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Sample records for aerobic capacity increased

  1. Protein and carbohydrate supplementation increases aerobic and thermoregulatory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kazunobu; Goto, Masaki; Nose, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of heat illness and heat stroke is greater in older than younger people. In this context, exercise training regimens to increase heat tolerance in older people may provide protection against heat illness. Acute increases in plasma volume (PV) improve thermoregulation during exercise in young subjects, but there is some evidence that changes in PV in response to acute exercise are blunted in older humans. We recently demonstrated that protein–carbohydrate (Pro-CHO) supplementation immediately after a bout of exercise increased PV and plasma albumin content (Albcont) after 23 h in both young and older subjects. We also examined whether Pro-CHO supplementation during aerobic training enhanced thermoregulation by increasing PV and Albcont in older subjects. Older men aged ∼68 years exercised at moderate intensity, 60 min day−1, 3 days week−1, for 8 weeks, at ∼19°C, and took either placebo (CNT; 0.5 kcal, 0 g protein kg−1) or Pro-CHO supplement (Pro-CHO; 3.2 kcal, 0.18 g protein kg−1) immediately after exercise. After training, we found during exercise at 30°C that increases in oesophageal temperature (Tes) were attenuated more in Pro-CHO than CNT and associated with enhanced cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating. We also confirmed similar results in young subjects after 5 days of training. These results demonstrate that post-exercise protein and CHO consumption enhance thermoregulatory adaptations especially in older subjects and provide insight into potential strategies to improve cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations to exercise in both older and younger subjects. PMID:19752117

  2. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO2max

  3. Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in young individuals

    PubMed Central

    Umemoto, Sachiro; Otsuki, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains a variety of nutrients including amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. A previous animal study found that maximal swimming time in mice increased after 14 days on a diet including Chlorella powder compared to no change in swimming performance on a normal diet. However, it is currently unknown whether Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in humans. We investigated the effects of Chlorella-derived supplementation on peak oxygen uptake during incremental maximal cycling in young individuals using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study design. Seven men and three women (mean age, 21.3 year) were allocated to placebo or Chlorella tablets (15 tablets × twice per day) for 4 weeks, with at least a 6-week washout period between trials, in a randomized order. Peak oxygen uptake significantly increased after Chlorella supplementation (before vs after, 37.9 ± 1.9 vs 41.4 ± 1.9 ml/kg/min, p = 0.003), but not with placebo (39.4 ± 2.2 vs 40.1 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min, p = 0.38). The change in peak oxygen uptake over the 4-week trial was significantly greater in the Chlorella trial than in the placebo trial (3.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.7 ± 0.8 ml/kg/min, p = 0.03). These results suggest that Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in young individuals. PMID:25320462

  4. Increased mitochondrial coupling and anaerobic capacity minimizes aerobic costs of trout in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Brijs, Jeroen; Sandblom, Erik; Sundh, Henrik; Gräns, Albin; Hinchcliffe, James; Ekström, Andreas; Sundell, Kristina; Olsson, Catharina; Axelsson, Michael; Pichaud, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Anadromy is a distinctive life-history strategy in fishes that has evolved independently many times. In an evolutionary context, the benefits of anadromy for a species or population must outweigh the costs and risks associated with the habitat switch. The migration of fish across the freshwater-ocean boundary coincides with potentially energetically costly osmoregulatory modifications occurring at numerous levels of biological organization. By integrating whole animal and sub-cellular metabolic measurements, this study presents significant findings demonstrating how an anadromous salmonid (i.e. rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) is able to transform from a hyper- to hypo-osmoregulatory state without incurring significant increases in whole animal oxygen consumption rate. Instead, underlying metabolic mechanisms that fuel the osmoregulatory machinery at the organ level (i.e. intestine) are modulated, as mitochondrial coupling and anaerobic metabolism are increased to satisfy the elevated energetic demands. This may have positive implications for the relative fitness of the migrating individual, as aerobic capacity may be maintained for locomotion (i.e. foraging and predator avoidance) and growth. Furthermore, the ability to modulate mitochondrial metabolism in order to maintain osmotic balance suggests that mitochondria of anadromous fish may have been a key target for natural selection, driving species adaptations to different aquatic environments. PMID:28361996

  5. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thermogenic capacity of bank voles selected for increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Grzebyk, Katherine; Rudolf, Agata M; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Agro-chemicals potentially cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. The rate of animal energy metabolism can influence their susceptibility to pesticides by influencing food consumption, biotransformation and elimination rates of toxicants. We used experimental evolution to study the effects of inherent differences in energy metabolism rate and exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) on thermogenic capacity in a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes = Clethrionomys glareolus). The voles were sampled from four replicate lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and four unselected control (C) lines. Thermogenic capacity, measured as the maximum cold-induced rate of oxygen consumption (VO2cold), was higher in the A - than C lines, and it decreased after continuous exposure to CPF via food or after a single dose administered via oral gavage, but only when measured shortly after exposure. VO2cold measured 24 h after repeated exposure was not affected. In addition, gavage with a single dose led to decreased food consumption and loss in body mass. Importantly, the adverse effects of CPF did not differ between the selected and control lines. Therefore, exposure to CPF has adverse effects on thermoregulatory performance and energy balance in this species. The effects are short-lived and their magnitude is not associated with the inherent level of energy metabolism. Even without severe symptoms of poisoning, fitness can be compromised under harsh environmental conditions, such as cold and wet weather.

  6. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  7. Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic

  8. Blunted angiogenesis and hypertrophy are associated with increased fatigue resistance and unchanged aerobic capacity in old overloaded mouse muscle.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Busé-Pot, Tinelies; Harding, Peter J; Yap, Moi H; Deldicque, Louise; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T; Degens, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesize that the attenuated hypertrophic response in old mouse muscle is (1) partly due to a reduced capillarization and angiogenesis, which is (2) accompanied by a reduced oxidative capacity and fatigue resistance in old control and overloaded muscles, that (3) can be rescued by the antioxidant resveratrol. To investigate this, the hypertrophic response, capillarization, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance of m. plantaris were compared in 9- and 25-month-old non-treated and 25-month-old resveratrol-treated mice. Overload increased the local capillary-to-fiber ratio less in old (15 %) than in adult (59 %) muscle (P < 0.05). Although muscles of old mice had a higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity (P < 0.05) and a slower fiber type profile (P < 0.05), the isometric fatigue resistance was similar in 9- and 25-month-old mice. In both age groups, the fatigue resistance was increased to the same extent after overload (P < 0.01), without a significant change in SDH activity, but an increased capillary density (P < 0.05). Attenuated angiogenesis during overload may contribute to the attenuated hypertrophic response in old age. Neither was rescued by resveratrol supplementation. Changes in fatigue resistance with overload and aging were dissociated from changes in SDH activity, but paralleled those in capillarization. This suggests that capillarization plays a more important role in fatigue resistance than oxidative capacity.

  9. Aerobic Capacity and Postprandial Flow Mediated Dilation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Miller, James J; Robinson, James H; Olive, Jennifer L

    The consumption of a high-fat meal induces transient vascular dysfunction. Aerobic exercise enhances vascular function in healthy individuals. Our purpose was to determine if different levels of aerobic capacity impact vascular function, as measured by flow mediated dilation, following a high-fat meal. Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery was determined before, two- and four-hours postprandial a high-fat meal in young males classified as highly trained (n = 10; VO2max = 74.6 ± 5.2 ml·kg·min(-1)) or moderately active (n = 10; VO2max = 47.3 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min(-1)). Flow mediated dilation was reduced at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.001) compared to baseline for both groups but was not different between groups at any time point (p = 0.108). Triglycerides and insulin increased at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.05) in both groups. LDL-C was reduced at four-hours (p = 0.05) in highly trained subjects, and two- and four-hours (p ≤ 0.01) in moderately active subjects. HDL-C decreased at two- (p = 0.024) and four-hours (p = 0.014) in both groups. Glucose increased at two-hours postprandial for both groups (p = 0.003). Our results indicate that a high-fat meal results in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in highly trained and moderately active individuals with no difference between groups. Thus, high aerobic capacity does not protect against transient reductions in vascular function after the ingestion of a single high-fat meal compared to individuals who are moderately active.

  10. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning.

  11. [Aerobic capacity and quality of life in school children from 8 to 12].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga Lopez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic capacity is a powerful physiological indicator of the overall health status. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between aerobic capacity and quality of life in a sample of 298 (159 girls) school children aged 8-12 years. Aerobic capacity was tested using the Course-Navette test. Quality of life was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index scale. Males showed higher performance in the Course-Navette test and highest values of VO2max (P<.001 for both). ANOVA statistical analysis showed that the quality of life was significantly higher in school children with increased level of aerobic capacity compared to those with a low level (P=.001). Children with high aerobic capacity showed higher quality of life scores in relation to their peers with low scores (P<.001). As for the females, significant differences were found among those with high aerobic capacity level and their peers low levels (P<.031). The results of this study suggest that school children with higher level of aerobic capacity show better results in the quality of life index. Long-term intervention studies are needed to verify if an aerobic capacity development programme may upgrade the quality of life of children and adolescents.

  12. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  13. High Aerobic Capacity Mitigates Changes in the Plasma Metabolomic Profile Associated with Aging.

    PubMed

    Falegan, Oluyemi S; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hepple, Russ T; Shearer, Jane

    2017-02-03

    Advancing age is associated with declines in maximal oxygen consumption. Declines in aerobic capacity not only contribute to the aging process but also are an independent risk factor for morbidity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although statistically convincing, the relationships between aerobic capacity, aging, and disease risk remain largely unresolved. To this end, we employed sensitive, system-based metabolomics approach to determine whether enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some of the changes seen in the plasma metabolomic profile associated with aging. Metabolomic profiles of plasma samples obtained from young (13 month) and old (26 month) rats bred for low (LCR) or high (HCR) running capacity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) were examined. Results demonstrated strong profile separation in old and low aerobic capacity rats, whereas young and high aerobic capacity rat models were less predictive. Significantly differential metabolites between the groups include taurine, acetone, valine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide among other metabolites, specifically citrate, succinate, isovalerate, and proline, were differentially increased in older HCR animals compared with their younger counterparts. When interactions between age and aerobic capacity were examined, results demonstrated that enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some but not all age-associated alterations in the metabolomic profile.

  14. Correlations between aerobic capacity, pulmonary and cognitive functioning in the older women.

    PubMed

    Kara, B; Pinar, L; Uğur, F; Oğuz, M

    2005-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity and increases brain blood flow and oxygenation. Exercise also stimulates the reticular activating system and leads to a centrally excited state thereby makes the brain active and alert. In the present study, an aerobic exercise program consisting of submaximal level calisthenic exercises was devised for relatively healthy women between 60 and 80 years old, attending a solidarity center for the aged for daily activities. The effects of exercise on aerobic fitness, and the correlations between aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions and cognition were evaluated. Following a general health examination, 45 female volunteers fulfilling the international criteria of exercising standards for the aged were included in the program. The rhythmic and entertaining calisthenic exercises were performed by the older women for four months, three days a week, 40 or 50 minutes a day. Tests for aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions, and some neuropsychologic performances were carried out during the sedentary period and after the exercise program. The results revealed significant improvements in aerobic capacity, pulmonary functions, and some of the cognitive functions after the 4-month exercise program. We found strong relationships between aerobic capacities and cognitive functioning. Overall, the subjects expressed their happiness and well being on every occasion, during and after the exercise program.

  15. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka,, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Sartor, Maureen A.; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 of selection that differed by 615% for maximal treadmill endurance running capacity. On average, LCRs were heavier and had increased blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides compared with HCRs. HCRs were higher for resting metabolic rate, voluntary activity, serum high density lipoproteins, muscle capillarity, and mitochondrial area. Bioinformatic analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression data revealed that many genes up-regulated in HCRs were related to oxidative energy metabolism. Seven mean mRNA expression centroids, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, correlated significantly with several exercise capacity and disease risk phenotypes. These expression-phenotype correlations, together with diminished skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial area in LCR rats, support the general hypothesis that an inherited intrinsic aerobic capacity can underlie disease risks.—Kivelä, R., Silvennoinen, M., Lehti, M., Rinnankoski-Tuikka, R., Purhonen, T., Ketola, T., Pullinen, K., Vuento, M., Mutanen, N., Sartor, M. A., Reunanen, H., Koch, L. G., Britton, S. L., Kainulainen, H. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk. PMID:20643908

  16. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  17. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  18. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  19. Identification of serum analytes and metabolites associated with aerobic capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies aimed at identifying serum markers of cellular metabolism (biomarkers) that are associated at baseline with aerobic capacity (V02 max) in young, healthy individuals have yet to be reported. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to use the standard chemistry screen and untargeted mass ...

  20. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  1. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Sartor, Maureen A; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-11-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 of selection that differed by 615% for maximal treadmill endurance running capacity. On average, LCRs were heavier and had increased blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides compared with HCRs. HCRs were higher for resting metabolic rate, voluntary activity, serum high density lipoproteins, muscle capillarity, and mitochondrial area. Bioinformatic analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression data revealed that many genes up-regulated in HCRs were related to oxidative energy metabolism. Seven mean mRNA expression centroids, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, correlated significantly with several exercise capacity and disease risk phenotypes. These expression-phenotype correlations, together with diminished skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial area in LCR rats, support the general hypothesis that an inherited intrinsic aerobic capacity can underlie disease risks.

  2. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men.

  3. Effects of dominant somatotype on aerobic capacity trainability

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K; Chtara, M; Feki, Y; Amri, M; Trudeau, F

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between dominant somatotype and the effect on aerobic capacity variables of individualised aerobic interval training. Methods: Forty one white North African subjects (age 21.4±1.3 years; V·o2max = 52.8±5.7 ml kg–1 min–1) performed three exercise tests 1 week apart (i) an incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine V·o2max and V·o2 at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2); (ii) a VAM-EVAL track test to determine maximal aerobic speed (vV·o2max); and (iii) an exhaustive constant velocity test to determine time limit performed at 100% vV·o2max (tlim100). Subjects were divided into four somatometric groups: endomorphs-mesomorphs (Endo-meso; n = 9), mesomorphs (Meso; n = 11), mesomorphs-ectomorphs (Meso-ecto; n = 12), and ectomorphs (Ecto; n = 9). Subjects followed a 12 week training program (two sessions/week). Each endurance training session consisted of the maximal number of successive fractions for each subject. Each fraction consisted of one period of exercise at 100% of vV·o2max and one of active recovery at 60% of vV·o2max. The duration of each period was equal to half the individual tlim100 duration (153.6±39.7 s). After the training program, all subjects were re-evaluated for comparison with pre-test results. Results: Pre- and post-training data were grouped by dominant somatotype. Two way ANOVA revealed significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction effects (p<0.001) for improvements in vV·o2max, V·o2max expressed classically and according to allometric scaling, and V·o2 at VT2. There were significant differences among groups post-training: the Meso-ecto and the Meso groups showed the greatest improvements in aerobic capacity. Conclusion: The significant somatotype-aerobic training interaction suggests different trainability with intermittent and individualised aerobic training according to somatotype. PMID:16306506

  4. Reduced aerobic capacity causes leaky ryanodine receptors that trigger arrhythmia in a rat strain artificially selected and bred for low aerobic running capacity

    PubMed Central

    Høydal, MA; Stølen, TO; Johnsen, AB; Alvez, M; Catalucci, D; Condorelli, G; Koch, LG; Britton, SL; Smith, GL; Wisløff, U

    2014-01-01

    Aim Rats selectively bred for inborn Low Capacity of Running (LCR) display a series of poor health indices where as rats selected for High Capacity of Running (HCR) display a healthy profile. We hypothesized that selection of low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased diastolic Ca2+ leak that trigger arrhythmia. Methods We used rats selected for HCR (N=10) or LCR (N=10) to determine the effect of inborn aerobic capacity on Ca2+ leak and susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia. We studied isolated FURA2/AM loaded cardiomyocytes to detect Ca2+-handling and function on an inverted epi-fluorescence microscope. To determine arrhythmogenicity we did a final experiment with electrical burst pacing in Langendorff perfused hearts. Results Ca2+-handling was impaired by reduced Ca2+ amplitude, prolonged time to 50% Ca2+ decay, and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-content. Impaired Ca2+ removal was influenced by reduced SR Ca2+ ATP-ase 2a (SERCA2a) function and increased sodium/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) in LCR rats. Diastolic Ca2 leak was 87% higher in LCR rats. The leak was reduced by CaMKII inhibition. Expression levels of phosphorylated theorine-286 CaMKII levels and increased RyR2 phosphorylation at the Serine-2814 site mechanistically support our findings of increased leak in LCR. LCR rats had significantly higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Conclusion Selection of inborn low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased risk of ventricular fibrillation. Increased phosphorylation of CaMKII at serine-2814 at the cardiac ryanodine receptor appears as an important mechanism of impaired Ca2+ handling and diastolic Ca2+ leak that results in increased susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation. PMID:24444142

  5. The use of aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; Dawson, Andrew S; Gylfadóttir, Sif

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke. Design A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Databases searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched. Inclusion criteria Design: randomized controlled trials; Participants: individuals with stroke; Interventions: aerobic exercise training aimed at improving aerobic capacity; Outcomes Primary outcomes: aerobic capacity [peak oxygen consumption (VO2), peak workload); Secondary outcomes: walking velocity, walking endurance. Data Analysis The methodological quality was assessed by the PEDro scale. Meta-analyses were performed for all primary and secondary outcomes. Results Nine articles (seven RCTs) were identified. The exercise intensity ranged from 50% to 80% heart rate reserve. Exercise duration was 20–40 minutes for 3–5 days a week. The total number of subjects included in the studies was 480. All studies reported positive effects on aerobic capacity, regardless of the stage of stroke recovery. Meta-analysis revealed a significant homogeneous standardized effect size (SES) in favour of aerobic exercise to improve peak VO2 (SES, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.15 to 0.69; p=0.001) and peak workload (SES, 0.50; 95%CI, 0.26 to 0.73; p<0.001). There was also a significant homogeneous SES in favour of aerobic training to improve walking velocity (SES, 0.26; 95%CI, 0.05 to 0.48; p=0.008) and walking endurance (SES, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.06to 0.55; p=0.008). Conclusions There is good evidence that aerobic exercise is beneficial for improving aerobic capacity in people with mild and moderate stroke. Aerobic exercise should be an important component of stroke rehabilitation. PMID:16541930

  6. Exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Baudinette, Russell V

    2008-06-01

    Aerobic capacity (VO2max) of endothermic vertebrates is known to increase with exercise training, but this effect has not been found to-date in non-avian reptiles. We exercised juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) to walk at 0.75-0.88 km/h on a treadmill for up to 20 min a day over 16 weeks, and compared their aerobic performance with that of unexercised crocodiles. In the exercised group, VO2max increased from 6.9 to 8.5 mLO2/kg/min (+28%), and locomotor endurance increased from 3.8 to 6.9 min (+82%). Neither VO2max nor endurance changed significantly in the sedentary group. This finding extends the exercise training effect onto another vertebrate clade, and demonstrates that ectothermic amniotes are capable of elevating their aerobic capacity in response to exercise training. We propose that differences in cardiopulmonary structure and function in non-avian reptiles may be responsible for the absence (in squamates) or presence (in crocodilians) of a strong training effect on aerobic capacity.

  7. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  8. Maximal aerobic capacity at several ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide at several altitudes. Research report, April 1984-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Agnew, J.W.; Wagner, J.A.; Bedi, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    To assess the combined effects of altitude and acute carbon monoxide exposure, 11 male and 12 female subjects, all nonsmokers in good health, were given incremental maximal aerobic-capacity tests. Each subject, after attaining the required altitude and ambient carbon monoxide level, performed the maximal aerobic capacity test. Blood samples were drawn at several points in the aerobic capacity test protocol, and analyzed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma proteins, lactates, and carboxyhemoglobin. Carbon-monoxide-carboxyhemoglobin uptake rates were derived from the submaximal workloads. Despite increases in carboxyhemoglobin, no additional significant decreases in maximal aerobic capacity were observed. Immediately prior to and at maximal workloads, carbon monoxide shifted into extravascular spaces and returned to the vascular space within five minutes after exercise stopped.

  9. Black and White race differences in aerobic capacity, muscle fiber type, and their influence on metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Ceaser, Tyrone; Hunter, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Increasing aerobic capacity (VO2max) reduces adiposity, maintains weight, and reduces the risk of developing obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Two major determinants of aerobic capacity are the metabolic properties specific to a particular muscle fiber type and the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver nutrient-rich content to the muscle. Recent research suggests that some race/ethnic groups, particularly non-Hispanic Black subjects, are predisposed to a reduced VO2max by way of muscle fiber type. Combined with insufficient physical activity, these characteristics place non-Hispanic Black subjects at an increased risk for obesity and other adverse health outcomes when compared with other race/ethnic groups. The purpose of this review was to suggest a model for explaining how skeletal muscle fiber type may contribute to reduced aerobic capacity and obesity among non-Hispanic Black subjects. Our review indicates that metabolic properties of type II skeletal muscle (e.g. reduced oxidative capacity, capillary density) are related to various cardiometabolic diseases. Based on the review, non-Hispanic Black subjects appear to have a lower maximal aerobic capacity and a greater percentage of type II skeletal muscle fibers. Combined with reduced energy expenditure and reduced hemoglobin concentration, non-Hispanic Black subjects may be inherently predisposed to a reduced maximal aerobic capacity compared with non-Hispanic White subjects, thereby increasing the risk for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  10. Interval versus continuous training with identical workload: physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, G G; Gobatto, C A; Marcos-Pereira, M; Dos Reis, I G M; Verlengia, R

    2015-01-01

    The interval model training has been more recommended to promote aerobic adaptations due to recovery period that enables the execution of elevated intensity and as consequence, higher workload in relation to continuous training. However, the physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations in interval training with identical workload to continuous are still uncertain. The purpose was to characterize the effects of chronic and acute biomarkers adaptations and aerobic capacity in interval and continuous protocols with equivalent load. Fifty Wistar rats were divided in three groups: Continuous training (GTC), interval training (GTI) and control (CG). The running training lasted 8 weeks (wk) and was based at Anaerobic Threshold (AT) velocity. GTI showed glycogen super-compensation (mg/100 mg) 48 h after training session in relation to CG and GTC (GTI red gastrocnemius (RG)=1.41+/-0.16; GTI white gastrocnemius (WG)=1.78+/-0.20; GTI soleus (S)=0.26+/-0.01; GTI liver (L)=2.72+/-0.36; GTC RG=0.42+/-0.17; GTC WG=0.54+/-0.22; GTC S=0.100+/-0.01; GTC L=1.12+/-0.24; CG RG=0.32+/-0.05; CG WG=0.65+/-0.17; CG S=0.14+/-0.01; CG L=2.28+/-0.33). The volume performed by GTI was higher than GTC. The aerobic capacity reduced 11 % after experimental period in GTC when compared to GTI, but this change was insignificant (19.6+/-5.4 m/min; 17.7+/-2.5 m/min, effect size = 0.59). Free fatty acids and glucose concentration did not show statistical differences among the groups. Corticosterone concentration increased in acute condition for GTI and GTC. Testosterone concentration reduced 71 % in GTC immediately after the exercise in comparison to CG. The GTI allowed positive adaptations when compared to GTC in relation to: glycogen super-compensation, training volume performed and anabolic condition. However, the GTI not improved the aerobic performance.

