests are recommended to determine the performance of the iron waste isolation materials under field conditions and for extended time periods. The viscosity of the reagents indicates that jet grouting is probably an appropriate application method.

  16. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  17. Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-12-31

    Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} in a 97:3 mole ratio (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemical feedstocks, particularly phenols, cresols, and xylenols (PCX). The addition of magnesia, coal ash, or clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion to these chemicals. The goal of this two-year project was to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous bench-scale tests at IGT. Tests were conducted with IBC-101 and IBC-105 coals under N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends, with and without mineral additives, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degree}F and 200 psig. These tests have provided data valuable to further development efforts on the process. In the first year, fluidized-bed tests were conducted using inert bed diluents (coke and sand) to retard agglomeration. PCX yields of 0.99 wt% maf coal were achieved in CH{sub 4} atmosphere, tripling the yield in N, atmosphere, while overall liquid yields were 18--20 wt% maf in either atmosphere. However, control of caking was difficult in spite of a very high bed dilution ratio of 4.5:1. During the second year, agglomeration was controlled by slurry impregnation of the coal with coal ash, magnesia, or montmorillonite at levels as low as 10 wt%. Thirteen continuous tests were conducted in 2-inch fluidized-bed and moving-bed reactors at test conditions of 900{degree}--1000{degree}F and 120 psig.

  18. Mild gasification technology development process: Task 3, Bench-scale char upgrading study, February 1988--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Knight, R.A.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop mild gasification technology and co-product utilization. The objective of Task 3 was to investigate the necessary steps for upgrading the mild gasification char into potential high-market-value solid products. Recommendations of the Task 1 market survey section formed the basis for selecting three value-added solid products from mild gasification char: form coke, smokeless fuel, and activated adsorbent char. The formation and testing for the form coke co-product involved an evaluation of its briquette strength and reactivity. The measured tensile strength and reactivity of the form coke sample briquettes were in the range of commercial coke, and development tests on a larger scale are recommended. The reaction rate of the form coke carbon with carbon dioxide at 1825{degree}F was measured using a standard procedure. A smokeless fuel briquette with limestone added to control sulfur can be made from mild gasification char in a simple manner. Test results have shown that briquettes with limestone have a heating value comparable to other solid fuels and the limestone can retain up to 88% of the sulfur during combustion in a simple bench-scale combustion test, almost all of it as a stable calcium sulfate. Adsorbent chars were prepared with a standard steam activation procedure and tested for a variety of pertinent property and performance values. Such adsorbents may be better suited for use in some areas, such as the adsorption of low-molecular-weight substances, because of the smaller pore sizes measured in the char. 5 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Kinetics experiments and bench-scale system: Background, design, and preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rofer, C.K.

    1987-10-01

    The project, Supercritical Water Oxidation of Hazardous Chemical Waste, is a Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Research and Development task being carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its objective is to obtain information for use in understanding the basic technology and for scaling up and applying oxidation in supercritical water as a viable process for treating a variety of DOE-DP waste streams. This report gives the background and rationale for kinetics experiments on oxidation in supercritical water being carried out as a part of this HAZWRAP Research and Development task. It discusses supercritical fluid properties and their relevance to applying this process to the destruction of hazardous wastes. An overview is given of the small emerging industry based on applications of supercritical water oxidation. Factors that could lead to additional applications are listed. Modeling studies are described as a basis for the experimental design. The report describes plug flow reactor and batch reactor systems, and presents preliminary results. 28 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Meyer, J.H.; Vidt, E.J.

    1989-09-01

    The ceramic cross-flow filter (CXF) system is a promising method to be used in advanced coal based power systems for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) particle removal. Using a subpilot scale pressurized fluid-bed combustor (PFBC) at Argonne National Laboratory and various PFBC simulators, prior projects have indicated that CXF systems can be used in oxidizing environments at PFBC conditions. To extend the use of CXF systems, this project completed an economic analysis comparing the cost of various oxygen and air blown gasification systems with the CXF system incorporated, initiated the scaleup of the CXF element from development to commercial size, predicted the characteristics of gasifier dust cake, evaluated cleaning pulse characteristics in a large multielement simulation, upgraded pulse cleaning mathematical model, and completed additional testing of the CXF elements under gasification (reducing) and PFBC conditions. Coors Ceramic Company and GTE Products Corporation were integrally involved in this program through the development and fabrication of the CXF elements. 39 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Genome-Scale Analysis of Replication Timing: from Bench to Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Ryba, Tyrone; Battaglia, Dana; Pope, Benjamin D.; Hiratani, Ichiro; Gilbert, David M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Replication timing profiles are cell type-specific and reflect genome organization changes upon differentiation. In this protocol we describe how to analyze replication timing genome-wide in mammalian cells. Asynchronously cycling cells are pulse labeled with the nucleotide analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and sorted into S-phase fractions based on DNA content using flow cytometry. BrdU-labeled DNA from each fraction is immunoprecipitated, amplified, differentially labeled, and co-hybridized to a whole-genome CGH microarray, which is currently more cost effective than high-throughput sequencing and equally capable of resolving features at the biologically relevant level of tens to hundreds of kilobases. We also present a guide to analyzing the resulting datasets, based on methods we use routinely. Subjects include normalization, scaling, and data quality measures, loess (local polynomial) smoothing of replication timing values, segmentation of data into domains, and assignment of timing values to gene promoters. Finally, we cover clustering methods and means to relate changes in the replication program to gene expression and other genetic and epigenetic datasets. Some experience with R or similar programming languages is assumed. Altogether, the protocol takes approximately 3 weeks to complete. PMID:21637205

  2. Genome-scale analysis of replication timing: from bench to bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Tyrone; Battaglia, Dana; Pope, Benjamin D; Hiratani, Ichiro; Gilbert, David M

    2011-06-01

    Replication timing profiles are cell type-specific and reflect genome organization changes during differentiation. In this protocol, we describe how to analyze genome-wide replication timing (RT) in mammalian cells. Asynchronously cycling cells are pulse labeled with the nucleotide analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and sorted into S-phase fractions on the basis of DNA content using flow cytometry. BrdU-labeled DNA from each fraction is immunoprecipitated, amplified, differentially labeled and co-hybridized to a whole-genome comparative genomic hybridization microarray, which is currently more cost effective than high-throughput sequencing and equally capable of resolving features at the biologically relevant level of tens to hundreds of kilobases. We also present a guide to analyzing the resulting data sets based on methods we use routinely. Subjects include normalization, scaling and data quality measures, LOESS (local polynomial) smoothing of RT values, segmentation of data into domains and assignment of timing values to gene promoters. Finally, we cover clustering methods and means to relate changes in the replication program to gene expression and other genetic and epigenetic data sets. Some experience with R or similar programming languages is assumed. All together, the protocol takes ∼3 weeks per batch of samples.

  3. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  4. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for

  5. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-16

    This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

  6. Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

  7. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature.

  8. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature. PMID:22980959

  9. Small scale seismic measurement bench to assess imaging methods - application to Full Waveform Inversion of a shallow structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leparoux, D.; Bretaudeau, F.; Brossier, R.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic imaging of subsurface is useful for civil engineering and landscape management topics. The usual methods use surface waves phase velocities or first arrival times of body waves. However, for complex structures, such methods can be inefficient and Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) promises relevant performances because all the signal is taken into account. FWI has been originally developed for deep explorations (Pratt et al. 1999). Heterogeneities and strong attenuation in the near surface make difficult the adaptation of the FWI to shallower media (Bretaudeau et al. 2009). For this reason, we have developed a physical modeling measurement bench that performs small scale seismic recording in well controlled contexts (Bretaudeau et al. 2011). In this paper we assess the capacity of the FWI method (Brossier 2010) for imaging a subsurface structure including a low velocity layer and a lateral variation of interfaces. The analog model is a 180mm long and 50mm thick layered epoxy resin block (fig. 1). Seismic data generated with a punctual piezoelectric source emitting a 120KHz Ricker wavelet at the medium surface were collected by an heterodyne laser interferometer. The laser allows recording the absolute normal particle displacement without contact, avoiding disturbances caused by coupling. The laser interferometer and the piezoelectric source were attached to automated arms that could be moved over the model surface to a precision of 0.01mm (fig. 1). The acquisition survey includes 241 receiver and 37 source positions respectively spaced at 1 and 5 mm. Figure 2 shows 2D maps of the Vs parameter after inversion of data sequentially processed with 13 frequencies. The geometry of the sloped interface is recovered. A low velocity zone is imaged but with a thickness thinner than expected. Moreover, artifacts appear in the near surface. Experimental modeling results showed the capacity of the FWI in this case and provided key issues for further works about inversion by

  10. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part I: effect of operational conditions on product gas characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of R&D activities on the development of gasification and reforming technologies for energy and chemical recovery from biomass resources. Gasification of the Japanese cedar wood has been investigated under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Parametric tests by varying the residence times, gasification temperatures, equivalence ratios (ERs) and steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios were performed to determine their effects on the product gas characteristics. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were preformed to predict the equilibrium gas composition and compared with the experimental value. We found that the product gas characteristics in terms of the H(2)/CO ratio, CO(2)/CO ratio, and CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons concentrations are significantly affected by the operating conditions used. Increasing the residence time decreased the CO(2)/CO ratio; however, a nominal effect was noticed on H(2) concentration as a function of the residence time. At sufficient residence time, increasing the temperature led to higher H(2) yields, CO efficiency and higher heating value (HHV) of the product gas. The presence of steam during gasification effectively enhanced the proportion of H(2) in the product gas. However, higher S/C ratio reduced the HHV of the product gas. Increasing the ER from 0 to 0.3 increased the H(2) yields and CO efficiency and decreased the HHV of the product gas. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at low gasification temperatures was relatively higher than that at high temperature gasification. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at high gasification temperatures hardly varied over the investigated operating conditions.

  11. Development of an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor to Regenerate Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Barry W.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    Three Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors were designed, fabricated, and operated. They utilized mixed microbial communities to bio-degrade plant residues. The continuously stirred tank reactors operated at a working volume of 8 L, and the average oxygen mass transfer coefficient, k(sub L)a, was 0.01 s(exp -1). Mixing time was 35 s. An experiment using inedible wheat residues, a replenishment rate of 0.125/day, and a solids loading rate of 20 gdw/day yielded a 48% reduction in biomass. Bioreactor effluent was successfully used to regenerate a wheat hydroponic nutrient solution. Over 80% of available potassium, calcium, and other minerals were recovered and recycled in the 76-day wheat growth experiment.

  12. Aerobic microbial dolomite at the nanometer scale: Implications for the geologic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Vasconcelos, Crisógono; Schmid, Thomas; Dittrich, Maria; McKenzie, Judith A.; Zenobi, Renato; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.

    2008-11-01

    Microbial experiments are the only proven approach to produceexperimental dolomite under Earth's surface conditions. Althoughmicrobial metabolisms are known to induce dolomite precipitationby favoring dolomite growth kinetics, the involvement of microbesin the dolomite nucleation process is poorly understood. Inparticular, the nucleation of microbially mediated dolomiteremains a matter for investigation because the metabolic diversityinvolved in this process has not been fully explored. Hereinwe demonstrate that Halomonas meridiana and Virgibacillus marismortui,two moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria, mediate primaryprecipitation of dolomite at low temperatures (25, 35 °C).This report emphasizes the biomineralogical implications fordolomite formation at the nanometer scale. We describe nucleationof dolomite on nanoglobules in intimate association with thebacterial cell surface. A combination of both laboratory cultureexperiments and natural samples reveals that these nanoglobulestructures may be: (1) the initial step for dolomite nucleation,(2) preserved in the geologic record, and (3) used as microbialtracers through time and/or as a proxy for ancient microbialdolomite, as well as other carbonate minerals.

  13. Effect of COD/N ratio on cultivation of aerobic granular sludge in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Qiao, Zhuangming; Zhang, Yongfang; Hao, Lianjie; Si, Wei; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated with the effluent of internal circulation reactor in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Soy protein wastewater was used as an external carbon source for altering the influent chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratios of SBR. Initially, the phenomenon of partial nitrification was observed and depressed by increasing the influent COD/N ratios from 3.32 to 7.24 mg/mg. After 90 days of aerobic granulation, the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of the reactor increased from 2.80 to 7.02 g/L, while the sludge volumetric index decreased from 105.51 to 42.99 mL/g. The diameters of mature aerobic granules vary in the range of 1.2 to 2.0 mm. The reactor showed excellent removal performances for COD and N₄⁺--N after aerobic granulation, and average removal efficiencies were over 93% and 98%, respectively. The result of this study could provide further information on the development of aerobic granule-based system for full-scale applications.

  14. High-temperature, high-pressure testing of zinc titanate in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor for 100 cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1993-06-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are being advanced worldwide to produce electricity from coal owing to their potential for superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. A key component of these plants is a hot-gas desulfurization system employing efficient regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents. Leading sorbent candidates include zinc ferrite and zinc titanate. These sorbents can remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in the fuel gas down to very low levels (typically <20 ppmv) at 500 to 750{degree}C and can be readily regenerated for multicycle operation with air. To this end, the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) has formulated and tested a series of zinc titanate sorbents in a high-temperature, high- pressure HTHP fluidized-bed bench-scale reactor. Multicycle HTHP bench-scale testing of these sorbents under a variety of conditions culminated in the development of a ZT-4 sorbent that exhibited the best overall performance in terms of chemical reactivity, sulfur capacity, regenerability, structural properties, and attrition resistance. Following this parametric study, a life-cycle test consisting of 100 sulfidation-regeneration cycles was carried out with ZT-4 in the bench unit.

  15. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  16. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  17. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  18. Enhanced removal of VOCs from aquifers during air sparging using thickeners and surfactants: Bench-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heonki; Ahn, Dayoung; Annable, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled air flow paths during air sparging on the removal of volatile organic compounds were examined in this study using a two-dimensional bench-scale physical model. An aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which is a thickener, was used to increase the resistance of water to displacement by injected air in a region around the targeted zone. At the same time, an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), which is a surfactant, was used to reduce the air entry pressure to enhance the air flow through the targeted region. Trichloroethene (TCE), dissolved in water, was used to represent an aqueous phase volatile organic compound (VOC). A binary mixture of perchloroethene (PCE) and n-hexane was also used as a nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL). Controlled air flow through the source zone, achieved by emplacing a high viscosity aqueous solution into a region surrounding the TCE-impacted zone, resulted in increased TCE removal from 23.0% (control) to 38.2% during a 2.5h period. When the air flow was focused on the targeted source zone of aqueous phase TCE (by decreasing the surface tension within the source zone and its vicinity by 28 dyn/cm, no SCMC applied), the mass removal of TCE was enhanced to 41.3% during the same time period. With SCMC and SDBS applied simultaneously around and beneath a NAPL source zone, respectively, the NAPL components were found to be removed more effectively over a period of 8.2h than the sparging experiment with no additives applied; 84.6% of PCE and 94.0% of n-hexane were removed for the controlled air flow path experiments (with both SCMC and SDBS applied) compared to 52.7% (PCE) and 74.0% (n-hexane) removal for the control experiment (no additives applied). Based on the experimental observations made in this study, applying a viscous aqueous solution around the source zone and a surfactant solution in and near the source zone, the air flow was focused through the targeted contaminant

  19. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

    2008-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  20. Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    PubMed

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin; Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Apel, William A; Petersen, James N

    2008-12-15

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  1. Enhanced removal of VOCs from aquifers during air sparging using thickeners and surfactants: Bench-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heonki; Ahn, Dayoung; Annable, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled air flow paths during air sparging on the removal of volatile organic compounds were examined in this study using a two-dimensional bench-scale physical model. An aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which is a thickener, was used to increase the resistance of water to displacement by injected air in a region around the targeted zone. At the same time, an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), which is a surfactant, was used to reduce the air entry pressure to enhance the air flow through the targeted region. Trichloroethene (TCE), dissolved in water, was used to represent an aqueous phase volatile organic compound (VOC). A binary mixture of perchloroethene (PCE) and n-hexane was also used as a nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL). Controlled air flow through the source zone, achieved by emplacing a high viscosity aqueous solution into a region surrounding the TCE-impacted zone, resulted in increased TCE removal from 23.0% (control) to 38.2% during a 2.5h period. When the air flow was focused on the targeted source zone of aqueous phase TCE (by decreasing the surface tension within the source zone and its vicinity by 28 dyn/cm, no SCMC applied), the mass removal of TCE was enhanced to 41.3% during the same time period. With SCMC and SDBS applied simultaneously around and beneath a NAPL source zone, respectively, the NAPL components were found to be removed more effectively over a period of 8.2h than the sparging experiment with no additives applied; 84.6% of PCE and 94.0% of n-hexane were removed for the controlled air flow path experiments (with both SCMC and SDBS applied) compared to 52.7% (PCE) and 74.0% (n-hexane) removal for the control experiment (no additives applied). Based on the experimental observations made in this study, applying a viscous aqueous solution around the source zone and a surfactant solution in and near the source zone, the air flow was focused through the targeted contaminant

  2. Enhanced removal of VOCs from aquifers during air sparging using thickeners and surfactants: Bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heonki; Ahn, Dayoung; Annable, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled air flow paths during air sparging on the removal of volatile organic compounds were examined in this study using a two-dimensional bench-scale physical model. An aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which is a thickener, was used to increase the resistance of water to displacement by injected air in a region around the targeted zone. At the same time, an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), which is a surfactant, was used to reduce the air entry pressure to enhance the air flow through the targeted region. Trichloroethene (TCE), dissolved in water, was used to represent an aqueous phase volatile organic compound (VOC). A binary mixture of perchloroethene (PCE) and n-hexane was also used as a nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL). Controlled air flow through the source zone, achieved by emplacing a high viscosity aqueous solution into a region surrounding the TCE-impacted zone, resulted in increased TCE removal from 23.0% (control) to 38.2% during a 2.5 h period. When the air flow was focused on the targeted source zone of aqueous phase TCE (by decreasing the surface tension within the source zone and its vicinity by 28 dyn/cm, no SCMC applied), the mass removal of TCE was enhanced to 41.3% during the same time period. With SCMC and SDBS applied simultaneously around and beneath a NAPL source zone, respectively, the NAPL components were found to be removed more effectively over a period of 8.2 h than the sparging experiment with no additives applied; 84.6% of PCE and 94.0% of n-hexane were removed for the controlled air flow path experiments (with both SCMC and SDBS applied) compared to 52.7% (PCE) and 74.0% (n-hexane) removal for the control experiment (no additives applied). Based on the experimental observations made in this study, applying a viscous aqueous solution around the source zone and a surfactant solution in and near the source zone, the air flow was focused through the targeted contaminant

  3. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  4. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  5. Recirculation of reverse osmosis concentrate in lab-scale anaerobic and aerobic landfill simulation reactors.

    PubMed

    Morello, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello; Raga, Roberto; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Leachate treatment is a major issue in the context of landfill management, particularly in view of the consistent changes manifested over time in the quality and quantity of leachate produced, linked to both waste and landfill characteristics, which renders the procedure technically difficult and expensive. Leachate recirculation may afford a series of potential advantages, including improvement of leachate quality, enhancement of gas production, acceleration of biochemical processes, control of moisture content, as well as nutrients and microbe migration within the landfill. Recirculation of the products of leachate treatment, such as reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate, is a less common practice, with widespread controversy relating to its suitability, potential impacts on landfill management and future gaseous and leachable emissions. Scientific literature provides the results of only a few full-scale applications of concentrate recirculation. In some cases, an increase of COD and ammonium nitrogen in leachate was observed, coupled with an increase of salinity; which, additionally, might negatively affect performance of the RO plant itself. In other cases, not only did leachate production not increase significantly but the characteristics of leachate extracted from the well closest to the re-injection point also remained unchanged. This paper presents the results of lab-scale tests conducted in landfill simulation reactors, in which the effects of injection of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate RO concentrate were evaluated. Six reactors were managed with different weekly concentrate inputs, under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, with the aim of investigating the short and long-term effects of this practice on landfill emissions. Lab-scale tests resulted in a more reliable identification of compound accumulation and kinetic changes than full-scale applications, further enhancing the development of a mass balance in which gaseous emissions and waste

  6. Recirculation of reverse osmosis concentrate in lab-scale anaerobic and aerobic landfill simulation reactors.

    PubMed

    Morello, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello; Raga, Roberto; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Leachate treatment is a major issue in the context of landfill management, particularly in view of the consistent changes manifested over time in the quality and quantity of leachate produced, linked to both waste and landfill characteristics, which renders the procedure technically difficult and expensive. Leachate recirculation may afford a series of potential advantages, including improvement of leachate quality, enhancement of gas production, acceleration of biochemical processes, control of moisture content, as well as nutrients and microbe migration within the landfill. Recirculation of the products of leachate treatment, such as reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate, is a less common practice, with widespread controversy relating to its suitability, potential impacts on landfill management and future gaseous and leachable emissions. Scientific literature provides the results of only a few full-scale applications of concentrate recirculation. In some cases, an increase of COD and ammonium nitrogen in leachate was observed, coupled with an increase of salinity; which, additionally, might negatively affect performance of the RO plant itself. In other cases, not only did leachate production not increase significantly but the characteristics of leachate extracted from the well closest to the re-injection point also remained unchanged. This paper presents the results of lab-scale tests conducted in landfill simulation reactors, in which the effects of injection of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate RO concentrate were evaluated. Six reactors were managed with different weekly concentrate inputs, under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, with the aim of investigating the short and long-term effects of this practice on landfill emissions. Lab-scale tests resulted in a more reliable identification of compound accumulation and kinetic changes than full-scale applications, further enhancing the development of a mass balance in which gaseous emissions and waste

  7. Effect of oligochaete worm body fluids on biological phosphorus removal in a bench-scale EBPR system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Du, Shaoting; Sun, Peide; Zhu, Mingshan

    2012-01-01

    During waste sludge reduction by oligochaetes, phosphorus (P) concentrations in the effluent have been noticed to increase. In the current study, batch experiments were carried out in order to provide explanations for this phosphorus release. The results indicated that increase in effluent phosphorus concentration might not be directly linked to the phosphorus in worm body fluids, as the phosphorus concentration in the system at the start of each operational period did not change significantly. However, the phosphorus removal efficiency rapidly dropped from 93.9% +/- 1.9% to 62.2% +/- 1.3% with increasing addition ofoligochaete worm body fluids. Furthermore, an increase in worm body fluids induced a remarkable enhancement ofanaerobic phosphorus release rate as well as anaerobic storage of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA). At a worm density (wet weight) of 14.4 g/L, the anaerobic phosphorus release rate was elevated by 31.1% +/- 2.8% and 57.3% +/- 4.6% at 2.5% and 5.0% worm death rate, respectively, compared with the control. The contribution of worm body fluids to PHA production was 39.3-67.7 mg/g of dead worm (wet weight), which was mainly attributed to the extra synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyvalerate (PHV). Unfortunately, in the concomitant aerobic stage, inhibition of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) oxidation and ammonia utilization was observed along with the increasing addition of worm body fluids. Meanwhile, nitrite elevation was found at the beginning of the aerobic stage, which might be negative to the aerobic metabolic processes performed by phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs), namely PHB oxidation, phosphate uptake and ammonia utilization for biomass growth.