  11. Impact of early fructose intake on metabolic profile and aerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a disease that today affects millions of people around the world. Therefore, it is of great interest to implement more effective procedures for preventing and treating this disease. In search of a suitable experimental model to study the role of exercise in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, this study examined the metabolic profile and the aerobic capacity of rats kept early in life on a fructose-rich diet, a substrate that has been associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods We used adult female Wistar rats fed during pregnancy and lactation with two diets: balanced or fructose-rich 60%. During breastfeeding, the pups were distributed in small (4/mother) or adequate (8/mother) litters. At 90 days of age, they were analyzed with respect to: glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, aerobic capacity and serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations as well as measures of glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation by the soleus muscle. Results It was found that the fructose rich diet led the animals to insulin resistance. The fructose fed rats kept in small litters also showed dyslipidemia, with increased serum concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Neither the aerobic capacity nor the glucose oxidation rates by the skeletal muscle were altered by fructose-rich diet, indicating that the animal model evaluated is potentially interesting for the study of the role of exercise in metabolic syndrome. PMID:21223589

  12. The effects of statin medications on aerobic exercise capacity and training adaptations.

    PubMed

    Murlasits, Zsolt; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of myopathy increases dramatically in statin users who also exercise, likely limiting the positive impact of this lifesaving medication. New evidence also indicates that statin use can directly compromise aerobic exercise capacity; however, we are just beginning to understand the interactions of statins with exercise training and adaptations. This review focuses on the interactions of statins with aerobic exercise capacity and training adaptations to summarize the available information and draw attention to the gaps in our current knowledge in this area. PubMed, Web of knowledge, and Google scholar databases were searched between January 2000 and December 2013 using the following terms and their combinations: statins, exercise, aerobic capacity, endurance training, adaptations. The reference lists of the relevant articles were also scanned for additional information. Considering the widespread use of statins and the need for exercise for cardiovascular health, a better understanding of the interactions of these interventions as well as practical solutions are needed to reduce statin adverse effects associated with exercise.

  13. Differences in the aerobic capacity of flight muscles between butterfly populations and species with dissimilar flight abilities.

    PubMed

    Rauhamäki, Virve; Wolfram, Joy; Jokitalo, Eija; Hanski, Ilkka; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and climate change are rapidly converting natural habitats and thereby increasing the significance of dispersal capacity for vulnerable species. Flight is necessary for dispersal in many insects, and differences in dispersal capacity may reflect dissimilarities in flight muscle aerobic capacity. In a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in the Åland Islands in Finland, adults disperse frequently between small local populations. Individuals found in newly established populations have higher flight metabolic rates and field-measured dispersal distances than butterflies in old populations. To assess possible differences in flight muscle aerobic capacity among Glanville fritillary populations, enzyme activities and tissue concentrations of the mitochondrial protein Cytochrome-c Oxidase (CytOx) were measured and compared with four other species of Nymphalid butterflies. Flight muscle structure and mitochondrial density were also examined in the Glanville fritillary and a long-distance migrant, the red admiral. Glanville fritillaries from new populations had significantly higher aerobic capacities than individuals from old populations. Comparing the different species, strong-flying butterfly species had higher flight muscle CytOx content and enzymatic activity than short-distance fliers, and mitochondria were larger and more numerous in the flight muscle of the red admiral than the Glanville fritillary. These results suggest that superior dispersal capacity of butterflies in new populations of the Glanville fritillary is due in part to greater aerobic capacity, though this species has a low aerobic capacity in general when compared with known strong fliers. Low aerobic capacity may limit dispersal ability of the Glanville fritillary.

  14. Differences in the Aerobic Capacity of Flight Muscles between Butterfly Populations and Species with Dissimilar Flight Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Rauhamäki, Virve; Wolfram, Joy; Jokitalo, Eija; Hanski, Ilkka; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and climate change are rapidly converting natural habitats and thereby increasing the significance of dispersal capacity for vulnerable species. Flight is necessary for dispersal in many insects, and differences in dispersal capacity may reflect dissimilarities in flight muscle aerobic capacity. In a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in the Åland Islands in Finland, adults disperse frequently between small local populations. Individuals found in newly established populations have higher flight metabolic rates and field-measured dispersal distances than butterflies in old populations. To assess possible differences in flight muscle aerobic capacity among Glanville fritillary populations, enzyme activities and tissue concentrations of the mitochondrial protein Cytochrome-c Oxidase (CytOx) were measured and compared with four other species of Nymphalid butterflies. Flight muscle structure and mitochondrial density were also examined in the Glanville fritillary and a long-distance migrant, the red admiral. Glanville fritillaries from new populations had significantly higher aerobic capacities than individuals from old populations. Comparing the different species, strong-flying butterfly species had higher flight muscle CytOx content and enzymatic activity than short-distance fliers, and mitochondria were larger and more numerous in the flight muscle of the red admiral than the Glanville fritillary. These results suggest that superior dispersal capacity of butterflies in new populations of the Glanville fritillary is due in part to greater aerobic capacity, though this species has a low aerobic capacity in general when compared with known strong fliers. Low aerobic capacity may limit dispersal ability of the Glanville fritillary. PMID:24416122

  15. Prediction of functional aerobic capacity without exercise testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Blair, S. N.; Mahar, M. T.; Wier, L. T.; Ross, R. M.; Stuteville, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop functional aerobic capacity prediction models without using exercise tests (N-Ex) and to compare the accuracy with Astrand single-stage submaximal prediction methods. The data of 2,009 subjects (9.7% female) were randomly divided into validation (N = 1,543) and cross-validation (N = 466) samples. The validation sample was used to develop two N-Ex models to estimate VO2peak. Gender, age, body composition, and self-report activity were used to develop two N-Ex prediction models. One model estimated percent fat from skinfolds (N-Ex %fat) and the other used body mass index (N-Ex BMI) to represent body composition. The multiple correlations for the developed models were R = 0.81 (SE = 5.3 ml.kg-1.min-1) and R = 0.78 (SE = 5.6 ml.kg-1.min-1). This accuracy was confirmed when applied to the cross-validation sample. The N-Ex models were more accurate than what was obtained from VO2peak estimated from the Astrand prediction models. The SEs of the Astrand models ranged from 5.5-9.7 ml.kg-1.min-1. The N-Ex models were cross-validated on 59 men on hypertensive medication and 71 men who were found to have a positive exercise ECG. The SEs of the N-Ex models ranged from 4.6-5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 with these subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  17. The relationship between human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity and muscle aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Love, Lorenzo K; LeBlanc, Paul J; Inglis, J Greig; Bradley, Nicolette S; Choptiany, Jon; Heigenhauser, George J F; Peters, Sandra J

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for regulating the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for use in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. PDH is regulated through phosphorylation and inactivation by PDH kinase (PDK) and dephosphorylation and activation by PDH phosphatase (PDP). The effect of endurance training on PDK in humans has been investigated; however, to date no study has examined the effect of endurance training on PDP in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in PDP activity and PDP1 protein content in human skeletal muscle across a range of muscle aerobic capacities. This association is important as higher PDP activity and protein content will allow for increased activation of PDH, and carbohydrate oxidation. The main findings of this study were that 1) PDP activity (r(2) = 0.399, P = 0.001) and PDP1 protein expression (r(2) = 0.153, P = 0.039) were positively correlated with citrate synthase (CS) activity as a marker for muscle aerobic capacity; 2) E1α (r(2) = 0.310, P = 0.002) and PDK2 protein (r(2) = 0.229, P =0.012) are positively correlated with muscle CS activity; and 3) although it is the most abundant isoform, PDP1 protein content only explained ∼ 18% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.184, P = 0.033). In addition, PDP1 in combination with E1α explained ∼ 38% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.383, P = 0.005), suggesting that there may be alternative regulatory mechanisms of this enzyme other than protein content. These data suggest that with higher muscle aerobic capacity (CS activity) there is a greater capacity for carbohydrate oxidation (E1α), in concert with higher potential for PDH activation (PDP activity).

  18. Daily consumption of tea catechins improves aerobic capacity in healthy male adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Ota, Noriyasu; Soga, Satoko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with tea catechins combined with exercise improved endurance capacity in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of daily tea catechin consumption on aerobic capacity in humans. Sixteen Japanese non-athlete male subjects (aged 25-47 years) took 500 mL of a test beverage with or without tea catechins (570 mg) daily for 8 weeks and attended a training program twice a week. Aerobic capacity was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and near-infrared spectroscopy during graded cycle exercise. Catechin beverage consumption was associated with a significantly higher ventilation threshold during exercise and a higher recovery rate of oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin levels after graded cycle exercise when compared to subjects receiving the placebo beverage. These results indicate that daily consumption of tea catechins increases aerobic capacity when combined with semiweekly light exercise, which may be due to increased skeletal muscle aerobic capacity.

  19. Declining physical capacity but maintained aerobic activity in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cedervall, Ylva; Kilander, Lena; Aberg, Anna Cristina

    2012-05-01

    The longitudinal influences on physical capacity and habitual aerobic activity level in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are unclear. Therefore, changes in physical capacity and aerobic activity level were evaluated. Twenty-five individuals with AD were assessed annually for 2 years, by 10-m walk test, 6-minute walk test, and timed up-and-go (TUG) single/dual tasks. Habitual aerobic activity was assessed by diary registrations. The AD group showed a lower physical capacity than controls at baseline but comparable levels of aerobic activity. During the follow-up period, physical capacity declined in the AD group, but the aerobic activity levels changed only marginally. Our results show that in the early stages of AD, people are capable of maintaining health-promoting aerobic activity levels, despite a decline in their physical capacity. Additionally, it appears that cognitive dysfunction contributes to an impaired physical capacity. The TUG tasks might, therefore, be useful for detecting early signs of cognitive impairment.

  20. Appropriate interpretation of aerobic capacity: allometric scaling in adult and young soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Moussa-Chamari, I; Boussaidi, L; Hachana, Y; Kaouech, F; Wisloff, U

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare aerobic capacity of young and adult elite soccer players using appropriate scaling procedures. Methods: Twenty four male adult (mean (SD) age 24 (2) years, weight 75.7 (7.2) kg, VO2MAX 66.6 (5.2) ml/lbm/min, where lbm is lean body mass in kg) and 21 youth (14 (0.4) years, 60.2 (7.3) kg, 66.5 (5.9) ml/lbm/min) elite soccer players took part in the study. Allometric equations were used to determine the relation between maximal and submaximal oxygen cost of running (running economy) and body mass. Results: Maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake increased in proportion to body mass raised to the power of 0.72 (0.04) and 0.60 (0.06) respectively. The VO2MAX of adult players was similar to that of the youth players when expressed in direct proportion to body mass—that is, ml/kg/min—but 5% higher (p<0.05) when expressed using appropriate procedures for scaling. Conversely, compared with seniors, youth players had 13% higher (p<0.001) energy cost of running—that is, poorer running economy—when expressed as ml/kg/min but not when expressed according to the scaling procedures. Conclusions: Compared with the youth soccer players, VO2MAX in the seniors was underestimated and running economy overestimated when expressed traditionally as ml/lbm/min. The study clearly shows the pitfalls in previous studies when aerobic capacity was evaluated in subjects with different body mass. It further shows that the use of scaling procedures can affect the evaluation of, and the resultant training programme to improve, aerobic capacity. PMID:15665205

  1. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F.; McKenzie, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The schooling behaviour of fish is of great biological importance, playing a crucial role in the foraging and predator avoidance of numerous species. The extent to which physiological performance traits affect the spatial positioning of individual fish within schools is completely unknown. Schools of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag at the leading edge of schools, where they could maximize food intake while possibly retaining sufficient AS for other physiological functions. SMR was never related to position, suggesting that high maintenance costs do not necessarily motivate individuals to occupy frontal positions. In the wild, shifting of individuals to optimal spatial positions during changing conditions could influence structure or movement of entire schools. PMID:21653593

  2. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick S; Groves, Jessica L; Pettett, Brett J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Dishman, Rod K; Holmes, Philip V

    2010-12-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for (1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and (2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and (3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running.

  3. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick S.; Groves, Jessica L.; Pettett, Brett J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for three weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel-running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running. PMID:20850488

  4. Exercise training reverses impaired skeletal muscle metabolism induced by artificial selection for low aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; Stephenson, Erin J.; Yaspelkis, Ben B.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    We have used a novel model of genetically imparted endurance exercise capacity and metabolic health to study the genetic and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities associated with low intrinsic running capacity would be ameliorated by exercise training. Selective breeding for 22 generations resulted in rat models with a fivefold difference in intrinsic aerobic capacity. Low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity runners remained sedentary (SED) or underwent 6 wk of exercise training (EXT). Insulin-stimulated glucose transport, insulin signal transduction, and rates of palmitate oxidation were lower in LCR SED vs. HCR SED (P < 0.05). Decreases in glucose and lipid metabolism were associated with decreased β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), and reduced expression of Nur77 target proteins that are critical regulators of muscle glucose and lipid metabolism [uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively]. EXT reversed the impairments to glucose and lipid metabolism observed in the skeletal muscle of LCR, while increasing the expression of β2-AR, Nur77, GLUT4, UCP3, and FAT/CD36 (P < 0.05) in this tissue. However, no metabolic improvements were observed following exercise training in HCR. Our results demonstrate that metabolic impairments resulting from genetic factors (low intrinsic aerobic capacity) can be overcome by an environmental intervention (exercise training). Furthermore, we identify Nur77 as a potential mechanism for improved skeletal muscle metabolism in response to EXT. PMID:21048074

  5. Responses to LBNP in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic capacity: Implications for flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mathes, Karen L.; Lasley, Mary L.; Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic stress is associated with strength and/or aerobic capacity. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and isokinetic dynamo meter tests to determine leg strength. Based on predetermined criteria, the subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each matched for age, height, and weight: (1) low strength/low aerobic fitness; (2) low strength/high aerobic fitness; (3) high strength/low aerobic fitness; and (4) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP through -50 mmHg or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences except for catecholamines. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. Subjects who showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP had greater elevations in vasopressin and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Peak VO2 nor leg strength were correlated with fall in MAP or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that neither aerobic nor strength fitness characteristics are good predictors of responses to LBNP stress.

  6. Brain diabetic neurodegeneration segregates with low intrinsic aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joungil; Chandrasekaran, Krish; Demarest, Tyler G; Kristian, Tibor; Xu, Su; Vijaykumar, Kadambari; Dsouza, Kevin Geoffrey; Qi, Nathan R; Yarowsky, Paul J; Gallipoli, Rao; Koch, Lauren G; Fiskum, Gary M; Britton, Steven L; Russell, James W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes leads to cognitive impairment and is associated with age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, understanding diabetes-induced alterations in brain function is important for developing early interventions for neurodegeneration. Low-capacity runner (LCR) rats are obese and manifest metabolic risk factors resembling human “impaired glucose tolerance” or metabolic syndrome. We examined hippocampal function in aged LCR rats compared to their high-capacity runner (HCR) rat counterparts. Methods Hippocampal function was examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, unbiased stereology analysis, and a Y maze. Changes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain function and levels of hyperphosphorylated tau and mitochondrial transcriptional regulators were examined. Results The levels of glutamate, myo-inositol, taurine, and choline-containing compounds were significantly increased in the aged LCR rats. We observed a significant loss of hippocampal neurons and impaired cognitive function in aged LCR rats. Respiratory chain function and activity were significantly decreased in the aged LCR rats. Hyperphosphorylated tau was accumulated within mitochondria and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α, the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A were downregulated in the aged LCR rat hippocampus. Interpretation These data provide evidence of a neurodegenerative process in the hippocampus of aged LCR rats, consistent with those seen in aged-related dementing illnesses such as AD in humans. The metabolic and mitochondrial abnormalities observed in LCR rat hippocampus are similar to well-described mechanisms that lead to diabetic neuropathy and may provide an important link between cognitive and metabolic dysfunction. PMID:25356430

  7. Effects of body fat and dominant somatotype on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability in prepubescent children.

    PubMed

    Marta, Carlos C; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Carneiro, André L; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of body fat and somatotype on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability in the prepubertal growth spurt, marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), aged 10-11 years (10.8 ± 0.4 years), who were self-assessed in Tanner stages 1-2, were randomly assigned into 2 experimental groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls), endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls), and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls). Evaluation of body fat was carried out using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was computed according to the Heath-Carter method. Increased endomorphy reduced the likelihood of vertical jump height improvement (odds ratio [OR], 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.85), increased mesomorphy (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.52-24.88) and ectomorphy (OR, 6.52; 95% CI, 1.71-24.91) increased the likelihood of sprint performance, and increased ectomorphy (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.20-12.27) increased the likelihood of aerobic fitness gains. Sex did not affect the training-induced changes in strength or aerobic fitness. These data suggest that somatotype has an effect on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability, which should not be disregarded. The effect of adiposity on explosive strength, musculoskeletal magnitude on running speed, and relative linearity on running speed and aerobic capacity seem to be crucial factors related to training-induced gains in prepubescent boys and girls.

  8. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese.

    PubMed

    Graham, Marilynn H; Bush, Jill A; Olvera, Norma; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (≥ 95 th body mass index [BMI] percentile) and 16 children who were considered normal weight (<85th BMI percentile) participated in this study. Performance outcomes included test duration (in minutes) and exercise heart rate (HR) (first-stage and peak HR) for each test. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and independent t-tests were used to assess differences in primary outcomes. Mean PACER test duration was 1.6 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 1.3 minutes for children who were obese and normal weight, respectively. Modified PACER duration was higher than 3 minutes for the obese (3.6 ± 0.6 minutes) and normal weight (5.3 ± 1.2 minutes) groups. Children first-stage HR, expressed as a percent of peak HR, was above the predicted anaerobic threshold during the PACER, but below the anaerobic threshold during the MPACER. Relative first-stage HR was not significantly different between groups for the PACER, but they were significantly different between groups for the MPACER. In conclusion, the MPACER was a better alternative than the PACER for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who were normal weight and obese. When validated, this modified field test could be used to assess aerobic fitness in Hispanic children, particularly those who are overweight or obese. Additionally, the study provides evidence in which physical educators, personal trainers, and others most apt to assess aerobic fitness in children who are obese, should modify tests originally designed for the population who are normal weight.

  9. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Y; García-Hermoso, A; Saavedra, J M

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. The reduced aerobic capacity of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis affects their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (ability to perform activities of daily living that require sustained aerobic metabolism) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. A computerized search was made of seven databases. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic applied to the ES means. The 20 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. These studies were grouped into five categories according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based interventions (strength programs, tai chi, aerobic programs, mixed exercise programs) and aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy). The functional aerobic capacity improved in tai chi programs (ES=0.66; 95% CI, 0.23-1.09), aerobic programs (ES=0.90; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10), and mixed programs (ES=0.47; 95% CI, -0.38-0.39). The conclusions were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs for aerobic fitness in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (program content and duration, and session frequency and duration) is very heterogeneous; (iii) overall, exercise programs based on tai chi, aerobic, and mixed exercise seem to give better results than hydrotherapy programs, but without the differences being altogether clear.

  10. Genetic Analysis of a Rat Model of Aerobic Capacity and Metabolic Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yu-yu; Overmyer, Katherine A.; Qi, Nathan R.; Treutelaar, Mary K.; Heckenkamp, Lori; Kalahar, Molly; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Burant, Charles F.; Li, Jun Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality and can influence many complex traits. To explore the biological basis underlying this connection, we developed via artificial selection two rat lines that diverge for intrinsic (i.e. inborn) aerobic capacity and differ in risk for complex disease traits. Here we conduct the first in-depth pedigree and molecular genetic analysis of these lines, the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR). Our results show that both HCR and LCR lines maintain considerable narrow-sense heritability (h2) for the running capacity phenotype over 28 generations (h2 = 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.02, respectively). To minimize inbreeding, the lines were maintained by rotational mating. Pedigree records predict that the inbreeding coefficient increases at a rate of <1% per generation, ~37-38% slower than expected for random mating. Genome-wide 10K SNP genotype data for generations 5, 14, and 26 demonstrate substantial genomic evolution: between-line differentiation increased progressively, while within-line diversity deceased. Genome-wide average heterozygosity decreased at a rate of <1% per generation, consistent with pedigree-based predictions and confirming the effectiveness of rotational breeding. Linkage disequilibrium index r2 decreases to 0.3 at ~3 Mb, suggesting that the resolution for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be as high as 2-3 cM. To establish a test population for QTL mapping, we conducted an HCR-LCR intercross. Running capacity of the F1 population (n=176) was intermediate of the HCR and LCR parentals (28 pairs); and the F2 population (n=645) showed a wider range of phenotypic distribution. Importantly, heritability in the F0-F2 pedigree remained high (h2~0.6). These results suggest that the HCR-LCR lines can serve as a valuable system for studying genomic evolution, and a powerful resource for mapping QTL for a host of characters relevant to human health. PMID:24147032

  11. Risk-assessment and Coping Strategies Segregate with Divergent Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Paul R; Flagel, Shelly B; Burghardt, Kyle J; Britton, Steven L; Gerard-Koch, Lauren; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic function is integrally related to an individual's susceptibility to, and progression of, disease. Selective breeding for intrinsic treadmill running in rats has produced distinct lines of high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibit numerous physiological differences. To date, the role of intrinsic aerobic capacity on behavior and stress response in these rats has not been addressed and was the focus of these studies. HCR and LCR rats did not differ in their locomotor response to novelty or behavior in the light/dark box. In contrast, immobility in the forced swim test was higher in LCR rats compared with HCR rats, regardless of desipramine treatment. Although both HCR and LCR rats responded to cat odor with decreased exploration and increased risk assessment, HCR rats showed greater contextual conditioning to cat odor. HCR rats exhibited higher expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the central nucleus of the amygdala, as well as heavier adrenal and thymus weight. Corticosterone was comparable among HCR and LCR rats at light/dark transitions, and in response to unavoidable cat odor. HCR rats, however, exhibited a greater corticosterone response following the light/dark box. These experiments show that the LCR phenotype associates with decreased risk assessment in response to salient danger signals and passive coping. In contrast, HCR rats show a more naturalistic strategy in that they employ active coping and a more vigilant and cautious response to environmental novelty and salient danger signals. Within this context, we propose that intrinsic aerobic capacity is a central feature mechanistically linking complex metabolic disease and behavior. PMID:20927049

  12. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Acevedo, Mónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge; Navarrete, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0-1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92-3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender.