  8. Design and construction of a medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric system to assess aerobic biodegradation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Aguirre, Edgar

    A medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric (DMR) system was designed and built to assess the aerobic biodegradation of up to 30 materials in triplicate simultaneously. Likewise, a computer application was developed for rapid analysis of the data generated. The developed DMR system was able to simulate different testing conditions by varying temperature and relative humidity, which are the major exposure conditions affecting biodegradation. Two complete tests for determining the aerobic biodegradation of polymers under composting conditions were performed to show the efficacy and efficiency of both the DMR system and the DMR data analyzer. In both cases, cellulose reached 70% mineralization at 139 and 45 days. The difference in time for cellulose to reach 70% mineralization was attributed to the composition of the compost and water availability, which highly affect the biodegradation rate. Finally, among the tested materials, at least 60% of the organic carbon content of the biodegradable polymers was converted into carbon dioxide by the end of the test.

  9. A bench-scale constructed wetland as a model to characterize benzene biodegradation processes in freshwater wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Jana; Remy, Benjamin; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H

    2011-12-01

    In wetlands, a variety of biotic and abiotic processes can contribute to the removal of organic substances. Here, we used compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), hydrogeochemical parameters and detection of functional genes to characterize in situ biodegradation of benzene in a model constructed wetland over a period of 370 days. Despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations (<30 μM), the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate and the complete oxidation of ferrous iron pointed to a dominance of aerobic processes, suggesting efficient oxygen transfer into the sediment zone by plants. As benzene removal became highly efficient after day 231 (>98% removal), we applied CSIA to study in situ benzene degradation by indigenous microbes. Combining carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures by two-dimensional stable isotope analysis revealed that benzene was degraded aerobically, mainly via the monohydroxylation pathway. This was additionally supported by the detection of the BTEX monooxygenase gene tmoA in sediment and root samples. Calculating the extent of biodegradation from the isotope signatures demonstrated that at least 85% of benzene was degraded by this pathway and thus, only a small fraction was removed abiotically. This study shows that model wetlands can contribute to an understanding of biodegradation processes in floodplains or natural wetland systems.

  10. Production and antigenic properties of influenza virus from suspension MDCK-siat7e cells in a bench-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia; Lugovtsev, Vladimir; Lewis, Andrew; Betenbaugh, Michael; Shiloach, Joseph

    2010-10-18

    In efforts to overcome limitations associated with egg-based influenza vaccines, mammalian cell substrates have gradually emerged as potential production platforms. Recently, a suspension Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line for influenza virus production was created by expressing the human siat7e gene. To examine the broad susceptibility of this novel cell line, the scalability of the production process, and the antigenic stability of cell-derived progeny viruses, infection experiments using four current influenza vaccine strains (A/California/07/2009 X-179A H1N1, A/Brisbane/59/2007 IVR-148 H1N1, A/Uruguay/716/2007 X-175C H3N2, and B/Brisbane/60/2008) were performed. In small-scale experiments, this cell line was found to support high-titer replication of all four virus strains. Subsequently, production in a bench-scale bioreactor and the antigenic characteristics of progeny viruses were assessed. High titers of hemagglutinin (at least 1:512) were produced in a 2-L bench-scale bioreactor with all four strains. Immunoblot results demonstrated higher yields in the cells than those obtained in chicken embryonated eggs with three of the four tested strains. Progeny viruses collected after serial passages in this cell line exhibited minimal mutations in the HA-encoding gene. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays using ferret antiserum confirmed the antigenic stability. As a proof-of-concept this work demonstrates that by using a proper strategy, high yields of biologically active hemagglutinin can be produced from scalable cultures of suspension MDCK-siat7e cells. PMID:20800699

  11. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  12. Mesophilic batch anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge and monosodium glutamate waste liquor for methane production in a bench-scale digester.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Li, Qing; Xiao, Minquan

    2011-02-01

    This paper presented results from anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). A bench-scale anaerobic digester, 10 L in volume was developed, to operate under mesophilic (37 ± 2°C) batch condition. Under versatile and reliable anaerobic conduct, high efficiency for bioconversion of PPS and MGWL were obtained in the system. The accumulative methane yield attained to 200 mL g(-1) VS(added) and the peak value of methane daily production was 0.5m(3)/(m(3)d). No inhibitions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia on anaerobic co-digestion were found. pH 6.0-8.0 and alkalinity 1000-4000 mg CaCO(3)/L were got without adjustment. This work showed that there was a good potential to the use of PPS and MGWL to anaerobic co-digestion for methane production.

  13. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  14. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Quarterly technical progress report, September 21, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-22

    This document contains the first quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor Control System. The twelve-month project will involve installation of a 300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) and testing of two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelvemonth project. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I - Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing. Phase II - ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project will be performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through May, 1993, and will be the major focus of the project. It will involve testing of the continuous 300 lb/hr. circuit. Phase II - Project Finalization: The project finalization phase will occur from June through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and will involve finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This quarterly progress report principally summarizes the results from the Phase I preparation work and the plan for the early portions of the Phase 11 installation and commissioning, which will occur in January and the first week of February, 1993.

  15. Bench- and Pilot-Scale Studies of Reaction and Regeneration of Ni-Mg-K/Al2O3 for Catalytic Conditioning of Biomass-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Jablonski, W. S.; Parent, Y. O.; Yung, M. M.

    2012-05-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is collaborating with both industrial and academic partners to develop technologies to help enable commercialization of biofuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The focus of this paper is to report how various operating processes, utilized in-house and by collaborators, influence the catalytic activity during conditioning of biomass-derived syngas. Efficient cleaning and conditioning of biomass-derived syngas for use in fuel synthesis continues to be a significant technical barrier to commercialization. Multifunctional, fluidizable catalysts are being developed to reform undesired tars and light hydrocarbons, especially methane, to additional syngas, which can improve utilization of biomass carbon. This approach also eliminates both the need for downstream methane reforming and the production of an aqueous waste stream from tar scrubbing. This work was conducted with NiMgK/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. These catalysts were assessed for methane reforming performance in (i) fixed-bed, bench-scale tests with model syngas simulating that produced by oak gasification, and in pilot-scale, (ii) fluidized tests with actual oak-derived syngas, and (iii) recirculating/regenerating tests using model syngas. Bench-scale tests showed that the catalyst could be completely regenerated over several reforming reaction cycles. Pilot-scale tests using raw syngas showed that the catalyst lost activity from cycle to cycle when it was regenerated, though it was shown that bench-scale regeneration by steam oxidation and H{sub 2} reduction did not cause this deactivation. Characterization by TPR indicates that the loss of a low temperature nickel oxide reduction feature is related to the catalyst deactivation, which is ascribed to nickel being incorporated into a spinel nickel aluminate that is not reduced with the given activation protocol. Results for 100 h time-on-stream using a recirculating/regenerating reactor suggest

  16. Microbial community composition of polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating organisms in full-scale wastewater treatment plants operated in fully aerobic mode.

    PubMed

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11-18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5-38.2 mg-C g-VSS(-1) h(-1)). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  17. Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vinger, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

  18. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-04-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil.

  19. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  20. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  1. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of 137 Cesium from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions 2: Bench-Scale Column Experiments, Modeling, and Preliminary Process Design

    SciTech Connect

    Troy J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4?3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales.

  2. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity. PMID:25728198

  3. Integrating a 250 mL-spinner flask with other stirred bench-scale cell culture devices: a mass transfer perspective.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Jose R; Brorson, Kurt A; Moreira, Antonio R; Rao, Govind

    2011-01-01

    The bioprocess development cycle is a complex task that requires a complete understanding of the engineering of the process (e.g., mass transfer, mixing, CO(2) removal, process monitoring, and control) and its affect on cell biology and product quality. Despite their widespread use in bioprocess development, spinner flasks generally lack engineering characterization of critical physical parameters such as k(L)a, P/V, or mixing time. In this study, mass transfer characterization of a 250-mL spinner flask using optical patch-based sensors is presented. The results quantitatively show the effect of the impeller type, liquid filling volume, and agitation speed on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in a 250-mL spinner flask, and how they can be manipulated to match mass transfer capability at large culture devices. Thus, process understanding in spinner flasks can be improved, and these devices can be seamlessly integrated in a rational scale-up strategy from cell thawing to bench-scale bioreactors (and beyond) in biomanufacturing. PMID:21523928

  4. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity.

  5. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  6. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  7. Alkylphenol polyethoxylate removal in a pilot-scale reed bed and phenotypic characterization of the aerobic heterotrophic community.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Cristiana; Pizzo, Anna Maria; Tiscione, Emilia; Burrini, Daniela; Messeri, Luca; Lepri, Luciano; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2006-07-01

    The removal of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100, dosed at 30 and 300 mg/L in a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow reed bed, and the aerobic heterotrophic cultivable community associated with the roots and with the substrate gravel in both absence and presence of Triton X-100 were investigated. t-Octylphenol (OP) and its mono-, di- and tri-ethoxyl derivatives, among others, were found in the outlet. A mass balance allowed us to calculate that approximately 40% of the Triton X-100 metabolites OP and octylphenol polyethoxylate derivatives flowed out of the reed bed during the dosage and postdosage experiments. More aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms adhered to the roots than to the gravel. The appearance of new strains (Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, and Aquaspirillum) and the increased presence of others (Pseudomonas) during the dosage of Triton may be linked to the capacity of these bacteria to adapt to the presence of the surfactant or to use it as a nourishment. PMID:16929647

  8. Microbial Community Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Operated in Fully Aerobic Mode

    PubMed Central

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11–18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5–38.2 mg-C g-VSS−1 h−1). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  9. LISA Optical Bench Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröbs, M.; d'Arcio, L.; Barke, S.; Bogenstahl, J.; Diekmann, C.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Gerberding, O.; Hennig, J.; Hey, F. G.; Hogenhuis, H.; Killow, C. J.; Lieser, M.; Lucarelli, S.; Nikolov, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Pijnenburg, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Sohmer, A.; Taylor, A.; Ward, H.; Weise, D.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    Each LISA satellite carries optical benches, one for each test mass, that measure the distance to the local test mass and to the remote optical bench on the distant satellite. Currently, an elegant bread board of the optical bench is developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) by EADS Astrium, TNO Science and Technology, University of Glasgow and the Albert Einstein Institute. To test the optical bench the two interferometers mentioned above must be completed by an external simulator, the test mass and telescope simulator. We give an overview of the simulator layout and performance predictions.

  10. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench- scale coal gasifier. Second quarterly project report, January 1, 1985--March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-12-31

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion. (VC)

  11. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier. Fifth quarterly report, October 1, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-12-31

    The Department of Energy is currently sporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. the proposed program is composed of three major technical task. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  12. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier. Fourth quarterly report, July 1, 1985--September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-12-31

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  13. Laboratory/bench-scale testing and evaluation of the A. P. T. Dry-Plate Scrubber. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-30

    The A.P.T. Dry Plate Scrubber (DPS) uses a shallow, dense mobile bed of solid collector granules which move across a perforated plate. The gas stream containing fine particles and vapors is moved upward through the perforations to form high velocity gas jets. The fine particles are removed by inertial deposition onto the collector granules or by direct interception. Electrostatic forces also can be used to improve the collection efficiency and increase the adhesive forces between the particles and collectors. The DPS column consists of a series of collection stages (perforated plates) with the collectors either passing sequentially over each stage or being fed separately to each stage. The stages can be designed so as to promote the collection of large particles on the lower stages and the collection of fine particles and alkali vapors on the upper stages. The DPS is especially well suited for cleaning high temperature and pressure gases such as the effluent from a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) process. The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the DPS at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes.

  14. Cultivation of Chlorella zofingiensis in bench-scale outdoor ponds by regulation of pH using dairy wastewater in winter, South China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuhao; Wang, Zhongming; Zhu, Shunni; Zhou, Weizheng; Dong, Renjie; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2012-10-01

    Cultivation of Chlorella zofingiensis and nutrients removal in dairy wastewater were investigated in bench-scale outdoor ponds in winter, South China. The impacts of the two types of pH regulations, 5 ≈ 6% CO(2) and acetic acid (HAc) on this process were studied. After 6 days cultivation, the removal rates of total nitrogen (TN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)(3-)) using CO(2) regulation were better than those using HAc. The removal rates of PO(4)(3-) and TN were 97.5% and 51.7%, respectively using CO(2) regulation; 79.6% (TN) and 42.0% (PO(4)(3-)) were obtained using HAc regulation. Higher biomass, protein, sugar content, and stable pH control were found using CO(2) regulation. However, significantly higher lipid content (31.8%) was observed using HAc regulation. The dominant differences of fatty acids were the content of C18:1 and C18:3. The growth characteristics and environmental conditions especially during the typical logarithmic phase were also analyzed. PMID:22858469

  15. Bacterial community in the biofilm of granular activated carbon (GAC) PreBiofilter in bench-scale pilot plants for surface water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tiehang; Fu, George Yuzhu; Sabula, Michael; Brown, Tommy

    2014-12-01

    Biofilters of granular activated carbon (GAC) are responsible for the removal of organic matters in drinking water treatments. PreBiofilters, which operate as the first unit in a surface water treatment train, are a cost-effective pretreatment for conventional surface water treatment and provide more consistent downstream water quality. This study investigated bacterial communities from the samples of raw surface water, biofilm on the PreBiofilter, and filtrates for surface water pretreatment. A bench-scale pilot plant of PreBiofilter was constructed to pretreat surface water from the Canoochee River, GA, USA. PreBiofilter exhibited a significant reduction of total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. The evenness and Shannon diversity of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher on the biofilm of PreBiofilter than in raw water and filtrates. Similar bacteria communities were observed in the raw water and filtrates using relative abundance of bacterial OTUs. However, the bacterial communities in the filtrates became relatively similar to those in the biofilm using presence/absence of bacterial OTUs. GAC biofilm or raw water and filtrates greatly contributed to the abundance of bacteria; whereas, bacteria sheared from colonized biofilm and entered filtrates. Evenly distributed, diverse and unique bacteria in the biofilm played an important role to remove organic matters from surface water for conventional surface water pretreatment.

  16. Rate and reaction probability of the surface reaction between ozone and dihydromyrcenol measured in a bench scale reactor and a room-sized chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Morrison, Glenn C.

    2012-02-01

    Low volatility terpenoids emitted from consumer products can react with ozone on surfaces and may significantly alter concentrations of ozone, terpenoids and reaction products in indoor air. We measured the reaction probability and a second-order surface-specific reaction rate for the ozonation of dihydromyrcenol, a representative indoor terpenoid, adsorbed onto polyvinylchloride (PVC), glass, and latex paint coated spheres. The reaction probability ranged from (0.06-8.97) × 10 -5 and was very sensitive to humidity, substrate and mass adsorbed. The average surface reaction probability is about 10 times greater than that for the gas-phase reaction. The second-order surface-specific rate coefficient ranged from (0.32-7.05) × 10 -15 cm 4 s -1 molecule -1and was much less sensitive to humidity, substrate, or mass adsorbed. We also measured the ozone deposition velocity due to adsorbed dihydromyrcenol on painted drywall in a room-sized chamber, Based on that, we calculated the rate coefficient ((0.42-1.6) × 10 -15 cm 4 molecule -1 s -1), which was consistent with that derived from bench-scale experiments for the latex paint under similar conditions. We predict that more than 95% of dihydromyrcenol oxidation takes place on indoor surfaces, rather than in building air.

  17. Bacterial community in the biofilm of granular activated carbon (GAC) PreBiofilter in bench-scale pilot plants for surface water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tiehang; Fu, George Yuzhu; Sabula, Michael; Brown, Tommy

    2014-12-01

    Biofilters of granular activated carbon (GAC) are responsible for the removal of organic matters in drinking water treatments. PreBiofilters, which operate as the first unit in a surface water treatment train, are a cost-effective pretreatment for conventional surface water treatment and provide more consistent downstream water quality. This study investigated bacterial communities from the samples of raw surface water, biofilm on the PreBiofilter, and filtrates for surface water pretreatment. A bench-scale pilot plant of PreBiofilter was constructed to pretreat surface water from the Canoochee River, GA, USA. PreBiofilter exhibited a significant reduction of total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. The evenness and Shannon diversity of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher on the biofilm of PreBiofilter than in raw water and filtrates. Similar bacteria communities were observed in the raw water and filtrates using relative abundance of bacterial OTUs. However, the bacterial communities in the filtrates became relatively similar to those in the biofilm using presence/absence of bacterial OTUs. GAC biofilm or raw water and filtrates greatly contributed to the abundance of bacteria; whereas, bacteria sheared from colonized biofilm and entered filtrates. Evenly distributed, diverse and unique bacteria in the biofilm played an important role to remove organic matters from surface water for conventional surface water pretreatment. PMID:25267475

  18. Removal of sulfate and heavy metals by sulfate reducing bacteria in short-term bench scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor runs.

    PubMed

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2003-08-01

    Mildly acidic metal (Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al and Mg), arsenic and sulfate contaminated waters were treated, over a 14 day period at 25 degrees C, in a bench-scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor filled with silica sand and employing a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The activity of SRB increased the water pH from approximately 4.5 to 7.0, and enhanced the removal of sulfate and metals in comparison to controls not inoculated with SRB. Addition of organic substrate and sulfate at loading rates of 7.43 and 3.71 kg d(-1) m(-3), respectively, resulted in >82% reduction in sulfate concentration. The reactor removed more than 97.5% of the initial concentrations of Cu, Zn and Ni, while only >77.5% and >82% of As and Fe were removed, respectively. In contrast, Mg and Al levels remained unchanged during the whole treatment process. The removal patterns for Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe reflected the trend in their solubility for their respective metal sulfides, while As removal appeared to coincide with decreasing Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe concentrations, which suggests adsorption or concomitant precipitation with the other metal sulfides. PMID:12834731

  19. Computational fluid dynamics assessment: Volume 2, Isothermal simulations of the METC bench-scale coal-water slurry combustor: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

    1988-09-01

    The isothermal turbulent, swirling flow inside the METC pressurized bench-scale combustor has been simulated using ISOPCGC-2. The effects of the swirl numbers, the momentum ratio of the primary to secondary streams, the annular wall thickness, and the quarl angle on the flow and mixing patterns have been investigated. The results that with the present configuration of the combustor, an annular recirculation zone is present up to secondary swirl number of four. A central (on axis) recirculation zone can be obtained by increasing the momentum of the secondary stream by decreasing the annular area at the reactor inlet. The mixing of the primary (fuel carrier) air with the secondary air improves only slightly due to swirl unless a central recirculation zone is present. Good mixing is achieved in the quarl region when a central recirculation zone is present. A preliminary investigation of the influence of placing flow regulators inside the the combustor shows that they influence the flow field significantly and that there is a potential of obtaining optimum flow conditions using these flow regulators. 58 refs., 47 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. A microdevice assisted approach for the preparation, characterization and selection of continuous aqueous two-phase systems: from micro to bench-scale.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Villegas, Patricia; Ouellet, Eric; González, Claudia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Haynes, Charles A; Aguilar, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have emerged as an alternative strategy for the recovery and purification of a wide variety of biological products. Typical process development requires a large screening of experimental conditions towards industrial adoption where continuous processes are preferred. In this work, it was proved that under certain flow conditions, ATPS could be formed continuously inside a microchannel, starting from stocks of phase components. Staggered herringbone chaotic micromixers included within the device sequentially and rapidly prepare two-phase systems across an entire range of useful phase compositions. Two-phase diagrams (binodal curves) were easily plotted using the cloud-point method for systems of different components and compared with previously reported curves for each system, proving that phase formation inside the device correlated with the previously reported diagrams. A proof of concept for sample partitioning in such a microdevice was performed with two different experimental models: BSA and red blood cells. Finally, the microdevice was employed to obtain information about the recovery and partition coefficient of invertase from a real complex mixture of proteins (yeast extract) to design a process for the recovery of the enzyme selecting a suitable system and composition to perform the process at bench-scale. PMID:27302418

  1. Groundwater remediation by an in situ biobarrier: a bench scale feasibility test for methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline compounds.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Sabrina; Negri, Marco; Sezenna, Elena; Bonomo, Luca; Sorlini, Claudia

    2009-08-15

    Most gasoline contains high percentages of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an additive. The physico-chemical properties of this substance (high water solubility, low sorption in soil) result in high mobility and dissolved concentrations in soil. In situ permeable biological barriers (biobarriers, BBs) can remediate MTBE polluted groundwater by allowing pure cultures or microbial consortia to degrade MTBE when aerobic conditions are present, either by direct metabolism or cometabolism. Lab-scale batch and column tests were carried out to assess a selected microbial consortium in biodegrading MTBE and other gasoline compounds (benzene B, toluene T, ethylbenzene E, xylenes X) and to measure the parameters affecting the efficacy of a BB treatment of polluted groundwater. During the aerobic phase of the batch tests, the simultaneous biodegradation of MTBE, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), B, T, E and o-X was observed. The rapid biodegradation of BTEXs resulted in decreased oxygen availability, but MTBE degradation was nevertheless measured in the presence of BTEXs. Stationary concentrations of MTBE and TBA were measured when anoxic conditions occurred in the systems. Values for a first order kinetic removal process were obtained for MTBE (0.031+/-0.001 d(-1)), B (0.045+/-0.002 d(-1)) and T (0.080+/-0.004 d(-1)) in the inoculated column tests. The estimate of the BB design parameters suggested that inoculation could significantly modify (double) the longitudinal dispersivity value of the biomass support medium. No effect was observed in the retardation factors for MTBE, B and T. PMID:19200654

  2. Groundwater remediation by an in situ biobarrier: a bench scale feasibility test for methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline compounds.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Sabrina; Negri, Marco; Sezenna, Elena; Bonomo, Luca; Sorlini, Claudia

    2009-08-15

    Most gasoline contains high percentages of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an additive. The physico-chemical properties of this substance (high water solubility, low sorption in soil) result in high mobility and dissolved concentrations in soil. In situ permeable biological barriers (biobarriers, BBs) can remediate MTBE polluted groundwater by allowing pure cultures or microbial consortia to degrade MTBE when aerobic conditions are present, either by direct metabolism or cometabolism. Lab-scale batch and column tests were carried out to assess a selected microbial consortium in biodegrading MTBE and other gasoline compounds (benzene B, toluene T, ethylbenzene E, xylenes X) and to measure the parameters affecting the efficacy of a BB treatment of polluted groundwater. During the aerobic phase of the batch tests, the simultaneous biodegradation of MTBE, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), B, T, E and o-X was observed. The rapid biodegradation of BTEXs resulted in decreased oxygen availability, but MTBE degradation was nevertheless measured in the presence of BTEXs. Stationary concentrations of MTBE and TBA were measured when anoxic conditions occurred in the systems. Values for a first order kinetic removal process were obtained for MTBE (0.031+/-0.001 d(-1)), B (0.045+/-0.002 d(-1)) and T (0.080+/-0.004 d(-1)) in the inoculated column tests. The estimate of the BB design parameters suggested that inoculation could significantly modify (double) the longitudinal dispersivity value of the biomass support medium. No effect was observed in the retardation factors for MTBE, B and T.