  13. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0‐1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92–3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender. PMID:28321254

  14. Intermittent hypoxia as a means to improve aerobic capacity in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leone, R J; Lalande, S

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity and a low maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) strongly predict morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients with T2D have a reduced VO2max when compared with healthy individuals of similar age, weight, and physical activity levels, and this lower aerobic capacity is usually attributed to a reduced oxygen delivery to the working muscles. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, as well as increases in cardiac output and blood flow, contribute to the delivery of oxygen to the active muscles during exercise. Hemoglobin mass (Hb mass), a key determinant of oxygen carrying capacity, is suggested to be reduced in patients with T2D following the observation of a lower blood volume (BV) in combination with normal hematocrit levels in this population. Therefore, a lower Hb mass, in addition to a reported lower BV and impaired cardiovascular response to exercise, likely contributes to the reduced oxygen delivery and VO2max in patients with T2D. While exercise training increases Hb mass, BV, and consequently VO2max, the majority of patients with T2D are not physically active, highlighting the need for alternative methods to improve VO2max in this population. Exposure to hypoxia triggers the release of erythropoietin, the hormone regulating red blood cell production, which increases Hb mass and consequently BV. Exposure to mild intermittent hypoxia (IH), characterized by few and short episodes of hypoxia at a fraction of inspired oxygen ranging between 10 and 14% interspersed with cycles of normoxia, increased red blood cell volume, Hb mass, and plasma volume in patients with coronary artery disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which resulted in an improved VO2max in both populations. We hypothesize that 12 exposures to mild IH over a period of 4weeks will increase Hb mass, BV, cardiac function, and VO2max in patients with T2D. Therefore, exposures to mild IH may increase oxygen delivery and VO2max without the need

  15. Maximal aerobic capacity at several ambient concentrations of CO at several altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Bedi, J.F.; Wagner, J.A.; Agnew, J.

    1988-12-01

    To assess the nature of the combined effect of the hypoxias of altitude (ALT) and CO exposure, 11 men and 12 women nonsmokers served as subjects in a double-blind experiment. The exposure conditions were four ambient CO levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) at each of four ALT (55, 1,524, 2,134, and 3,048 m). Each subject, after attaining the required ALT and ambient CO level, performed a maximal aerobic capacity test (VO/sub 2/max). Blood samples were obtained before, at 50-W, 100-W, 150-W, and maximum work loads and at the 5th min of recovery. Blood were analyzed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma proteins, lactates, and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO). VO2max was similar at 55 and 1,524 m and decreased by 4 and 8% from the 55-m value at 2,134 and 3,048 m, respectively. On the basis of all statistical analyses, we concluded that VO2max values measured in men were only slightly diminished due to increased ambient CO. HbCO attained at maximum was highest at 55 m and lowest at 3,048 m. Women's HbCO concentrations were lower than men's. At maximal work loads CO shifted into extravascular spaces and returned to the vascular space within 5 min after exercise stopped. The independence of altitude and CO hypoxias on parameters of the maximum aerobic capacity test and a decrease in the CO to HbCO uptake with increasing altitude were demonstrated and attributed in part to the decrease in driving pressure of CO at altitude.

  16. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  17. Beneficial effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and body composition in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K H; Hornak, J E

    1993-05-01

    Adults with Prader Willi syndrome were subdivided into an experimental group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 5) to determine the effects of an aerobic exercise program. Their resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, body weight, and somatotype were determined. Participants in a 6-month walking program showed statistically significant differences in all variables measuring aerobic capacity and a significant variation in weight loss over the 6-month program compared to the control group.

  18. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  19. Effect of aerobic capacity on Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) tolerance in females

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Fortney, Suzanne M.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation determined whether a relationship exists in females between: (1) aerobic capacity and Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP); and (2) aerobic capacity and change in LBNP tolerance induced by bed rest. Nine females, age 27-47 (34.6 plus or minus 6.0 (Mean plus or minus SD)), completed a treadmill-graded exercise test to establish aerobic capacity. A presyncopal-limited LBNP test was performed prior to and after 13 days of bed rest at a 6 deg head-down tilt. LBNP tolerance was quantified as: (1) the absolute level of negative pressure (NP) tolerated for greater than or equal to 60 sec; and (2) Luft's Cumulative Stress Index (CSI). Aerobic capacity was 33.3 plus or minus 5.0 mL/kg/min and ranged from 25.7 to 38.7. Bed rest was associated with a decrease in NP tolerance (-9.04 1.6 kPa(-67.8 plus or minus 12.0 mmHg) versus -7.7 1.1 kPa(-57.8 plus or minus 8.33 mmHg); p = 0.028) and in CSI (99.4 27.4 kPa min(745.7 plus or minus 205.4 mmHg min) versus 77.0 16.9 kPa min (577.3 plus or minus mmHg min); p = 0.008). The correlation between aerobic capacity and absolute NP or CSI pre-bed rest did not differ significantly from zero (r = -0.56, p = 0.11 for NP; and r = -0.52, p = 0.16 for CSI). Also, no significant correlation was observed between aerobic and pre- to post-rest change for absolute NP tolerance (r = -0.35, p = 0.35) or CSI (r = -0.32, p = 0.40). Therefore, a significant relationship does not exist between aerobic capacity and orthostatic function or change in orthostatic function induced by bed rest.

  20. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  1. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

  2. Reduced swim performance and aerobic capacity in adult zebrafish exposed to waterborne selenite.

    PubMed

    Massé, Anita J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M

    2013-04-01

    Although dietary exposure of adult fish to organoselenium in contaminated aquatic ecosystems has been reported to bioaccumulate and cause larval deformities in offspring, subtle physiological effects produced through low level waterborne selenium exposure in fish such as swim performance and aerobic capacity have not been investigated. To evaluate potential effects of selenite on these responses, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to nominal aqueous concentrations of 0, 10 or 100 μg/L sodium selenite for 14 days. Upon completion of the exposure period, fish underwent two successive swim trials in a swim tunnel respirometer to determine critical swim speed (Ucrit), oxygen consumption (MO2), standard and active metabolic rates, aerobic scope (AS) and cost of transport (COT) followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride and glycogen concentrations. Selenite exposure had a significant negative effect on Ucrit and aerobic capacity. Active metabolic rates and AS significantly decreased in both selenite exposure groups after the second swim trial. No significant effect was observed in MO2, standard metabolic rate, COT, triglyceride and glycogen levels, or condition factor between groups. These results suggest that aqueous selenite exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations produces adverse effects on aerobic capacity that can diminish endurance and maximum swim speeds, which may lower fish survivability.

  3. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  4. Exhaustive exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M; Rourke, Bryan C; Hicks, James W

    2009-11-01

    The oxygen transport system in mammals is extensively remodelled in response to repeated bouts of activity, but many reptiles appear to be 'metabolically inflexible' in response to exercise training. A recent report showed that estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) increase their maximum metabolic rate in response to exhaustive treadmill training, and in the present study, we confirm this response in another crocodilian, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We further specify the nature of the crocodilian training response by analysing effects of training on aerobic [citrate synthase (CS)] and anaerobic [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] enzyme activities in selected skeletal muscles, ventricular and skeletal muscle masses and haematocrit. Compared to sedentary control animals, alligators regularly trained for 15 months on a treadmill (run group) or in a flume (swim group) exhibited peak oxygen consumption rates higher by 27 and 16%, respectively. Run and swim exercise training significantly increased ventricular mass (~11%) and haematocrit (~11%), but not the mass of skeletal muscles. However, exercise training did not alter CS or LDH activities of skeletal muscles. Similar to mammals, alligators respond to exercise training by increasing convective oxygen transport mechanisms, specifically heart size (potentially greater stroke volume) and haematocrit (increased oxygen carrying-capacity of the blood). Unlike mammals, but similar to squamate reptiles, alligators do not also increase citrate synthase activity of the skeletal muscles in response to exercise.

  5. Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained

    PubMed Central

    Lensu, Sanna; Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Johansson, Petra P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Key points Aerobic exercise, such as running, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in rodents.Little is known about the effects of high‐intensity interval training (HIT) or of purely anaerobic resistance training on AHN.Here, compared with a sedentary lifestyle, we report a very modest effect of HIT and no effect of resistance training on AHN in adult male rats.We found the most AHN in rats that were selectively bred for an innately high response to aerobic exercise that also run voluntarily and increase maximal running capacity.Our results confirm that sustained aerobic exercise is key in improving AHN. Abstract Aerobic exercise, such as running, has positive effects on brain structure and function, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and learning. Whether high‐intensity interval training (HIT), referring to alternating short bouts of very intense anaerobic exercise with recovery periods, or anaerobic resistance training (RT) has similar effects on AHN is unclear. In addition, individual genetic variation in the overall response to physical exercise is likely to play a part in the effects of exercise on AHN but is less well studied. Recently, we developed polygenic rat models that gain differentially for running capacity in response to aerobic treadmill training. Here, we subjected these low‐response trainer (LRT) and high‐response trainer (HRT) adult male rats to various forms of physical exercise for 6–8 weeks and examined the effects on AHN. Compared with sedentary animals, the highest number of doublecortin‐positive hippocampal cells was observed in HRT rats that ran voluntarily on a running wheel, whereas HIT on the treadmill had a smaller, statistically non‐significant effect on AHN. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was elevated in both LRT and HRT rats that underwent endurance training on a treadmill compared with those that performed RT by climbing a vertical ladder with weights, despite their significant gain in strength

  6. Effect of Pharmacologically-Induced Hypovolemia on Aerobic Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, Meghan E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Decreased peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and an elevated exercise heart rate (HR) response are associated with a reduction in plasma volume (PV) after space flight and bed rest, a space flight analog. Reduced VO2pk and submaximal exercise tolerance would negatively impact an astronaut s ability to perform near maximal work that would be required in the event of an emergency. We previously have administered IV furosemide followed by a low salt diet to model PV loss and orthostatic intolerance observed after spaceflight. Purpose: To determine whether a pharmacologically-induced reduction in PV results in decreased VO2pk and elevated exercise HR response. Methods: Six subjects (5M, 1F) performed two graded peak cycle tests (work rate increased by 35 or 50 W every 3 min), once while normovolemic and once while hypovolemic. HR and expired respiratory gases were continuously measured. To induce hypovolemia, subjects were administered a single dose of IV furosemide (0.5 mg.kg-1) 30 hr before exercise testing and then consumed a low-salt diet (10 mEq.d(sup -1)). PV was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing. Exercise HR and VO2 responses were quantified as the area under the curve (AUC) calculated over each quartile of the peak test, based on test time in the hypovolemia condition. Paired t-tests were used to test for differences in PV, VO2pk, and peak HR between conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to test for differences in AUC between conditions. Results: PV (3.32+/-0.12 vs. 2.77+/-0.16 L, p<0.05) and VO2pk (3.30+/-0.67 vs. 2.90+/-0.57 L.min(sup -1), p<0.05) were lower during hypovolemia than during normovolemia, but peak HR was not different (187+/-5 vs. 187+/-5 bpm). The AUC for VO2 and HR was different (p<0.05) between conditions only in the highest quartile: HR was 4% higher and VO2 was 5% lower during the hypovolemia condition. Conclusion: The mean difference in VO2pk (-12%) between normovolemia and hypovolemia was similar to the mean difference in

  7. Analysis of Reaction Times and Aerobic Capacities of Soccer Players According to Their Playing Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz; Karakoc, Onder; Taskin, Mine; Dural, Murat

    2016-01-01

    70 soccer players in Gaziantep amateur league voluntarily participated in this study, (average of their ages 19,17±1,34years, average of their heights 181,28±5,06 cm, average of their body weights 76,75±4,43 kg and average of their sports experiences 3,78±0,95 years) to analyze visual and auditory reaction times and aerobic capacities of amateur…

  8. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  9. Childhood Fitness and Academic Performance: An Investigation into the Effect of Aerobic Capacity on Academic Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitate ve study was to determine whether or not students in fifth grade who meet the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for aerobic capacity on the fall 2013 FITNESSGRAM® Test scored higher on the math portion of the 2013 fall Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test, than students that failed to reach the HFZ for aerobic capacity…

  10. Effect of Intermittent Hypoxic Training Followed by Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Aerobic Capacity of Long Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Fernanda P; Ivamoto, Rafael K; Andrade, Marilia Dos S; de Lira, Claudio A B; Silva, Bruno M; da Silva, Antonio C

    2016-06-01

    Effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) are still controversial and detraining effects remain uninvestigated. Therefore, we investigated (a) whether IHT improves aerobic capacity; (b) whether aerobic detraining occurs post-IHT; and (c) whether intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) at rest reduces a possible aerobic detraining post-IHT. Twenty eight runners (21 men/7 women; 36 ± 2 years; maximal oxygen uptake [V[Combining Dot Above]O2max] 55.4 ± 1.3 ml·kg·min) participated in a single-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Twice a week, 1 group performed 6 weeks of IHT (n = 11), followed by 4 weeks of IHE (n = 11) at rest (IHT+IHE group). Another group performed 6 weeks of IHT (n = 10), followed by 4 weeks of normoxic exposure (NE, n = 9) at rest (IHT+NE group). A control group performed 6 weeks of normoxic training (NT, n = 7), followed by 4 weeks of NE (n = 6) at rest (NT+NE group). Hematological and submaximal/maximal aerobic measurements were conducted in normoxia at pretraining, posttraining, and postexposure. Hemoglobin concentration did not change, but lactate threshold and running economy improved in all groups at posttraining (p ≤ 0.05 vs. pretraining). Ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max increased after IHT (IHT+IHE group: 7.3, 5.4, and 9.2%, respectively; IHT+NE group: 10.7, 7.5, and 4.8%; p ≤ 0.05 vs. pretraining), but not after NT (-1.1, -1.0, and -3.8%; p > 0.05 vs. pretraining). Such IHT-induced adaptations were maintained at postexposure (p > 0.05 vs. postexposure). In conclusion, IHT induced further aerobic improvements than NT. These additional IHT adaptations were maintained for 4 weeks post-IHT, regardless of IHE.

  11. Aerobic exercise increases phosphate removal during hemodialysis: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Orcy, Rafael; Antunes, Maria Fernanda; Schiller, Tamires; Seus, Thamires; Böhlke, Maristela

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that exercise during hemodialysis (HD) could increase the efficacy of solute removal, although this hypothesis has not been conclusively evaluated. The goal of this study was to compare the removal of low-molecular weight solutes between HD sessions, with and without aerobic exercise. It was a controlled clinical trial, including HD patients in a randomly cross-over design, such that each patient received a HD session with exercise (intervention) and the next one without exercise (control), three times each. In the exercise sessions, patients pedaled on a cycle ergometer for 60 minutes. The total mass of removed urea, potassium, creatinine, and phosphate were calculated from the solutes concentration in dialysate (continuous spent sampling of dialysate). This was evaluated in a total of 132 HD sessions of patients with a mean age of 54 ± 15 years, 75% male and HD vintage of 3 (2-13) years. Phosphate removal in dialysate during intervention sessions was significantly higher (5.6 [2.5-18.9] vs. 5.1 [1.5-11.2] mg/min) than during control sessions, P = 0.04. The median mass of phosphate removed during control HD session was 1226 (367.8-2697.2) vs. 1348.6 (613.0-4536.2) mg/session during intervention sessions. The exercise did not modify the removal of urea (control 122.6 [61.3-286.0] vs. exercise 112.4 [51.1-250.3] mg/min, P = 0.44), creatinine (control 5.6 [2.5-13.8] vs. exercise 5.6 [2.5-12.8] mg/min, P = 0.49), or potassium (control 13.3 [11.2-15.8] vs. exercise 13.8 [6.6-15.8] mEq/min, P = 0.49). Aerobic exercise during HD increases the efficacy of phosphate removal, without changing urea, creatinine and potassium removal. The implications of this finding in mineral and bone disease and cardiovascular disease need to be evaluated on future clinical trials.

  12. Effects of Aerobic Capacity on Thrombin-Induced Hydrocephalus and White Matter Injury.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Mingzhe; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury is less in rats bred for high aerobic capacity (high capacity runners; HCR) compared with those bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runners; LCRs). Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, is produced after cerebral hemorrhage. Intraventricular injection of thrombin causes significant hydrocephalus and white matter damage. In the present study, we examined the effect of exercise capacity on thrombin-induced hydrocephalus and white matter damage. Mid-aged (13-month-old) female LCRs (n = 13) and HCRs (n = 12) rats were used in this study. Rats received an intraventricular injection of thrombin (3 U, 50 μl). All rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h and were then euthanized for brain histology and Western blot. The mortalities were 20 % in LCRs and 33 % in HCRs after thrombin injection (p > 0.05). No rats died after saline injection. Intraventricular thrombin injection resulted in hydrocephalus and periventricular white matter damage as determined on MRI. In LCR rats, thrombin induced significant ventricle enlargement (23.0 ± 2.3 vs12.8 ± 1.9 mm(3) in LCR saline group; p < 0.01) and white matter lesion (9.3 ± 7.6 vs 0.6 ± 0.5 mm(3) in LCR saline group, p < 0.05). In comparison, in HCR rats thrombin induced less ventricular enlargement (17.3 ± 3.9 vs 23.0 ± 2.3 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.01) and smaller white matter lesions (2.6 ± 1.2 mm(3) vs 9.3 ± 7.6 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.05). In LCR rats, there was also upregulation of heat shock protein-32, a stress marker, and microglial activation in the periventricular white matter. These changes were significantly reduced in HCR rats. Intraventricular injection of thrombin caused more white matter damage and hydrocephalus in rats with low aerobic capacity. A differential effect of thrombin may contribute to differences in the effects of cerebral

  13. Effect of aerobic fitness on capillary blood volume and diffusing membrane capacity responses to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Tedjasaputra, Vincent; Bouwsema, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Endurance trained athletes exhibit enhanced cardiovascular function compared to non‐athletes, although it is considered that exercise training does not enhance lung structure and function.An increased pulmonary capillary blood volume at rest is associated with a higher V˙O2 max .In the present study, we compared the diffusion capacity, pulmonary capillary blood volume and diffusing membrane capacity responses to exercise in endurance‐trained males compared to non‐trained males.Exercise diffusion capacity was greater in athletes, secondary to an increased membrane diffusing capacity, and not pulmonary capillary blood volume.Endurance‐trained athletes appear to have differences within the pulmonary membrane that facilitate the increased O2 demand needed for high‐level exercise. Abstract Endurance‐trained athletes exhibit enhanced cardiovascular function compared to non‐athletes, allthough it is generally accepted that exercise training does not enhance lung structure and function. Recent work has shown that an increased resting pulmonary capillary blood volume (V C) is associated with a higher maximum oxygen consumption (V˙O2 max ), although there have been no studies to date examining how aerobic fitness affects the V C response to exercise. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that endurance‐trained athletes will have greater V C compared to non‐athletes during cycling exercise. Fifteen endurance‐trained athletes (HI: V˙O2 max 64.6 ± 1.8 ml kg−1 min−1) and 14 non‐endurance trained males (LO: V˙O2 max 45.0 ± 1.2 ml kg−1 min−1) were matched for age and height. Haemoglobin‐corrected diffusion capacity (DLCO), V C and diffusing membrane capacity (D M) were determined using the Roughton and Forster (1957) multiple fraction of inspired O2 (FIO2)‐DLCO method at baseline and during incremental cycle exercise up to 90% of peak O2 consumption. During exercise, both groups exhibited increases in DLCO, D M and V C

  14. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Energetics Are Associated With Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Walking Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lower ambulatory performance with aging may be related to a reduced oxidative capacity within skeletal muscle. This study examined the associations between skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and efficiency with walking performance in a group of older adults. Methods. Thirty-seven older adults (mean age 78 years; 21 men and 16 women) completed an aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) test and measurement of preferred walking speed over 400 m. Maximal coupled (State 3; St3) mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized myofibers obtained from percutanous biopsies of vastus lateralis (n = 22). Maximal phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax) of vastus lateralis was determined in vivo by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 30). Quadriceps contractile volume was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Mitochondrial efficiency (max ATP production/max O2 consumption) was characterized using ATPmax per St3 respiration (ATPmax/St3). Results. In vitro St3 respiration was significantly correlated with in vivo ATPmax (r 2 = .47, p = .004). Total oxidative capacity of the quadriceps (St3*quadriceps contractile volume) was a determinant of VO2 peak (r 2 = .33, p = .006). ATPmax (r 2 = .158, p = .03) and VO2 peak (r 2 = .475, p < .0001) were correlated with preferred walking speed. Inclusion of both ATPmax/St3 and VO2 peak in a multiple linear regression model improved the prediction of preferred walking speed (r 2 = .647, p < .0001), suggesting that mitochondrial efficiency is an important determinant for preferred walking speed. Conclusions. Lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency were both associated with slower walking speed within a group of older participants with a wide range of function. In addition to aerobic capacity, lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency likely play roles in slowing gait speed with age. PMID:23051977

  15. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  16. Changes of aerobic capacity, fat ratio and flexibility in older TCC practitioners: a five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the 5-year changes of aerobic capacity, fat ratio and flexibility in older Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners and sedentary controls. Sixty-nine community-dwelling elderly individuals (mean age: 68.6 +/- 6.3 years) completed this study. The TCC group (18 M; 17 F) had been practicing TCC regularly for 6.3 +/- 3.7 years at baseline and continued training in the study interval. The control group (16 M; 18 F) did not participate in any regular exercise program. A graded bicycle exercise testing was conducted at the baseline and at 5-year to evaluate the age-related decline in aerobic capacity. Triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and thoracolumbar flexibility were also measured. At baseline, the TCC group displayed higher peak oxygen uptake $({\\dot{\\rm V}}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}})$ and thoraolumbar flexibility, and lower fat ratio than the control group. At the 5-year follow-up, the TCC group displayed a smaller decrease in $\\dot{\\rm V}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}}$ than the sedentary group. The annual decrease of $\\dot{\\rm V}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}}$ in TCC men and women was 0.32 and 0.22 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively. In the control group, the annual decrease of $\\dot{\\rm V}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}}$ was 0.50 and 0.36 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) in men and women, respectively. The TCC group also showed a smaller increase of body fat ratio, and a less decrease of flexibility than the control group. In conclusion, long-term practice of TCC attenuates the age-related decline of aerobic capacity, and it also reduces the increase of body fat ratio in older individuals. TCC may be prescribed as a conditioning exercise for the elderly to maintain their health fitness.

  17. Stability of Mitochondrial Membrane Proteins in Terrestrial Vertebrates Predicts Aerobic Capacity and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Kishino, Hirohisa; Hasegawa, Masami; Matsui, Atsushi; Lane, Nick; Tanaka, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    The cellular energy produced by mitochondria is a fundamental currency of life. However, the extent to which mitochondrial (mt) performance (power and endurance) is adapted to habitats and life strategies of vertebrates is not well understood. A global analysis of mt genomes revealed that hydrophobicity (HYD) of mt membrane proteins (MMPs) is much lower in terrestrial vertebrates than in fishes and shows a strong negative correlation with serine/threonine composition (STC). Here, we present evidence that this systematic feature of MMPs was crucial for the evolution of large terrestrial vertebrates with high aerobic capacity. An Arrhenius-type equation gave positive correlations between STC and maximum life span (MLS) in terrestrial vertebrates (with a few exceptions relating to the lifestyle of small animals with a high resting metabolic rate [RMR]) and negative correlations in secondary marine vertebrates, such as cetaceans and alligators (which returned from land to water, utilizing buoyancy with increased body size). In particular, marked STC increases in primates (especially hominoids) among placentals were associated with very high MLS values. We connected these STC increases in MMPs with greater stability of respiratory complexes by estimating the degradation of the Arrhenius plot given by accelerating mtRMR up to mt maximum metabolic rate. Both mtRMR and HYD in terrestrial vertebrates decreased with increasing body mass. Decreases in mtRMR raise MMP stability when high mobility is not required, whereas decreased HYD may weaken this stability under the hydrophobic environment of lipid bilayer. High maximal metabolic rates (5–10 RMR), which we postulate require high MMP mobility, presumably render MMPs more unstable. A marked rise in STC may therefore be essential to stabilize MMPs, perhaps as dynamic supercomplexes, via hydrogen bonds associated with serine/threonine motifs. PMID:21824868

  18. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance.

  19. Argentine plant increases capacity, improves NGL recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Fernandez, C.L.

    1997-10-06

    Total cryogenic processing capacity at Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A.`s (TGS) Cerri complex in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, is being increased from 22 MMcmd to 40 MMcmd (776 to 1,410 MMcfd) with a future ethane-recovery capacity of 1,900 metric tons/day (mtd; 33,600 b/d) using Ortloff technology. Very high propane recovery can be maintained as the ethane recovery is controlled over a range of 1,000--1,900 mtd as needed to meet local ethane demand. Total NGL recovery can be increased from 2,600 mtd to 4,500 mtd without additional compression. The paper describes current operations, inlet-residue compression, train retrofit, C{sub 3} recovery, C{sub 2} rejection, C{sub 2} recovery, and the final dual-mode design.

  20. Longitudinal Differences in Aerobic Capacity between Children with Sickle Cell Anemia and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Liem, Robert I.; Lu, Zengqi; Saville, Ben; Acra, Sari; Shankar, Sadhna; Buchowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare longitudinal trajectories of maximal aerobic capacity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and matched healthy controls, and explore whether these trajectories were associated with selected physiologic variables. Procedures Children with SCA (n=33) and healthy controls (n=30) matched at baseline for race, sex, Tanner stage, height, and weight completed three consecutive annual fitness assessments (VO2peak). Data were compared between the groups at each time point and within groups over time. Change in VO2peak between the two groups over time was assessed using a linear mixed model with age, sex, fat-free mass (FFM), Tanner stage, and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration as covariates. Results At baseline, children with SCA had significantly lower Hgb concentration (8.9 vs. 13.7 g/dL, p<0.001) and relative VO2peak (24.2 vs. 27.9 ml/kg/min, p=0.006) than healthy controls. Over time, children with SCA had smaller increases than healthy controls in VO2peak (−0.1 and +4.9 ml/kg/min, p<0.001), Tanner stage at year 2 (15% and 66% Tanner 4, p<0.001), and FFM (+4.0 and +6.8 kg, p=0.02). Changes in Hgb concentration did not differ between groups (+0.03 and +0.09 g/dL, p=1.0). After adjusting for age, sex, Tanner stage, FFM, and Hgb concentration the differences in change in VO2peak over time remained significant (p<0.001). Conclusion Children with SCA demonstrate lower relative VO2peak compared to healthy children and the difference increases over time. The difference in VO2peak trajectories between the two groups during puberty remains significant after adjusting for age, sex, FFM, Tanner stage, and Hgb concentration. PMID:25556359

  1. Rats selectively bred for differences in aerobic capacity have similar hypertensive responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Amanda L; Andrade, Mary Ann; Herrera-Rosales, Myrna; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is an animal model that mimics the repetitive bouts of hypoxemia experienced by humans with sleep apnea. Rats exposed to CIH develop hypertension that depends on the activation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Since obesity and metabolic syndrome have been linked to neurogenic hypertension and sleep apnea, and because sleep apnea can adversely affect aerobic exercise capacity, we tested the hypothesis that rats bred for selection of low aerobic capacity running (LCR) would have a greater hypertensive response to CIH than rats bred for high aerobic capacity running (HCR). Blockade of ganglionic transmission was performed to compare the contribution of SNA to the maintenance of resting mean arterial pressure (MAP). Next, hypertensive responses to 7 days of CIH were compared across LCR and HCR rats (14-16 mo old). Finally, the contribution of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to the maintenance of SNA and hypertension after CIH was determined and compared across groups. Although LCR rats were less active and had greater body weights than HCR rats, resting MAP, the contribution of ongoing SNA to the maintenance of MAP, and hypertensive responses to CIH were similar between groups. Contrary to our hypothesis, chemical inhibition of the PVN with muscimol (1 mmol/100 nl) caused a larger fall of MAP in HCR rats than in LCR rats. We conclude that LCR rats do not have resting hypertension or an exaggerated hypertensive response to CIH. Interestingly, the maintenance of CIH hypertension in LCR rats compared with HCR rats appears less reliant on ongoing PVN neuronal activity.

  2. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    PubMed

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  3. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hatchett, A; Judge, LW; Breaux, ME; Marcus, L

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) in the model. The second workout (repetitions), when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success. PMID:26681834

  4. Scaling matters: incorporating body composition into Weddell seal seasonal oxygen store comparisons reveals maintenance of aerobic capacities.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) haul-out on the ice in October/November (austral spring) for the breeding season and reduce foraging activities for ~4 months until their molt in the austral fall (January/February). After these periods, animals are at their leanest and resume actively foraging for the austral winter. In mammals, decreased exercise and hypoxia exposure typically lead to decreased production of O2-carrying proteins and muscle wasting, while endurance training increases aerobic potential. To test whether similar effects were present in marine mammals, this study compared the physiology of 53 post-molt female Weddell seals in the austral fall to 47 pre-breeding females during the spring in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Once body mass and condition (lipid) were controlled for, there were no seasonal changes in total body oxygen (TBO2) stores. Within each season, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were negatively correlated with animal size, and larger animals had lower mass-specific TBO2 stores. But because larger seals had lower mass-specific metabolic rates, their calculated aerobic dive limit was similar to smaller seals. Indicators of muscular efficiency, myosin heavy chain composition, myoglobin concentrations, and aerobic enzyme activities (citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) were likewise maintained across the year. The preservation of aerobic capacity is likely critical to foraging capabilities, so that following the molt Weddell seals can rapidly regain body mass at the start of winter foraging. In contrast, muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of anaerobic metabolism, exhibited seasonal plasticity in this diving top predator and was lowest after the summer period of reduced activity.

  5. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  6. THE ROLE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EFFORTS IN ICE-HOCKEY

    PubMed Central

    Roczniok, R.; Maszczyk, A.; Pietraszewski, P.; Zając, A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity (V.O2max) and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS) consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max). The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001). An analysis of the fatigue index (FI) calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%). The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between V.O2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =–0.584) was significant (p=0.003). The variance in the index of players’ fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in V.O2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78). Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players. PMID:25177097

  7. Mathematical model for the aerobic growth of saccharomyces cerevisiae with a saturated respiratory capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Barford, J.P.; Hall, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    A mathematical model for the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both batch and continuous culture is described. It was based on the experimental observation that the respiratory capacity of this organism may become saturated and exhibit a maximum specific oxygen uptake rate after suitable adaptation. This experimental observation led to the possibility that transport into and out of the mitochondrion was of major importance in the overall metabolism of S. cerevisiae and was subject to long-term adaptation. Consistent with this observation a distributed model was proposed which, as its basis, assumed the control of respiration and fermentation to be the result of saturation of respiration without any specific repression or inhibition of the uptake rates of other substrates. No other regulation of fermentation and respiration was assumed. The model provided a suitable structure allowing precise quantification of the changes in rate and stoichiometry of energy production. The model clearly indicated that growth under the wide range of experimental conditions reported could not be predicted using constant values for the maximum specific respiratory rate or constant values of Yatp (g biomass/mol ATP) and PO ratio of (mol ATP/atom oxygen). The causes of the variation in the respiratory rate were not determined and it was concluded that a more detailed analysis (reported subsequently) was required. The variation of Y atp and PO ratio with specific growth rate implied that the efficiency of ATP generation or ATP utilization decreased with increasing specific growth rate. It was concluded that it was not possible to quantify the individual effect of Yatp and PO ratio until independent means for their reliable estimation is available. (Refs. 84).

  8. Association of Occupational and Leisure-Time Physical Activity with Aerobic Capacity in a Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Mundwiler, Jonas; Schüpbach, Ulla; Dieterle, Thomas; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wolfer, David Paul; Miedinger, David; Brighenti-Zogg, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Objective data on the association of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) with work related physical activity are sparse. Thus, it is not clear whether occupational physical activity (OPA) contributes to an increase of VO2max. This study examined the association of VO2max with work and non-work related physical activity in a Swiss working population. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Demographic data, height, weight and BMI were recorded in all subjects. Participants were classified into nine occupational categories (ISCO-88) and merged into three groups with low, moderate, and high OPA. Physical activity was objectively measured by the SenseWear Mini Armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours per day). Participants were regarded as sufficiently active when accumulating ≥30 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day. VO2max was evaluated using the multistage 20-meter shuttle run test. Results Data of 303 participants were considered for analysis (63% male, age 33 yrs, SD 12). Multiple linear regression analysis (adjusted R2 = 0.69) revealed significant positive associations of VO2max with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) at vigorous intensity (β = 0.212) and sufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = 0.100) on workdays. Female gender (β = -0.622), age (β = -0.264), BMI (β = -0.220), the ratio of maximum to resting heart rate (β = 0.192), occupational group (low vs. high OPA, β = -0.141), and smoking (β = -0.133) were also identified as independent predictors of VO2max. Conclusions The present results suggest that VO2max is positively associated with LTPA, but not with OPA on workdays. This finding emphasizes the need for employees to engage in sufficient high-intensity physical activity in recreation for maintaining or improving VO2max with regard to health benefits. PMID:28045939

  9. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  10. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  11. Multivariate Statistical Assessment of Predictors of Firefighters’ Muscular and Aerobic Work Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Antti, Henrik; Malm, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Physical capacity has previously been deemed important for firefighters physical work capacity, and aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and muscular endurance are the most frequently investigated parameters of importance. Traditionally, bivariate and multivariate linear regression statistics have been used to study relationships between physical capacities and work capacities among firefighters. An alternative way to handle datasets consisting of numerous correlated variables is to use multivariate projection analyses, such as Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction and predictive power of field and laboratory tests, respectively, on firefighters’ physical work capacity on selected work tasks. Also, to study if valid predictions could be achieved without anthropometric data. The second aim was to externally validate selected models. The third aim was to validate selected models on firefighters’ and on civilians’. A total of 38 (26 men and 12 women) + 90 (38 men and 52 women) subjects were included in the models and the external validation, respectively. The best prediction (R2) and predictive power (Q2) of Stairs, Pulling, Demolition, Terrain, and Rescue work capacities included field tests (R2 = 0.73 to 0.84, Q2 = 0.68 to 0.82). The best external validation was for Stairs work capacity (R2 = 0.80) and worst for Demolition work capacity (R2 = 0.40). In conclusion, field and laboratory tests could equally well predict physical work capacities for firefighting work tasks, and models excluding anthropometric data were valid. The predictive power was satisfactory for all included work tasks except Demolition. PMID:25775243

  12. Aerobic capacity and peak power output of elite quadriplegic games players

    PubMed Central

    Goosey‐Tolfrey, V; Castle, P; Webborn, N

    2006-01-01

    Background Participation in wheelchair sports such as tennis and rugby enables people with quadriplegia to compete both individually and as a team at the highest level. Both sports are dominated by frequent, intermittent, short term power demands superimposed on a background of aerobic activity. Objective To gain physiological profiles of highly trained British quadriplegic athletes, and to examine the relation between aerobic and sprint capacity. Methods Eight male quadriplegic athletes performed an arm crank exercise using an ergometer fitted with a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) powermeter. The sprint test consisted of three maximum‐effort sprints of five seconds duration against a resistance of 2%, 3%, and 4% of body mass. The highest power output obtained was recorded (PPO). Peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak), peak heart rate (HRpeak), and maximal power output (POaer) were determined. Results Mean POaer was 67.7 (16.2) W, mean V̇o2peak was 0.96 (0.17) litres/min, and HRpeak was 134 (19) beats/min for the group. There was high variability among subjects. Peak power over the five second sprint for the group was 220 (62) W. There was a significant correlation between V̇o2peak (litres/min) and POaer (W) (r  =  0.74, p<0.05). Conclusions These British quadriplegic athletes have relatively high aerobic fitness when compared with the available literature. Moreover, the anaerobic capacity of these athletes appeared to be relatively high compared with paraplegic participants. PMID:16611721

  13. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  14. Role of Thermal Factors on Aerobic Capacity Improvements With Endurance Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    intracellular homeostasis that occurs during trained by cycle-ergometer exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen muscular activity as cellular metabolism generates en...17). These differences could cause adaptations in car- vastus lateralis citrate synthase activity increased by 38% with diac responses to exercise ...plasma volume expansion have also been observed to result from repeated heat exposure, and aerobic exercise adaptations; physical fitness; body tempera

  15. Aerobic condition increases carotenoid production associated with oxidative stress tolerance in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that a part of lactic acid bacteria can produce carotenoid, little is known about the regulation of carotenoid production. The objective of this study was to determine whether aerobic growth condition influences carotenoid production in carotenoid-producing Enterococcus gilvus. Enterococcus gilvus was grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its growth was slower under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. The decrease in pH levels and production of lactic acid were also lower under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, the amount of carotenoid pigments produced by E. gilvus was significantly higher under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. Further, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression level of carotenoid biosynthesis genes crtN and crtM when E. gilvus was grown under aerobic conditions was 2.55-5.86-fold higher than when it was grown under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, after exposure to 16- and 32-mM H2O2, the survival rate of E. gilvus grown under aerobic conditions was 61.5- and 72.5-fold higher, respectively, than when it was grown under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic growth conditions significantly induced carotenoid production and the expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in E. gilvus, resulting in increased oxidative stress tolerance.

  16. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Malwina, Kamelska Anna; Krzysztof, Mazurek; Piotr, Zmijewski

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13) and sub-elite (n=13) visually impaired (VI) (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years) tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax) was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively) and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg) did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003) and Pmax (p=0.009) among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3%) and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7%) cyclists, however, no time × visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364). After training, VO2max (p=0.03), but not Pmax (p=0.13), was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists. PMID:26834877

  17. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  18. Changes in mRNA levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor after wheel running in rats selectively bred for high- and low-aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Groves-Chapman, Jessica L.; Murray, Patrick S.; Stevens, Kristin L.; Monroe, Derek; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Holmes, Philip V.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated levels of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) within the hippocampal formation in rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (i.e., untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR), 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR), and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without free access to running wheels for three weeks. The specific aim of the study was to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between cumulative running distance and levels of BDNF mRNA. No additional treatments or behavioral manipulations were used. HCR, LCR, and SD rats were grouped by strain and randomly assigned to sedentary or activity (voluntary access to activity wheel) conditions. Animals were killed after 21 days of exposure to the assigned conditions. Daily running distances (mean ± standard deviation meters/d) during week three were: HCR (4726 ± 3220), SD (2293 ± 3461), LCR (672 ± 323). Regardless of strain, levels of BDNF mRNA in CA1 were elevated in wheel runners compared to sedentary rats and this difference persisted after adjustment for age (p=0.040). BDNF mRNA was not affected by intrinsic aerobic capacity and was not related to total running distance. The results support that BDNF mRNA expression is increased by unlimited access to activity wheel running for 3 weeks but is not dependent upon accumulated running distance. PMID:22024546

  19. Changes in mRNA levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor after wheel running in rats selectively bred for high- and low-aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Groves-Chapman, Jessica L; Murray, Patrick S; Stevens, Kristin L; Monroe, Derek C; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Holmes, Philip V; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-11-24

    We evaluated levels of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) within the hippocampal formation in rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (i.e., untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR), 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR), and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. The specific aim of the study was to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between cumulative running distance and levels of BDNF mRNA. No additional treatments or behavioral manipulations were used. HCR, LCR, and SD rats were grouped by strain and randomly assigned to sedentary or activity (voluntary access to activity wheel) conditions. Animals were killed after 21 days of exposure to the assigned conditions. Daily running distances (mean ± standard deviation meters/day) during week three were: HCR (4726 ± 3220), SD (2293 ± 3461), LCR (672 ± 323). Regardless of strain, levels of BDNF mRNA in CA1 were elevated in wheel runners compared to sedentary rats and this difference persisted after adjustment for age (p=0.040). BDNF mRNA was not affected by intrinsic aerobic capacity and was not related to total running distance. The results support that BDNF mRNA expression is increased by unlimited access to activity wheel running for 3 weeks but is not dependent upon accumulated running distance.

  20. Comparative Effects of Vigorous-Intensity and Low-Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Cycle Training and Detraining on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Young, Kaelin; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Traditional high-intensity aerobic training has been shown to improve muscle protein synthesis and aerobic capacity; however, recent research indicates that low-intensity aerobic training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may have similar effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of vigorous-intensity (VI) cycling vs. low-intensity cycling with BFR (LI-BFR) on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity after training and subsequent detraining. Thirty-one physically active subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups: VI (n = 10, 60-70% heart rate reserve [HRR]), LI-BFR (n = 11, 30% HRR with BFR at 160-180 mm Hg), and no exercise control (n = 10, no exercise). Subjects in VI and LI-BFR cycled 3 times per week for 6 weeks (total 18 sessions). Body composition, muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity were measured pre, post, and after 3 weeks of detraining. A group × time interaction (p = 0.019) effect for both knee flexion and leg lean mass was found. For both VI and LI-BFR groups, knee flexion strength was significantly increased between pre and post (p = 0.024, p = 0.01) and between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.039, p = 0.003), respectively. For the LI-BFR group, leg lean mass was significantly increased between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.024) and between post and 3 week-post (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences between groups for any variables. The LI-BFR elicits an increase in the knee flexion muscle strength over time similar to the VI. An increase in the leg lean mass over time was seen in the LI-BFR, but not in VI and CON.

  1. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete’s physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (–2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: –4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = –0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = –0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle

  2. Expression of angiogenic regulators and skeletal muscle capillarity in selectively bred high aerobic capacity mice.

    PubMed

    Audet, Gerald N; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore; Olfert, I Mark

    2011-11-01

    Selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running in untrained mice has resulted in a 'mini muscle' (MM) phenotype, which has increased skeletal muscle capillarity compared with muscles from non-selected control lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) are essential mediators of skeletal muscle angiogenesis; thus, we hypothesized that untrained MM mice with elevated muscle capillarity would have higher basal VEGF expression and lower basal TSP-1 expression, and potentially an exaggerated VEGF response to acute exercise. We examined skeletal muscle morphology and skeletal muscle protein expression of VEGF and TSP-1 in male mice from two (untrained) mouse lines selectively bred for high exercise capacity (MM and Non-MM), as well as one non-selected control mouse line (normal aerobic capacity). In the MM mice, gastrocnemius (GA) and plantaris (PLT) muscle capillarity (i.e. capillary-to-fibre ratio and capillary density) were greater compared with control mice (P < 0.05). In Non-MM mice, only muscle capillarity in PLT was greater than in control mice (P < 0.001). The soleus (SOL) showed no statistical differences in muscle capillarity among groups. In the GA, MM mice had 58% greater basal VEGF (P < 0.05), with no statistical difference in basal TSP-1 when compared with control mice. In the PLT, MM mice had a 79% increase in basal VEGF (P < 0.05) and a 39% lower basal TSP-1 (P < 0.05) compared with the control animals. Non-MM mice showed no difference in basal VEGF in either the GA or the PLT compared with control mice. In contrast, basal TSP-1 was elevated in the PLT, but not in the GA, of Non-MM mice compared with control mice. Neither VEGF nor TSP-1 was significantly different in SOL muscle among the three mouse lines. In response to acute exercise, MM mice displayed a 41 and 28% increase (P < 0.05) in VEGF in the GA and PLT, respectively, whereas neither control nor Non-MM mice showed a significant VEGF response to acute

  3. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  4. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Conclusion Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health. PMID:25378960

  5. Changes in Biochemical, Strength, Flexibility, and Aerobic Capacity Parameters after a 1700 km Ultraendurance Cycling Race

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to study the organic response after ultraendurance cycling race. Selected biochemical, leg strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity parameters were analyzed in 6 subjects 5 days before and 5 days after completing a 1700 km ultraendurance cycling race. After the race, participants presented a significant decrease in Hb (167.8 ± 9.5 versus 141.6 ± 15.7 mg/dL), strength (29.4 ± 2.7 versus 25.5 ± 3.7 cm in a countermovement jump), and oxygen uptake and heart rate at ventilatory threshold (1957.0 ± 458.4 versus 1755.2 ± 281.5 mL/kg/min and 140.0 ± 9.7 versus 130.8 ± 8.3 bpm, resp.). Testosterone presented a decrease tendency (4.2 ± 2.5 versus 3.9 ± 2.6 ng/L) in opposition to the increase tendency of cortisol and ammonium parameters. Transferrin and iron levels presented high values related to an overstimulation of the liver, a normal renal function, a tendency to decrease flexibility, and an increase in aerobic capacity, finding a tendency to increase the absolute maximal oxygen uptake (37.2 ±2.4 versus 38.7 ± 1.8 mL/min) in contrast to previous studies conducted with subjects with similar age. These results can be used to program training interventions, recovery times between probes, and nutritional and/or ergonomic strategies in ultraendurance events. PMID:25180188

  6. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L.; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key points Wearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT. Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  7. Trade-off between aerobic capacity and locomotor capability in an Antarctic pteropod.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua J C; Seibel, Brad A; Dymowska, Agnieszka; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2009-04-14

    At -1.8 degrees C, the waters of Antarctica pose a formidable physiological barrier for most ectotherms. The few taxa that inhabit this zone have presumably made specific adjustments to their neuromuscular function and have enhanced their metabolic capacity. However, support for this assertion is equivocal and the details of specific compensations are largely unknown. This can generally be attributed to the fact that most Antarctic organisms are either too distantly related to their temperate relatives to permit direct comparisons (e.g., notothenioid fishes) or because they are not amenable to neuromuscular recording. Here, as a comparative model, we take advantage of 2 pelagic molluscs in the genus Clione to conduct a broadly integrative investigation on neuromuscular adaptation to the extreme cold. We find that for the Antarctic congener aerobic capacity is enhanced, but at a cost. To support a striking proliferation of mitochondria, the Antarctic species has shed a 2-gear swim system and the associated specialized neuromuscular components, resulting in greatly reduced scope for locomotor activity. These results suggest that polar animals have undergone substantial tissue-level reorganizations to accommodate their environment, which may reduce their capacity to acclimate to a changing climate.

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic work capacities and leg muscle characteristics in elite orienteers.