  3. Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-08-01

    Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University of Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemicals compared to conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous benchscale tests at IGT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select preferred operating conditions for production of targeted chemicals (phenol, cresols, naphthalene, C{sub 1}-naphthalenes) from high-sulfur Illinois coals.

  4. NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C.E.; Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Jones, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without significant maintenance for the entire system life, as much as 20 to 30 years. Long-term liquid-metal boiling stability and materials compatibility with refluxing NaK-78 is not known and must be determined for the pool boiler receiver. No boiling system has been demonstrated for a significant duration with the current porous boiling enhancement surface and materials. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the full-scale pool boiler design as much as possible, including flux levels, materials, and operating cycles. On-sun testing is impractical because of the limited test time available. A test vessel was constructed with a porous boiling enhancement surface. The boiling surface consisted of a brazed stainless steel powder with about 50% porosity. The vessel was heated with a quartz lamp array providing about go W/CM2 peak incident thermal flux. The vessel was charged with NaK-78. This allows the elimination of costly electric preheating, both on this test and on fullscale receivers. The vessel was fabricated from Haynes 230 alloy. The vessel operated at 750{degrees}C around the clock, with a 1/2-hour shutdown cycle to ambient every 8 hours. The test completed 7500 hours of lamp-on operation time, and over 1000 startups from ambient. The test was terminated when a small leak in an Inconel 600 thermowell was detected. The test design and data are presented here. Metallurgical analysis of virgin and tested materials has begun, and initial results are also presented.

  5. Bench- and pilot-scale studies relating to the removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils using carbonate and citrate lixiviants.

    PubMed

    Francis, C W; Timpson, M E; Wilson, J H

    1999-04-23

    Development of the nuclear industry has resulted in soil becoming contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid the disposal of these soils in conventional low-level radwaste burial sites, a technology is needed to extract/leach and concentrate uranium in soil into small volumes of an acceptable waste form and returning the soil to its original place. Two lixiviants, carbonate and citrate, were evaluated as to their ability to extract uranium from soil in a soil washing engineering process. The objective was to use a washing/extracting process to selectively remove the uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil's physicochemical characteristics or generating a secondary waste form that is difficult to manage and/or dispose. Both carbonate and citric acid lixiviants were observed to be effective extractants to remove uranium from the soils tested. Carbonate, because of the its ability to be recycled and its tendency to be more selective for uranium, is preferred for most soils. A major obstacle for using citric acid as well as mineral-based acids is their generation of waste streams from which it is difficult to remove uranium and manage (and dispose of any residual waste water sludges) in an environmentally acceptable manner. The removal of uranium was examined for three soils sampled from two US Department of Energy sites. Two soils were from the facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio and the other soil was from the Oak Ridge Tennessee Y-12 Plant. In the bench-scale studies, general relationships, such as the effect of carbonate and citrate concentrations, pH, the presence of oxidants, such as KMnO4, temperature, and extraction time were investigated. The best pilot-scale treatment consisted of three successive extractions with 0.25 M carbonate-bicarbonate (in presence of KMnO4 as an oxidant) at 40 degrees C followed with two water rinses. PMID:10379031

  6. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit. Task 5: Evaluation of bench-scale test results and equipment selection for in-plant pilot tests

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort is to improve the efficiency of fine coal flotation in preparation plants above that of currently used conventional cells. In addition to evaluating single-stage operation of four selected advanced flotation devices, the project will also evaluate them in two-stage configurations. The project is being implemented in two phases. Phase 1 comprises bench-scale testing of the flotation units, and Phase 2 comprises in-plant, proof-of-concept (POC), pilot-scale testing of selected configurations at the Cyprus Emerald preparation plant. The Task 5 report presents the findings of the Phase 1 bench-scale test results and provides the basis for equipment selection for Phase 2. Four advanced flotation technologies selected for bench-scale testing are: Jameson cell; Outokumpu HG tank cell; packed column; and open column. In addition to testing all four of the cells in single-stage operation, the Jameson and Outokumpu cells were tested as candidate first-stage cells because of their propensity for rapid attachment of coal particles with air bubbles and low capital and operating costs. The column cells were selected as candidate second-stage cells because of their high-efficiency separation of low-ash products from high-ash feed coals. 32 figs., 72 tabs.

  7. Effect of concentration gradients on biodegradation in bench-scale sand columns with HYDRUS modeling of hydrocarbon transport and degradation.

    PubMed

    Horel, Agota; Schiewer, Silke; Misra, Debasmita

    2015-09-01

    The present research investigated to what extent results obtained in small microcosm experiments can be extrapolated to larger settings with non-uniform concentrations. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was compared for column experiments versus homogenized microcosms with varying concentrations of diesel, Syntroleum, and fish biodiesel as contaminants. Syntroleum and fish biodiesel had higher degradation rates than diesel fuel. Microcosms showed significantly higher overall hydrocarbon mineralization percentages (p < 0.006) than columns. Oxygen levels and moisture content were likely not responsible for that difference, which could, however, be explained by a strong gradient of fuel and nutrient concentrations through the column. The mineralization percentage in the columns was similar to small-scale microcosms at high fuel concentrations. While absolute hydrocarbon degradation increased, mineralization percentages decreased with increasing fuel concentration which was corroborated by saturation kinetics; the absolute CO2 production reached a steady plateau value at high substrate concentrations. Numerical modeling using HYDRUS 2D/3D simulated the transport and degradation of the investigated fuels in vadose zone conditions similar to those in laboratory column experiments. The numerical model was used to evaluate the impact of different degradation rate constants from microcosm versus column experiments.

  8. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  9. Relating feedstock composition to product slate and composition in catalytic cracking: 1. Bench scale experiments with liquid chromatographic fractions from Wilmington, CA, >650{degree}F resid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B.; Zagula, E.J.; Reynolds, J.W.; Wandke, H.H.; Young, L.L.; Chew, H.

    1993-09-01

    The catalytic cracking behavior of compound types in the >650{degree}F resid from a Wilmington, CA, 14.2{degree} API crude was investigated. Liquid Chromatography (LC) was used to separate the resid into eight fractions. These fractions were used as feedstocks for a bench scale fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. Gasoline was produced almost exclusively from neutral (65 % of whole resid) components. Acidic and basic types were partially converted to coke plus small amounts of C{sub l} and C{sub 2} gases, with the balance primarily carrying over as heavy liquid products. Gasoline composition depended on the type and quantity of polar compounds present in the feed because both acidic and basic compounds inhibited cracking reactions ({beta}-scission, hydrogen transfer, etc.) to varying degrees. In accordance with prior work, basic nitrogen compounds exhibited the largest inhibitory effect on cracking. Their effect is dependent on concentrations up to a limiting value which may correspond to saturation of susceptible catalyst sites. On an equal weight basis, the effect of high boiling (high molecular weight) bases was less than those occurring in the 650--1000{degree}F distillate range. Partitioning of nitrogen present in acidic (e.g. carbazole) forms in the feed into liquid products was greater than for basic nitrogen. Thiophenic forms of sulfur partitioned more into liquid and less into gaseous (H{sub 2}S) products than sulfide-type sulfur. Coke yield was approximately proportional to microcarbon residue test results for all feeds. Ongoing work with additional feedstocks has indicated behavior similar to that of Wilmington. Selected Wilmington liquid products are undergoing detailed analysis in order to determine relationships between feed versus product composition, particularly with respect to acidic and basic types.

  10. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  11. The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval.

  12. Co-Firing of Sewage Sludge with Bark in A Bench-Scale Bubbling Fluidized BED — A Study of Deposits and Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yrjas, Patrik; Aho, Martti; Zevenhoven, Maria; Taipale, Raili; Silvennoinen, Jaani; Hupa, Mikko

    It has been shown that addition of either sulfur and/or aluminosilicates such as kaolinite may reduce alkali induced deposit formation when firing biomass fuels. Sewage sludge is a fuel containing substantial amounts of sulfur and aluminosilicates, such as zeolites. In this work different amounts of sewage sludge (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%en) were co-fired with bark in a bench-scale BFB. SO2 and HCl emissions were measured and deposits were sampled during 3 hrs with an air-cooled probe with a surface temperature of 500°C at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 850°C and 650°C, respectively. The test results showed that an increase of the share of sewage sludge to the fuel mixture increased theformation of HCl and simultaneously decreased the Cl-content in the deposits. Usually this is considered to be a sign of sulfation of alkali chlorides. However, the increase of HCl canalso be caused by AI-silicates capturing alkali, thus releasing Cl as HCl to the gas phase. AIthough, sulfur increased in the fuel input with an increased share of sewage sludge, this was not reflected in the gaseous emissions as may be expected. Up to 4%en sewage sludge was fired together with bark without increasing the sulfur content in theemissions. At higher shares of sewage sludge the sulfur emissions increased linearly with an increase of sewage sludge. The amount of water soluble potassium fed into the boiler remained relatively constant in the different tests. This potassium is usually released as volatile salts. Nevertheless, the amount found in deposits decreased with an increase in sludge feeding. In this paper it was shown that interaction of potassium with AI-silicates in the bed is a probable cause for the decrease of potassium in the deposits, while both the sulfation of potassium chlorides and possibly also, the alkali capture by AI-silicates can weaken the deposition of Cl.

  13. Piezoelectric energy harvesting computer controlled test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Rodriguez, M.; Jiménez, F. J.; de Frutos, J.; Alonso, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a new computer controlled (C.C.) laboratory test bench is presented. The patented test bench is made up of a C.C. road traffic simulator, C.C. electronic hardware involved in automating measurements, and test bench control software interface programmed in LabVIEW™. Our research is focused on characterizing electronic energy harvesting piezoelectric-based elements in road traffic environments to extract (or "harvest") maximum power. In mechanical to electrical energy conversion, mechanical impacts or vibrational behavior are commonly used, and several major problems need to be solved to perform optimal harvesting systems including, but no limited to, primary energy source modeling, energy conversion, and energy storage. It is described a novel C.C. test bench that obtains, in an accurate and automatized process, a generalized linear equivalent electrical model of piezoelectric elements and piezoelectric based energy store harvesting circuits in order to scale energy generation with multiple devices integrated in different topologies.

  14. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Kataria, Atish; Soukri, Mustapha; Farmer, Justin; Mobley, Paul; Tanthana, Jak; Wang, Dongxiang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  15. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, Paul M.; Fimmen, Ryan; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  16. Lab scale experiments using a submerged MBR under thermophilic aerobic conditions for the treatment of paper mill deinking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Simstich, Benjamin; Beimfohr, Claudia; Horn, Harald

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory experiments using a thermophilic aerobic MBR (TMBR) at 50 °C. An innovative use of submerged flat-sheet MBR modules to treat circuit wastewater from the paper industry was studied. Two experiments were conducted with a flux of 8-13 L/m(2)/h without chemical membrane cleaning. COD and BOD(5) elimination rates were 83% and 99%, respectively. Calcium was reduced from 110 to 180 mg/L in the inflow to 35-60 mg/L in the permeate. However, only negligible membrane scaling occurred. The observed sludge yield was very low and amounted to 0.07-0.29 g MLSS/g COD(eliminated). Consequently, the nutrient supply of ammonia and phosphate can be lower compared to a mesophilic process. Molecular-biological FISH analysis revealed a likewise high diversity of microorganisms in the TMBR compared to the mesophilic sludge used for start-up. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidising bacteria were detected at thermophilic operation. PMID:22595101

  17. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  18. Formation, physical characteristics and microbial community structure of aerobic granules in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor for real wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Moy, Benjamin; Kong, Yun-Hua; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2010-05-01

    In this study, aerobic granular sludge was successfully developed in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) installed on site to treat real wastewater using traditional activated sludge as inoculum. Compared with 1 or 2 months required by lab-scale reactor for aerobic granulation, it took about 400 days for activated sludge to transform into granule-dominant sludge in the pilot-scale SBR on site. Although the sludge in the reactor after 400-day operation was a mixture of flocs and granules with floc ratio ranged from 5 to 30%, sludge volume index with 5min settling (SVI5) always maintained at around 30mL/g. The similar microbial community structures represented by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) between coexisted flocs and granules in the reactor indicated no strong microbial selection after the granules were dominant in the reactor. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies were above 80 and 98%, respectively, after 50-day operation, and the total inorganic N removal efficiency was about 50%. The results in this study demonstrate that it is feasible to form aerobic granules in pilot-scale SBR reactor and maintain the long-term stability of granular sludge with a high influent quality fluctuation. Meanwhile, stable COD and NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies can be obtained in the reactor.

  19. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer ({mu}m) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg{sup -1}). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 {mu}m (sand) or less than 53 {mu}m (silt and clay) soil fraction.

  20. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors.

  1. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. PMID:26551262

  2. Metabolic scaling theory in plant biology and the three oxygen paradoxa of aerobic life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russell Wallace was a field naturalist with a strong interest in general physiology. In this vein, he wrote that oxygen (O2), produced by green plants, is "the food of protoplasm, without which it cannot continue to live". Here we summarize current models relating body size to respiration rates (in the context of the metabolic scaling theory) and show that oxygen-uptake activities, measured at 21 vol.% O2, correlate closely with growth patterns at the level of specific organs within the same plant. Thus, whole plant respiration can change ontogenetically, corresponding to alterations in the volume fractions of different tissues. Then, we describe the evolution of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Paleoarchean, which changed the world forever. By slowly converting what was once a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing one, microbes capable of O2-producing photosynthesis modified the chemical nature and distribution of the element iron (Fe), slowly drove some of the most ancient prokaryotes to extinction, created the ozone (O3) layer that subsequently shielded the first terrestrial plants and animals from harmful UV radiation, but also made it possible for Earth's forest to burn, sometimes with catastrophic consequences. Yet another paradox is that the most abundant protein (i.e., the enzyme Rubisco, Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) has a greater affinity for oxygen than for carbon dioxide (CO2), even though its function is to bind with the latter rather than the former. We evaluate this second "oxygen paradox" within the context of photorespiratory carbon loss and crop yield reduction in C3 vs. C4 plants (rye vs. maize). Finally, we analyze the occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as destructive by-products of cellular metabolism, and discuss the three "O2-paradoxa" with reference to A. R. Wallace's speculations on "design in nature". PMID:23982798

  3. Metabolic scaling theory in plant biology and the three oxygen paradoxa of aerobic life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russell Wallace was a field naturalist with a strong interest in general physiology. In this vein, he wrote that oxygen (O2), produced by green plants, is "the food of protoplasm, without which it cannot continue to live". Here we summarize current models relating body size to respiration rates (in the context of the metabolic scaling theory) and show that oxygen-uptake activities, measured at 21 vol.% O2, correlate closely with growth patterns at the level of specific organs within the same plant. Thus, whole plant respiration can change ontogenetically, corresponding to alterations in the volume fractions of different tissues. Then, we describe the evolution of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Paleoarchean, which changed the world forever. By slowly converting what was once a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing one, microbes capable of O2-producing photosynthesis modified the chemical nature and distribution of the element iron (Fe), slowly drove some of the most ancient prokaryotes to extinction, created the ozone (O3) layer that subsequently shielded the first terrestrial plants and animals from harmful UV radiation, but also made it possible for Earth's forest to burn, sometimes with catastrophic consequences. Yet another paradox is that the most abundant protein (i.e., the enzyme Rubisco, Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) has a greater affinity for oxygen than for carbon dioxide (CO2), even though its function is to bind with the latter rather than the former. We evaluate this second "oxygen paradox" within the context of photorespiratory carbon loss and crop yield reduction in C3 vs. C4 plants (rye vs. maize). Finally, we analyze the occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as destructive by-products of cellular metabolism, and discuss the three "O2-paradoxa" with reference to A. R. Wallace's speculations on "design in nature".

  4. Scaling matters: incorporating body composition into Weddell seal seasonal oxygen store comparisons reveals maintenance of aerobic capacities.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) haul-out on the ice in October/November (austral spring) for the breeding season and reduce foraging activities for ~4 months until their molt in the austral fall (January/February). After these periods, animals are at their leanest and resume actively foraging for the austral winter. In mammals, decreased exercise and hypoxia exposure typically lead to decreased production of O2-carrying proteins and muscle wasting, while endurance training increases aerobic potential. To test whether similar effects were present in marine mammals, this study compared the physiology of 53 post-molt female Weddell seals in the austral fall to 47 pre-breeding females during the spring in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Once body mass and condition (lipid) were controlled for, there were no seasonal changes in total body oxygen (TBO2) stores. Within each season, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were negatively correlated with animal size, and larger animals had lower mass-specific TBO2 stores. But because larger seals had lower mass-specific metabolic rates, their calculated aerobic dive limit was similar to smaller seals. Indicators of muscular efficiency, myosin heavy chain composition, myoglobin concentrations, and aerobic enzyme activities (citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) were likewise maintained across the year. The preservation of aerobic capacity is likely critical to foraging capabilities, so that following the molt Weddell seals can rapidly regain body mass at the start of winter foraging. In contrast, muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of anaerobic metabolism, exhibited seasonal plasticity in this diving top predator and was lowest after the summer period of reduced activity. PMID:26164426

  5. Scaling matters: incorporating body composition into Weddell seal seasonal oxygen store comparisons reveals maintenance of aerobic capacities.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) haul-out on the ice in October/November (austral spring) for the breeding season and reduce foraging activities for ~4 months until their molt in the austral fall (January/February). After these periods, animals are at their leanest and resume actively foraging for the austral winter. In mammals, decreased exercise and hypoxia exposure typically lead to decreased production of O2-carrying proteins and muscle wasting, while endurance training increases aerobic potential. To test whether similar effects were present in marine mammals, this study compared the physiology of 53 post-molt female Weddell seals in the austral fall to 47 pre-breeding females during the spring in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Once body mass and condition (lipid) were controlled for, there were no seasonal changes in total body oxygen (TBO2) stores. Within each season, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were negatively correlated with animal size, and larger animals had lower mass-specific TBO2 stores. But because larger seals had lower mass-specific metabolic rates, their calculated aerobic dive limit was similar to smaller seals. Indicators of muscular efficiency, myosin heavy chain composition, myoglobin concentrations, and aerobic enzyme activities (citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) were likewise maintained across the year. The preservation of aerobic capacity is likely critical to foraging capabilities, so that following the molt Weddell seals can rapidly regain body mass at the start of winter foraging. In contrast, muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of anaerobic metabolism, exhibited seasonal plasticity in this diving top predator and was lowest after the summer period of reduced activity.

  6. LISA Optical Bench Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieser, M.; d'Arcio, L.; Barke, S.; Bogenstahl, J.; Diekmann, C.; Diepholz, I.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Gerberding, O.; Henning, J.-S.; Hewitson, M.; Hey, F. G.; Hogenhuis, H.; Killow, C. J.; Lucarelli, S.; Nikolov, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Pijnenburg, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Sohmer, A.; Taylor, A.; Tröbs, M.; Ward, H.; Weise, D.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    The optical bench (OB) is a part of the LISA spacecraft, situated between the telescope and the testmass. For measuring the inter-spacecraft distances there are several interferometers on the OB. The elegant breadboard of the OB for LISA is developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) by EADS Astrium, TNO Science & Industry, University of Glasgow and the Albert Einstein Intitute (AEI), the performance tests then will be done at the AEI. Here we present the testbed that will be used for the performance tests with the focus on the thermal environment and the laser infrastructure.

  7. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes. PMID:27497587

  8. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes.

  9. An MCAO test bench for NFIRAOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turri, Paolo; Andersen, David R.; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Spanò, Paolo; Rosensteiner, Matthias; McVeigh, Eric A.

    2014-08-01

    At NRC Herzberg - Astronomy we are developing a closed-loop multi-conjugate adaptive optics bench to simulate a scaled-down version of NFIRAOS, the first light MCAO system on the Thirty Meter Telescope. The current bench consists of four laser guide stars, an evenly spaced array of natural guide stars, two magnetic deformable mirrors, a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a science camera at the focal plane for the evaluation of the performance and the tip-tilt measurements. Three phase screens conjugated at different altitudes simulate the atmospheric perturbation over the telescope. We can recreate the spot elongation on the SHWFS by defocusing the ground DM and at the same time modulating the intensity of the LGS spots in order to simulate the timevarying density profile of the sodium layer. The goals of this experiment are to compare the experimental performance on the bench with the predicted results of NFIRAOS models and to test the robustness of the tomographic reconstruction under conditions including the use of faint guide stars, non-uniform density profiles of the sodium layer and known non-common path aberrations. In this paper we present an update on the status of the bench and some first results.