    PubMed

    Rolf, C; Andersson, G; Westblad, P; Saltin, B

    1997-02-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic work capacities, leg muscle structure and metabolic characteristics of m. vastus lateralis (NT), m. rectus femoris (RG) and mm. gastrocnemii (NT and RG) were analysed in five male and seven female elite orienteers from the Swedish National team (NT) and a reference group (RG) of eight male and 10 female upcoming orienteers, all in optimal shape at the end of a competitive season. Maximal oxygen uptake was 78.4 ml/kg/min for NT men (range 75-81) and 67.8 ml/kg/min for NT women (range 62-71), for both groups significantly higher (P < 0.001) than for RG. Maximal serum lactate was 13.3 mmol/l for NT men (range 10-17) and 11.7 mmol/l for NT women (range 8.4-14), which did not differ from RG. No significant correlation was found between maximal oxygen uptake and maximal serum lactate. For NT females only maximal oxygen uptake was significantly related to running economy (P < 0.01). Muscle biopsies showed a high content of type I fibres in m. vastus lateralis as well as in m. gastrocnemius mediale. M. vastus lateralis (NT) had a higher proportion of type I fibres, capillaries per fibre as well as CS, HAD and LDH 1-2 enzymes compared with m. rectus femoris (RG) (P < 0.001-< 0.001), the latter muscle showing a more anaerobic profile. NT males and females had a higher metabolic potential in m. gastrocnemius mediale than RG (P < 0.001). Our results reflect an obligate high and narrow range of aerobic and anaerobic work capacities for successful performance in international elite orienteering. It remains to be shown how these laboratory data are related to individual performance in authentic orienteering competitions.

  9. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  10. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients.

  11. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630438

  12. Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Kathryn H.; Hornak, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Six adults with Prader Willi syndrome who participated in a six-month walking program showed significant differences in resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, and weight loss, compared to a control group of five nonparticipants. (Author/JDD)

  13. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale as a predictor of peak aerobic capacity and ambulatory function.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Frederick M; Katzel, Leslie I; Sorkin, John D; Macko, Richard F; Shulman, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is a widely applied index of disease severity. Our objective was to assess the utility of UPDRS for predicting peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and ambulatory function. Participants (n = 70) underwent evaluation for UPDRS (Total and Motor ratings), VO2 peak, 6-minute walk distance (6MW), and 30-foot self-selected walking speed (SSWS). Using regression, we determined the extent to which the Total and Motor UPDRS scores predicted each functional capacity measure after adjusting for age and sex. We also tested whether adding the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y) to the model changed predictive power of the UPDRS. Adjusted for age and sex, both the Total UPDRS and Motor UPDRS subscale failed to predict VO2 peak. The Total UPDRS did weakly predict 6MW and SSWS (both p < 0.05), but the Motor UPDRS subscale did not predict these ambulatory function tests. After adding H-Y to the model, Total UPDRS was no longer an independent predictor of 6MW but remained a predictor of SSWS. We conclude that Total and Motor UPDRS rating scales do not predict VO2 peak, but that a weak relationship exists between Total UPDRS and measures of ambulatory function.

  14. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Juliano T; Borges-Santos, Erickson; Porras, Desiderio Cano; Paisani, Denise M; Cukier, Alberto; Lunardi, Adriana C; Carvalho, Celso RF

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD. Design This study was a randomized and controlled trial. Participants A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG) or a control group (CG; n=15, each group). Intervention The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks) of aerobic training. Evaluations Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test), thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography), and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography) were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%. Results After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD) contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01). The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001). Conclusion Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea in patients with COPD. These effects are associated with an increased efficacy of the respiratory muscles and participation of the ABD compartment. PMID:27822031

  15. Increasing Capacity for Statewide Dissemination. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This report describes the Oregon Department of Education's 5-year Capacity Building Program (CBP), which had as its primary goal the development of a management plan and an information network to provide access to educational resources in response to state and local needs. A discussion of program goals is followed by a review of CBP management…

  16. Effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Supplementation on Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Oxidative Stress Markers, and Aerobic Capacity in Semi-Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Carlos V. da Silva; Silva, Alexandre S.; de Oliveira, Caio V. C.; Massa, Nayara M. L.; de Sousa, Yasmim R. F.; da Costa, Whyara K. A.; Silva, Ayice C.; Delatorre, Plínio; Carvalho, Rhayane; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional intervention with antioxidants rich foods has been considered a strategy to minimize the effects of overtraining in athletes. This experimental, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of consumption of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) on muscle damage markers, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and aerobic performance in male semi-professional soccer players. Twenty athletes were randomly assigned to groups that received 40 g (two tablespoons) per day of sesame or a placebo during 28 days of regular training (exposed to routine training that includes loads of heavy training in the final half of the season). Before and after intervention, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aerobic capacity were evaluated. Before intervention, a physiologic imbalance was noted in both groups related to CK and LDH levels. Sesame intake caused a reduction of CK (19%, p < 0.05), LDH (37%, p < 0.05), MDA (55%, p < 0.05) and hs-CRP (53%, p < 0.05) and increased SOD (14%, p < 0.05), vitamin A (25%, p < 0.05), and vitamin E (65%, p < 0.05) in the experimental group. These phenomena were accompanied by increased aerobic capacity (17%, p < 0.05). The placebo group showed an increase in CK (5%, p < 0.05) and no significant change in LDH, SOD or vitamin A. MDA levels decreased (21%, p < 0.05) and vitamin E increased (14%, p < 0.05) in the placebo group, but to a much lesser extent than in the experimental group. These results show that sesame consumption may reduce muscle damage and oxidative stress while improving the aerobic capacity in soccer players.

  17. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures. PMID:24765580

  18. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). PrOOH did not change either between baseline measures or after exercise. It can be concluded that aerobic dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women.

  19. Basal metabolic rate, maximum thermogenic capacity and aerobic scope in rodents: interaction between environmental temperature and torpor use.

    PubMed

    Careau, Vincent

    2013-04-23

    When torpid animals arouse and warm up to restore normal body temperature (T(b)), they produce heat at levels that can reach up to 10 times basal metabolic rate (BMR), close to the cold-induced summit metabolism (VO(2)-sum). Because torpor is an adaptation aimed at conserving energy over periods of low ambient temperature (T(a)) and food availability, selective forces that have led to the evolution of torpor may have simultaneously favoured high thermogenic capacity (i.e. VO(2)-sum) relative to the maintenance costs (i.e. BMR), hence a higher factorial aerobic scope (FAS; the ratio of VO(2)-sum to BMR). My objective was to test this adaptive hypothesis using a phylogenetically informed comparative approach with data on BMR and VO(2)-sum in rodents. I found a strong negative correlation between FAS and the average of the daily minimum T(a) (T(min)) in species using torpor, which was due to differential effects of T(a) on BMR (but not VO(2)-sum) in species that use torpor compared with species that do not. In addition, FAS was negatively correlated with the lowest torpid T(b) in a subset of nine species. These results suggest that in species using torpor, selective forces may have acted to maximize the efficiency of thermogenic capacity (VO(2)-sum) relative to maintenance costs (BMR), resulting in an increasing FAS with decreasing T(a).

  20. Relationship between Repeated Sprint Ability and Aerobic Capacity in Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rhys M.; Cook, Christian C.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Sporiš, Goran; Fiorentini, Bruno; Fiorentini, Fredi; Turner, Anthony; Vučković, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age 23 ± 4 yrs, height 180.0 ± 5.3 cm, weight 79.6 ± 5.3 kg) were required to perform tests to assess RSA and VO2 max on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their VO2 max and a test for RSA involving the players completing 6 × 40 m sprints (turn after 20 m) with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. Results. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised VO2 max and mean sprint time (RSAmean) (r = −0.655; P < 0.01) and total sprint time (RSAtotal) (r = −0.591, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Results of the current study indicate that VO2 max is one important factor aiding soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities. PMID:24198732

  1. Effects of oleic acid-induced lung injury on oxygen transport and aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Crocker, George H; Jones, James H

    2014-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that oleic-acid (OA) infusion impairs gas exchange, decreases total cardiopulmonary O2 delivery and lowers maximal aerobic capacity ( [Formula: see text] ). We infused 0.05ml OAkg(-1) (∼3ml) and ∼563ml saline into the right atria of four goats [59.1±14.0 (SD) kg] prior to running them on a treadmill at [Formula: see text] 2-h and 1-d following OA-induced acute lung injury, and with no lung injury. Acute lung injury decreased [Formula: see text] , O2 delivery, arterial O2 concentration and arterial O2 partial pressure compared to no lung injury. The [Formula: see text] positively correlated with O2 delivery and inversely correlated with alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference, suggesting that impaired pulmonary gas exchange decreased O2 delivery and uptake. Results indicate OA infusion may be a useful model for acutely impairing pulmonary gas exchange for exercise studies. Seven OA infusions induced smaller chronic gas exchange and arterial O2 partial pressure changes than acute infusion.

  2. Does increased physical activity in school affect children's executive function and aerobic fitness?

    PubMed

    Kvalø, S E; Bru, E; Brønnick, K; Dyrstad, S M

    2017-02-16

    This study seeks to explore whether increased PA in school affects children's executive function and aerobic fitness. The "Active school" study was a 10-month randomized controlled trial. The sample included 449 children (10-11 years old) in five intervention and four control schools. The weekly interventions were 2×45 minutes physically active academic lessons, 5×10 minutes physically active breaks, and 5×10 minutes physically active homework. Aerobic fitness was measured using a 10-minute interval running test. Executive function was tested using four cognitive tests (Stroop, verbal fluency, digit span, and Trail Making). A composite score for executive function was computed and used in analyses. Mixed ANCOVA repeated measures were performed to analyze changes in scores for aerobic fitness and executive function. Analysis showed a tendency for a time×group interaction on executive function, but the results were non-significant F(1, 344)=3.64, P=.057. There was no significant time×group interaction for aerobic fitness. Results indicate that increased physical activity in school might improve children's executive function, even without improvement in aerobic fitness, but a longer intervention period may be required to find significant effects.

  3. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  4. Decreased aerobic capacity 4 years after aortic valve replacement in male patients operated upon for chronic aortic regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Kristofer; Tamás, Éva; Nylander, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Exercise testing is underutilized in patients with valve disease. We have previously found a low physical work capacity in patients with aortic regurgitation 6 months after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The aim of this study was to evaluate aerobic capacity in patients 4 years after AVR, to study how their peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) had changed postoperatively over a longer period of time. Twenty-one patients (all men, 52 ± 13 years) who had previously undergone cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) pre- and 6 months postoperatively underwent maximal exercise testing 49 ± 15 months postoperatively using an electrically braked bicycle ergometer. Breathing gases were analysed and the patients' physical fitness levels categorized according to Åstrand's and Wasserman's classifications. Mean peakVO2 was 22·8 ± 5·1 ml × kg−1 × min−1 at the 49-month follow-up, which was lower than at the 6-month follow-up (25·6 ± 5·8 ml × kg−1 × min−1, P = 0·001). All but one patient presented with a physical fitness level below average using Åstrand's classification, while 13 patients had a low physical capacity according to Wasserman's classification. A significant decrease in peakVO2 was observed from six to 49 months postoperatively, and the decrease was larger than expected from the increased age of the patients. CPET could be helpful in timing aortic valve surgery and for the evaluation of need of physical activity as part of a rehabilitation programme. PMID:22487149

  5. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer.

  6. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  7. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  8. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and its consequences is a serious public health concern. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in sedentary adolescents. Twenty nine p...

  9. Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise energy expenditure affected whole body protein turnover and nitrogen balance in people of differing aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in aerobi...

  10. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  11. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  12. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    PubMed

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  13. Prediction of aerobic and anaerobic capacities of elite cyclists from changes in lactate during isocapnic buffering phase.

    PubMed

    Hasanli, Mohsen; Nikooie, Rohollah; Aveseh, Malihe; Mohammad, Fashi

    2015-02-01

    This study predicted aerobic and anaerobic capacities using relative changes of arterial blood lactate during the isocapnic buffering phase (relative [La]ISBP). Fourteen male professional cyclists (sprint-trained [n = 6] and endurance [n = 8]) performed 2 exercise sessions to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; 1 incremental standard test to determine the isocapnic buffering phase, buffering capacities, and relative [La]ISBP and 1 supramaximal exercise test to determine maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). The time between Lactate threshold (LT) and respiratory compensatory threshold (RCT) was considered to be the isocapnic buffering phase. Total buffering capacity was calculated as Δ[La]·ΔpH. Bicarbonate buffering was calculated as Δ[HCO3]·ΔpH, and the difference between -Δ[La]·ΔpH and Δ[HCO3]·ΔpH was considered as nonbicarbonate buffering. The lactate concentration for LT (p ≤ 0.05) and RCT (p ≤ 0.05), and relative [La]ISBP (p < 0.01) were significantly lower for endurance cyclists than for sprint-trained cyclists. A significant difference was found for bicarbonate buffering capacity between groups (p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between relative [La]ISBP with (Equation is included in full-text article.)(r = -0.71, p ≤ 0.05) and MAOD (r = 0.73, p < 0.01). Relative [La]ISBP was useful for predicting aerobic power (R = 51%) and anaerobic capacity (R = 53%). These results demonstrated that relative [La]ISBP is an important variable in intermediary metabolism and in addition to (Equation is included in full-text article.)and LT is recommended for better evaluation of performance of athletes who show nearly equal contributions from the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems during exercise.

  14. Development of a sports specific aerobic capacity test for karate - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nunan, David

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an aerobic fitness assessment test for competitive Karate practitioners and describe the preliminary findings. Five well-trained, competitive Karate practitioners participated in this study. A protocol simulating common attack strikes used in competition Karate sparring was developed from video analysis. In addition, pilot testing established a specific sequence of strikes and timings to be used in the test. The time to perform the strike sequence remained the same, whilst the time between strike sequence performances was progressively reduced. The aim of the test was to increase intensity of exercise through a decrease in recovery. On two separate occasions, absolute and relative peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak ventilation (VEpeak), maximum heart rate (HRM), and time to exhaustion (TE) obtained during the test were recorded. Subjective feedback provided by the participants was positive in that participants felt the test accurately simulated actions of a competitive sparring situation, and as a result athletes felt more motivated to perform well on this test. There was no significant between test difference in absolute VO2peak, relative VO2peak, HRM and TE (p > 0.05), indicating a potentially high reproducibility with the new test for these variables (test 1-test 2 difference of 0.04 L·min(-1), 1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), -3 beats·min(-1), and 28 s; respectively). However, VEpeak displayed potentially less reproducibility due to a significant difference observed between tests (test 1- test 2 difference of -2.8 L·min(-1), p < 0.05). There was a significant relationship between TE and relative VO2peak (R(2) = 0.77, p < 0.001). Further developments to the test will need to address issues with work rate/force output assessment/monitoring. The new test accurately simulates the actions of competitive Karate sparring. Key PointsThis is the first attempt at an aerobic fitness test specific to competitive Karate practitioners

  15. Development of a Sports Specific Aerobic Capacity Test for Karate - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nunan, David

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an aerobic fitness assessment test for competitive Karate practitioners and describe the preliminary findings. Five well-trained, competitive Karate practitioners participated in this study. A protocol simulating common attack strikes used in competition Karate sparring was developed from video analysis. In addition, pilot testing established a specific sequence of strikes and timings to be used in the test. The time to perform the strike sequence remained the same, whilst the time between strike sequence performances was progressively reduced. The aim of the test was to increase intensity of exercise through a decrease in recovery. On two separate occasions, absolute and relative peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak ventilation (VEpeak), maximum heart rate (HRM), and time to exhaustion (TE) obtained during the test were recorded. Subjective feedback provided by the participants was positive in that participants felt the test accurately simulated actions of a competitive sparring situation, and as a result athletes felt more motivated to perform well on this test. There was no significant between test difference in absolute VO2peak, relative VO2peak, HRM and TE (p > 0.05), indicating a potentially high reproducibility with the new test for these variables (test 1-test 2 difference of 0.04 L·min-1, 1 ml·kg-1·min-1, -3 beats·min-1, and 28 s; respectively). However, VEpeak displayed potentially less reproducibility due to a significant difference observed between tests (test 1- test 2 difference of -2.8 L·min-1, p < 0.05). There was a significant relationship between TE and relative VO2peak (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001). Further developments to the test will need to address issues with work rate/force output assessment/monitoring. The new test accurately simulates the actions of competitive Karate sparring. Key Points This is the first attempt at an aerobic fitness test specific to competitive Karate practitioners Anecdotal reports

  16. Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Hughes, Scott C; Heigenhauser, George J F; Bradwell, Suzanne N; Gibala, Martin J

    2005-06-01

    Parra et al. (Acta Physiol. Scand 169: 157-165, 2000) showed that 2 wk of daily sprint interval training (SIT) increased citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity but did not change "anaerobic" work capacity, possibly because of chronic fatigue induced by daily training. The effect of fewer SIT sessions on muscle oxidative potential is unknown, and aside from changes in peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2 peak)), no study has examined the effect of SIT on "aerobic" exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that six sessions of SIT, performed over 2 wk with 1-2 days rest between sessions to promote recovery, would increase CS maximal activity and endurance capacity during cycling at approximately 80% Vo(2 peak). Eight recreationally active subjects [age = 22 +/- 1 yr; Vo(2 peak) = 45 +/- 3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (mean +/- SE)] were studied before and 3 days after SIT. Each training session consisted of four to seven "all-out" 30-s Wingate tests with 4 min of recovery. After SIT, CS maximal activity increased by 38% (5.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.7 mmol.kg protein(-1).h(-1)) and resting muscle glycogen content increased by 26% (614 +/- 39 vs. 489 +/- 57 mmol/kg dry wt) (both P < 0.05). Most strikingly, cycle endurance capacity increased by 100% after SIT (51 +/- 11 vs. 26 +/- 5 min; P < 0.05), despite no change in Vo(2 peak). The coefficient of variation for the cycle test was 12.0%, and a control group (n = 8) showed no change in performance when tested approximately 2 wk apart without SIT. We conclude that short sprint interval training (approximately 15 min of intense exercise over 2 wk) increased muscle oxidative potential and doubled endurance capacity during intense aerobic cycling in recreationally active individuals.

  17. Metabolic correlates of selection on aerobic capacity in laboratory mice: a test of the model for the evolution of endothermy.

    PubMed

    Gebczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2009-09-01

    According to the aerobic capacity model of the evolution of endothermy, high levels of basal/resting metabolic rate (BMR/RMR) underlying endothermy have evolved as a correlated response to selection for high rates of aerobic metabolism (V(O(2)max)). To test the model we studied metabolic, behavioural and morphological correlates of replicated selection on maximum body mass-corrected metabolism elicited by swimming (V(O(2)swim)) in male laboratory mice. While 10 generations of selection did not change body mass, it resulted in a 12% difference in V(O(2)swim) between mice of selected and control line types and significant, correlated responses in maximum metabolic rates elicited by exposure to cold in a helium-oxygen atmosphere (V(O(2)He)), and during forced running on a motorized treadmill (V(O(2)run)). Selected and control lines also significantly differed with respect to duration of running (a measure of stamina, t(run)), and the distance run to exhaustion (d(e)). However, the selection protocol did not result in elevated BMR and voluntary activity. Higher V(O(2)max) in selected animals was positively correlated with higher masses of gastrocnemius muscles and heart but not of other visceral organs (intestine, stomach, liver and kidneys). These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the lack of correlation between basal and maximal metabolic rates in selected mice. Overall, our study does not support the assumptions of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

  18. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using {sup 15}N isotopic tracer technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim

    2015-09-25

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct {sup 15}N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the {sup 15}N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. {sup 15}N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. {sup 15}N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained.

  19. Temperature compensation of aerobic capacity and performance in the Antarctic pteropod, Clione antarctica, compared with its northern congener, C. limacina.

    PubMed

    Dymowska, Agnieszka K; Manfredi, Thomas; Rosenthal, Joshua J C; Seibel, Brad A

    2012-10-01

    In ectotherms living in cold waters, locomotory performance is constrained by a slower generation of the ATP that is needed to fuel muscle contraction. Both polar and temperate pteropods of the genus Clione, however, are able to swim continuously by flapping their parapodia (wings) at comparable frequencies at their respective habitat temperatures. Therefore, we expected polar species to have increased aerobic capacities in their wing muscles when measured at common temperatures. We investigated muscle and mitochondrial ultrastructure of Clione antarctica from the Southern Ocean (-1.8°C) and populations of a sister species, Clione limacina, from the Arctic (-0.5 to 3°C) and from the North Atlantic (10°C). We also measured oxygen consumption and the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (CS) in isolated wings of the two species. The Antarctic species showed a substantial up-regulation of the density of oxidative muscle fibers, but at the expense of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Mitochondrial capacity was also substantially increased in the Antarctic species, with the cristae surface density (58.2±1.3μm(2)μm(-3)) more than twice that found in temperate species (34.3±0.8μm(2)μm(-3)). Arctic C. limacina was intermediate between these two populations (43.7±0.5μm(2)μm(-3)). The values for cold-adapted populations are on par with those found in high-performance vertebrates. As a result of oxidative muscle proliferation, CS activity was 4-fold greater in C. antarctica wings than in temperate C. limacina when measured at a common temperature (20°C). Oxygen consumption of isolated wing preparations was comparable in the two species when measured at their respective habitat temperatures. These findings indicate complete compensation of ATP generation in wing muscles across a 10°C temperature range, which supports similar wing-beat frequencies during locomotion at each species' respective temperature. The elevated capacity in the wing muscles is

  20. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur.

  1. Cancer cells recovering from damage exhibit mitochondrial restructuring and increased aerobic glycolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akakura, Shin; Ostrakhovitch, Elena; Sanokawa-Akakura, Reiko; Tabibzadeh, Siamak

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • Some cancer cells recover from severe damage that causes cell death in majority of cells. • Damage-Recovered (DR) cancer cells show reduced mitochondria, mDNA and mitochondrial enzymes. • DR cells show increased aerobic glycolysis, ATP, cell proliferation, and resistance to damage. • DR cells recovered from in vivo damage also show increased glycolysis and proliferation rate. - Abstract: Instead of relying on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells rely heavily on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed as “the Warburg effect”. We considered that this effect is a direct consequence of damage which persists in cancer cells that recover from damage. To this end, we studied glycolysis and rate of cell proliferation in cancer cells that recovered from severe damage. We show that in vitro Damage-Recovered (DR) cells exhibit mitochondrial structural remodeling, display Warburg effect, and show increased in vitro and in vivo proliferation and tolerance to damage. To test whether cancer cells derived from tumor microenvironment can show similar properties, we isolated Damage-Recovered (T{sup DR}) cells from tumors. We demonstrate that T{sup DR} cells also show increased aerobic glycolysis and a high proliferation rate. These findings show that Warburg effect and its consequences are induced in cancer cells that survive severe damage.

  2. Biochar increases plant available water in a sandy soil under an aerobic rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Meinke, H.

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 t ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields at 2 and 3 years after application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each t ha-1 of biochar amendment at 2 and 3 years after application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an increase in overall porosity of the sandy soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5% and 1.6% for each t ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under water limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  3. Aerobic Capacity is Related to Repeated Sprint Ability with Sprint Distances Less Than 40 Meters

    PubMed Central

    SANDERS, GABRIEL J.; TURNER, ZACHARY; BOOS, BRIAN; PEACOCK, COREY A.; PEVELER, WILLARD; LIPPING, ALAR

    2017-01-01

    Research is inconclusive regarding the association between aerobic fitness (objectively measured VO2max) and repeated sprint performance when the sprints are less than 40 meters. Soccer athletes must be able to repeat sprints without significant decreases in speed and strength and conditioning coaches need to better understand if aerobic fitness is related to repeated sprint ability (RSA). Twenty (10 male, 10 female) Division I soccer athletes first completed a graded maximal treadmill test to measure VO2max. Then on a separate day, athletes completed the RSA test. The RSA test consisted of 10, 30-meter sprints which athletes repeated every 30 seconds. There were significant negative correlations (r ≤ −0.69, P < 0.001) between VO2max and all 10-sprint times and average sprint time. More aerobically fit Division I soccer athletes were faster at all time points during the RSA test. Aerobic fitness is associated with faster sprint times during a more anaerobic RSA test when sprint distances are less than 40 meters. PMID:28344734

  4. Aerobic Capacity is Related to Repeated Sprint Ability with Sprint Distances Less Than 40 Meters.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Turner, Zachary; Boos, Brian; Peacock, Corey A; Peveler, Willard; Lipping, Alar

    2017-01-01

    Research is inconclusive regarding the association between aerobic fitness (objectively measured VO2max) and repeated sprint performance when the sprints are less than 40 meters. Soccer athletes must be able to repeat sprints without significant decreases in speed and strength and conditioning coaches need to better understand if aerobic fitness is related to repeated sprint ability (RSA). Twenty (10 male, 10 female) Division I soccer athletes first completed a graded maximal treadmill test to measure VO2max. Then on a separate day, athletes completed the RSA test. The RSA test consisted of 10, 30-meter sprints which athletes repeated every 30 seconds. There were significant negative correlations (r ≤ -0.69, P < 0.001) between VO2max and all 10-sprint times and average sprint time. More aerobically fit Division I soccer athletes were faster at all time points during the RSA test. Aerobic fitness is associated with faster sprint times during a more anaerobic RSA test when sprint distances are less than 40 meters.

  5. Cross-Validation of a PACER Prediction Equation for Assessing Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Finn, Kevin J.; Kaj, Mónika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to evaluate the validity of the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run (PACER) test in a sample of Hungarian youth. Method: Approximately 500 participants (aged 10-18 years old) were randomly selected across Hungary to complete both laboratory (maximal treadmill protocol) and field assessments…

  6. Multi-modal characterization of rapid anterior hippocampal volume increase associated with aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Adam G.; Dennis, Andrea; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Matthews, Lucy; Morris, Martyn; Kolind, Shannon H.; Foxley, Sean; Jenkinson, Mark; Nichols, Thomas E.; Dawes, Helen; Bandettini, Peter A.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of tasks and experiences. For example, the size of the human hippocampus has been shown to increase in response to aerobic exercise. However, it is currently unknown what underlies these changes. Here we scanned sedentary, young to middle-aged human adults before and after a six-week exercise intervention using nine different neuroimaging measures of brain structure, vasculature, and diffusion. We then tested two different hypotheses regarding the nature of the underlying changes in the tissue. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a vascular change as has been previously reported. Rather, the pattern of changes is better explained by an increase in myelination. Finally, we show hippocampal volume increase is temporary, returning to baseline after an additional six weeks without aerobic exercise. This is the first demonstration of a change in hippocampal volume in early to middle adulthood suggesting that hippocampal volume is modulated by aerobic exercise throughout the lifespan rather than only in the presence of age related atrophy. It is also the first demonstration of hippocampal volume change over a period of only six weeks, suggesting gross morphometric hippocampal plasticity occurs faster than previously thought. PMID:26654786

  7. Improvement of methane generation capacity by aerobic pre-treatment of organic waste with a cellulolytic Trichoderma viride culture.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Schwarzenauer, Thomas; Illmer, Paul

    2013-11-15

    Trichoderma viride is known as a potent cellulose decomposer and was successfully used to improve and accelerate the decomposition process of aerobic composting. In contrast, the role of fungi as pre-treatment organisms for anaerobic digestion is not clear, since the fast aerobic decomposition is thought to be responsible for a rapid depletion of easily available nutrients, leading to a lack of these for the anaerobic community. In the present study carried out in lab-scale, the application of T. viride for the aerobic pre-incubation of organic matter derived from the inlet port of a 750,000 L anaerobic digester led to an increase in total gas and methane production in a subsequent anaerobic digestion step. A high cellulase activity caused by the addition of T. viride seemed to be responsible for a better nutrient availability for anaerobic microorganisms. Therefore, aerobic pre-incubation of organic residues with T. viride for subsequent anaerobic digestion is a promising approach in order to increase methane yields.

  8. Logistic Risk Model for the Unique Effects of Inherent Aerobic Capacity on (+)G(sub z) Tolerance Before and After Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Sandler, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Small sample size (n less than 1O) and inappropriate analysis of multivariate data have hindered previous attempts to describe which physiologic and demographic variables are most important in determining how long humans can tolerate acceleration. Data from previous centrifuge studies conducted at NASA/Ames Research Center, utilizing a 7-14 d bed rest protocol to simulate weightlessness, were included in the current investigation. After review, data on 25 women and 22 men were available for analysis. Study variables included gender, age, weight, height, percent body fat, resting heart rate, mean arterial pressure, Vo(sub 2)max and plasma volume. Since the dependent variable was time to greyout (failure), two contemporary biostatistical modeling procedures (proportional hazard and logistic discriminant function) were used to estimate risk, given a particular subject's profile. After adjusting for pro-bed-rest tolerance time, none of the profile variables remained in the risk equation for post-bed-rest tolerance greyout. However, prior to bed rest, risk of greyout could be predicted with 91% accuracy. All of the profile variables except weight, MAP, and those related to inherent aerobic capacity (Vo(sub 2)max, percent body fat, resting heart rate) entered the risk equation for pro-bed-rest greyout. A cross-validation using 24 new subjects indicated a very stable model for risk prediction, accurate within 5% of the original equation. The result for the inherent fitness variables is significant in that a consensus as to whether an increased aerobic capacity is beneficial or detrimental has not been satisfactorily established. We conclude that tolerance to +Gz acceleration before and after simulated weightlessness is independent of inherent aerobic fitness.

  9. Aerobic capacity and running performance across a 1.6 km altitude difference in two sciurid rodents.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M

    2009-03-01

    Hypoxia at high altitudes is often assumed to constrain exercise capacity, but there have been few high- versus low-altitude comparisons of species native to a wide range of altitudes. Such studies are ecologically realistic, as wild-caught animals tested at their native altitude are presumably maximally acclimated (via phenotypic plasticity) or adapted (by evolutionary change) to that altitude. We compared aerobic performance, measured as maximum oxygen consumption in forced exercise (V(O(2),max)), and voluntary wheel-running in two species of sciurid rodents captured and tested at field sites that differed in altitude by 1.6 km (2165 m versus 3800 m). We found reduced V(O(2),max) at 3800 m in least chipmunks (Tamias minimus) but no significant effect of altitude on V(O(2),max) in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). Individuals of both species averaged several km day(-1) in wheels. Most behavioral indices of voluntary running (including mean and maximum speeds, time spent running, daily running distance, and the number and duration of running bouts) were unaffected by altitude, even in the species with reduced V(O(2),max) at high altitude. Metabolic rates during running and energy costs of transport differed to some extent across altitudes but in different ways in the two species. At both test sites, voluntary running by both species was almost exclusively at speeds well within aerobic limits. We conclude that substantial differences in altitude do not necessarily result in differences in aerobic capacity in small mammals and, even if V(O(2),max) is reduced at high altitude, there may be no effect on voluntary running behavior.

  10. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic Capacity in Cardiac Patients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Yan, Xianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (INTERVAL) and moderate-intensity continuous training (CONTINUOUS) on aerobic capacity in cardiac patients. Methods. A meta-analysis identified by searching the PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases from inception through December 2016 compared the effects of INTERVAL and CONTINUOUS among cardiac patients. Results. Twenty-one studies involving 736 participants with cardiac diseases were included. Compared with CONTINUOUS, INTERVAL was associated with greater improvement in peak VO2 (mean difference 1.76 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.46 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001) and VO2 at AT (mean difference 0.90 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 0.0 to 1.72 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03). No significant difference between the INTERVAL and CONTINUOUS groups was observed in terms of peak heart rate, peak minute ventilation, VE/VCO2 slope and respiratory exchange ratio, body mass, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride or low- or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, flow-mediated dilation, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions. This study showed that INTERVAL improves aerobic capacity more effectively than does CONTINUOUS in cardiac patients. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:28386556

  11. Aerobic training prior to myocardial infarction increases cardiac GLUT4 and partially preserves heart function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Schaun, Maximiliano Isoppo; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Peres, Thiago Rodrigues; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-03-01

    We assessed cardiac function (echocardiographic) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression (Western blot) in response to 10 weeks of aerobic training (treadmill) prior to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by ligation of the left coronary artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were allocated to sedentary+sham, sedentary+AMI, training+sham, and training+AMI. Aerobic training prior to AMI partially preserves heart function. AMI and/or aerobic training increased GLUT4 expression. However, those animals trained prior to AMI showed a greater increase in GLUT4 in cardiomyocytes.

  12. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-11-14

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  13. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  14. An Analysis of Aerobic Capacity in a Large United States Population,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-29

    L. Aaro and J.E. Johnsen. Physical activity and health: Part I. J. Cardiac Rehab. 4:316-326, 1984. 40. Vogel, J.A., J.E. Wright, J.F. Patton, D.S...reference to chronic physical activity and obesity. J. Appl. Physiol. 11:72-81, 1957. 6. Cooper, K.H. and A. Zechner. Physical fitness in United States and...motivational effect on the amount of habitual physical activity and aerobic training participation. The end result is a moderate negative relationship

  15. High-dose statin use does not impair aerobic capacity or skeletal muscle function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Anthoney A.; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering agents widely employed for atherosclerosis prevention. HMG-CoA reductase blockade reduces skeletal muscle coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and may produce mild to severe skeletal muscle myopathy. This study investigated whether high-dose statin treatment would result in measurably decreased exercise capacity in older men and women. Maximal oxygen consumption, aerobic endurance, oxygen uptake kinetics, maximal strength, muscular power, and muscular endurance were measured before and after 12 weeks of statin treatment (simvastatin, 80 mg/day) in nine men and one woman, ages 55–76 years, with LDL-cholesterol levels >3.3 mmol/l (mean = 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/l). Myalgia symptoms were assessed every 4 weeks. As expected, statin treatment resulted in significant decreases in LDL- and total-cholesterol levels (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels. No significant changes were observed in aerobic capacity, endurance, oxygen kinetics or any measures of muscle function. No subject reported symptoms of myalgia, cramps, or weakness during the study. In the absence of myalgia or myopathic symptoms, high-dose simvastatin treatment did not impair exercise capacity in hyperlipidemic older individuals. We conclude that decreases in intramuscular CoQ10, in most patients on high dose statin treatment may not be clinically relevant, due to inter-individual variability in the degree of CoQ10 depletion, sensitivity of muscle to decreases in CoQ10, or both. PMID:19424852

  16. WISE-2005: LBNP/Treadmill and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Aerobic Capacity during a 60-d Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Macias, Brandon R.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously documented that supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPex) performed 6 sessions (raised dot) wk(sup -1) during 15- and 30-day bed rests (BR) maintained upright aerobic capacity (VO2pk). In the present study, ure are evaluating whether aerobic capacity is maintained during a 60-d BR when the LBNPex frequency is reduced to 2-4 sessions (raised dot) wk(sup -1) and resistance exercise (REX) is added 2-3 sessions (raised dot) wk(sup -1). Eight healthy women (32 plus or minus 4 yrs; 56.4 plus or minus 3.6 kg; 164 plus or minus 8 cm; mean plus or minus SD) performed maximal-exertion, graded treadmill tests before and 3 days after a 60-d, 6 deg. head-down tilt BR. (Earliest day the medical monitors would permit a maximal exercise test post-BR). During BR, four subjects performed no exercise (CON), while four other subjects (EX) performed LBNPex and REX on separate days. The LBNPex countermeasure employed an intermittent (40-80% pre-BR VO2pk), 40-min protocol against an LBNP pressure (-49 plus or minus 3 mmHg) applied to provide a footward force equivalent to 1.0-1.2 body weight. REX consisted of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises using a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer. Comparisons were performed using paired (within-group) or non-paired (between-group) t-tests. Three days post-BR, VO2pk of the CON group was reduced significantly from pre-BR (Pre:37.2 plus or minus 1.2, Post: 29.4 plus or minus 2 ml (raised dot) kg(sup -1) (raised dot) min(sup -1), P less than 0.05), while the VO2pk of the EX group was not significantly reduced (Pre: 39.6 plus or minus 1.9, Post: 38.0 plus or minus 0.6 ml (raised dot) kg(sup -1) (raised dot) min(sup -1)). Peak heart rate, ventilation, rating of perceived exertion, and respiratory exchange ratio were not significantly different between the two groups pre- and post-BR. These preliminary results suggest that the combined LBNPex and REX

  17. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  18. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  19. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases the cognitive enhancing effects of working memory training.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew M; Spiegler, Kevin M; Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher D; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-11-01

    Increases in performance on tests of attention and learning are often observed shortly after a period of aerobic exercise, and evidence suggests that humans who engage in regular exercise are partially protected from age-related cognitive decline. However, the cognitive benefits of exercise are typically short-lived, limiting the practical application of these observations. Here, we explored whether physical exercise might induce lasting changes in general cognitive ability if that exercise was combined with working memory training, which is purported to broadly impact cognitive performance. Mice received either exercise treatment (6 weeks of voluntary running wheel access), working memory training (in a dual radial-arm maze), both treatments, or various control treatments. After this period of exercise, working memory training was initiated (alternating with days of exercise), and continued for several weeks. Upon completion of these treatments, animals were assessed (2-4 weeks later) for performance on four diverse learning tasks, and the aggregate performance of individual animals across all four learning tasks was estimated. Working memory training alone promoted small increases in general cognitive performance, although any beneficial effects of exercise alone had dissipated by the time of learning assessments. However, the two treatments in combination more than doubled the improvement in general cognitive performance supported by working memory training alone. Unlike the transient effects that acute aerobic exercise can have on isolated learning tasks, these results indicate that an acute period of exercise combined with working memory training can have synergistic and lasting impact on general cognitive performance.

  20. Systematic genomic analysis reveals the complementary aerobic and anaerobic respiration capacities of the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Thiele, Ines

    2014-01-01

    Because of the specific anatomical and physiological properties of the human intestine, a specific oxygen gradient builds up within this organ that influences the intestinal microbiota. The intestinal microbiome has been intensively studied in recent years, and certain respiratory substrates used by gut inhabiting microbes have been shown to play a crucial role in human health. Unfortunately, a systematic analysis has not been previously performed to determine the respiratory capabilities of human gut microbes (HGM). Here, we analyzed the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic respiratory reductases in 254 HGM genomes. In addition to the annotation of known enzymes, we also predicted a novel microaerobic reductase and novel thiosulfate reductase. Based on this comprehensive assessment of respiratory reductases in the HGM, we proposed a number of exchange pathways among different bacteria involved in the reduction of various nitrogen oxides. The results significantly expanded our knowledge of HGM metabolism and interactions in bacterial communities.

  1. Effect of Increasing Maximal Aerobic Exercise on Serum Muscles Enzymes in Professional Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Muhsin; Otağ, Aynur; Otağ, İlhan; Sezen, Mehmet; Sever, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Exercise results in oxidative enzyme increase and micro-injuries in skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximal aerobic exercise on serum muscle enzymes in professional field hockey players. This study aims to determine the effect of increasing maximal aerobic exercise on creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels. Material and Methods: 31 young professional field hockey players (13 female and 18 male players) volunteered for this study. All participants underwent the shuttle run test. Blood samples were taken from each participant before the shuttle run test. Post test blood samples were taken immediately after exercise and one hour after respectively. Pre and post test CK, CK-MB, AST and ALT values were measured by means of auto analyzer using original kits. Results: The acute post test measure of the CK level increased in male (p=0.002) and female (p=0.00) sportsmen. CK-MB values obtained one hour after the exercise was lower than those before the exercise in males (p=0.02). In females (p=0.017) and males (p=0.05) AST activity significantly increased immediately after exercise and decreased to resting activity 1 h recovery. ALT significantly increased immediately after exercise in female (p=0.03) and male (p=0.00) athletes and after 1 h recovery ALT activities decreased below resting values. Conclusion: The timing and severity of exercise used in our study increased CK values, decreased CK-MB values and AST, ALT values increased in female and male field hockey players. PMID:25948428

  2. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity between Symbiodinium spp.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Hagemeyer, Julia C G; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Marsh, Adam G; Warner, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations). We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1). In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein(-1)), and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides further evidence

  3. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity between Symbiodinium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Thomas D.; Hagemeyer, Julia C. G.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Marsh, Adam G.; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations). We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1). In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein−1), and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides further evidence

  4. Reliability and Validity of a New Specific Field Test of Aerobic Capacity with the Ball for Futsal Players.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Ricardo; Barbieri, Fabio; Milioni, Fabio; Dos-Santos, Julio; Soares, Marcelo; Zagatto, Alessandro; Papoti, Marcelo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the validity and reliability and verification of the reproducibility of the lactate minimum test (LM) to predict the maximal lactate steady state exercise intensity (MLSS) on a futsal-specific circuit (Futsal_circuit) which takes into consideration the technical movements performed. 16 male Brazilian futsal players (body mass: 67.7±8.3 kg; height: 1.73±0.05 m) were distributed randomly into 2 studies with 8 athletes in each (Study A - reproducibility; Study B - validity). First, aerobic capacity was determined by adapting the protocol of the LM to the futsal_circuit. In study A, the evaluation was repeated after 7 days (test e re-test) and, in study B, the MLSS on the futsal_circuit was performed. LM intensity (test=7.7±0.3 km.h(-1); retest=7.7±0.4 km.h(-1)) showed a concordance (CV=4.13 and ET=0.32) on study A. No significant differences, high association (r=0.80; p<0.05) and concordance (lower limits: -0.58 km.h(-1); Upper limits: 0.55 km.h(-1)) between LM and MLSS (7.5±0.5 km.h(-1) LM; 7.5±0.4 km.h(-1) MLSS) on study B. According to the results, we can conclude that the Futsal_circuit is reliable, reproducible and valid for assessing the functional aerobic capacity of futsal players.

  5. Increased cranial capacity in hominid evolution and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chaline, Jean

    2003-08-01

    One of the major trends in primate evolution generally and hominid evolution in particular, is cranio-facial contraction accompanied by an increase in cranial capacity. Landmark-based morphometric methods are applied to adult skulls of great apes (Gorilla, Pan), australopithecines (Australopithecus and Paranthropus), and humans (Homo eragster, erectus, neanderthalensis, and sapiens). Morphological changes quantified by vector fields (Procrustes methods) indicate that these skull plans are characterized by distinctive degrees of cranio-facial contraction. These suggest the existence of three discrete skull organization plans: "great ape", "australopithecine" and "Homo". This paper focuses on the "Homo" skull bauplan and discusses the possible relationships between greatly increased cranial capacity and preeclampsia. The earliest species of the human lineage exhibit less cranio-facial contraction and smaller cranial capacity than Homo neanderthalensis and modern Homo sapiens. Neandertalization introduces a posterior elongation of the skull and leads to a large increase in cranial capacity in the last Neandertals, with values as large as in present-day H. sapiens. Consequently, a new biological hypothesis is proposed to account for the unexplained disappearance of H. neanderthalensis some 30000 years ago related to the possible appearance of preeclampsia as a factor affecting the survival of the species.

  6. Bedrest-induced peak VO2 reduction associated with age, gender, and aerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1986-01-01

    A study measuring the peak oxygen uptake (V02), heart rate (HR), and exercise tolerance time of 15 men of 55 + or - 2 yr and 17 women of 55 + or - 1 yr after 10 days of continuous bed rest (BR) is presented. The experimental conditions and procedures are described. Following BR a decrease in peak VO2 of 8.4 percent in men and 6.8 percent in women, a reduction in exercise tolerance time by 8.1 percent in men and 7.3 percent in women, and an increse in HR of 4.4 percent and 1.3 percent for men and women, respectively, are observed. These data are compared with data from Convertino et al. (1977) for men 21 + or - 1 yr and women 28 + or - 2yr. It is concluded that BR-induced aerobic deconditioning is independent of age and sex, since the relative decrease in peak V02 in the older and younger subjects and men and women are similar.

  7. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  8. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  9. Aerobic degradation study of three fluoroanilines and microbial community analysis: the effects of increased fluorine substitution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Tian, Bao-Hu; Zhang, Xuan; Ghulam, Abbas; Zheng, Tu-Cai; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    The fate of fluorinated compounds in the environment, especially polyfluorinated aromatics, is a matter of great concern. In this work, 4-Fluoroaniline (4-FA), 2,4-Difluoroanilines (2,4-DFA), and 2,3,4-Trifluoroanilines (2,3,4-TFA), were chosen as the target pollutants to study their biodegradability under aerobic conditions. The required enriched time of the mixed bacterial culture for degrading 4-FA, 2,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA was 26, 51, and 165 days, respectively, which suggested that the longer enrichment time was required with the increase of fluorine substitution. At the initial concentrations of 100-200 mg L(-1), the 4-FA, 2,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA could be degraded completely by the mixed bacterial culture. The maximum specific degradation rates of 4-FA, 2,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA were 22.48 ± 0.55, 15.27 ± 2.04, and 8.84 ± 0.93 mg FA (g VSS h)(-1), respectively. Also, the three FAs enriched cultures showed certain potential of degrading other two FAs. The results from enzyme assay suggested the expression of meta-cleavage pathways during three FAs degradation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that unique bacterial communities were formed after FAs enrichment and these were principally composed of β-Proteobacteria, Oscillatoriophycideae, δ-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, Thermales, Xanthomonadales, Deinococci, Flavobacteriia, and Actinobacteridae. The Shannon-Wiener indexes in three FAs enriched culture decreased with the increase of fluorine substitution, indicating the significant effect of fluorine substitution on the microbial diversity. These findings supply important information on the fate of three FAs under aerobic environment, and the bacterial communities in their degradation systems.