  10. Anesthesia for bench surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sachin, S.; Rajesh, M. C.; Ramdas, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    Surgical removal of the kidney tumor outside the body, (ex vivo renal bench surgery) followed by auto transplantation is an emerging and often done procedure to reconstruct the urinary tract. It possesses immense challenges to both the anesthesiologists and the surgeons. The risks are multiplied if you are performing the surgery on a solitary functioning kidney. Here, we are describing the anesthetic management of 70-year-old male post nephrectomy patient undergoing renal auto transplantation by bench surgery. Our primary goals for perioperative management were to maintain a stable hemodynamics throughout the procedure, to reduce fluid overload during the period of extracorporeal surgery, to maintain perfusion for the transplanted solitary kidney, to control bleeding to a minimum, and to provide adequate analgesia for the patient. We made use of a balanced anesthetic technique and stringent monitoring standards to bring forth a successful outcome for the patient. At the end of his hospital stay, patient went home with a healthy, normally functioning kidney. PMID:27746573

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of amorphous solid dispersions generated by different bench-scale processes, using griseofulvin as a model compound.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Cui, Yong; Ran, Yingqing; Lubach, Joe; Chou, Kang-Jye; Bao, Linda; Jia, Wei; La, Hank; Hau, Jonathan; Sambrone, Amy; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Wong, Harvey

    2013-04-01

    Drug polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve bioavailability for poorly water-soluble compounds. Spray-drying is the most common process involved in the manufacturing of ASD material. However, spray-drying involves a high investment of material quantity and time. Lower investment manufacturing processes such as fast evaporation and freeze-drying (lyophilization) have been developed to manufacture ASD at the bench level. The general belief is that the overall performance of ASD material is thermodynamically driven and should be independent of the manufacturing process. However, no formal comparison has been made to assess the in vivo performance of material generated by different processes. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo properties of ASD material generated by fast evaporation, lyophilization, and spray-drying methods using griseofulvin as a model compound and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate as the polymer matrix. Our data suggest that despite minor differences in the formulation release properties and stability of the ASD materials, the overall exposure is comparable between the three manufacturing processes under the conditions examined. These results suggest that fast evaporation and lyophilization may be suitable to generate ASD material for oral evaluation. However, caution should be exercised since the general applicability of the present findings will need to be further evaluated. PMID:23456436

  12. Influence of Small Scale Permeability Heterogeneity on Aerobic Respiration and Denitrification in the Streambed: A Stochastic Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Gerrit; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Schmidt, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In streams and rivers, streambed permeability heterogeneity is known to increase hyporheic flux and to decrease hyporheic residence time through preferential flow paths. However, the link between permeability and biogeochemical reactions remains poorly understood. Previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions, likely because of the limited number of heterogeneity scenarios considered. In this study we systematically study the influence of permeability heterogeneity on ripple-induced hyporheic exchange, aerobic respiration and denitrification in the streambed. We simulated and evaluated more than 2000 2D-heterogeneity scenarios by means of Gaussian random fields. The conductivity distributions of those Gaussian fields were transformed to either log-normal or binary distributions with varying variance of hydraulic conductivity in order to investigate both continuous and discrete heterogeneities on a large range of intensities. The results indicate that total aerobic respiration in the domain increases with heterogeneity intensity, expressed as the variance of hydraulic conductivity. In contrast, total denitrification in the domain is minimally influenced by the intensity of heterogeneity, because of the competing effect of increasing solute flux and decreasing reaction time. These results represent the general trends among the entire range of scenarios. The total solute transformation of single realizations revealed strong deviations from these trends whenever special spatial permeability distributions such as clogging layers occurred. The permeability distribution in the uppermost layer of the domain, at the interface between surface water and sediment, was found to strongly influence the extent of deviation from the general trends.

  13. The effect of a silage inoculant on silage quality, aerobic stability, and meat production on farm scale.

    PubMed

    Acosta Aragón, Y; Jatkauskas, J; Vrotniakienė, V

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation on nutrient content, fermentation, aerobic stability, and beef cattle performance for whole-plant corn silage treated with a commercial product (blend of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, BSM, blend of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, DSM numbers 3530, 19457, and 23231, resp.), was compared to a control treatment with no silage additives (CT). The material had a DM of 323 g/kg, crude protein, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations of 87.9 and 110.5 g/kg DM, respectively. BSM increased the fermentation rate with a significantly deeper pH (P < 0.01), a significant increase in the total organic acids concentration (P < 0.05), more lactic acid (P < 0.01), and numerically more acetic acid compared to CT. BSM significantly decreased the concentrations of butyric acid (P < 0.01), ethanol, and ammonia-N compared to the CT. BSM-treated silage decreased DM by 3.0 % (P < 0.01) and had a higher digestible energy and a higher metabolizable energy concentration by 2.3 (P < 0.01) and 1.00 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to untreated silage. Aerobic stability improved by more than 2 days in BSM silage. The DM intake of silage treated with BSM increased by 6.14 %, and improved weight gain and the feed conversion by 8.0 (P < 0.01) and 3.4%. PMID:23738122

  14. The Effect of a Silage Inoculant on Silage Quality, Aerobic Stability, and Meat Production on Farm Scale

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Aragón, Y.; Jatkauskas, J.; Vrotniakienė, V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation on nutrient content, fermentation, aerobic stability, and beef cattle performance for whole-plant corn silage treated with a commercial product (blend of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, BSM, blend of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, DSM numbers 3530, 19457, and 23231, resp.), was compared to a control treatment with no silage additives (CT). The material had a DM of 323 g/kg, crude protein, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations of 87.9 and 110.5 g/kg DM, respectively. BSM increased the fermentation rate with a significantly deeper pH (P < 0.01), a significant increase in the total organic acids concentration (P < 0.05), more lactic acid (P < 0.01), and numerically more acetic acid compared to CT. BSM significantly decreased the concentrations of butyric acid (P < 0.01), ethanol, and ammonia-N compared to the CT. BSM-treated silage decreased DM by 3.0 % (P < 0.01) and had a higher digestible energy and a higher metabolizable energy concentration by 2.3 (P < 0.01) and 1.00 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to untreated silage. Aerobic stability improved by more than 2 days in BSM silage. The DM intake of silage treated with BSM increased by 6.14 %, and improved weight gain and the feed conversion by 8.0 (P < 0.01) and 3.4%. PMID:23738122

  15. The Apennine Bench Formation revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Apennine Bench Formation consists of pre-mare light plains materials that crop out south of the crater Archimedes, inside the Imbrium basin. This material was ascribed to either impact or volcanic origins. The characteristics of Apollo 15 KREEP basalts and the Apennine Bench Formation are reviewed to determine whether their characteristics are compatible with a volcanic origin.

  16. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  17. Pharmacogenomics: Bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Weinshilboum, Richard; Wang, Liewei

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic inheritance affects a person's response to drugs. A major goal for pharmacogenetic research has been the individualization of drug therapy, by which doctors could more precisely cater to an individual's physiological particularities when prescribing drugs, which would both maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. Advances in pharmacogenetics have converged with rapid developments in human genomics; as a result, pharmacogenetics has evolved into pharmacogenomics. We will briefly review the development of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, and outline factors that have influenced the "translation" of pharmacogenomics from the research bench to the patients' bedside. The end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries saw the "therapeutic revolution" (which had resulted in the development of drugs to treat diseases ranging from hypertension to childhood leukemia) converge with the "genomic revolution." PMID:20704920

  18. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Kirkland

    2013-02-01

    A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GE’s much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

  19. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  20. Bench-scale feasibility testing of pulsed-air technology for in-tank mixing of dry cementitious solids with tank liquids and settled solids

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the results of testing performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulsed-air mixing technology (equipment developed by Pulsair Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA) to mix cementitious dry solids with supernatant and settled solids within a horizontal tank. The mixing technology is being considered to provide in situ stabilization of the {open_quotes}V{close_quotes} tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The testing was performed in a vessel roughly 1/6 the scale of the INEEL tanks. The tests used a fine soil to simulate settled solids and water to simulate tank supernatants. The cementitious dry materials consisted of Portland cement and Aquaset-2H (a product of Fluid Tech Inc. consisting of clay and Portland cement). Two scoping tests were conducted to allow suitable mixing parameters to be selected. The scoping tests used only visual observations during grout disassembly to assess mixing performance. After the scoping tests indicated the approach may be feasible, an additional two mixing tests were conducted. In addition to visual observations during disassembly of the solidified grout, these tests included addition of chemical tracers and chemical analysis of samples to determine the degree of mixing uniformity achieved. The final two mixing tests demonstrated that the pulsed-air mixing technique is capable of producing slurries containing substantially more cementitious dry solids than indicated by the formulations suggested by INEEL staff. Including additional cement in the formulation may have benefits in terms of increasing mobilization of solids, reducing water separation during curing, and increasing the strength of the solidified product. During addition to the tank, the cementitious solids had a tendency to form clumps which broke down with continued mixing.

  1. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and <40 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. Precoat loading per unit membrane surface area tested during the pilot study was approximately 30 g/m(2). The results of this study indicated that this hybrid technology can potentially be considered as a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis treatment of recycle water. PMID:26164269

  2. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and <40 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. Precoat loading per unit membrane surface area tested during the pilot study was approximately 30 g/m(2). The results of this study indicated that this hybrid technology can potentially be considered as a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis treatment of recycle water.

  3. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing

  4. Performance of 14 full-scale sewage treatment plants: comparison between four aerobic technologies regarding effluent quality, sludge production and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Vera, I; Sáez, K; Vidal, G

    2013-01-01

    The performance of 14 Full-Scale Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) was evaluated. STPs were divided into four aerobic technologies: a) Aerated Lagoon (AL), and three configurations of activated sludge technologies, b) conventional (CAS), c) Extended Aeration (EA), d) Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Comparison between these configurations were made regarding: a) control parameters, organic loading rate (OLR), Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) concentrations, Food to Microorganism ratio (F/M), sludge age (theta(c)), Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and return sludge ratio (R); b) effluent quality, through 5-day Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Phosphorus (TP); and c) indicators related to sludge production (on a dry basis) and electrical energy consumption. Also, complementary costs analyses were made. The results show that in terms of effluent quality, for all configurations organic matter (BOD5 and COD) and TKN removal efficiency were up to 90%, while TSS and TP were up to 90% and 50%, respectively. However, CAS, EA, SBR, and AL had stability problems with effluent concentrations. The results of the electrical energy consumption and sludge production analyses show that SBRs reduce these indicators by 40%. Cost analysis showed that CAS, EA, SBR and AL had similar cost structures, with more than 50% of total operating and maintenance cost being related to electrical energy and sludge management. Therefore, SBR could be defined as the configuration with a more stable performance. PMID:24350481

  5. Astrophysics on the lab bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-05-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a type II supernova explosion. In another experiment, students roll marbles up and down a double ramp in an attempt to get a marble to enter a tube halfway up the slope, which illustrates quantum tunnelling in stellar cores. The experiments are reasonably low cost to either purchase or manufacture.

  6. In Situ Reduction of Aquifer Sediments to Create a Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Chromate (CrO4 2-): BenchScale Tests to Determine Barrier Longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Williams, Mark D.; Devary, Brooks J.

    2005-01-02

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine sediment geochemical properties needed to develop a design for implementation of the in-situ oxidation–reduction (redox) manipulation (ISRM) technology for chromate (CrO42–) remediation at a Superfund site and three other sites. A generalized hydrogeologic description of the Superfund site consist of a silty clay upper confining layer to a depth of ~6.71 m, the A1 unit from ~6.71 m to ~8.23 m, the A2 unit from ~8.23 m to ~10.67 m, and the A3 unit from ~10.67 m to ~12.19 m below ground surface. The A/B aquitard was encountered at a depth of ~12.19 m. The A1, A2, and A3 hydrostratigraphic units are all sandy gravels, but with considerable difference in fines content and subsequently, hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic tests conducted in pilot test site monitoring wells indicate that the A1 unit has a 10 times lower hydraulic conductivity than the A2 unit, while the A3 unit hydraulic conductivity is significantly higher than that observed in the A2 unit (i.e., a trend of increasing permeability with depth). Calculated hydraulic conductivities, based on sieve analysis, show this same spatial trend. Results from a tracer injection test and electromagnetic borehole flow meter tests conducted at the site indicate a relatively high degree of formation heterogeneity. Laboratory experiments showed that chemical reduction yielded a redox capacity (0.26% iron(II)) that falls within the range of values observed in sediments analyzed from sites where field-scale deployment of the ISRM technology is currently in progress or being considered (0.1% Hanford 100D area, 0.24% Ft Lewis, 0.4% Moffett Federal Airfield). There was relatively little spatial variability in reducible iron (Fe) content between the three aquifer units. This mass of reducible Fe represents a sufficient quantity for a treatment zone emplaced to remain anoxic for 430 pore volumes, which would be expected to last tens of years, depending on aquifer flow rates and the

  7. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  9. Comparative one-factor-at-a-time, response surface (statistical) and bench-scale bioreactor level optimization of thermoalkaline protease production from a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas putida SKG-1 isolate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Production of alkaline protease from various bacterial strains using statistical methods is customary now-a-days. The present work is first attempt for the production optimization of a solvent stable thermoalkaline protease by a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas putida isolate using conventional, response surface methods, and fermentor level optimization. Results The pre-screening medium amended with optimized (w/v) 1.0% glucose, 2.0% gelatin and 0.5% yeast extract, produced 278 U protease ml-1 at 72 h incubation. Enzyme production increased to 431 Uml-1 when Mg2+ (0.01%, w/v) was supplemented. Optimization of physical factors further enhanced protease to 514 Uml-1 at pH 9.0, 25°C and 200 rpm within 60 h. The combined effect of conventionally optimized variables (glucose, yeast extract, MgSO4 and pH), thereafter predicted by response surface methodology yielded 617 U protease ml-1 at glucose 1.25% (w/v), yeast extract 0.5% (w/v), MgSO4 0.01% (w/v) and pH 8.8. Bench-scale bioreactor level optimization resulted in enhanced production of 882 U protease ml-1 at 0.8 vvm aeration and 150 rpm agitation during only 48 h incubation. Conclusions The optimization of fermentation variables using conventional, statistical approaches and aeration/agitation at fermentor level resulted in ~13.5 folds increase (882 Uml-1) in protease production compared to un-optimized conditions (65 Uml-1). This is the highest level of thermoalkaline protease reported so far by any psychrotrophic bacterium. PMID:22204659

  10. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  11. Test bench for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The Bench for Infrared Detectors (BIRD 210) has been designed for testing IRFPA detectors up to 1024 x 1024 pixels. It is also suitable for single element detectors. The detectors are required to be equipped with their coolers (Stirling or thermo electrics) and cooler electronics.

  12. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  13. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  14. Mercury capture in bench-scale absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This paper gives,a brief overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of mercury by both dry sorbents and wet scrubbers. The emphasis in the research is on development of a better understanding of the key factors that control the capture of mercury. Future work is expected to utilize that information for the development of new or modified process concepts featuring enhanced mercury capture capabilities. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne -research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are `not effective in removing mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; and chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or (CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon. Preliminary results from the wet scrubbing research include: no removal of elemental mercury is obtained under normal scrubber operating conditions; mercury removal is improved by the addition of packing or production of smaller gas bubbles to increase the gas-liquid contact area; polysulfide solutions do not appear promising for enhancing mercury removal in typical FGC systems; stainless steel packing appears to have beneficial properties for mercury removal and should be investigated further; and other chemical additives may offer greatly enhanced removals.

  15. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  16. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  17. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  18. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1992-01-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  19. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-01-15

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois No. 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350[degrees]C, and pressures of 1800 psig, (2) analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run, and (3) correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  20. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1992-12-30

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: (1) the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, (2) the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh [number sign]8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and (3) the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  1. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  2. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  3. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  4. Bioresorbable scaffolds on the bench.

    PubMed

    Ormiston, John; Motreff, Pascal; Darremont, Olivier; Webber, Bruce; Guerin, Patrice; Webster, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) in bifurcations have all of the potential advantages of BRS in non-bifurcating lesions and, in addition, the absorption of side branch (SB) ostial struts may at least partially release the branch from "jail". Polymeric BRS struts may break when post-dilated beyond their safe limits and multiple fractures may lead to adverse clinical events. Bench testing provides insights into the behaviour of different BRS in bifurcations and helps the interventional cardiologist to choose, deliver and post-dilate appropriately. Bench testing of polymeric BRS must be in a water bath at 37ºC as polymer performance is temperature sensitive. Balloon dilatation through the side of a BRS or a durable metallic stent causes distortion corrected by mini-kissing balloon post-dilatation (mini-KBPD) where the SB balloon extends only a short distance into the main branch (MB), limiting the length of MB scaffold exposed to the inflation of two balloons. The safe pressure threshold for SB dilatation of a 3.0 mm Absorb scaffold with a 3.0 mm non-compliant balloon is 10 atm and for mini-KBPD with two 3.0 mm balloons it is 5 atm. Strategies such as culotte, crush and simultaneous kissing scaffolds (SKS) may not be appropriate for the current Absorb scaffold. PMID:25983158

  5. The upgraded WIYN bench spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia M.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Willmarth, Daryl; Glaspey, John; Poczulp, Gary; Blanco, Dan; Britanik, Lana; McDougall, Eugene; Corson, Charles; Liang, Ming; Keyes, Joe; Jacoby, George

    2010-07-01

    We present the as-built design overview and post-installation performance of the upgraded WIYN Bench Spectrograph. This Bench is currently fed by either of the general-use multi-fiber instruments at the WIYN 3.5m telescope on Kitt Peak, the Hydra multi-object positioner, and the SparsePak integral field unit (IFU). It is very versatile, and can be configured to accommodate low-order, echelle, and volume phase holographic gratings. The overarching goal of the upgrade was to increase the average spectrograph throughput by ~60% while minimizing resolution loss (< 20%). In order to accomplish these goals, the project has had three major thrusts: (1) a new CCD was provided with a nearly constant 30% increase is throughput over 320-1000 nm; (2) two Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings were delivered; and (3) installed a new all-refractive collimator that properly matches the output fiber irradiance (EE90) and optimizes pupil placement. Initial analysis of commissioning data indicates that the total throughput of the system has increased 50-70% using the 600 l/mm surface ruled grating, indicating that the upgrade has achieved its goal. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that overall image resolution meets the requirement of <20% loss.

  6. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-14

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.

  7. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowire networks: an efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hua; Yi, Wencai; Liu, Jingyao; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Haifeng; Xi, Guangcheng

    2016-07-01

    As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%.As a very important chemical raw material, the selective formation of benzaldehyde from toluene at preparative or industrial levels requires the use of highly corrosive chlorine and high reaction temperatures, which severely corrodes equipment, pollutes the environment, and consumes a lot of energy. Herein, we report a robust and highly active catalyst for the benzaldehyde evolution reaction that is constructed by the surfactant-free growth of oxygen vacancy-rich W18O49 ultrathin nanowire networks. Under atmospheric pressure and visible-light irradiation, the new catalyst can selectively (92% selectivity) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde with yields of above 95%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure, XRD patterns, TEM and HRTEM images, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, UV-vis spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and EDS. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02949c

  8. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater. PMID:27221291

  9. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater.

  10. The determination of the real nano-scale sizes of bacteria in chernozem during microbial succession by means of hatching of a soil in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbacheva, M.

    2012-04-01

    M.A. Gorbacheva,L.M. Polyanskaya The Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow,119991,Russia In recent years there's been particular attention paid to the smallest life's forms- bacteria which size can be measured in nanometer. These are the forms of bacteria with diameter of 5-200 nm. Theoretical calculations based on the content of the minimum number of DNA, enzyme, lipids in and ribosome in cells indicates impossibility of existence of a living cells within diameter less than 300 nm. It is theoretically possible for a living cell to exist within possible diameter of approximately 140 nm. Using a fluorescence microscope there's been indicated in a number of samples from lakes, rivers, soil, snow and rain water that 200 nm is the smallest diameter of a living cell. Supposingly, such a small size of bacteria in soil is determined by natural conditions which limit their development by nutritious substances and stress-factors. Rejuvenescence of nanobacteria under unfavourable natural conditions and stress-factors is studied in laboratory environment. The object of the current study has become the samples of typical arable chernozem of the Central Chernozem State Biosphere Reserve in Kursk. The detailed morphological description of the soil profile and its basic analytical characteristics are widely represented in scientific publications. The soil is characterized by a high carbon content which makes up 3,96% ,3,8% , and 2,9% for the upper layers of the A horizon, and 0,79% for the layer of the B horizon. A microbial succession was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by means of experiments with microcosms in upper A horizons and B horizon of a chernozem. The final aim is to identify the cells size of bacteria in aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions in chernozem during the microbial succession, by dampening and application of chitin by means of «cascade filtration» method. The study of the microcosms is important for

  11. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  12. Hot-bench simulation of the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Carey S.; Houck, Jacob A.

    1990-01-01

    Two simulations, one batch and one real-time, of an aeroelastically-scaled wind-tunnel model were developed. The wind-tunnel model was a full-span, free-to-roll model of an advanced fighter concept. The batch simulation was used to generate and verify the real-time simulation and to test candidate control laws prior to implementation. The real-time simulation supported hot-bench testing of a digital controller, which was developed to actively control the elastic deformation of the wind-tunnel model. Time scaling was required for hot-bench testing. The wind-tunnel model, the mathematical models for the simulations, the techniques employed to reduce the hot-bench time-scale factors, and the verification procedures are described.

  13. Stochastic-convective transport with nonlinear reaction and mixing: application to intermediate-scale experiments in aerobic biodegradation in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T. R.; Murphy, E. M.; Chilakapati, A.; Seeboonruang, U.

    2001-03-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of benzoate by Pseudomonas cepacia sp. in a saturated heterogeneous porous medium was simulated using the stochastic-convective reaction (SCR) approach. A laboratory flow cell was randomly packed with low permeability silt-size inclusions in a high permeability sand matrix. In the SCR upscaling approach, the characteristics of the flow field are determined by the breakthrough of a conservative tracer. Spatial information on the actual location of the heterogeneities is not used. The mass balance equations governing the nonlinear and multicomponent reactive transport are recast in terms of reactive transports in each of a finite number of discrete streamtubes. The streamtube ensemble members represent transport via a steady constant average velocity per streamtube and a conventional Fickian dispersion term, and their contributions to the observed breakthroughs are determined by flux-averaging the streamtube solute concentrations. The resulting simulations were compared to those from a high-resolution deterministic simulation of the reactive transport, and to alternative ensemble representations involving (i) effective Fickian travel time distribution function, (ii) purely convective streamtube transport, and (iii) streamtube ensemble subset simulations. The results of the SCR simulation compare favorably to that of a sophisticated high-resolution deterministic approach.

  14. A do-it-yourself optical bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Leoš

    2011-10-01

    When teaching geometrical optics, especially the parts concerning lenses, there are many experiments that can be done just by holding the lenses in your (or your pupils') hands. But if you want to measure something, for example focal lengths, or combine two lenses to demonstrate the principle of a telescope, then something that can fix the lenses is needed. Of course, we can do such demonstrations and measurements using a commercially available optical bench. But a classical optical bench is usually a large and heavy construction that is not easy to transport. Often only one (or even none) may be available per classroom. In many school experiments something less robust, simpler, and less expensive would perhaps suit the needs better. Here we describe a simple and flexible optical bench that may be constructed by students themselves. Apart from the price of the lenses, the construction is also very cheap. So, if you have some spare lenses available, you can build a small optical bench for 10 or less. Each group of students can then use their own optical bench to do experiments.

  15. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT PROGRAM - BENCH RUN PB-10 (HTI 227-109)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-12-30

    This report presents the results of the bench-scale test, PB-10, performed at HTI's facilities under DOE contract (HTI Run No. 227-109). This bench test continues the work that was started in PDU testing 260-007. Previous bench test (PB-09, HTI 227-106) was performed on different seams of Chinese coal (Shenhua Ningtiaota Coal No.2 and No.3). Since another coal, Shangwan coal was selected for the liquefaction plant, PB-10 was made as approved by DOE/COR. The objective of this test was to evaluate the liquefaction performance of Shangwan coal utilizing various backend processing and recycle schemes. Additionally, this test was to collect available process data to allow for the best scale-up process design possible from this particular unit.

  16. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  17. 30 CFR 77.1003 - Benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benches. 77.1003 Section 77.1003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ground Control §...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1003 - Benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benches. 77.1003 Section 77.1003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ground Control §...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1003 - Benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benches. 77.1003 Section 77.1003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ground Control §...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1003 - Benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benches. 77.1003 Section 77.1003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ground Control §...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1003 - Benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benches. 77.1003 Section 77.1003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ground Control §...

  2. Mathematical Lens: How Much Can You Bench?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolognese, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    "How Much Can You Bench?" appears in the "Mathematical Lens" section of "Mathematics Teacher." "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." This month the mathematics behind the photograph includes finding areas…

  3. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios.

  4. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios. PMID:27459161

  5. Stable partial nitritation for low-strength wastewater at low temperature in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Isanta, Eduardo; Reino, Clara; Carrera, Julián; Pérez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Partial nitritation for a low-strength wastewater at low temperature was stably achieved in an aerobic granular reactor. A bench-scale granular sludge bioreactor was operated in continuous mode treating an influent of 70 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) to mimic pretreated municipal nitrogenous wastewater and the temperature was progressively decreased from 30 to 12.5 °C. A suitable effluent nitrite to ammonium concentrations ratio to a subsequent anammox reactor was maintained stable during 300 days at 12.5 °C. The average applied nitrogen loading rate at 12.5 °C was 0.7 ± 0.3 g N L(-1) d(-1), with an effluent nitrate concentration of only 2.5 ± 0.7 mg N-NO3(-) L(-1). The biomass fraction of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the granular sludge decreased from 19% to only 1% in 6 months of reactor operation at 12.5 °C. Nitrobacter spp. where found as the dominant NOB population, whereas Nitrospira spp. were not detected. Simulations indicated that: (i) NOB would only be effectively repressed when their oxygen half-saturation coefficient was higher than that of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; and (ii) a lower specific growth rate of NOB was maintained at any point in the biofilm (even at 12.5 °C) due to the bulk ammonium concentration imposed through the control strategy.

  6. Faint-object spectrograph optical bench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, J. M., Jr.; Lyon, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Faint-Object Spectrograph (FOS) is one of five scientific instruments under development for use with the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) of NASA's Space Telescope. It is a dual-channel spectrograph operating with two independent 512-channel pulse-counting Digicons. The FOS will be employed in connection with the study of scientific questions associated with quasars, active galaxies, normal distant and local group galaxies, a wide class of objects within the Milky Way Galaxy and neighboring galaxies, and objects within the solar system. The FOS contains an optical bench which supports all optical elements. Dimensional stability was the primary design requirement for the optical bench. This led to the selection of a graphite/epoxy structure using laminates with very low coefficients of thermal expansion and high stiffness. The technical requirements are considered and details of fabrication are discussed.

  7. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C.; Sonntag, T.L.; Denault, R.P.

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  8. Comparative study of emerging micropollutants removal by aerobic activated sludge of large laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors and sequencing batch reactors under low-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Kruglova, Antonina; Kråkström, Matilda; Riska, Mats; Mikola, Anna; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku; Kronberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    Four emerging micropollutants ibuprofen, diclofenac, estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were studied in large laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with high nitrifying activity. Activated sludge (AS) with sludge retention times (SRTs) of 12days and 14days in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and 30days, 60days and 90days in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were examined at 8°C and 12°C. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their main metabolites were analysed in liquid phase and solid phase of AS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A remarkable amount of contaminants were detected in solids of AS, meaning the accumulation of micropollutants in bacterial cells. The biodegradation rate constants (Kbiol) were affected by SRT and temperature. MBR with a 90-day SRT showed the best results of removal. Conventional SBR process was inefficient at 8°C showing Kbiol values lower than 0.5lgSS(-1)d(-1) for studied micropollutants. PMID:27128192

  9. Comparative study of emerging micropollutants removal by aerobic activated sludge of large laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors and sequencing batch reactors under low-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Kruglova, Antonina; Kråkström, Matilda; Riska, Mats; Mikola, Anna; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku; Kronberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    Four emerging micropollutants ibuprofen, diclofenac, estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were studied in large laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with high nitrifying activity. Activated sludge (AS) with sludge retention times (SRTs) of 12days and 14days in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and 30days, 60days and 90days in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were examined at 8°C and 12°C. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their main metabolites were analysed in liquid phase and solid phase of AS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A remarkable amount of contaminants were detected in solids of AS, meaning the accumulation of micropollutants in bacterial cells. The biodegradation rate constants (Kbiol) were affected by SRT and temperature. MBR with a 90-day SRT showed the best results of removal. Conventional SBR process was inefficient at 8°C showing Kbiol values lower than 0.5lgSS(-1)d(-1) for studied micropollutants.

  10. Sustainable multistage process for enhanced productivity of bioplastics from waste remediation through aerobic dynamic feeding strategy: Process integration for up-scaling.

    PubMed

    Amulya, K; Jukuri, Srinivas; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production was evaluated in a multistage operation using food waste as a renewable feedstock. The first step involved the production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) via acidogenic fermentation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich effluent from bio-H2 reactor was subsequently used for PHA production, which was carried out in two stages, Stage II (culture enrichment) and Stage III (PHA production). PHA-storing microorganisms were enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated at two different cycle lengths (CL-24; CL-12). Higher polymer recovery as well as VFA removal was achieved in CL-12 operation both in Stage II (16.3% dry cell weight (DCW); VFA removal, 84%) and Stage III (23.7% DCW; VFA removal, 88%). The PHA obtained was a co-polymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)] of PHB and PHV. The results obtained indicate that this integrated multistage process offers new opportunities to further leverage large scale PHA production with simultaneous waste remediation in the framework of biorefinery.

  11. Sustainable multistage process for enhanced productivity of bioplastics from waste remediation through aerobic dynamic feeding strategy: Process integration for up-scaling.

    PubMed

    Amulya, K; Jukuri, Srinivas; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production was evaluated in a multistage operation using food waste as a renewable feedstock. The first step involved the production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) via acidogenic fermentation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich effluent from bio-H2 reactor was subsequently used for PHA production, which was carried out in two stages, Stage II (culture enrichment) and Stage III (PHA production). PHA-storing microorganisms were enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated at two different cycle lengths (CL-24; CL-12). Higher polymer recovery as well as VFA removal was achieved in CL-12 operation both in Stage II (16.3% dry cell weight (DCW); VFA removal, 84%) and Stage III (23.7% DCW; VFA removal, 88%). The PHA obtained was a co-polymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)] of PHB and PHV. The results obtained indicate that this integrated multistage process offers new opportunities to further leverage large scale PHA production with simultaneous waste remediation in the framework of biorefinery. PMID:25682477

  12. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program. Finaltopical report, Bench Run 4 (227-95)

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of bench-scale work, Bench Run PB-04, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept-Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The Bench Run PB-04 was the fifth of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. Bench Run PB-04 had multiple goals. These included the evaluation of the effects of dispersed slurry catalyst system on the performance of direct liquefaction of a subbituminous Wyoming Black Thunder mine coal under extinction recycle (454{degrees}C+ recycle) condition; another goal was to investigate the effects of the combined processing of automobile shredder residue (auto-fluff) with coal and other organic waste materials. PB-04 employed a two-stage, back-mixed, slurry reactor system with an interstage V/L separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. The HTI`s newly modified P/Fe catalyst was very effective for direct liquefaction and coprocessing of Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal with Hondo resid and auto-fluff; during `coal-only` liquefaction mode, over 93% maf coal conversion was obtained with about 90% residuum conversion and as high as 67% light distillate (C{sub 4}-975 F) yield, while during `coprocessing` mode of operation, distillate yields varied between 58 and 69%; the residuum conversions varied between 74 and 89% maf. Overall, it is concluded, based upon the yield data available from PB-04, that auto-effective as MSW plastics in improving coal hydroconversion process performance. Auto-fluff did not increase light distillate yields nor decrease light gas make and chemical hydrogen consumption in coal liquefaction, as was observed to occur with MSW plastics.

  13. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  14. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  15. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  16. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  17. Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-08-30

    The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and total alpha nuclides are <40 nCi/g, <40 nCi/g, and <18 nCi/g, respectively. However, to allow for changes in process conditions, the SPP is seeking a level of treatment that is about 50% of the WAC. The bounding separation goals for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

  18. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  19. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  20. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  1. Driving Torque Control for a Nacelle Test Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassmann, Uwe; Reiter, Matthias; Abel, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Recently wind industry paid a lot of attention to ground testing facilities in order to improve reliability of wind turbines by undergoing overall system tests at an early stage of development. Some experience has been gained during the last years with drive train test benches, that allow for pure mechanical and electrical tests of the turbine's components. Since the loads occurring inside a wind turbine significantly depend on its control strategy, the natural extension of drive train test benches are so-called nacelle test benches, which also include the wind turbine's controller. The worldwide first nacelle test bench was installed and launched at RWTH Aachen University in 2013. This nacelle test bench was set up as a demonstrator and has a rated power of 1 MW. For the demonstrator test bench a gearbox-based drive train concept, which does not intrinsically meet the high dynamic requirements of the real-time aerodynamics simulation, was chosen. In this paper the mechanical concept is reviewed from a control engineering point of view and a detailed control model is presented and validated using measurement data. In order to minimize the impact this mechanical limitations have and to achieve the dynamics and accuracy required, a driving torque controller is proposed. Due to the communication layout at the nacelle test bench, time delay in data transfer cannot be omitted for controller design. Experiments confirm that the driving torque controller allows to operate a wind turbine at the nacelle test bench and suppresses unrealistic, test bench-related torque dynamics.

  2. Calibration of the MCAO Canopus Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Rigaut, François; Bec, Matthieu; Boccas, Maxime; Galvez, Ramon; Gausachs, Gaston; Gratadour, Damien; Neichel, Benoit

    The final phase of implementation of all optical components, as well as their integration and tests on the Canopus MCAO bench is currently underway. We present here a detailed description of the LGS and NGS WFS calibration sequences implemented through MYST (MCAO Yorick Smart Tool), a yorick+python+glade software package developed in-house which allows multiple users to control and monitor the bench remotely over the network using EPICS commands. A fine tuning of the optical setup and a better understanding of the flexure/temperature dependencies is being carried out and will allow us to build the many look-up tables to be eventually used by the system (e.g. telescope primary and secondary mirrors). Preliminary work on non-common path aberrations to account for the static aberrations in the central 60 arcsec science field of view (FoV) has been done iteratively using a science focal plane wavefront sensor and has shown good results both in individual directions as well as simultaneously over the entire FoV, the latter using the tomographic approach (presented in another paper in this conference).

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 86 - Standard Bench Cycle (SBC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... VII Appendix VII to Part 86—Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) 1. The standard bench aging durability procedures consist of aging a catalyst-oxygen-sensor system on an aging bench which follows the standard bench cycle (SBC) described in this appendix. 2. The SBC requires use of an aging bench with an...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 86 - Standard Bench Cycle (SBC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... VII Appendix VII to Part 86—Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) 1. The standard bench aging durability procedures consist of aging a catalyst-oxygen-sensor system on an aging bench which follows the standard bench cycle (SBC) described in this appendix. 2. The SBC requires use of an aging bench with an...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 86 - Standard Bench Cycle (SBC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... VII Appendix VII to Part 86—Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) 1. The standard bench aging durability procedures consist of aging a catalyst-oxygen-sensor system on an aging bench which follows the standard bench cycle (SBC) described in this appendix. 2. The SBC requires use of an aging bench with an...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 86 - Standard Bench Cycle (SBC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VII to Part 86—Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) 1. The standard bench aging durability procedures consist of aging a catalyst-oxygen-sensor system on an aging bench which follows the standard bench cycle (SBC) described in this appendix. 2. The SBC requires use of an aging bench with an engine as the source of...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 86 - Standard Bench Cycle (SBC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... VII Appendix VII to Part 86—Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) 1. The standard bench aging durability procedures consist of aging a catalyst-oxygen-sensor system on an aging bench which follows the standard bench cycle (SBC) described in this appendix. 2. The SBC requires use of an aging bench with an...

  8. The effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state and bench press performance to failure.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Oxford, Samuel W

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that caffeine enhances aerobic performance. The evidence for high-intensity, short-term exercise, particularly resistance exercise is mixed and has not fully examined the psychological changes that occur after this mode of exercise with caffeine ingestion. This study examined the effect of caffeine (5 mg · kg(-1)) vs. placebo on bench press exercise to failure and the mood state response pre to postexercise. Thirteen moderately trained men (22.7 ± 6.0 years) completed 2 laboratory visits, after determination of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) on the bench press, where they performed bench press repetitions to failure at a load of 60% 1RM. Mood state was assessed 60 minutes pre and immediately post-substance ingestion. Borg's rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and peak blood lactate (PBla) were assessed after each test, and peak heart rate (PHR) was determined using heart rate telemetry. Participants completed significantly more repetitions to failure (p = 0.031) and lifted significantly greater weight (p = 0.027) in the caffeine condition compared to the placebo condition. The PHR (p = 0.0001) and PBla (p = 0.002) were higher after caffeine ingestion. The RPE was not different across conditions (p = 0.082). Mood state scores for vigor were greater (p = 0.001) and fatigue scores lower (p = 0.04) in the presence of caffeine. Fatigue scores were greater postexercise (p = 0.001) compared to scores pre exercise across conditions. Caffeine ingestion enhances performance in short-term, resistance exercise to failure and may favorably change the mood state response to exercise compared to a placebo.

  9. Nitrate to Ammonia Ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. At INEL alone there are 800,000 gallons. The largest quantity of these wastes is the 149 single shell tanks (SSTs) tanks at Hanford which can hold 1 million gallons each. The nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) process has been developed to remove a majority of the nitrate content from the wastes.

  10. Modified IRC bench-scale arc melter for waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the INEL Research Center (IRC) arc melter facility and its recent modifications. The arc melter can now be used to study volatilization of toxic and high vapor pressure metals and the effects of reducing and oxidizing (redox) states in the melt. The modifications include adding an auger feeder, a gas flow control and monitoring system, an offgas sampling and exhaust system, and a baghouse filter system, as well as improving the electrode drive, slag sampling system, temperature measurement and video monitoring and recording methods, and oxidation lance. In addition to the volatilization and redox studies, the arc melter facility has been used to produce a variety of glass/ceramic waste forms for property evaluation. Waste forms can be produced on a daily basis. Some of the melts performed are described to illustrate the melter`s operating characteristics.

  11. Nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L.

    1995-10-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. A process to reduce the nitrates to ammonia has been developed at ORNL. This technology creates a sludge lower in nitrates. This report describes stabilization possibilities of the sludge.

  12. Bench-Scale Testing of Attrition Resistant Moving Bed Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.H.; Gupta, R.P.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems with cold-gas cleanup have now reached the early stages of commercialization. The foundation for this was successful completion of the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program several years ago. Destec Energy, Inc., a subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, has a plant in operation in Louisiana, and the 2 Wabash River Plant in Indiana is now starting up. A similar plant based on the Shell gasification technology is operating in the Netherlands. In two new plants now under construction, the Tampa Electric Plant in Florida and the Sierra Pacific Power Plant in Nevada, incorporating hot-gas cleanup technology is desirable. Unfortunately, some nagging problems remain with both sulfur sorbent and particle filter technology that may result in the use of cold-gas, rather than hot-gas, cleanup in these plants. With sulfur sorbents, the main problems are with mechanical property degradation and/or loss of sulfur capacity over many sulfidation-regeneration cycles. The sorbents receiving the most attention are all zinc based. They include various zinc titanate formulations and proprietary materials developed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) staff and the Phillips Petroleum Company. The investigators on this project are now completing their third year of effort on a superstrong zinc titanate sorbent. Prior to this year, various formulations were prepared and evaluated for their potential use in fixed- and fluidized-bed hot-gas desulfurization systems. A unique feature, the reason for the high strength, is that the zinc titanate is contained in a matrix of titanium dioxide. Its crush strength is more than 6 times that prior investigators achieved.

  13. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  14. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  15. Innovative technique for in situ treatment of contaminated surface waters and submerged sediments by enhanced aerobic bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Di Turo, J.W.; Hurtak, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    The delicate balance of the Earth's fragile aquatic ecosystems is being disturbed at an alarming rate. Industrial, agricultural, and residential effluents enter waterways polluting these systems with a wide range of organic, metallic and inorganic compounds. Current methods of remediating aquatic sediments contaminated with organic pollutants, such as agricultural and residential sewage, fuel oil, PCB's and other industrial chemicals, involve dredging up the sediment, treating it elsewhere, then returning it to the removal site. Surface water treatments, such as the treatment of lakes for alga blooms, require the addition of poisonous chemical herbicides and pesticides. The authors are presently conducting bench-scale and pilot studies to determine the effectiveness of their unique patented method of tablets engineered to enhance the water quality at the water-sediment interface with oxygen and nutrients. This method promotes the growth of aerobic microorganisms that break down the contaminants to non-toxic byproducts. The authors plan to present the results of testing in two areas: alternative to herbicides in lake treatments of algae blooms and treatment of hog manure sludge pits to reduce odor and reduce the amount of waste. The method is designed to provide an environment in which the organisms and the waste are maintained in intimate contact in the presence of oxygen. Greater efficiency of treatment and use for a wide variety of agricultural wastes can be expected when the types of microorganisms responsible for treatment are known and their optimum environmental conditions have been established. With this new methodology, a reduction in the production of odorous and potentially atmospherically damaging gases can be achieved by the use of aerobic rather anaerobic treatments.

  16. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies. PMID:20704218

  17. 69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  18. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  19. RHIC electron lens test bench diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Miller, T.; Pikin, A.; Thieberger, P.

    2011-05-16

    An Electron Lens (E-Lens) system will be installed in RHIC to increase luminosity by counteracting the head-on beam-beam interaction. The proton beam collisions at the RHIC experimental locations will introduce a tune spread due to a difference of tune shifts between small and large amplitude particles. A low energy electron beam will be used to improve luminosity and lifetime of the colliding beams by reducing the betatron tune shift and spread. In preparation for the Electron Lens installation next year, a test bench facility will be used to gain experience with many sub-systems. This paper will discuss the diagnostics related to measuring the electron beam parameters.

  20. Malignant pleural effusion: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Psallidas, Ioannis; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Porcel, Jose M; Robinson, Bruce W; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2016-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common but serious condition that is related with poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Its incidence and associated healthcare costs are rising and its management remains palliative, with median survival ranging from 3 to 12 months. During the last decade there has been significant progress in unravelling the pathophysiology of MPE, as well as its diagnostics, imaging, and management. Nowadays, formerly bed-ridden patients are genotyped, phenotyped, and treated on an ambulatory basis. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of current advances in MPE from bench to bedside. In addition, it highlights unanswered questions in current clinical practice and suggests future directions for basic and clinical research in the field. PMID:27246596

  1. Alternative Bench Standards: Sample Production Report

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; T. P. Houghton; M. G. Watrous; J. G. Eisenmenger; R. K. Hague

    2012-09-01

    The INL has prepared four standards representing krypton concentrations of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X the reported atmospheric value of 70 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C (ie. 1.1X is 1.1 x 70, or 77 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C). A t-zero date and time of January 1, 2012 at 1200 Zulu was used for all standards. The Alternative Bench Standards (ABS) of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X, are designated by titles of ABS-A, ABS-B, ABS C and ABS-D, respectively. The concentration of Kr in air is 1.14 ppm.

  2. Imaging Neuroinflammation – from Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Pulli, Benjamin; Chen, John W

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation plays a central role in a variety of neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and malignant CNS neoplasms, among many other. Different cell types and molecular mediators participate in a cascade of events in the brain that is ultimately aimed at control, regeneration and repair, but leads to damage of brain tissue under pathological conditions. Non-invasive molecular imaging of key players in the inflammation cascade holds promise for identification and quantification of the disease process before it is too late for effective therapeutic intervention. In this review, we focus on molecular imaging techniques that target inflammatory cells and molecules that are of interest in neuroinflammation, especially those with high translational potential. Over the past decade, a plethora of molecular imaging agents have been developed and tested in animal models of (neuro)inflammation, and a few have been translated from bench to bedside. The most promising imaging techniques to visualize neuroinflammation include MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and optical imaging methods. These techniques enable us to image adhesion molecules to visualize endothelial cell activation, assess leukocyte functions such as oxidative stress, granule release, and phagocytosis, and label a variety of inflammatory cells for cell tracking experiments. In addition, several cell types and their activation can be specifically targeted in vivo, and consequences of neuroinflammation such as neuronal death and demyelination can be quantified. As we continue to make progress in utilizing molecular imaging technology to study and understand neuroinflammation, increasing efforts and investment should be made to bring more of these novel imaging agents from the “bench to bedside.” PMID:25525560

  3. Aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichloroethene by methane and ammonia oxidizing microorganisms naturally associated with Carex comosa roots.

    PubMed

    Powell, C L; Nogaro, G; Agrawal, A

    2011-06-01

    The degradation potential of trichloroethene by the aerobic methane- and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms naturally associated with wetland plant (Carex comosa) roots was examined in this study. In bench-scale microcosm experiments with washed (soil free) Carex comosa roots, the activity of root-associated methane- and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms, which were naturally present on the root surface and/or embedded within the roots, was investigated. Significant methane and ammonia oxidation were observed reproducibly in batch reactors with washed roots incubated in growth media, where methane oxidation developed faster (2 weeks) compared to ammonia oxidation (4 weeks) in live microcosms. After enrichment, the methane oxidizers demonstrated their ability to degrade 150 μg l(-1) TCE effectively at 1.9 mg l(-1) of aqueous CH(4). In contrast, ammonia oxidizers showed a rapid and complete inhibition of ammonia oxidation with 150 μg l(-1) TCE at 20 mg l(-1) of NH(4)(+)-N, which may be attributed to greater sensitivity of ammonia oxidizers to TCE or its degradation product. No such inhibitory effect of TCE degradation was detected on methane oxidation at the above experimental conditions. The results presented here suggest that microorganisms associated with wetland plant roots can assist in the natural attenuation of TCE in contaminated aquatic environments.

  4. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  5. Precision-Deployable, Stable, Optical Benches for Cost-Effective Space Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Pellegrino, S.; Dailey, D.; Marks, G.; Bookbinder, J.