  10. Conditional independence mapping of DIGE data reveals PDIA3 protein species as key nodes associated with muscle aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Kenyani, Jenna; Gray, Donna; Guadagnin, Eleonora; Jarman, Ian H.; Cobley, James N.; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Lisboa, Paulo J.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Profiling of protein species is important because gene polymorphisms, splice variations and post-translational modifications may combine and give rise to multiple protein species that have different effects on cellular function. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is one of the most robust methods for differential analysis of protein species, but bioinformatic interrogation is challenging because the consequences of changes in the abundance of individual protein species on cell function are unknown and cannot be predicted. We conducted DIGE of soleus muscle from male and female rats artificially selected as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively). In total 696 protein species were resolved and LC–MS/MS identified proteins in 337 spots. Forty protein species were differentially (P < 0.05, FDR < 10%) expressed between HCR and LCR and conditional independence mapping found distinct networks within these data, which brought insight beyond that achieved by functional annotation. Protein disulphide isomerase A3 emerged as a key node segregating with differences in aerobic capacity and unsupervised bibliometric analysis highlighted further links to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which were confirmed by western blotting. Thus, conditional independence mapping is a useful technique for interrogating DIGE data that is capable of highlighting latent features. PMID:24769234

  11. The Influence of Increased Body Fat or Lean Body Mass on Aerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Wiecha, Szczepan; Cempla, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine aerobic performance in men with an increased body mass due to (a) high body fat (>21.5%) but with a average (59.0–64.3 kg) lean body mass (HBF group) and (b) high lean body mass (>66.3 kg), but with average body fat (14.0–18.5%) (HLBM group). Methods The men in the HBF and HLBM had similar absolute body mass and body mass index (BMI). The aerobic performance was also determined in control group. Methods: Study participants comprised 39 men aged 21.3±1.9 years who did not participate in competitive sports but were recreationally physically active. Participants were divided into three groups. Each group comprised 13 persons. The study involved anthropometric measurements, assessing aerobic performance (VO2max) using an incremental test on a mechanical treadmill. VO2max was expressed in absolute values, relative to body mass (VO2max⋅BM−1), relative to lean body mass (VO2max⋅LBM−1), and relative to BM raised by the exponents of 0.75 and 0.67. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results No statistically significant differences in relative values of VO2max were found between the HBF and HLBM groups, in VO2max⋅BM−1 (50.24±4.56 vs. 53.11±5.45 mL⋅kg−1), VO2max⋅LBM−1 (65.33±5.63 vs. 63.86±7.13 mL⋅kgLBM−1), and VO2max⋅BM−0.75 (150.29±13.5 vs. 160.39±16.15 mL⋅kg−0.75). Values of VO2max⋅BM−1 were significantly lower in the HBF and HLBM groups than in the control group (58.23±5.84 mL⋅kg−1). Conclusion High body mass, regardless of the cause decreases VO2max⋅BM−1. PMID:24752377

  12. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivi...

  13. Myocardial performance and aortic elastic properties in elite basketball and soccer players: relationship with aerobic and anaerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Akova, Bedrettin; Yesilbursa, Dilek; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Serdar, Akin

    2005-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the myocardial performance index and aortic elastic properties of athletes engaged in ball sports and to determine their relationships with aerobic and anaerobic characteristics. Standard M-mode and Doppler echocardiography, maximal oxygen uptake and 30 sec Wingate tests were performed for 32 elite male athletes (12 basketball and 20 soccer players) and 12 healthy sedentary volunteers. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and partial correlation coefficient tests. Absolute values of left ventricular internal diameter, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septum thicknesses in diastole were significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) greater in athletes than in controls. The left ventricular internal diameter corrected by body surface area was also greater (p < 0.05-0.01) in the athletes compared with the controls. Absolute and body surface area corrected left ventricular mass were significantly greater (p < 0.05-0.001) in athletes than in controls. Isovolumetric relaxation time was higher (p < 0.01) in soccer players than in controls. There were no significant differences among the groups for myocardial performance index and aortic elastic properties. Left ventricular mass index was poorly correlated (p < 0.01) with VO2max (r = 0.410), peak power (r = 0.439) and average power (r = 0.464) in the athletes. Poor correlations (r = 0.333-0.350, p < 0.05) were also observed between aortic elastic properties and average power in athletes. Myocardial performance index and aortic elastic properties are not different in athletes involved in this study compared with sedentary subjects. Aerobic and anaerobic capacities of the athletes used in this study are poorly explained by these resting echocardiographic findings. Key PointsLeft ventricular internal diameter, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septum thicknesses in diastole, and left ventricular mass were significantly greater in athletes than in controls.There were

  14. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  15. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Battson, Micah L.; Cuevas, Lauren M.; Zigler, Melanie C.; Sindler, Amy L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12;−32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11;−5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running;−0.8±-2.1% and −8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise. PMID:27875805

  16. Protein consumption following aerobic exercise increases whole-body protein turnover in older adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cheryl; Miller, Benjamin F

    2010-10-01

    Research measuring whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) after both exercise and nutrition has generally focused on resistance exercise; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the effect of postaerobic exercise nutrition, especially in older adults. It is not known if postexercise protein feeding has a beneficial effect on protein turnover after low- to moderate-intensity exercise. We investigated whether consuming protein plus carbohydrate (PRO) immediately after an acute bout of aerobic exercise has an additive effect over carbohydrate alone (CHO) on WBPT in older individuals. Twelve healthy older adults (age, 59 ± 4 years) were studied on 2 separate occasions after 1 h of exercise at approximately 50% of maximal rate of oxygen uptake, followed by 4 h of recovery. Immediately following exercise, subjects ingested a CHO (60 g) or an isocaloric PRO beverage (40 g carbohydrate, 20 g whey protein). Whole-body protein metabolism was determined using [1-13C]leucine infusion (60 mg prime; 75 mgh(-1) continuous), and sampling blood and expired breath. Rates of whole-body leucine appearance and oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal during the third and fourth hours of postexercise recovery were higher in the PRO group (2.51 ± 0.55, 0.78 ± 0.37, and 1.71 ± 0.44 micromol kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively) than in the CHO group (1.81 ± 0.27, 0.33 ± 0.14, and 1.47 ± 0.25 micromol kg(-1)·min-1, respectively; p = 0.001). Our results indicate that consumption of a PRO beverage after aerobic exercise increased WBPT to a greater extent than a CHO beverage.

  17. Platelets from pulmonary hypertension patients show increased mitochondrial reserve capacity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quyen L.; Corey, Catherine; White, Pamela; Watson, Annie; Gladwin, Mark T.; Simon, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is systemic in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and central to disease pathogenesis. However, bioenergetic changes in PH patients and their association with disease severity remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that alteration in bioenergetic function is present in platelets from PH patients and correlates with clinical parameters of PH. Platelets isolated from controls and PH patients (n = 28) were subjected to extracellular flux analysis to determine oxygen consumption and glycolytic rates. Platelets from PH patients showed greater glycolytic rates than controls. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by significant increases in the maximal capacity for oxygen consumption, leading to enhanced respiratory reserve capacity in PH platelets. This increased platelet reserve capacity correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index in PH patients and was abolished by the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Consistent with a shift to FAO, PH platelets showed augmented enzymatic activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and electron transport chain complex II. These data extend the observation of a metabolic alteration in PH from the pulmonary vascular axis to the hematologic compartment and suggest that measurement of platelet bioenergetics is potentially useful in assessment of disease progression and severity. PMID:28289721

  18. Short-term periodized aerobic training does not attenuate strength capacity or jump performance in recreational endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suárez, V J; González-Ravé, J M; Navarro-Valdivielso, F

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different distributions of aerobic training on the isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance [SJ, CMJ and Abalakov (ABA)] in thirty middle-aged endurance athletes (38.7 ± 9.8 yrs; 174.7 ± 6.5 cm; 72.0 ± 9.8 kg). Three zones of training were required to quantify volume of training: Zone 1, low-intensity-training < VT1; Zone 2, threshold-training, between VT1 and VT2; and Zone 3, high-intensity-training > VT2. The INC group (n = 10) began training in the Zone 1 and then gradually built up training in Zone 2 and Zone 3, thereby increasing the intensity of aerobic activity over the 4-week training period. The CON group (n = 10) performed the same activity every week in Zones 1, 2 and 3. The FRE group followed a free distribution of endurance training loads (n = 10). The results showed significant decreases in peak torque knee extension 30° (p < 0.05) in CON group and significant decreases (p < 0.05) in ABA in FRE group. Results provide a physiological basis to support several performance studies that consistently indicate 5 d·wk(-1) endurance training does not impair strength development over the short term. In conclusion, variations in volume and intensity in training groups did not interfere with isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance.

  19. Effects of ovariectomy and intrinsic aerobic capacity on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Min; Rector, R. Scott; Thyfault, John P.; Zidon, Terese M.; Padilla, Jaume; Welly, Rebecca J.; Meers, Grace M.; Morris, Matthew E.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Booth, Frank W.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    High-capacity running (HCR) rats are protected against the early (i.e., ∼11 wk postsurgery) development of ovariectomy (OVX)-induced insulin resistance (IR) compared with low-capacity running (LCR) rats. The purpose of this study was to utilize the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp to determine whether 1) HCR rats remain protected from OVX-induced IR when the time following OVX is extended to 27 wk and 2) tissue-specific glucose uptake differences are responsible for the protection in HCR rats under sedentary conditions. Female HCR and LCR rats (n = 40; aged ∼22 wk) randomly received either OVX or sham (SHM) surgeries and then underwent the clamp 27 wk following surgeries. [3-3H]glucose was used to determine glucose clearance, whereas 2-[14C]deoxyglucose (2-DG) was used to assess glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue (BAT), subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), and visceral WAT. OVX decreased the glucose infusion rate and glucose clearance in both lines, but HCR had better insulin sensitivity than LCR (P < 0.05). In both lines, OVX significantly reduced glucose uptake in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles; however, HCR showed ∼40% greater gastrocnemius glucose uptake compared with LCR (P < 0.05). HCR also exhibited greater glucose uptake in BAT and visceral WAT compared with LCR (P < 0.05), yet these tissues were not affected by OVX in either line. In conclusion, OVX impairs insulin sensitivity in both HCR and LCR rats, likely driven by impairments in insulin-mediated skeletal muscle glucose uptake. HCR rats have greater skeletal muscle, BAT, and WAT insulin-mediated glucose uptake, which may aid in protection against OVX-associated insulin resistance. PMID:26646101

  20. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

    2011-10-24

    Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans.

  1. Predicting maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) from the critical velocity test in female collegiate rowers.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Fukuda, David H; Smith, Abbie E; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the critical velocity (CV) test and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and develop a regression equation to predict VO2max based on the CV test in female collegiate rowers. Thirty-five female (mean ± SD; age, 19.38 ± 1.3 years; height, 170.27 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 69.58 ± 0.3 1 kg) collegiate rowers performed 2 incremental VO2max tests to volitional exhaustion on a Concept II Model D rowing ergometer to determine VO2max. After a 72-hour rest period, each rower completed 4 time trials at varying distances for the determination of CV and anaerobic rowing capacity (ARC). A positive correlation was observed between CV and absolute VO2max (r = 0.775, p < 0.001) and ARC and absolute VO2max (r = 0.414, p = 0.040). Based on the significant correlation analysis, a linear regression equation was developed to predict the absolute VO2max from CV and ARC (absolute VO2max = 1.579[CV] + 0.008[ARC] - 3.838; standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 0.192 L·min(-1)). Cross validation analyses were performed using an independent sample of 10 rowers. There was no significant difference between the mean predicted VO2max (3.02 L·min(-1)) and the observed VO2max (3.10 L·min(-1)). The constant error, SEE and validity coefficient (r) were 0.076 L·min(-1), 0.144 L·min(-1), and 0.72, respectively. The total error value was 0.155 L·min(-1). The positive relationship between CV, ARC, and VO2max suggests that the CV test may be a practical alternative to measuring the maximal oxygen uptake in the absence of a metabolic cart. Additional studies are needed to validate the regression equation using a larger sample size and different populations (junior- and senior-level female rowers) and to determine the accuracy of the equation in tracking changes after a training intervention.

  2. Increasing Discharge Capacities of Li-(CF)(sub n) Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    An electrolyte additive has shown promise as a means of increasing the sustainable rates of discharge and, hence, the discharge capacities, of lithiumpoly(carbon monofluoride) electrochemical power cells. Lithium-poly(carbon monofluoride) [Li-(CF)n] cells and batteries offer very high specific energies practical values of about 600 W.h/g and a theoretical maximum value of 2,180 W.h/kg. However, because Li-(CF)n cells and batteries cannot withstand discharge at high rates, they have been relegated to niche applications that involve very low discharge currents over times of the order of hundreds to thousands of hours. Increasing the discharge capacities of Li- (CF)n batteries while maintaining high practical levels of specific energy would open new applications for these batteries. During the discharge of a Li-(CF)n cell, one of the electrochemical reactions causes LiF to precipitate at the cathode. LiF is almost completely insoluble in most non-aqueous solvents, including those used in the electrolyte solutions of Li-(CF)n cells. LiF is electrochemically inactive and can block the desired transport of ions at the cathode, and, hence, the precipitation of LiF can form an ever-thickening film on the cathode that limits the rate of discharge.

  3. [Effect of training on treadmill performance, aerobic capacity and body reactions to acute cold exposure].

    PubMed

    Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V; Kuznetsova, O V; Son'kin, V D

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity at the anaerobic threshold is able to stimulate an increase in the amount of body fat brown or beige, which can manifest itself in increasing lactate utilization during exercise and increase the reactivity in response to acute regional cooling. The methods used are: ramp test, regional acute cold exposure, measurement of gas exchange, lactate and glucose in the blood, heart rate, and heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during standard functional tests; infrared thermal imaging, statistical methods of results analysis. Workout 10 physically active volunteers (7 males and 3 females) on a treadmill at a speed corresponding to 75-80% of the persona VO2max for 30 minutes 3 times per week at a fixed ambient temperature 21-22°C for 6 weeks resulted in a significant (from 19 to 39%) increase in test work duration but VO2max on average changed little. The increase in power of anaerobic threshold was associated with a sharp slowdown in the accumulation of lactate in progress of ramp test. Lactate utilization rate during the recovery period, on the contrary, increased. In general, significantly increased work efficiency at a test load. Not revealed noticeable changes in the condition and response to a standard functional tests of autonomic systems, as judged by heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during orthostatic tests and imposed breathing rhythm. The functional response of the body to acute cold exposure (1 minute cooling of the feet in ice water) is not changed after a cycle of training--either in terms of metabolism (oxygen consumption, etc.), or the dynamics of the skin temperature in areas of most probable location of brown adipose tissue (BAT). These data do not confirm the previously expressed (2010) hypothesis about the function of BAT as a universal homeostatic instrument in the body. Probably, if under

  4. Increasing the functional residual capacity may reverse obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sériès, F; Cormier, Y; Lampron, N; La Forge, J

    1988-08-01

    We describe the reversal of obstructive sleep apnea with a 0.5 L increase in the functional residual capacity (FRC) in a patient with sleep apnea syndrome. The patient had been treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate for 8 months. The increase in FRC was obtained by applying a constant negative extrathoracic pressure (NEP) with a poncho-type respirator. With pulmonary inflation, there was a dramatic decrease in the apnea index and the percent apnea time, and an improvement in sleep architecture. At all sleep stages, the desaturation duration was shorter with NEP. The exact mechanisms by which pulmonary expansion improved sleep apnea in this patient remain unclear; lung volume dependence of upper airway patency and the improvements in apnea-induced desaturation may be contributing factors. Our observation illustrates that lung volumes may be an important factor in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea, especially in the apnea onset and in the apneic-induced desaturation.

  5. Increased gastric secretory capacity in smokers without gastrointestinal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Massarrat, S; Enschai, F; Pittner, P M

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and gastric secretory capacity was studied in 201 25-40 year old healthy subjects with normal laboratory data and no gastrointestinal lesions. Basal acid output (BAO) and peak acid output (PAO) were determined in all, and basal and stimulated pepsin outputs were measured in 85 participants. The accuracy of the patients' statements was checked by urinary nicotine assay. Basal acid output and PAO were significantly higher in male smokers (n = 55) than in male non-smokers (n = 49). In women PAO in smokers (n = 38) was higher than in non-smokers (n = 59). Female smokers (n = 38) had a higher pepsin output than female non-smokers (n = 23). Eight variables were considered in relation to BAO and PAO: age, height, weight, alcohol abuse, smoking habits, duration of smoking habit, number of cigarettes per day, and the product of years of smoking multiplied by daily number of cigarettes. The daily number of cigarettes X years of smoking was most closely correlated with BAO and PAO by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. It was concluded that smoking is related to increased gastric acid capacity. PMID:3082724

  6. Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction.

    PubMed

    Dellal, Alexandre; Varliette, Christophe; Owen, Adam; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) in soccer versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on a continuous aerobic test (Vameval) and the performance in an intermittent test with changes of direction (CODs; 30-15 intermittent fitness test [30-15(IFT)]). Twenty-two amateur soccer players (mean age ± SD: 26.3 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 3 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 8), HIT group (n = 8), and control group (CG; n = 6). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 9 sessions of 2 versus 2 and 1 versus 1 SSGs, whereas the HIT group performed 9 sessions of intermittent runs in the form of 30 seconds of effort interspersed with 30 seconds of passive recovery (30s-30s), 15s-15s, and 10s-10s. The HIT and SSG groups showed performance improvements in the Vameval test (5.1 and 6.6%, respectively) and the 30-15(IFT) intermittent test with CODs (5.1 and 5.8%, respectively), whereas there was no change in the performance of the CG. Players from HIT and SSG groups showed similar increase in their performance in the 30-15(IFT) and the Vameval tests during the 6-week training period, especially with an increase significantly different to that in a traditional training as in the CG (p < 0.05). This investigation demonstrates that both SSG and HIT interventions are equally effective in developing the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with CODs in male amateur soccer players. Furthermore, these 2 methods of training applied during the 6 weeks induce similar effect on the recovery capacity and on the ability to repeat directional changes of 180°. Coaches will now be able to choose between these two methods according to the objective of the training and to optimize the training.

  7. Evaluation of the Acquisition of the Aerobic Metabolic Capacity by Myelin, during its Development.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Silvia; Bartolucci, Martina; Garbati, Patrizia; Ferrando, Sara; Calzia, Daniela; Ramoino, Paola; Balestrino, Maurizio; Morelli, Alessandro; Panfoli, Isabella

    2016-12-01

    Our previous reports indicate that the electron transfer chain and FoF1-ATP synthase are functionally expressed in myelin sheath, performing an extra-mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which would provide energy to the nerve axon. This supports the idea that myelin plays a trophic role for the axon. Although the four ETC complexes and ATP synthase are considered exquisite mitochondrial proteins, they are found ectopically expressed in several membranous structures. This study was designed to understand when and how the mitochondrial OXPHOS machinery is embedded in myelin, following myelinogenesis in the rat, which starts at birth and continues until the first month of age. Rats were sacrificed at different time points (from day 5 to 90 post birth). Western blot, immunofluorescence microscopy, luminometric, and oximetric analyses show that the isolated myelin starts to show OXPHOS components around the 11th day after birth and increases proportionally to the rat age, becoming similar to those of adult rat around the 30-third day. Interestingly, WB data show the same temporal relationship between myelinogenesis and appearance of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion and cellular trafficking. It may be speculated that the OXPHOS complexes may be transferred to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (known to interact with mitochondria) and from there through the Golgi apparatus to the forming myelin membrane.

  8. Working Fluids for Increasing Capacities of Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation has shown that the capacities of heat pipes can be increased through suitable reformulation of their working fluids. The surface tensions of all of the working fluids heretofore used in heat pipes decrease with temperature. As explained in more detail below, the limits on the performance of a heat pipe are associated with the decrease in the surface tension of the working fluid with temperature, and so one can enhance performance by reformulating the working fluid so that its surface tension increases with temperature. This improvement is applicable to almost any kind of heat pipe in almost any environment. The heat-transfer capacity of a heat pipe in its normal operating-temperature range is subject to a capillary limit and a boiling limit. Both of these limits are associated with the temperature dependence of surface tension of the working fluid. In the case of a traditional working fluid, the decrease in surface tension with temperature causes a body of the liquid phase of the working fluid to move toward a region of lower temperature, thus preventing the desired spreading of the liquid in the heated portion of the heat pipe. As a result, the available capillary-pressure pumping head decreases as the temperature of the evaporator end of the heat pipe increases, and operation becomes unstable. Water has widely been used as a working fluid in heat pipes. Because the surface tension of water decreases with increasing temperature, the heat loads and other aspects of performance of heat pipes that contain water are limited. Dilute aqueous solutions of long-chain alcohols have shown promise as substitutes for water that can offer improved performance, because these solutions exhibit unusual surface-tension characteristics: Experiments have shown that in the cases of an aqueous solution of an alcohol, the molecules of which contain chains of more than four carbon atoms, the surface tension increases with temperature when the

  9. Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Wingtip vortices were first described by British aerodynamicist F.W. Lanchester in 1907. A product of lift on a finite-span wing, these counterrotating masses of air trail behind an aircraft, gradually diffusing while convecting downward and moving about under mutual induction and the influence of wind and stratification. Should a smaller aircraft happen to be following the first aircraft, it could be buffeted and even flipped if it flew into the vortex, with dangerous consequences. Given the amount of air traffic in 1907, the wake vortex hazard was not initially much of a concern. The demand for air transportation continues to increase, and it is estimated that demand could double or even triple by 2025. One factor in the capacity of the air transportation system is wake turbulence and the consequent separation distances that must be maintained between aircraft to ensure safety.

  10. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals perturbed energy metabolism and elevated oxidative stress in hearts of rats with inborn low aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Kenyani, Jenna; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Burant, Charles F.; Qi, Nathan R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Selection on running capacity has created rat phenotypes of high capacity runners (HCR) that have enhanced cardiac function and low capacity runners (LCR) that exhibit risk factors of metabolic syndrome. We analysed hearts of HCR and LCR from generation 22 of selection using DIGE and identified proteins from MS database searches. The running capacity of HCR was 6-fold greater than LCR. DIGE resolved 957 spots and proteins were unambiguously identified in 369 spots. Protein expression profiling detected 67 statistically significant (P<0.05; false discovery rate <10 %, calculated using q-values) differences between HCR and LCR. Hearts of HCR rats exhibited robust increases in the abundance of each enzyme of the beta-oxidation pathway. In contrast, LCR hearts were characterised by the modulation of enzymes associated with ketone body or amino acid metabolism. LCR also exhibited enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and greater phosphorylation of alpha B-crystallin at serine 59, which is a common point of convergence in cardiac stress signalling. Thus proteomic analysis revealed selection on low running capacity is associated with perturbations in cardiac energy metabolism and provided the first evidence that the LCR cardiac proteome is exposed to greater oxidative stress. PMID:21751351

  12. Increasing the capacity of health sciences to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Daley, Sandra P; Broyles, Shelia L; Rivera, Lourdes M; Reznik, Vivian M

    2009-09-01

    In order to create a cohort of investigators who are engaged in health disparities research, scholarship, and practice, and to increase the amount of funding in the university that is invested in research focused on reducing health disparities, the San Diego EXPORT Center implemented 2 major initiatives: (1) the support of underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty development and (2) the funding for pilot research grants in health disparities. This paper describes the activities employed by the center and summarizes the outcomes of these two initiatives. Ninety-five percent (18 of 19) URM junior faculty completed the faculty development program, and 83.3% (15 of 18) of the completers are advancing in their academic careers at University of California San Diego (UCSD) and are teaching, working with populations at risk and/or conducting research in health disparities. EXPORT awarded 7 investigators a total of $429186 to conduct pilot research, and 71.4% (5/7) have now obtained $4.7 million in independent extramural funding. The San Diego EXPORT Center has increased the research capacity, strengthened the infrastructure for health disparities research, and created a cohort of successful URM junior faculty who are advancing in their academic careers. These investigators are already changing the climate at UCSD by their leadership activities, research focus, peer-networking, and mentoring of students.