    2012-05-01

    To explore the universe at the arcsecond resolution of Chandra, while increasing collecting area by at least an order of magnitude and maintaining affordability, we will need to make creative use of existing and new technology. Precision-deployable, stable, optical benches that fit inside smaller, lower-cost launch vehicles are a prime example of a technology well within current reach that will yield breakthrough benefits for future astrophysics missions. Deployable optical benches for astrophysical applications have a reputation for complexity; however, we are offering an approach, based on techniques used in space for decades, that reduces overall mission cost. Currently, deployable structures are implemented on JAXA’s Astro-H and NASA’s NuStar high-energy astrophysics missions. We believe it is now time to evolve these structures into precision, stable optical benches that are stiff, lightweight, and suitable for space telescopes with focal lengths of 20 meters or more. Such optical benches are required for advanced observatory class missions and can be scaled to Explorer and medium-class missions. To this end, we have formed a partnership between Space Structures Laboratory (SSL) at the California Institute of Technology, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS), Northrop Grumman Astro Aerospace (Astro), and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). Combining the expertise and tools from academia and industry is the most effective approach to take this concept to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. We plan to perform small sub-scale demonstrations, functional tests, and analytical modeling in the academic environment. Using results from SSL, larger prototypes will be developed at facilities at NGAS in Redondo Beach and Carpinteria, CA.

  6. Effects of meditation and aerobic exercise on EEG patterns.

    PubMed

    Severtsen, B; Bruya, M A

    1986-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two stress-reducing wellness activities, meditation and aerobic exercise, on electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns of normal subjects. Ten nursing students completed the study: five performed meditation daily and five performed aerobic exercise daily. Stress was determined using the Stanford University Self Assessment and Holmes-Rahe Social Adjustment Rating Scales prior to the stress-reducing activities and again following the six-week study. Although neither group demonstrated a significant increase in alpha waves, self-rating scores for both measures were improved at the end of the six-week study. Meditation and aerobic activity were associated with a perception of increased ability to cope and a generally positive feeling about the value of exercise and meditation in their lives.

  7. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  8. Antibody-based Proteomics: From bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Sophie; Chevet, Eric; Liu, Jian-Feng; Dominguez, Michel

    2007-09-01

    Over the past 75 years, antibodies have gone from being recognized as disease biomarkers to being used as very powerful therapeutic tools. This evolution has been accelerated by the identification of mAb and the extensive use of immunological tools both at fundamental and clinical levels. In this review, we evaluate how antibodies can be used to assess the proteome of cells or tissues and their relevance for clinical applications. These antibody-based proteomics approaches also require analytical and technological pipelines as well as specific enabling tools which are described. Our first objective was to establish how large-scale datasets (provided by high-throughput studies such as proteomics and transcriptomics) can be integrated with literature searches and clinical data to identify potentially relevant markers against which antibodies should be raised. Then based on an extensive literature review and our experience, we compare the methodologies developed to produce specific antibodies either in vivo or in vitro. This is followed by the description of the validation tools currently available and it also includes the use of antibody-based approaches in the establishment of molecular signatures utilized at the bench and soon available for bedside use.

  9. Room 106, A laboratory with longitudinal arrangement of benches. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 106, A laboratory with longitudinal arrangement of benches. View to west. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  11. Bench seating in northwest corner of the building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bench seating in northwest corner of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. 118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM OUTSIDE. OFFICE SAFE AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. 125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING TOOL SHARPENER ON RIGHT AND ELECTRIC TABLE SAW AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  14. Room 113, chemistry laboratory with benches perpendicular to the long ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 113, chemistry laboratory with benches perpendicular to the long axis of the room. A view to the southwest. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 13. Interior view of individual work benches along west wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view of individual work benches along west wall of north 1922 section of Building 59. Camera pointed NW. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  18. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  19. 13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ROD STORAGE RACKS ALONG EAST WALL OF FACTORY INTERIOR. AT THIS BENCH WORKERS RIVETED THREADED WROUGHT IRON CONNECTORS TO THE ENDS OF 20' LONG WOODEN SUCKER RODS (THE RODS WHICH EXTEND DOWNWARD IN THE WELL FROM THE GROUND SURFACE TO PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS WHICH ACTUALLY ELEVATE WATER TO THE SURFACE). ROZNOR HEATER AT THE FAR RIGHT WAS ADDED CIRCA 1960. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 86 - Aging Bench Equipment and Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aging Bench Equipment and Procedures.... VIII Appendix VIII to Part 86—Aging Bench Equipment and Procedures This appendix provides specifications for standard aging bench equipment and aging procedures which may be used to conduct bench...

  1. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  2. A Lightweight, Precision-Deployable, Optical Bench for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2011-09-01

    The small angle of total reflection for X-rays, forcing grazing incidence optics with large collecting areas to long focal lengths, has been a fundamental barrier to the advancement of high-energy astrophysics. Design teams around the world have long recognized that a significant increase in effective area beyond Chandra and XMM-Newton requires either a deployable optical bench or separate X-ray optics and instrument module on formation flying spacecraft. Here, we show that we have in hand the components for a lightweight, precision-deployable optical bench that, through its inherent design features, is the affordable path to the next generation of imaging high-energy astrophysics missions. We present our plans for a full-scale engineering model of a deployable optical bench for Explorer-class missions. We intend to use this test article to raise the technology readiness level (TRL) of the tensegrity truss for a lightweight, precision-deployable optical bench for high-energy astrophysics missions from TRL 3 to TRL 5 through a set of four well-defined technology milestones. The milestones cover the architecture's ability to deploy and control the focal point, characterize the deployed dynamics, determine long-term stability, and verify the stowed load capability. Our plan is based on detailed design and analysis work and the construction of a first prototype by our team. Building on our prior analysis and the high TRL of the architecture components we are ready to move on to the next step. The key elements to do this affordably are two existing, fully characterized, flight-quality, deployable booms. After integrating them into the test article, we will demonstrate that our architecture meets the deployment accuracy, adjustability, and stability requirements. The same test article can be used to further raise the TRL in the future.

  3. Peritoneal dialysis: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis was first employed in patients with acute renal failure in the 1940s and since the 1960s for those with end-stage renal disease. Its popularity increased enormously after the introduction of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the end of 1970s. This stimulated both clinical and basic research. In an ideal situation, this should lead to cross-fertilization between the two. The present review describes two examples of interactions: one where it worked out very well and another where basic science missed the link with clinical findings. Those on fluid transport are examples of how old physiological findings on absorption of saline and glucose solutions were adopted in peritoneal dialysis by the use of glucose as an osmotic agent. The mechanism behind this in patients was first solved mathematically by the assumption of ultrasmall intracellular pores allowing water transport only. At the same time, basic science discovered the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), and a few years later, studies in transgenic mice confirmed that AQP-1 was the ultrasmall pore. In clinical medicine, this led to its assessment in patients and the notion of its impairment. Drugs for treatment have been developed. Research on biocompatibility is not a success story. Basic science has focussed on dialysis solutions with a low pH and lactate, and effects of glucose degradation products, although the first is irrelevant in patients and effects of continuous exposure to high glucose concentrations were largely neglected. Industry believed the bench more than the bedside, resulting in ‘biocompatible’ dialysis solutions. These solutions have some beneficial effects, but are evidently not the final answer. PMID:26120456

  4. Acute effect of two aerobic exercise modes on maximum strength and strength endurance.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson; Paulo, Anderson Caetano; Regazzini, Marcelo; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 modes of aerobic exercise (continuous or intermittent) on maximum strength (1 repetition maximum, 1RM) and strength endurance (maximum repetitions at 80% of 1RM) for lower- and upper-body exercises to test the acute hypothesis in concurrent training (CT) interference. Eight physically active men (age: 26.9 +/- 4.2 years; body mass: 82.1 +/- 7.5 kg; height: 178.9 +/- 6.0 cm) were submitted to: (a) a graded exercise test to determine V(.-)O2max (39.26 +/- 6.95 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and anaerobic threshold velocity (3.5 mmol x L(-1)) (9.3 +/- 1.27 km x h(-1)); (b) strength tests in a rested state (control); and (c) 4 experimental sessions, at least 7 days apart. The experimental sessions consisted of a 5-kilometer run on a treadmill continuously (90% of the anaerobic threshold velocity) or intermittently (1:1 minute at V(.-)O2max). Ten minutes after the aerobic exercise, either a maximum strength or a strength endurance test was performed (leg press and bench press exercises). The order of aerobic and strength exercises followed a William's square distribution to avoid carryover effects. Results showed that only the intermittent aerobic exercise produced an acute interference effect on leg strength endurance, decreasing significantly (p < 0.05) the number of repetitions from 10.8 +/- 2.5 to 8.1 +/- 2.2. Maximum strength was not affected by the aerobic exercise mode. In conclusion, the acute interference hypothesis in concurrent training seems to occur when both aerobic and strength exercises produce significant peripheral fatigue in the same muscle group.

  5. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  6. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  7. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  8. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  9. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed. PMID:25306537

  10. [Aerobic capacity and quality of life in school children from 8 to 12].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga Lopez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic capacity is a powerful physiological indicator of the overall health status. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between aerobic capacity and quality of life in a sample of 298 (159 girls) school children aged 8-12 years. Aerobic capacity was tested using the Course-Navette test. Quality of life was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index scale. Males showed higher performance in the Course-Navette test and highest values of VO2max (P<.001 for both). ANOVA statistical analysis showed that the quality of life was significantly higher in school children with increased level of aerobic capacity compared to those with a low level (P=.001). Children with high aerobic capacity showed higher quality of life scores in relation to their peers with low scores (P<.001). As for the females, significant differences were found among those with high aerobic capacity level and their peers low levels (P<.031). The results of this study suggest that school children with higher level of aerobic capacity show better results in the quality of life index. Long-term intervention studies are needed to verify if an aerobic capacity development programme may upgrade the quality of life of children and adolescents.

  11. Small-sided game training improves aerobic capacity and technical skills in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Delextrat, A; Martinez, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 training interventions based on small-sided games (SGG) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on physical and technical performance of male junior basketball players. A secondary objective was to investigate if these effects were similar in starting and bench players. 18 players participated in a pre-testing session, 6-weeks intervention period and a post-testing session. Pre- and post-sessions involved assessments of aerobic fitness, repeated sprint ability (RSA), defensive and offensive agility, upper and lower body power, shooting and passing skills. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons examined the effects of time and type of intervention on physical and technical performances. The main results showed that both interventions resulted in similar improvements in aerobic capacity (+3.4% vs. +4.1%), with greater improvements in bench players compared to starting players (+7.1% vs. +1.1%, P<0.05). However, RSA was unchanged after both interventions. In addition, compared to HIT, SSG resulted in greater improvements in defensive agility (+4.5% vs. -2.7%, P<0.05), shooting skills (+7.4% vs. -2.4%, P<0.05) and upper body power (+7.9% vs. -2.0%, P<0.05). These results suggest that SSG should be prioritized in physical conditioning of junior basketball players during the season. However, when RSA is targeted, more specific training seems necessary.

  12. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  13. Theoretical Rationale of Heating Block for Testing Bench of Aerospace Crafts Thermal Protection Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Anna A.; Reznik, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical rationale for the structural layout of a testing bench with zirconium dioxide heating elements on the basis of modelling radiative-conductive heat transfer are presented. The numerical simulation of radiative-conductive heat transfer for the two-dimensional scaled model of the testing segment with the finite-element analysis software package Ansys 15.0 are performed. The simulation results showed that for the selected layout of the heaters the temperature non-uniformity along the length of the sample over time will not exceed 3 % even at a temperature of 2000 K.

  14. Lessons from the real bench: non-BRS.

    PubMed

    Ormiston, John; Darremont, Olivier; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Murasato, Yoshinobu; Hikichi, Yutaka; Webber, Bruce; Webster, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Bench testing of stents used in bifurcations can provide information on the general properties that influence performance including crossing profile, radial strength, recoil, flexibility and radiopacity. Problems with device delivery can be clarified. Bench testing identified that side branch dilatation caused stent distortion and elucidated correction strategies. Bench testing led to a stent design change adding connectors between hoops to help overcome the clinical problem of longitudinal distortion. Testing on the bench can determine best deployment strategies and showed that a two-step post-dilatation strategy produced the best deployment with "crush" stenting. Scanning electron microscopy showed that withdrawal of a coronary guidewire trapped between a stent (or scaffold) and a mock arterial wall during a provisional side branch stenting strategy caused only mild linear polymer coating damage. Stent fracture can cause adverse clinical events and our repetitive bend test identified the stents most resistant to fracture. Causes of obstruction of the passage of a balloon over a wire through the side of a stent include damage to the catheter tip, complex cell geometry and inadvertent passage of a wire behind a strut. Bench testing plays a major role in validation of computer modelling of bifurcation treatments and flow alterations. PMID:25983166

  15. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  16. Effects of a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on muscle activation and performance during subsequent lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.

  17. The feasibility of bench tests for disposable ECG electrode adhesiveness.

    PubMed

    Baker, C D; Schoenberg, A A; Booth, H E

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of recommending one standard bench test that adequately qualifies electrode adhesives for clinical use was examined by UBTL. Small strips, cut from whole, commercially available disposable ECG electrodes, were attached to three types of surfaces, and samples of each type of electrode were peel tested at 15 minutes, 8 hours, and 48 hours after attachment. A program was developed to average, display, and calculate peel strength parameters. Analysis of the data showed that (a) the peel strength of electrodes varied by more than a factor of 10 when measured on human skin, and by more than a factor of 3 when measured on bench test surfaces, and (b) the peel strength of the electrode adhesive strips did not correlate with intact electrode loss on ambulatory subjects. Therefore, UBTL could not recommend one bench test that would measure adhesion performance for all electrode types appropriate for inclusion in an AAMI ECG electrode standard.

  18. Object oriented hardware-software test bench for OMTF diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabik, Pawel; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Bunkowski, Karol; Zawistowski, Krystian; Byszuk, Adrian; Bluj, Michał; Doroba, Krzysztof; Górski, Maciej; Kalinowski, Artur; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Królikowski, Jan; Oklinski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Michał; Skala, Aleksander; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the object oriented hardware-software model and its sample implementation of diagnostics for the Overlap Muon Track Finder trigger for the CMS experiment in CERN is described. It presents realization of test-bench for control and diagnosis class of multichannel, distributed measurement systems based on FPGA chips. The test-bench fulfills requirements for system's rapid changes, configurability and efficiency. This ability is very significant and desirable by expanded electronic systems. The solution described is a software model based on a method of address space management called the Component Internal Interface (CII). Establishment of stable link between hardware and software, as a purpose of designed and realized programming environment, is presented. The test-bench implementation and example of OMTF algorithm test is presented.

  19. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  20. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  1. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  2. Virtual bench testing to study coronary bifurcation stenting.

    PubMed

    Migliavacca, Francesco; Chiastra, Claudio; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Dubini, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Virtual bench testing is a numerical methodology which has been applied to the study of coronary interventions. It exploits the amazing growth of computer performance for scientific calculation and makes it possible to simulate very different and complex multiphysics environments and processes, including coronary bifurcation stenting. The quality of prediction from any computer model is very sensitive to the quality of the input data and assumptions. This also holds true in stent virtual bench testing. This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of bifurcation stenting modelling and identifies the current advantages and limitations of this methodology.

  3. Virtual bench testing to study coronary bifurcation stenting.

    PubMed

    Migliavacca, Francesco; Chiastra, Claudio; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Dubini, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Virtual bench testing is a numerical methodology which has been applied to the study of coronary interventions. It exploits the amazing growth of computer performance for scientific calculation and makes it possible to simulate very different and complex multiphysics environments and processes, including coronary bifurcation stenting. The quality of prediction from any computer model is very sensitive to the quality of the input data and assumptions. This also holds true in stent virtual bench testing. This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of bifurcation stenting modelling and identifies the current advantages and limitations of this methodology. PMID:25983167

  4. Fracture Control of the LISA Pathfinder Optical Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruise, Mike; Dixon, George

    The Optical Bench for LISA Pathfinder is constructed from Zerodur-a glass ceramic with low fracture resistance. The mechanism for component fracture is the growth of micro-cracks which pre-exist in the ceramic material. A programme of optical screening has been carried out to measure the size of the largest micro-cracks in high stress regions in the Zerodur blank. Results from this screening programme are presented and inferences drawn for the processing of the LISA.optical benches

  5. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity.

  6. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  7. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  8. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  9. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  10. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  11. 32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE CURVATURE TO WHEEL RIMS ON ELI WINDMILLS) TO BINS ALONG NORTH INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY WITH NEW OLD STOCK UNASSEMBLED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  12. 17. Interior view of courtroom looking towards judge's bench; showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view of courtroom looking towards judge's bench; showing built in linear seating on both ends of room, clerical desk and equipment, through wall air conditioning units, exterior windows and door; north end of west wing on top floor; view to northwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Group Administration & Secure Storage Building, 2372 Westover Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  13. Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions…

  14. 33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE CORE MOLDS WERE HAND FILLED AND OFTEN PNEUMATICALLY COMPRESSED WITH A HAND-HELD RAMMER BEFORE THEY WERE BAKED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 26. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE BORING MACHINE PURCHASED IN 1885. THE BIT MAY BE LOWERED BY THE HANGING LINKAGE OR THE TABLE RAISED BY THE FOOT PEDAL. NOTICE THE CHASE FOR THE BELTS, BUILT NO LESS CAREFULLY THAN THE MACHINE ITSELF. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  16. 3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE POWERHOUSE AT NEWHALEM. J.D. ROSS HAD THE GROUNDS LANDSCAPED AND PLANTED WITH EXOTIC FLOWERS AND VEGETATION DURING THE 1930S AS AN ADDITIONAL TOURIST ATTRACTION, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  17. Bench wear and single-cylinder engine evaluations of high-temperature lubricants for US Army ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Paul I.; Frame, Edwin A.; Yost, Douglas M.

    1994-09-01

    High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as an evaluation tool for HTL's. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247 deg C and an oil sump temperature of 166 deg C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired. A wide range of bench scale wear techniques have been developed to highlight different lubricant performance characteristics, with particular emphasis on high-temperature operation and oxidation. Based on the bench tests, Oil D would be expected to have inadequate high-temperature, long-term wear protection. Oil D passed the Allison C-4 graphite clutch friction test.

  18. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  19. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  20. Bioremediation of endosulfan contaminated soil and water -- optimization of operating conditions in laboratory scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mathava; Philip, Ligy

    2006-08-21

    A mixed bacterial culture consisted of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus circulans-I and -II has been enriched from contaminated soil collected from the vicinity of an endosulfan processing industry. The degradation of endosulfan by mixed bacterial culture was studied in aerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions via batch experiments with an initial endosulfan concentration of 50mg/L. After 3 weeks of incubation, mixed bacterial culture was able to degrade 71.58+/-0.2% and 75.88+/-0.2% of endosulfan in aerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions, respectively. The addition of external carbon (dextrose) increased the endosulfan degradation in both the conditions. The optimal dextrose concentration and inoculum size was estimated as 1g/L and 75mg/L, respectively. The pH of the system has significant effect on endosulfan degradation. The degradation of alpha endosulfan was more compared to beta endosulfan in all the experiments. Endosulfan biodegradation in soil was evaluated by miniature and bench scale soil reactors. The soils used for the biodegradation experiments were identified as clayey soil (CL, lean clay with sand), red soil (GM, silty gravel with sand), sandy soil (SM, silty sand with gravel) and composted soil (PT, peat) as per ASTM (American society for testing and materials) standards. Endosulfan degradation efficiency in miniature soil reactors were in the order of sandy soil followed by red soil, composted soil and clayey soil in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In bench scale soil reactors, endosulfan degradation was observed more in the bottom layers. After 4 weeks, maximum endosulfan degradation efficiency of 95.48+/-0.17% was observed in red soil reactor where as in composted soil-I (moisture 38+/-1%) and composted soil-II (moisture 45+/-1%) it was 96.03+/-0.23% and 94.84+/-0.19%, respectively. The high moisture content in compost soil reactor-II increased the endosulfan concentration in the leachate. Known intermediate metabolites of

  1. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  2. Project of electro-cyclotron resonance ion source test-bench for material investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Chalykh, B. B.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kropachev, G. N.; Ziiatdinova, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    Development of new materials for future energy facilities with higher operating efficiency is a challenging and crucial task. However, full-scale testing of radiation hardness for reactor materials is quite sophisticated and difficult as it requires long session of reactor irradiation; moreover, induced radioactivity considerably complicates further investigation. Ion beam irradiation does not have such a drawback; on the contrary, it has certain advantages. One of them is high speed of defect formation. Therefore, it provides a useful tool for modeling of different radiation damages. Improved understanding of material behavior under high dose irradiation will probably allow to simulate reactor irradiation close to real conditions and to make an adequate estimation of material radiation hardness. Since 2008 in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, the ion beam irradiation experiments are under development at the heavy ion radio frequency quadrupole linac and very important results are obtained already [T. V. Kulevoy et al., in Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators, IAEA Vienna, Austria, 2009, http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/P1433_CD/darasets/papers/ap_p5_07.pdf]. Nevertheless, the new test bench based on electro-cyclotron resonance ion source and high voltage platform is developed. The project of the test bench is presented and discussed.

  3. Thiomers--from bench to market.

    PubMed

    Bonengel, Sonja; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-12-10

    Thiolated polymers or designated thiomers are obtained by immobilization of sulhydryl bearing ligands on the polymeric backbone of well-established polymers such as poly(acrylates) or chitosans. This functionalization leads to significantly improved mucoadhesive properties compared to the corresponding unmodified polymers, as disulfide bonds between thiol groups of thiomers and cysteine-rich glycoproteins of the mucus gel layer are formed. Furthermore, enzyme- and efflux-pump inhibiting as well as improved permeation-enhancing properties are advantages of thiolization. By the covalent attachment of mercaptonicotinamide substructures via disulfide bonds to thiolated polymers these properties are even substantially further improved and stability towards oxidation even in aqueous media can be provided. Meanwhile, more than 50 research groups worldwide are working on thiolated polymers. For certain thiomers the scale up process for industrial production has already been done and GMP material is available. Furthermore, safety of thiolated poly(acrylic acid), thiolated chitosan and thiolated hyaluronic acid could be demonstrated via orientating studies in human volunteers and via various clinical trials. The first product (Lacrimera® eye drops, Croma-Pharma) containing a chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate for treatment of dry eye syndrome will enter the European market this year. It is the only product providing a sustained protective effect on the ocular surface due to its comparatively much more prolonged residence time worldwide. Various further products utilizing, for instance, thiolated hyaluronic acid in ocular surgery are in the pipeline. PMID:24993428

  4. Test benches facilities for PAUCam: CCDs and filters characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Casas, Ricard; Castilla, Javier; Grañena, Ferran; de Vicente, Juan; Maiorino, Marino; Sevilla, Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The PAUCam [1] is an optical camera with a 18 CCDs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) mosaic and up to 42 narrow- and broad-band filters. It is foreseen to install it at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain. As required by the camera construction, a couple of test bench facilities were developed, one in Madrid (CIEMAT) that is mainly devoted to CCDs read-out electronics development and filter characterization [2], and another in Barcelona (IFAE-ICE) that has as its main task to characterize the scientific CCDs in terms of Dark Current, CTE, QE, RON and many other parameters demanded by the scientific performance required. The full CCDs characterization test bench layout, its descriptions and some optical and mechanical characterization results are summarized in this paper.

  5. Bench Test of the Vibration Compensation Interferometer for EAST Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongshun; Yang, Yao; Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Zou, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhengxing; Zeng, Long; Wei, Xuechao; Li, Weiming; Lan, Ting; Zhu, Xiang; Liu, Yukai; Gao, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    A visible laser-based vibration compensation interferometer has recently been designed for the EAST tokamak and the bench test has been finished. The system was optimized for its installation on EAST. The value of the final optical power before the detectors without plasma has been calculated from the component bench test result, which is quite close to the measured value. A nanometer level displacement (of the order of the laser's wavelength) has been clearly measured by a modulation of piezoelectric ceramic unit, proving the system's capability. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (Nos. 2014GB106002, 2014GB106003, 2014GB106004) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11105184, 11375237, 11505238)

  6. Full-Scale and Bench-Scale Studies on the Removal of Strontium from Water (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strontium (Sr) is a natural and commonly occurring alkaline earth metal which has an oxidation state of +2 under normal environmental conditions. Stable strontium is suspended in water and is dissolved after water runs through rocks and soil. It behaves very similar to calcium. G...

  7. Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

  8. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step

  9. Validating induced seismicity forecast models—Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király-Proag, Eszter; Zechar, J. Douglas; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SaSS forecasts the spatial distribution better and gives better seismicity rate estimates before shut-in. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in.

  10. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  11. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  12. Studies supporting the use of mechanical mixing in large scale beer fermentations.

    PubMed

    Nienow, Alvin W; McLeod, Georgina; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Brewing fermentations have traditionally been undertaken without the use of mechanical agitation, with mixing being provided only by the fluid motion induced by the CO(2) evolved during the batch process. This approach has largely been maintained because of the belief in industry that rotating agitators would damage the yeast. Recent studies have questioned this view. At the bench scale, brewer's yeast is very robust and withstands intense mechanical agitation under aerobic conditions without observable damage as measured by flow cytometry and other parameters. Much less intense mechanical agitation also decreases batch fermentation time for anaerobic beer production by about 25% compared to mixing by CO(2) evolution alone with a small change in the concentration of the different flavour compounds. These changes probably arise for two reasons. Firstly, the agitation increases the relative velocity and the area of contact between the cells and the wort, thereby enhancing the rate of mass transfer to and from the cells. Secondly, the agitation eliminates spatial variations in both yeast concentration and temperature, thus ensuring that the cells are maintained close to the optimum temperature profile during the whole of the fermentation time. These bench scale studies have recently been supported by results at the commercial scale from mixing by an impeller or by a rotary jet head, giving more consistent production without changes in final flavour. It is suggested that this reluctance of the brewing industry to use (adequate) mechanical agitation is another example where the myth of shear damage has had a detrimental effect on the optimal operation of commercial bioprocessing. PMID:20131078

  13. Influence of aeration intensity on mature aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Aeration intensity is well known as an important factor in the formation of aerobic granules. In this research, two identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with aeration intensity of 0.8 (R1) and 0.2 m(3)/h (R2) were operated to investigate the characteristics and kinetics of matured aerobic granules. Results showed that both aeration intensity conditions induced granulation, but they showed different effects on the characteristics of aerobic granules. Compared with the low aeration intensity (R2), the aerobic granules under the higher aeration intensity (R1) had better physical characteristics and settling ability. However, the observed biomass yield (Y obs) in R1 [0.673 kg mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)] was lower than R2 (0.749 kg MLVSS/kg COD). In addition, the maximum specific COD removal rates (q max) and apparent half rate constant (K) of mature aerobic granular sludge under the two aeration intensities were at a similar level. Therefore, the matured aerobic granule system does not require to be operated in a higher aeration intensity, which will reduce the energy consumption.

  14. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  15. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  16. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  17. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  18. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  19. Comparison of Leachate Quality from Aerobic and Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borglin, S. E.; Hazen, T. C.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills are becoming a drain on the resources of local municipalities as the requirements for stabilization and containment become increasingly stringent. Current regulations limit the moisture in the landfill to minimize leachate production and lower the potential for release of leachate to the environment. Recent research has shown that addition and recycling of moisture in the waste optimizes the biodegradation of stabilization and also provides a means for leachate treatment. This study compares the characteristics of leachate produced from aerobic and anaerobic laboratory bioreactors, and leachate collected from a full-scale anaerobic bioreactor. The laboratory reactors consisted of 200-liter tanks filled with fresh waste materials with the following conditions: (a) aerobic (air injection with leachate recirculation), (b) anaerobic (leachate recirculation). The leachate from the reactors was monitored for metals, nutrients, organic carbon, and microbiological activity for up to 500 days. Leachate from the aerobic tank had significantly lower concentrations of all potential contaminants, both organic and metal, after only a few weeks of operation. Metals leaching was low throughout the test period for the aerobic tanks, and decreased over time for the anaerobic tanks. Organic carbon as measured by BOD, COD, TOC, and COD were an order of magnitude higher in the leachate from the anaerobic system. Microbiological assessment by lipid analysis, enzyme activity assays, and cell counts showed high biomass and diversity in both the aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors, with higher activity in the anaerobic leachate. Results from the full-scale anaerobic bioreactor were not significantly different from those of the laboratory anaerobic bioreactor. The reduction in noxious odors was a significant advantage of the aerobic system. These results suggest that aerobic management of landfills could reduce or eliminate the need for leachate treatment

  20. Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50–100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5 years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585

  1. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  2. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  3. PILOT SCALE REACTOR FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF MODEL CHLORINATED CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrochemical degradation (ECD) is a promising technology for in-situ remediation of diversely contaminated submarine matrices, by the application of low level DC electric fields. This study, prompted by successful bench-scale electrochemical dechlorination of Trichloroe...

  4. Design guidelines for high dimensional stability of CFRP optical bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnoyers, Nichola; Boucher, Marc-André; Goyette, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    In carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) optomechanical structures, particularly when embodying reflective optics, angular stability is critical. Angular stability or warping stability is greatly affected by moisture absorption and thermal gradients. Unfortunately, it is impossible to achieve the perfect laminate and there will always be manufacturing errors in trying to reach a quasi-iso laminate. Some errors, such as those related to the angular position of each ply and the facesheet parallelism (for a bench) can be easily monitored in order to control the stability more adequately. This paper presents warping experiments and finite-element analyses (FEA) obtained from typical optomechanical sandwich structures. Experiments were done using a thermal vacuum chamber to cycle the structures from -40°C to 50°C. Moisture desorption tests were also performed for a number of specific configurations. The selected composite material for the study is the unidirectional prepreg from Tencate M55J/TC410. M55J is a high modulus fiber and TC410 is a new-generation cyanate ester designed for dimensionally stable optical benches. In the studied cases, the main contributors were found to be: the ply angular errors, laminate in-plane parallelism (between 0° ply direction of both facesheets), fiber volume fraction tolerance and joints. Final results show that some tested configurations demonstrated good warping stability. FEA and measurements are in good agreement despite the fact that some defects or fabrication errors remain unpredictable. Design guidelines to maximize the warping stability by taking into account the main dimensional stability contributors, the bench geometry and the optical mount interface are then proposed.

  5. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S.

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  6. Carnotite resources of San Miguel bench, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvord, Donald Clayton

    1955-01-01

    San Miguel bench includes about 4 square miles in the southern part of T. 48 N., R. 17 W., New Mexico principal meridian, Montrose County, Colorado. Production of carnotite ore from the area has been about 15,000 short tons having an estimated average grade of 0.31 percent U3O8 and 1.6 percent V2O5. Nearly all of the carnotite deposits occur in a single continuous sandstone bed near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. These deposits consist chiefly of sandstone impregnated with uranium- and vanadium-bearing minerals. They are irregular tabular-shaped masses ranging in size from a few short tons to 30,000 short tons or more of minable carnotite ore. During the period November 27, 1951, to April 17, 1953, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 309 holes totaling 92,194 feet on the San Miguel bench. Reserves total about 43,000 short tons of material 1 foot or more thick and contain 0.10 percent or More U3O8 or 1.0 percent or more V2O5. Of these reserves 3,300 short tons occur in private land. These reserves are in ten deposits found by Geological Survey drilling. Potential reserves (reserves based on geologic evidence only) are predicted to total about 15,000 short tons, averaging 0.30 percent U3O8 and 1.6 percent V2O5. No additional drilling in the San Miguel bench is planned by the Geological Survey. Some drilling by private enterprise is recommended.

  7. Carnotite resources of the Dolores bench, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobin, Daniel Alfred

    1953-01-01

    The Dolores bench is about 2 miles northwest of Uravan, Montrose County, Colo. From 1913 to November 1952 about 95,000 short tons of ore averaging 0.40 percent U3O8 and 2.0 percent V2O5 was mined from the Dolores bench. The production represents three periods of activity--1913-18, 1938-43, and 1948-52. The ore deposits are in broad sandstone lenses near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. The deposits are mainly impregnations of sandstone by carnotite and vanadiferous clay minerals. The deposits are irregular tabular layers which occasionally include pod-like masses called “rolls”. The rolls as well as the mineralized areas enclosing them have a poorly defined northeast trend. Between December 4, 1951, and August 1, 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey diamond-drilled 183 holes totaling 53,654 feet. The indicated and inferred reserves of carnotite-bearing material, and the pounds of contained U3O8 and V2O5 area summarized in table 1. At the highest thickness and grade cutoffs (1 foot thick and 0.10 percent U3O8 or 1.0 percent V2O5), indicated and inferred ore reserves total 90,000 short tons, averaging 0.33 percent U3O8 and 2.11 percent V2O5. These reserves include only those discovered by U.S. Geological Survey drilling. Potential reserves, whose existence is based on geologic evidence alone, are estimated to be about 10,000 short tons, averaging about 0.30 percent U3O8 and 2.00 percent V2O5. No additional exploration of the Dolores bench is planned by the Geological Survey. Diamond drilling by claim owners is recommended in several parts of the area.

  8. STS-57 crewmembers examine stowage locker contents during bench review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers, wearing clean suits, examine stowage locker contents during their bench review at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility (FEPF) located near JSC. Pilot Brian J. Duffy pulls equipment from a locker while Commander Ronald J. Grabe (behind him), Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock, Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low (holding checklist), and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff discuss checklist procedures. The crewmembers reviewed equipment locations for OV-105 as well as the SPACEHAB-01 (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) experiment stowage locations. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Benny Benavides.

  9. STS-65 crewmembers participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in clean suits, STS-65 Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb (left) and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai examine the contents of a stowage locker during a bench review at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility (FEPF) near the Johnson Space Center (JSC). In the background, Commander Robert D. Cabana inspects additional equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  10. Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Ribeiro, A.; Costa Santos, A.; Alves Sousa, J.; Forbes, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment.

  11. Bench Crater Meteorite: Hydrated Asteroidal Material Delivered to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, K. H.; Messenger, S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Frank, D. R.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    D/H measurements from the lunar regolith agglutinates [8] indicate mixing between a low D/H solar implanted component and additional higher D/H sources (e.g., meteoritic/ cometary/volcanic gases). We have determined the range and average D/H ratio of Bench Crater meteorite, which is the first direct D/H analysis of meteoritic material delivered to the lunar surface. This result provides an important ground truth for future investigations of lunar water resources by missions to the Moon.

  12. The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent - paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

  13. The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

  14. Development of a real time MTF test bench for visible optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yuheng; Fan, Jiming; Xiang, Chunchang; Shen, Weimin

    2010-11-01

    A real-time MTF test bench for visible optical systems is presented in this paper. This test bench can perform quick on-axis and off-axis MTF measurement of optical systems whose aperture are less than 200mm in visible wavelength. A high quality off-axis parabolic collimator is used as object generator of this test bench. The image analyzer is a microscopy with CCD camera installed on a multi-axis motion stage. The software of this MTF test bench provides a good interface for the operators to set measurement parameters and control this bench. Validation of this test bench, performed with a 50mm plano-convex audit lens, shows that MTF measurement error of this bench is within 0.04. Besides MTF measurement, this bench can also perform effective focal length (EFL) and back focal length (BFL) without any hardware modification. Transmittance of optical system can also be performed on this bench with an integrating sphere.

  15. Bench-marking beam-beam simulations using coherent quadrupole effects

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnagopal, S.; Chin, Y.H.

    1992-06-01

    Computer simulations are used extensively in the study of the beam-beam interaction. The proliferation of such codes raises the important question of their reliability, and motivates the development of a dependable set of bench-marks. We argue that rather than detailed quantitative comparisons, the ability of different codes to predict the same qualitative physics should be used as a criterion for such bench-marks. We use the striking phenomenon of coherent quadrupole oscillations as one such bench-mark, and demonstrate that our codes do indeed observe this behaviour. We also suggest some other tests that could be used as bench-marks.

  16. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  17. Streamflow characteristics at hydrologic bench-mark stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Hydrologic Bench-Mark Network was established in the 1960's. Its objectives were to document the hydrologic characteristics of representative undeveloped watersheds nationwide and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. The network, which consists of 57 streamflow gaging stations and one lake-stage station in 39 States, is planned for permanent operation. This interim report describes streamflow characteristics at each bench-mark site and identifies time trends in annual streamflow that have occurred during the data-collection period. The streamflow characteristics presented for each streamflow station are (1) flood and low-flow frequencies, (2) flow duration, (3) annual mean flow, and (4) the serial correlation coefficient for annual mean discharge. In addition, Kendall's tau is computed as an indicator of time trend in annual discharges. The period of record for most stations was 13 to 17 years, although several stations had longer periods of record. The longest period was 65 years for Merced River near Yosemite, Calif. Records of flow at 6 of 57 streamflow sites in the network showed a statistically significant change in annual mean discharge over the period of record, based on computations of Kendall's tau. The values of Kendall's tau ranged from -0.533 to 0.648. An examination of climatological records showed that changes in precipitation were most likely the cause for the change in annual mean discharge.

  18. Construction and testing of the optical bench for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. I.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Ward, H.; Bryant, J.; Cruise, A. M.; Dixon, G.; Hoyland, D.; Smith, D.; Bogenstahl, J.

    2013-04-01

    eLISA is a space mission designed to measure gravitational radiation over a frequency range of 0.1-100 mHz (European Space Agency LISA Assessment Study Report 2011). It uses laser interferometry to measure changes of order 10\\,pm /\\sqrt{Hz} in the separation of inertial test masses housed in spacecraft separated by 1 million km. LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a technology demonstrator mission that will test the key eLISA technologies of inertial test masses monitored by laser interferometry in a drag-free spacecraft. The optical bench that provides the interferometry for LPF must meet a number of stringent requirements: the optical path must be stable at the few pm /\\sqrt{Hz} level; it must direct the optical beams onto the inertial masses with an accuracy of better than ±25 μm, and it must be robust enough not only to survive launch vibrations but to achieve full performance after launch. In this paper we describe the construction and testing of the flight optical bench for LISA Pathfinder that meets all the design requirements.

  19. Laboratory bench for the characterization of triboelectric properties of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, Bogdan; Prawatya, Yopa; Zeghloul, Thami; Souchet, Dominique; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    The use of polymers as materials for sliding machine components is due to their low cost, ease of manufacturing, as well as appropriate mechanical and thermal properties. The aim of this paper is to present the experimental bench designed for the study of the triboelectric charge generated in sliding conformal contacts between flat polymer materials. The experiments were performed with 4-mm-thick samples of polystyrene and 5-mm-thick samples of poly-vinyl-chloride.The normal contact force can be adjusted using an appropriate control system and measured by a force sensor (± 50 N). The translational back-and-forth motion of the samples is produced by a crank-shaft system that generates a sinusoidal translational speed profile, with amplitudes between 12 and 50 mm/s, for strokes of 36 to 60 mm. The distribution of charge at the surface of the samples is measured by the capacitive probe of an electrostatic voltmeter (± 10 kV). The experiments pointed out that this bench enables the evaluation of the non-uniformity of the electric charge accumulated on the sliding bodies and the study of the correlations that might exists between this charge and the external forces applied to the contact.

  20. A laser guide star wavefront sensor bench demonstrator for TMT.

    PubMed

    Lardiere, Olivier; Conan, Rodolphe; Bradley, Colin; Jackson, Kate; Herriot, Glen

    2008-04-14

    Sodium laser guide stars (LGSs) allow, in theory, Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to reach a full sky coverage, but they have their own limitations. The artificial star is elongated due to the sodium layer thickness, and the temporal and spatial variability of the sodium atom density induces changing errors on wavefront measurements, especially with Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) for which the LGS elongation is larger. In the framework of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope project (TMT), the AO-Lab of the University of Victoria (UVic) has built an LGS-simulator test bed in order to assess the performance of new centroiding algorithms for LGS Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (SH-WFS). The design of the LGS-bench is presented, as well as laboratory SH-WFS images featuring 29x29 radially elongated spots, simulated for a 30-m pupil. The errors induced by the LGS variations, such as focus and spherical aberrations, are characterized and discussed. This bench is not limited to SH-WFS and can serve as an LGS-simulator test bed to any other LGS-AO projects for which sodium layer fluctuations are an issue. PMID:18542656

  1. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young

  2. Assessing aerobic natural attenuation of trichloroethene at four DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Koelsch, Michael C.; Starr, Robert C.; Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  3. Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

    1999-05-01

    Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

  4. Questions of testing rate and flexibility of rocket test benches, discussed on the basis of the test benches of Nitrochemie GMBH in Aschau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LEGRAND

    1987-01-01

    The rocket test benches are used to study burnup behavior by various methods. In the first ten months of 1966, 1578 shots were performed to test propellants, and 920 to test 14 thrust and pressure measurement projects.

  5. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  6. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  7. Aerobic Exercise for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Hai-Feng; Yang, Tao; Yu, Si-Xun; Huang, Hai-Dong; Jiang, Ling-Li; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background Although some trials assessed the effectiveness of aerobic exercise for Parkinson's disease (PD), the role of aerobic exercise in the management of PD remained controversial. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence about whether aerobic exercise is effective for PD. Methods Seven electronic databases, up to December 2013, were searched to identify relevant studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality based on PEDro scale. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of random-effects model were calculated. And heterogeneity was assessed based on the I2 statistic. Results 18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 901 patients were eligible. The aggregated results suggested that aerobic exercise should show superior effects in improving motor actions (SMD, −0.57; 95% CI −0.94 to −0.19; p = 0.003), balance (SMD, 2.02; 95% CI 0.45 to 3.59; p = 0.01), and gait (SMD, 0.33; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.49; p<0.0001) in patients with PD, but not in quality of life (SMD, 0.11; 95% CI −0.23 to 0.46; p = 0.52). And there was no valid evidence on follow-up effects of aerobic exercise for PD. Conclusion Aerobic exercise showed immediate beneficial effects in improving motor action, balance, and gait in patients with PD. However, given no evidence on follow-up effects, large-scale RCTs with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings. PMID:24983753

  8. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  9. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  10. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  11. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  12. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  13. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart P of... - Sloping and Benching

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sloping and Benching B Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. B Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926—Sloping and Benching (a) Scope and application....

  15. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart P of... - Sloping and Benching

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sloping and Benching B Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. B Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926—Sloping and Benching (a) Scope and application....

  16. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart P of... - Sloping and Benching

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sloping and Benching B Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. B Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926—Sloping and Benching (a) Scope and application....

  17. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  18. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  19. Development of real-time dual-display handheld and bench-top hybrid-mode SD-OCTs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Shin, Yong Seung; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers' physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe's built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT), and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU) accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU) processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method. PMID:24473286

  20. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Jacmel-Meyer Bench, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.

    1949-01-01

    The Jacmel-Meyer bench lies on the south coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti in the Department de l'Ouest. Jacmel, at the west end of the bench, is about 40 kilometers airline southwest of Port-au-Prince. In the early part of January 1949, the writer in company with Mr. Rémy Lemoine made a reconnaissance study of the ground-water conditions of the bench. The object of the reconnaissance was to determine the availability of ground water for irrigation of the bench as well as for the public water supply of Jacmel. Irrigation is practiced on the bench, bu the existing water supplies are insufficient to cover all irrigable lands. Jacmel is at present supplied with water from a pipe line that delivers the flow of several developed springs to the city by gravity. However, this supply is inadequate and probably at times is contaminated.

  1. Design, fabrication, and bench testing of a solar chemical receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, W. A.; Pierre, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Solar thermal energy can be effectively collected, transported, stored, and utilized by means of a chemical storage and transport system employing the reversible SO2 oxidation reaction. A solar chemical receiver for SO3 thermal decomposition to SO2 and oxygen was analyzed. Bench tests of a ten foot section of a receiver module were conducted with dissociated sulfuric acid (SO3 and H2O) in an electrical furnace. Measured percent conversion of SO3 was 85% of the equilibrium value. Methods were developed to fabricate and assemble a complete receiver module. These methods included applying an aluminide coating to certain exposed surfaces, assembling concentric tubes with a wire spacer, applying a platinum catalyst to the tubing wall, and coiling the entire assembly into the desired configuration.

  2. [Biomaterials and technologies for vascular grafts: from bench to bedside].

    PubMed

    Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Vaghetti, Marco; Soldani, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease and related revascularization procedures are increasing, due to the aging population and growing incidence of diabetes mellitus. Up to now, autologous saphenous vein is the conduit of choice for peripheral by-pass. Synthetic vascular graft in polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron®) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) are used if vein access cannot be obtained. These synthetic grafts are successfully used to replace large diameter vessels, but they fail in small diameters (<6 mm) such as for infragenicular by-pass. Reasons for failure are early thrombosis and late intimal hyperplasia. Novel small-diameter vascular grafts with an acceptable clinical outcome are therefore needed. Here, the main materials and technologies for the manufacturing of vascular grafts and the pathway from bench to bedside are discussed .

  3. Verification of polarising optics for the LISA optical bench.

    PubMed

    Dehne, Marina; Tröbs, Michael; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2012-12-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based interferometric gravitational wave detector. In the current baseline design for the optical bench, the use of polarising optics is foreseen to separate optical beams. Therefore it is important to investigate the influence of polarising components on the interferometer sensitivity and validate that the required picometre stability in the low-frequency band (1 mHz - 1 Hz) is achievable. This paper discusses the design of the experiment and the implemented stabilisation loops. A displacement readout fulfilling the requirement in the whole frequency band is presented. Alternatively, we demonstrate improvement of the noise performance by implementing various algorithms in data post-processing, which leads to an additional robustness for the LISA mission.

  4. Medical immunology: two-way bridge connecting bench and bedside.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Ger T; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Hooijkaas, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    Medical immunology in The Netherlands is a laboratory specialism dealing with immunological analyses as well as pre- and post-analytical consultation to clinicians (clinical immunologists and other specialists) involved in patients with immune mediated diseases. The scope of medical immunology includes immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, allergy, transfusion and transplantation immunology, and lymphoproliferative disorders plus the monitoring of these patients. The training, professional criteria, quality control of procedures and laboratories is well organized. As examples of the bridge function of medical immunology between laboratory (bench) and patient (bedside) the contribution of medical immunologists to diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases (in particular: humoral immunodeficiencies) as well as autoantibodies (anti-citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis) are given.

  5. From bench to patient: model systems in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Matthew D.; Look, A. Thomas; Cifra, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Model systems, including laboratory animals, microorganisms, and cell- and tissue-based systems, are central to the discovery and development of new and better drugs for the treatment of human disease. In this issue, Disease Models & Mechanisms launches a Special Collection that illustrates the contribution of model systems to drug discovery and optimisation across multiple disease areas. This collection includes reviews, Editorials, interviews with leading scientists with a foot in both academia and industry, and original research articles reporting new and important insights into disease therapeutics. This Editorial provides a summary of the collection's current contents, highlighting the impact of multiple model systems in moving new discoveries from the laboratory bench to the patients' bedsides. PMID:26438689

  6. Coal-bench architecture as a means of understanding regional changes in coal thickness and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    Analysis of the Fire Creek (Westphalian B), Pond Creek (lower Westphalian B), and Stockton (Westphalian B) coals, three of the most heavily mined coals in the Central Appalachian Basin, shows that all have a similar multiple-bench architecture of at least two benches split by a regional clastic parting or durain. Coal benches beneath regionally extensive partings are generally less continuous, thinner, more palynologically variable, higher in ash yield, and higher in sulfur content than coal benches above regional partings in all three coals. Where thick, benches above regional partings tend to exhibit temporal palynological changes from lycopod- to fern-dominant. Where inertinite-rich/fern-dominant benches are overlain by additional benches, the upper benches are limited in extent, variable in thickness, high in sulfur content and ash yield, and split away from the coal. The multiple-bench architecture exhibited by these coals is interpreted to represent a cyclic mire succession that was common in the Middle Pennsylvanian. Peats began as planar mires infilling an irregular topography during rising base level. When the topography was infilled, unconfined flooding was possible and resulted in widespread partings. Ponding above these clay-rich flood deposits led to re-establishment of new planar mires with greater continuity than the underlying mires. The extent of these mires provided buffers to clastic influx and, in many cases, allowed domed conditions to develop. Doming resulted in thick, high-quality coal benches. In some cases, a third stage of planar peats, with similar characteristics to the planar peats at the base of the beds, developed on the unevenly distributed clastics that buried underlying mires during continued base-level rise.

  7. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  8. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  9. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  10. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  11. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  12. Toxic effects of butyl elastomers on aerobic methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Helge; Steinle, Lea I.; Blees, Jan H.; Krause, Stefan; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Large quantities of the potent greenhouse gas methane are liberated into the water column of marine and lacustrine environments where it may be consumed by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria before reaching the atmosphere.The reliable quantification of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates is consequently of paramount importance for estimating methane budgets and to understand the controls on water column methane cycling. A widely used set of methods for measuring MOx rates is based on the incubation of water samples during which the consumption of methane is monitored, for instance with radio-tracer assays. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber stoppers because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases at the relevant time scales. We tested the effect of different stopper materials (unmodified- and halogenated butyl rubber) on MOx activity in environmental samples and in cultures of methane oxidising bacteria. MOx rates in samples sealed with unmodified butyl rubber were > 75% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber seals, suggesting inhibiting/toxic effects associated with the use of unmodified butyl elastomers. To further explore the cause of these effects, we analysed aqueous extracts of the different stoppers. Halogenated butyl rubber stoppers appeared to bleed off comparably little amounts of organics. In stark contrast, extracts of unmodified butyl rubber were contaminated with various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes, phenylalkanes and benzuothiazoles. We also found tetramethylthiourea, a scavenger of active oxygen species, which may inhibit the MOx pathway.

  13. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.

  14. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  15. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures IX Appendix IX to Part 86 Protection of Environment... the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures The R-Factor is the catalyst thermal reactivity coefficient used in the bench aging time (BAT) equation . Manufacturers may determine the value of...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures IX Appendix IX to Part 86 Protection of Environment...-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures The R-Factor is the catalyst thermal reactivity coefficient used in the bench aging time (BAT) equation . Manufacturers may determine the value of R...

  18. Salivary hormonal responses and performance changes during 15 weeks of mixed aerobic and weight training in elite junior wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Passelergue, Philippe A; Lac, Gérard

    2012-11-01

    To prepare efficiently for competition, wrestlers usually train physically for a period of approximately 12-20 weeks. Numerous physical qualities must be developed during this period of preparation: aerobic fitness, maximal strength, muscular endurance, power, and speed. However, numerous studies have concluded that it is difficult to concurrently develop strength and aerobic fitness for several reasons, in particular antagonistic endocrine variations. The study involved 15 elite junior wrestlers who trained at a sports training school for 15 weeks. To investigate the effects of long-term training and to assess the relationships between hormonal concentrations (salivary testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) and performance changes during simultaneous strength and aerobic fitness training, 6 saliva samples and 3 physical tests and 2 measures of body composition were made during the training period. Wrestlers had a significant increase (+1.5 kg) in body weight without changes in percentage body fat. Apart from the 20-m maximal shuttle speed, all performances increased significantly during the 15 weeks of training: maximum mechanical power output (Pmax: +12.8%), mean power during 30 seconds (Pmean: +10.8%), bench press (+5.7%), squat (+23.1%), power clean (+6.1%), time to 3,000- and 30-m sprints (-3.6, -1.3% respectively). During the period that the C increased, there was no significant variation for the T. The T/C ratio followed a variation pattern contrary to that of the C. We found strong correlations between salivary T, C, and T/C and the variation in explosive strength. Our results suggest that data about subjects' salivary C, T, and T/C may be employed to optimize the training process for sports people who need to develop strength and aerobic fitness simultaneously.

  19. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  20. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  1. Aerobic fitness, psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, S M; Hindelang, R D; Dembroski, T M; Mayerson, S E; Parks, E B; Holland, J C

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relations among aerobic fitness (AF), psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity using 62 men divided into highly fit and less fit groups based on a maximal treadmill exercise test. Several psychological and physiological variables were measured, and subjects' cardiovascular reactivity was assessed during a mental arithmetic task and during a video game task. Highly fit subjects showed a significantly smaller increase in both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) and reported themselves to be less anxious and less angry than less fit subjects. Furthermore, controlling for subjects' scores on a scale assessing angry temperament reduced the relationship between AF and DBP reactivity to nonsignificant levels. These results suggest that degree of dispositional anger, which covaries with increased fitness, may contribute to the apparent relationship between AF and DBP--but not HR--reactivity.

  2. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  3. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  4. Beyond bench and bedside: disentangling the concept of translational research.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Anna Laura; Boenink, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    The label 'Translational Research' (TR) has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the lab bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the benefits of its investments in scientific research. The rhetorical as well as moral force of the label TR obscure, however, that it is actually used in very different ways. In this paper, we analyse the scientific discourse on TR, with the aim to disentangle and critically evaluate the different meanings of the label. We start with a brief reconstruction of the history of the concept. Subsequently, we unravel how the label is actually used in a sample of scientific publications on TR and examine the presuppositions implied by different views of TR. We argue that it is useful to distinguish different views of TR on the basis of three dimensions, related to (1) the construction of the 'translational gap'; (2) the model of the translational process; and (3) the cause of the perceived translational gap. We conclude that the motive to make society benefit from its investments in biomedical science may be laudable, but that it is doubtful whether the dominant views of TR will contribute to this end.

  5. Bench checkout equipment for spaceborne laser altimeter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James C.; Elman, Gregory C.; Christian, Kent D.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Hopf, Dan E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the requirements for testing and characterizing spaceborne laser altimeter systems. The Bench Checkout Equipment (BCE) system, test requirements, and flow-down traceability from the instrument system's functional requirements will also be presented. Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the MOLA BCE are presented as representative of a 'typical' laser altimeter and its corresponding test system. The testing requirements of other or future laser altimeter systems may vary slightly due to the specific spacecraft interface and project requirements. MOLA, the first solid-state interplanetary laser altimeter, was designed to be operational in Mars orbit for two Earth years. MOLA transmits a 7.5 ns pulse at a wavelength of 1.064 microns with a 0.25 mr beam divergence and a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. The output energy is specified at 45 mj at the beginning of mapping orbit and 30 mj at the end of one Martian year. MOLA will measure the laser pulse transit time from the spacecraft to the Mars surface and return to a resolution of 1.5 meters.

  6. Modeling rock fracturing in bench-blasting problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuszmaul, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A computational model of rock blasting is being developed to examine the blasting problems associated with in situ oil shale processing. This model, however, will also be useful as a design tool for the traditional problems in rock blasting. The model includes fundamental treatment of both shock-wave propagation and the accumulation of brittle fracture in the rock. As a result, the model accurately predicts the degree and extent of fracturing as functions of design parameters. The model has proven useful for making parametric studies and for evaluation of alternate blast designs. This paper demonstrates the use of the numerical model to simulate the fracturing induced by the detonation of a vertical explosive column near a bench. The fracturing induced by three different explosives indicate that (in the chosen geometry) the most efficient breakage is done by a column of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixture (ANFO) used with a toe charge of aluminized ANFO. There was too much unfractured rock left when ANFO was used alone; aluminized ANFO used for the entire explosive column caused excessive fracturing. A final case involves ANFO used alone to fracture a different rock type. This case points out that in a different rock type, the ANFO will not leave excessive unfractured rock.

  7. Pattern Generator for Bench Test of Digital Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkun, Andrew C.; Chu, Anhua J.

    2012-01-01

    All efforts to develop electronic equipment reach a stage where they need a board test station for each board. The SMAP digital system consists of three board types that interact with each other using interfaces with critical timing. Each board needs to be tested individually before combining into the integrated digital electronics system. Each board needs critical timing signals from the others to be able to operate. A bench test system was developed to support test of each board. The test system produces all the outputs of the control and timing unit, and is delivered much earlier than the timing unit. Timing signals are treated as data. A large file is generated containing the state of every timing signal at any instant. This file is streamed out to an IO card, which is wired directly to the device-under-test (DUT) input pins. This provides a flexible test environment that can be adapted to any of the boards required to test in a standalone configuration. The problem of generating the critical timing signals is then transferred from a hardware problem to a software problem where it is more easily dealt with.

  8. Point spread function reconstruction on the Gemini Canopus bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Luc; Neichel, Benoit; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses an open loop, single-conjugate, point spread function reconstruction experiment performed with a bright calibration source and synthetic turbulence injected on the ground-level deformable mirror of the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics Canopus bench at Gemini South. Time histories of high-order Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor slopes were recorded on the telemetry circular buffer, and time histories of short exposure K-band point spread functions with and without turbulence injected were recorded with the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager. We discuss the processing of the data and show that the long exposure background- and tip/tilt-removed turbulence image can be reconstructed at a percent level accuracy from the tip/tilt-removed de-noised wavefront sensor slope covariance matrix and from the long exposure background- and tip/tilt-removed static image. Future experiments are planned with multiple calibration sources at infinite and finite range and turbulence injected on 2 deformable mirrors, aiming at validating the recently published point spread function reconstruction algorithm [Gilles et. al. Appl. Opt. 51, 7443 (2012)] for closed loop laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics.

  9. Improving optical bench radius measurements using stage error motion data

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Tony L.; Gardner, Neil; Vaughn, Matthew; Medicus, Kate; Davies, Angela

    2008-12-20

    We describe the application of a vector-based radius approach to optical bench radius measurements in the presence of imperfect stage motions. In this approach, the radius is defined using a vector equation and homogeneous transformation matrix formulism. This is in contrast to the typical technique, where the displacement between the confocal and cat's eye null positions alone is used to determine the test optic radius. An important aspect of the vector-based radius definition is the intrinsic correction for measurement biases, such as straightness errors in the stage motion and cosine misalignment between the stage and displacement gauge axis, which lead to an artificially small radius value if the traditional approach is employed. Measurement techniques and results are provided for the stage error motions, which are then combined with the setup geometry through the analysis to determine the radius of curvature for a spherical artifact. Comparisons are shown between the new vector-based radius calculation, traditional radius computation, and a low uncertainty mechanical measurement. Additionally, the measurement uncertainty for the vector-based approach is determined using Monte Carlo simulation and compared to experimental results.

  10. An economical 20 litre bench-top fermenter.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Michael A; Coster, Douglas J; Mavrangelos, Christos; Zola, Heddy; Williams, Keryn A

    2002-10-01

    We describe an economical 20 litre bench-top fermenter suitable for production of recombinant antibody fragments in bacterial expression systems. The bacterial culture contained within a polycarbonate carboy is mixed (400-600 rpm) and aerated (1 vessel vol./min) by a high-shear radial flow impeller mounted on a hollow stainless steel shaft, through which pressurised air is pumped. Air is dispersed as fine bubbles into the culture medium by the turbine impeller, without the need for a porous sparger. A stainless steel baffle stabilised by a gliding counterweight increases mixing. The components can easily be disassembled for cleaning and sterilisation. Temperature (range 20-37 degrees C) and pH (range 7.0-7.5) are controlled manually. Using the apparatus, it proved possible to achieve Escherichia coli cell culture densities equivalent to an optical density at 600 nm (OD(600)) of 30-32, compared with OD(600) 4-6 in shake flasks. A yield of 40 mg/litre/day of a recombinant antibody fragment was obtained with the fermenter, which was 15-fold more than the yield of 2.5mg/litre/day achieved in shake flasks. The fermenter may be particularly suited for research purposes. PMID:12356465

  11. DRAGON, the Durham real-time, tomographic adaptive optics test bench: progress and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard M.; Morris, Timothy J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Rolt, Stephen; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Younger, Edward J.

    2014-08-01

    DRAGON is a real-time, tomographic Adaptive Optics test bench currently under development at Durham University. Optical and mechanical design work for DRAGON is now complete, and the system is close to becoming fully operational. DRAGON emulates current 4.2 m and 8 m telescopes, and can also be used to investigate ELT scale issues. The full system features 4 Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wavefront Sensors (WFS), 3 Natural Guide Star (NGS) WFSs and one Truth Sensor, all of which are 31 × 31 sub-aperture Shack-Hartmann WFS. Two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), a Boston MEMS Kilo DM and a Xinetics 97 actuator DM, correct for turbulence induced aberrations and these can be configured to be either open or closed loop of the WFS. A novel method of LGS emulation is implemented which includes the effects of uplink turbulence and elongation in real-time. The atmosphere is emulated by 4 rotating phase screens which can be translated in real-time to replicate altitude evolution of turbulent layers. DRAGON will be used to extensively study tomographic AO algorithms, such as those required for Multi-Object AO. As DRAGON has been designed to be compatible with CANARY, the MOAO demonstrator, results can be compared to those from the CANARY MOAO demonstrator on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We present here an overview of the current status of DRAGON and some early results, including investigations into the validity of the LGS emulation method.

  12. The E-lens test bench for RHIC beam-beam compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Gu X.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Aronson, J.; Beebe, E. et al

    2012-05-20

    To compensate for the beam-beam effects from the proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are fabricating two electron lenses that we plan to install at RHIC IR10. Before installing the e-lenses, we are setting-up the e-lens test bench to test the electron gun, collector, GS1 coil, modulator, partial control system, some instrumentation, and the application software. Some e-lens power supplies, the electronics for current measurement will also be qualified on test bench. The test bench also was designed for measuring the properties of the cathode and the profile of the beam. In this paper, we introduce the layout and elements of the e-lens test bench; and we discuss its present status towards the end of this paper.

  13. Bench press training program with attached chains for female volleyball and basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Timothy R; Ruud, Jason D; McGowan, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Attaching chains to barbells to increase strength and power has become popular for athletes; however, little scientific evidence supports this practice. The present purpose was to compare chain training to traditional training for the bench press. Women collegiate athletes in volleyball and basketball (N = 19) participated in a 16-session bench press program. They were matched into either a Traditional or a Chain training group by 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The Traditional group performed the bench press with conventional equipment, while the Chain group trained with attached chains (5% of weight). Analysis showed a significant increase in 1RM for both groups over 16 sessions, Traditional +11.8% and Chain +17.4%. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant, but suggests the women who trained with attached chains improved their bench press more than the Traditional group.

  14. Effects of aerobic training on exercise-related oxidative stress in mitochondrial myopathies.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Gabriele; Simoncini, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2012-12-01

    In mitochondrial myopathies with respiratory chain deficiency impairment of energy cell production may lead to in excess reactive oxygen species generation with consequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Aerobic training has been showed to increase muscle performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Aim of this study has been to evaluate, in 7 patients (6 F e 1M, mean age 44.9 ± 12.1 years) affected by mitochondrial disease, concomitantly to lactate exercise curve, the occurrence of oxidative stress, as indicated by circulating levels of lipoperoxides, in rest condition and as effect of exercise, and also, to verify if an aerobic training program is able to modify, in these patients, ox-redox balance efficiency. At rest and before training blood level of lipoperoxides was 382.4 ± 37.8 AU, compared to controls (318.7 ± 63.8; P<0.05), this corresponding to a moderate oxidative stress degree according to the adopted scale. During incremental exercise blood level of lipoperoxides did not increase, but maintained significantly higher compared to controls. After an aerobic training of 10 weeks the blood level of lipoperoxides decreased by 13.7% at rest (P<0.01) and 10.4%, 8.6% and 8.5% respectively at the corresponding times during the exercise test (P=0.06). These data indicate that, in mitochondrial patients, oxidative stress occurs and that an aerobic training is useful in partially reverting this condition.

  15. Potential controls of alluvial bench deposition and erosion in southern Piedmont streams, Alabama (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Nicholas R.; Davis, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Benches are bank-attached channel deposits occurring at an elevation between the channel bed and top of banks. Their occurrence in a variety of geologic and hydrologic settings has led to confusion about the mechanisms driving their formation, which in turn contributes to difficulty identifying the active floodplain, bankfull stage, and the determination of environmental flows in some rivers. Hydrodynamic modeling software (River 2D), in combination with sediment particle size analysis and total station topographic surveys, was used to simulate flow conditions needed to erode and deposit the D84, D50, and D15 particle sizes of concave and lateral benches in two rivers (Talladega and Hillabee creeks) in Alabama. Results suggest that bench erosion requires flows at least 150% larger than benchfull stage at the Talladega site, while the Hillabee site experienced erosion at all discharges meeting and exceeding benchfull flow stage, likely owing to its overall smaller sediment particle sizes. At both sites, the presence of vegetation increased the bench area subjected to deposition but, somewhat counterintuitively, also helped influence the location of erosion by limiting flow vectors. In contrast with previous research findings, the occurrence of reverse flow was neither sustained nor widespread at either site. These findings provide new insight into alluvial benches, suggest that the study benches are relatively stable features under the prevailing hydrologic regime, and that in some temperate climate settings, such as the southern Piedmont, localized hydraulic controls on bench formation can be superseded in importance by hydrologic flow regime, even in the case of concave benches and where flow regulation is not a factor.

  16. The effects of the topographic bench on ground motion from mining explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, J.L.; Blomberg, W.S.; Hopper, H.; Leidig, M.

    2005-07-01

    Understanding the effects of the bench on ground motion can improve the design of cast blasts and achieve improved blast efficiency while remaining below vibration requirements. A new dataset recorded in September 2003 from a coal mine in Arizona has allowed us to examine the excitation of short-period Rayleigh-type surface waves from four simultaneously-detonated explosions in and below a topographic bench of a mine. The explosions were recorded on a network of over 150 seismic sensors, providing an extensive understanding of the ground motion radiation patterns from these explosions. We detonated two separate explosions in the deepest pit of the mine, thus the explosions were shot to solid rock. Within 25 meters of these two explosions, we detonated two additional explosions of similar explosive yields in a bench, thus these explosions were shot to the free face. Radiation patterns and spectral ratios from the explosions show increased amplitudes at azimuths behind the bench relative to the amplitudes in front of the bench. We compared these findings to seismic observations from two {approximately} 1.5 million pound cast blasts at the same mine and found similar radiations patterns. Modeling of these blasts shows that the variations in ground motion are caused by the topographic bench as a result of 1) horizontal spalling of the rock falling into the pit and 2) non-linear scattering near the free-face. Shooting to a buffer also causes the azimuthal variations to be significantly reduced.

  17. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    PubMed

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. PMID:23726036

  18. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    PubMed

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements.

  19. Municipal wastewater treatment in the anaerobic-aerobic baffled filter reactor at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Bodík, I; Kratochvíl, K; Herdová, B; Tapia, G; Gaspariková, E

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the pilot-scale experiments with anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. As the anaerobic part of the pilot-scale system, the combination of the anaerobic baffled reactor and the anaerobic filter was used. The aerobic part of reactor was designed as an activated sludge system with the carrier of biomass (polypropylene cords). Two pilot-scale reactors (AN-I and AN-II) under real conditions were monitored. All technological parameters were identical in both reactors, but the AN-I reactor was inoculated with the psychrophilic digested sludge. The HRT in the anaerobic and aerobic parts of reactors were about 15 hours and 4 hours, respectively. The temperature in both reactors varied during the year from 4.5 to 23 degrees C. During the yearly operation time both systems removed all monitored parameters with relatively high efficiencies (COD-78.6-83.0%, BOD5-92.5-94.0 and SS-80.9-92.7%). The intensive nitrification process was observed during the whole year in both reactors (under average temperature of 5.9 degrees C in January 2000, too). The average removal of the NH4-N varied during the year from 46.4 to 87.3%. In both systems the effective denitrification process was observed, too. In the real conditions it is possible to operate such systems for a long time without removing excess sludge. PMID:12420975

  20. Aerobic and resistance training improves mood state among adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Jaggers, J R; Hand, G A; Dudgeon, W D; Burgess, S; Phillips, K D; Durstine, J L; Blair, S N

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV+ adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50 min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p=0.03) and total POMS (p=0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms. PMID:25322262