  13. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  14. Biochar increases plant-available water in a sandy loam soil under an aerobic rice crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Marimon, B. H., Jr.; Meinke, H.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields 2 and 3 years after its application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant-available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each Mg ha-1 biochar amendment 2 and 3 years after its application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an effect in overall porosity of the sandy loam soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5 and 1.6% for each Mg ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during the critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under short-term water-limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  15. Increasing Secondary Teachers' Capacity to Integrate the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Byron; Treichel, Christa J.

    2013-01-01

    Examples from a team of collaborating secondary teachers--one visual arts teacher and one science teacher--highlight key aspects of this professional development project in arts integration. The article traces a regional network designed to build teacher capacity with implications for the design, effectiveness, and sustainability of professional…

  16. Reasonable expectations: how much aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life can improve with exercise training in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark A; Pozehl, Bunny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the literature that describes the magnitude of functional and quality of life gains with a traditional moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training programs is reviewed, and differences between the impact of exercise training in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction versus heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are discussed.

  17. Gender Difference in Aerobic Capacity and the Contribution by Body Composition and Haemoglobin Concentration: A Study in Young Indian National Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Kailashiya, Jyotsna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although gender difference in aerobic capacity is known, the contributing factors have been researched seldom. Aim To investigate the gender gap and the contribution by percentage Body Fat (BF), Body Mass Index (BMI) and haemoglobin concentration Hb. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 30 (17 males, 13 females) training status matched young hockey players. Healthy players who were playing upto national level competition were included. BW (Body Weight), BF, BMI, LBM (Lean Body Mass), rHR (restring Heart Rate), HRR (Heart Rate Recovery), Hb, a/rVO2max (absolute/relative), a/rPWC (Physical Work Capacity) and RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) were measured and analysed. Results There was significant gender difference in the measured parameters. Difference in a/rVO2max remained significant even after controlling for BF, BMI and Hb. Multiple regression and correlation analysis revealed gender difference in VO2max/LBM was due to: BMI(31.91%)>BF(27.60%)>Hb(9.91%). BMI also significantly contributed 3.66% of VO2max/LBM variance, independent of that by gender. Difference in RMR was mainly related to LBM, BF and BMI. Conclusion The study provided an understanding for gender gap in aerobic capacity. Differences in BMI & BF were one of the main reasons. PMID:28050360

  18. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. Method: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results: Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Conclusion: Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke. PMID:27741123

  19. Increased aerobic glycolysis is important for the motility of activated VSMC and inhibited by indirubin-3′-monoxime

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Elke H.; Schachner, Daniel; Donati, Maddalena; Grojer, Christoph S.; Dirsch, Verena M.

    2016-01-01

    Increased aerobic glycolysis is a recognized feature of multiple cellular phenotypes and offers a potential point for drug interference, as pursued by anti-tumor agents targeting the Warburg effect. This study aimed at examining the role of aerobic glycolysis for migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and its susceptibility to the small molecule indirubin-3′-monoxime (I3MO). Activation of VSMC with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) resulted in migration and increased glycolytic activity which was accompanied by an increased glucose uptake and hexokinase (HK) 2 expression. Inhibition of glycolysis or hexokinase by pharmacological agents or siRNA-mediated knockdown significantly reduced the migratory behavior in VSMC without affecting cell viability or early actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. I3MO, previously recognized as inhibitor of VSMC migration, was able to counteract the PDGF-activated increase in glycolysis and HK2 abundance. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 could be identified as crucial event in upregulation of HK2 and glycolytic activity in PDGF-stimulated VSMC and as point of interference for I3MO. I3MO did not inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α-dependent transcription nor influence miRNA 143 levels, other potential regulators of HK2 levels. Overall, we demonstrate that increased aerobic glycolysis is an important factor for the motility of activated VSMC and that the anti-migratory property of I3MO may partly depend on impairment of glycolysis via a compromised STAT3/HK2 signaling axis. PMID:27185663

  20. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  1. High muscle mitochondrial volume and aerobic capacity in a small marsupial (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) reveals flexible links between energy-use levels in mammals.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Lee, Enhua; Buttemer, William A

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the muscle structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacity of an insectivorous, small (~15 g) marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Family: Dasyuridae), to obtain further insight into energy use patterns in marsupials relative to those in placentals, their sister clade within the Theria (advanced mammals). Disparate hopping marsupials (Suborder Macropodiformes), a kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata), show aerobic capabilities as high as those of 'athletic' placentals. Equivalent muscle mitochondrial volumes and cardiovascular features support these capabilities. We examined S. crassicaudata to determine whether highly developed aerobic capabilities occur elsewhere in marsupials, rather than being restricted to the more recently evolved Macropodiformes. This was the case. Treadmill-trained S. crassicaudata attained a maximal aerobic metabolic rate ( or MMR) of 272 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1) (N=8), similar to that reported for a small (~20 g), 'athletic' placental, Apodemus sylvaticus, 264 ml O2 min(-1) kg(-1). Hopping marsupials have comparable aerobic levels when body mass variation is considered. Sminthopsis crassicaudata has a basal metabolic rate (BMR) about 75% of placental values but it has a notably large factorial aerobic scope (fAS) of 13; elevated fAS also features in hopping marsupials. The of S. crassicaudata was supported by an elevated total muscle mitochondrial volume, which was largely achieved through high muscle mitochondrial volume densities, Vv(mt,f), the mean value being 14.0±1.33%. These data were considered in relation to energy use levels in mammals, particularly field metabolic rate (FMR). BMR is consistently lower in marsupials, but this is balanced by a high fAS, such that marsupial MMR matches that of placentals. However, FMR shows different mass relationships in the two clades, with the FMR of small (<125 g) marsupials, such as S. crassicaudata, being higher than that in

  2. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  3. Aerobic capacity correlates to self-assessed physical function but not to overall disease activity or organ damage in women with systemic lupus erythematosus with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Boström, C; Dupré, B; Tengvar, P; Jansson, E; Opava, C H; Lundberg, I E

    2008-02-01

    The present aim is to investigate the relationships between aerobic capacity and disease activity, organ damage, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and physical activity in 34 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage. Mean age was 51 (SD 10) years, disease duration 17 (SD 11) years. Aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake/VO2 max) was measured with a bicycle ergometer exercise test. Overall disease activity was assessed with Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Disease Activity Index (modified SLE-DAI), overall organ damage with the Systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics/American College of Rheumatology-Damage Index, [SLICC/(ACR)-DI], HRQL with the 36-item Short-form health-survey (SF-36) and physical activity with a self-assessed question. The women who were low-to-moderately physically active had 89-92% (P < or = 0.001) of VO2 max predicted for sedentary women. Maximal oxygen uptake (L/min, mL/min/kg) correlated to SF-36 physical function (rs = 0.49, rs = 0.72) (P < or = 0.01), but not (rs < or = 0.25) to other HRQL scales, overall disease activity or organ damage or physical activity. The correlation between aerobic capacity and physical function and the absence of correlation between aerobic capacity and physical activity, suggest a possible disease-related factor behind the low aerobic capacity. However, with no correlation between aerobic capacity and overall disease activity and organ damage, low physical activity may contribute to the low aerobic capacity in our sample.

  4. Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Steven; Jimenez, Alfonso; Domone, Sarah; Beedie, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Aim Insufficient research examines the treatment effectiveness of real-world physical activity (PA) interventions. Purpose We investigated the effects of 3 interventions on directly measured cardiovascular variables. All treatments and measures were administered in community settings by fitness centre staff. Methods Participants were sedentary individuals receiving no medication to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (n=369, age 43 ±5 years). In a semirandomised design, participants were allocated to a structured gym exercise programme (STRUC), unstructured gym exercise (FREE), physical activity counselling (PAC) or a measurement-only control condition (CONT). Measures were: predicted aerobic capacity (VO2: mL kg min), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC: mmol/L), and were taken at baseline and 48 weeks. Results Data analysis indicated a statistically significant deterioration in TC in CONT (0.8%, SD=0.5, p=0.005), and a statistically significant improvement in MAP in STRUC (2.5%, SD=8.3, p=0.004). Following a median split by baseline VO2, paired-sample t tests indicated significant improvements in VO2 among low-fit participants in STRUC (3.5%, SD=4.8, p=0.003), PAC (3.3%, SD=7.7, p=0.050) and FREE (2.6%, SD=4.8, p=0.006), and significant deterioration of VO2 among high-fit participants in FREE (−2.0%, SD=5.6, p=0.037), and PAC (−3.2%, SD=6.4, p=0.031). Conclusions Several forms of PA may offset increased cholesterol resulting from inactivity. Structured PA (exercise) might be more effective than either unstructured PA or counselling in improving blood pressure, and community-based PA interventions might be more effective in improving VO2 among low-fit than among high-fit participants. PMID:27900172

  5. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Holscher, Hannah D; Padilla, Jaume; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Welly, Rebecca; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) high capacity (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk) were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat) ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX) or without (sedentary, SED) running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group). We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05) line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026) in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05) with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially impacts

  6. Increasing the Capacity of Primary Care Through Enabling Technology.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S

    2017-02-27

    Primary care is the foundation of effective and high-quality health care. The role of primary care clinicians has expanded to encompass coordination of care across multiple providers and management of more patients with complex conditions. Enabling technology has the potential to expand the capacity for primary care clinicians to provide integrated, accessible care that channels expertise to the patient and brings specialty consultations into the primary care clinic. Furthermore, technology offers opportunities to engage patients in advancing their health through improved communication and enhanced self-management of chronic conditions. This paper describes enabling technologies in four domains (the body, the home, the community, and the primary care clinic) that can support the critical role primary care clinicians play in the health care system. It also identifies challenges to incorporating these technologies into primary care clinics, care processes, and workflow.

  7. Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

  8. Positive effects of aerobic exercise on learning and memory functioning, which correlate with hippocampal IGF-1 increase in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Caner; Sisman, Ali Riza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Gencoglu, Celal; Baykara, Basak; Aksu, Ilkay; Uysal, Nazan

    2013-08-09

    It is already known that regular aerobic exercise during adolescent period improves learning and memory in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on learning, memory functioning and IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 is known to have positive effects on cognitive functions in adolescent rats. Exercise group was separated into two different groups. First half was run on a treadmill for 30 min per session at a speed of 8m/min and 0° slope, five times a week for 6 weeks. The second half was given free access to a running wheel (diameter 11.5 cm) which was connected to a digital counter and run on a treadmill for 6 weeks. Learning and memory functioning were found to be positively correlated with the exercise activity. Findings suggest increased neuron density in CA1 hippocampal region and dentate gyrus. Increased IGF-1 level was detected in hippocampus and blood serum, while IGF-1 level in liver tissue did not change with exercise activity. In conclusion, our findings indicate that learning and memory functioning were positively affected by voluntary and involuntary physical exercise which correlated increased hippocampal activity and elevated IGF-1 levels in adolescent rats.

  9. Effect of gradual-increasing aeration mode in an aerobic tank on nutrients' removal and functional microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang-Guo; Guo, Xiaoma; She, Zonglian; Gao, Mengchun; Guo, Liang

    2016-12-30

    Different aeration rates and modes in an aerobic tank of an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A(2)O) process were investigated to reveal their influence on nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency. Meanwhile, Illumina high-throughput sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was conducted to monitor the abundance and composition of microbial communities. The results showed that higher aeration rate led to better nutrients' removal efficiency. The gradual-increasing aeration mode along the wastewater stream enhanced the contaminants' removal and the system achieved chemical oxygen demand, [Formula: see text]-N, total nitrogen (TN) removal rates of 72%, 96% and 51%, respectively. However, the gradual-decreasing or uniform aeration modes resulted in inefficient removal of TN, especially the ammonia due to low DO in the end parts of A(2)O. Microbial community analysis indicated that denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating bacteria Acinetobacter spp. were the most dominant groups under the gradual-increasing aeration mode in all tanks of the A(2)O bioreactor. Moreover, the members of genera Clostridium, Thauera and Dechloromonas also largely existed in the system. The gradual-increasing aeration mode and cooperation of different groups of bacteria made the system stable and high-performance.

  10. High intrinsic aerobic capacity and pomegranate juice are protective against macrophage atherogenecity: studies in high- vs. low-capacity runner (HCR vs. LCR) rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Volkova, Nina; Abassi, Zaid; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Aviram, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We studied the rat model system of high- vs. low-capacity runner (HCR vs. LCR) rats to question the atherogenic properties (oxidative stress, triglycerides and cholesterol metabolism) in the rat macrophages, serum, liver and heart. Half of the LCR or HCR rats consumed pomegranate juice (PJ; 15 μmol of gallic acid equivalents/rat/day) for 3 weeks and were compared to placebo-treated rats. At the end of the study blood samples, peritoneal macrophages (RPM), livers, and hearts were harvested from the rats. RPM harvested from HCR vs. LCR demonstrated reduced cellular oxidation (21%), increased paraoxonase 2 activity (28%) and decreased triglycerides mass (44%). Macrophage uptake rates of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or oxidized LDL were significantly lower, by 37% or by 18%, respectively, in HCR vs. LCR RPM. PJ consumption significantly decreased all the above atherogenic parameters with more substantial beneficial effects observed in the LCR vs. the HCR rats (~80% vs. ~40% improvement, respectively). Similar hypo-triglyceridemic pattern was noted in serum from HCR vs. LCR. In contrast to the above results, liver oxidation and triglycerides mass were both minimally increased in HCR vs. LCR rats by 31% and 28%, respectively. In the heart, lipid content was very low, and interestingly, an absence of any significant oxidative stress, along with modest triglyceride accumulation, was observed. We conclude that HCR vs. LCR rats demonstrate reduced atherogenicity, mostly in their macrophages. PJ exerts a further improvement, mostly in macrophages from LCR rats.

  11. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission’s initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores. PMID:27907143

  12. Mycobacteria Clumping Increase Their Capacity to Damage Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, Cecilia; Llorens-Fons, Marta; Julián, Esther; Noguera-Ortega, Estela; Tomàs-Martínez, Cristina; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Byrd, Thomas F.; Alcaide, Fernando; Luquin, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The rough morphotypes of non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been associated with the most severe illnesses in humans. This idea is consistent with the fact that Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents a stable rough morphotype. Unlike smooth morphotypes, the bacilli of rough morphotypes grow close together, leaving no spaces among them and forming large aggregates (clumps). Currently, the initial interaction of macrophages with clumps remains unclear. Thus, we infected J774 macrophages with bacterial suspensions of rough morphotypes of M. abscessus containing clumps and suspensions of smooth morphotypes, primarily containing isolated bacilli. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy, we observed clumps of at least five rough-morphotype bacilli inside the phagocytic vesicles of macrophages at 3 h post-infection. These clumps grew within the phagocytic vesicles, killing 100% of the macrophages at 72 h post-infection, whereas the proliferation of macrophages infected with smooth morphotypes remained unaltered at 96 h post-infection. Thus, macrophages phagocytose large clumps, exceeding the bactericidal capacities of these cells. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines and granuloma-like structures were only produced by macrophages infected with rough morphotypes. Thus, the present study provides a foundation for further studies that consider mycobacterial clumps as virulence factors. PMID:27757105

  13. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission's initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores.

  14. Increasing Capacity for Environmental Engineering in Salta, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rajal, Verónica B.; Cid, Alicia G.; Cruz, Mercedes C.; Poma, Hugo R.; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutierrez; Romano, Neli; Moraga, Norma B.; Last, Jerold A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the United States National Institutes of Health includes the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) Program. The “International Training Program in Environmental Toxicology and Public Health” Center, funded in 2002 is based at the University of California, Davis, and is part of the ITREOH group of Centers. It has major efforts focused at the public universities in Montevideo, Uruguay, and Salta, Argentina. Results Training and research efforts in Salta begun in 2005 in the College of Engineering. A donated used real-time PCR machine was the starting point and the initial FIC support was instrumental to face other problems including physical space, research projects and grants, trainees, training, networking, and distractions/opportunities in order to develop local capacities in Environmental Engineering using modern methodology. After six years of successful work, the Salta center has become a reference Center in the field, and is still growing and consolidating. Conclusions This program has had a significant impact locally and regionally. The model used in Argentina could be easily adapted to other fields or types of projects in Argentina and in other developing countries. PMID:22467330

  15. Metabolomics of aerobic metabolism in mice selected for increased maximal metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Wone, Bernard; Donovan, Edward R.; Hayes, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Maximal aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is an important physiological and ecological variable that sets an upper limit to sustained, vigorous activity. How the oxygen cascade from the external environment to the mitochondria may affect MMR has been the subject of much interest, but little is known about the metabolic profiles that underpin variation in MMR. We tested how seven generations of artificial selection for high mass-independent MMR affected metabolite profiles of two skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and plantaris) and the liver. MMR was 12.3% higher in mass selected for high MMR than in controls. Basal metabolic rate was 3.5% higher in selected mice than in controls. Artificial selection did not lead to detectable changes in the metabolic profiles from plantaris muscle, but in the liver amino acids and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) metabolites were lower in high-MMR mice than in controls. In gastrocnemius, amino acids and TCA cycle metabolites were higher in high-MMR mice than in controls, indicating elevated amino acid and energy metabolism. Moreover, in gastrocnemius free fatty acids and triacylglycerol fatty acids were lower in high-MMR mice than in controls. Because selection for high MMR was associated with changes in the resting metabolic profile of both liver and gastrocnemius, the result suggests a possible mechanistic link between resting metabolism and MMR. In addition, it is well established that diet and exercise affect the composition of fatty acids in muscle. The differences that we found between control lines and lines selected for high MMR demonstrate that the composition of fatty acids in muscle is also affected by genetic factors. PMID:21982590

  16. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Increased Aerobic Glycolysis and Amino Acid Deficit in a Cellular Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Gabriel N; Rizzardini, Milena; Cimini, Sara; Siskos, Alexandros P; Bendotti, Caterina; Cantoni, Lavinia; Keun, Hector C

    2016-05-01

    Defects in energy metabolism are potential pathogenic mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rapidly fatal disease with no cure. The mechanisms through which this occurs remain elusive and their understanding may prove therapeutically useful. We used metabolomics and stable isotope tracers to examine metabolic changes in a well-characterized cell model of familial ALS, the motor neuronal NSC-34 line stably expressing human wild-type Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (wtSOD1) or mutant G93A (G93ASOD1). Our findings indicate that wt and G93ASOD1 expression both enhanced glucose metabolism under serum deprivation. However, in wtSOD1 cells, this phenotype increased supply of amino acids for protein and glutathione synthesis, while in G93ASOD1 cells it was associated with death, aerobic glycolysis, and a broad dysregulation of amino acid homeostasis. Aerobic glycolysis was mainly due to induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1. Our study thus provides novel insight into the role of deranged energy metabolism as a cause of poor adaptation to stress and a promoter of neural cell damage in the presence of mutant SOD1. Furthermore, the metabolic alterations we report may help explain why mitochondrial dysfunction and impairment of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response are frequently seen in ALS.

  17. Aerobic physiology of redox-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains modified in the ammonium assimilation for increased NADPH availability.

    PubMed

    Moreira dos Santos, Margarida; Thygesen, Gerda; Kötter, Peter; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-10-01

    Recombinant strains altered in the ammonium assimilation pathways were constructed with the purpose of increasing NADPH availability. The NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1, which accounts for a major fraction of the NADPH consumption during growth on ammonium, was deleted, and alternative pathways for ammonium assimilation were overexpressed: GDH2 (NADH-consuming) or GLN1 and GLT1 (the GS-GOGAT system). The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway during aerobic growth on glucose decreased to about half that of the reference strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, indicating a major redox alteration in the strains. The basic growth characteristics of the recombinant strains were not affected to a great extent, but the dilution rate at which the onset of aerobic fermentation occurred decreased, suggesting a relation between the onset of the Crabtree effect and the flux through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway downstream of glucose 6-phosphate. No redox effect was observed in a strain containing a deletion of GLR1, encoding glutathione reductase, an enzyme that is NADPH-consuming.

  18. Resources to increase genetics and genomics capacity of oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Lisa B

    2015-03-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2003, the understanding of genetics and its influence on disease, particularly cancer, has increased dramatically. The initial focus after the completion of HGP was on identifying single-gene disorders, such as many hereditary cancer syndromes (e.g., BRCA1, BRCA2, HNPCC). As research continues, the major impact that genetics and genomics have across the healthcare continuum is only beginning to become clear.

  19. The impact of electronic mail versus print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J David

    2008-09-01

    Previous research indicates that the Internet, electronic mail (e-mail), and printed materials can be used to deliver interventions to improve physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes. However, no studies have been conducted investigating the effect of e-mail or print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this clinical trial was to investigate the impact of e-mail vs. print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen participants with type 2 diabetes were allocated to either a group that was delivered a prescribed exercise program using e-mail (e-mail group, n = 10) or a group that was delivered the same prescribed exercise program in print form (print group, n = 9). Chest press and leg press estimated one-repetition maximum (1-RM) scores as well as estimated peak oxygen uptake ([latin capital V with dot above]O2peak) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated significant improvements in chest press (mean = 7.00 kg, p = 0.001, effect size = 2.22) and leg press (mean = 19.32 kg, p = 0.002, effect size = 1.98) 1-RM scores and [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (mean = 9.38 mL of oxygen uptake per kilogram of body mass per minute, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.45) within the e-mail group. Within the print group, significant improvements in chest press (mean = 9.13 kg, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.49) and leg press (mean = 16.68 kg, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.31) 1-RM scores and [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (mean = 5.14 ml of oxygen uptake per kilogram of body mass per minute, p = 0.03, effect size = 1.14) were found. No significant between-group differences in improvements were found. Clinicians can deliver a prescribed exercise program, either by e-mail or in print form, to significantly improve muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes

  20. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauß, Markus; Littwitz, Henning; Garg, Pankaj; Dworrak, Birgit; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group. Methods We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]). For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age. Results The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min) of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553). The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs). The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week) of the FFs was 3818.8±2843.5, whereas those of the POs and SCs were 2838.2±2871.9 (-808.2, CI: 1757.6-141.2, p=0.095) and 2212.2±2292.8 (vs. FFs: -1417.1, CI: -2302-531.88, p=0.002; vs. POs: -2974.4, CI: -1611.2-393.5, p=0.232), respectively. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004) and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523). The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002) for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747) for the SCs. Conclusions The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic

  1. Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production.

    PubMed

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production.

  2. Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production. PMID:23969939

  3. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission increases with immobilization and decreases after aerobic training in young and older men

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dela, Flemming; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction, defined as increased oxidative stress and lower capacity for energy production, may be seen with ageing and may cause frailty, or it could be that it is secondary to physical inactivity. We studied the effect of 2 weeks of one-leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks of supervised cycle training on mitochondrial function in 17 young (mean ± SEM: 23 ± 1 years) and 15 older (68 ± 1 years) healthy men. Submaximal H2O2 emission and respiration were measured simultaneously at a predefined membrane potential in isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle using two protocols: pyruvate + malate (PM) and succinate + rotenone (SR). This allowed measurement of leak and ATP generating respiration from which the coupling efficiency can be calculated. The protein content of the anti-oxidants manganese superoxide dismuthase (MnSOD), CuZn superoxide dismuthase, catalase and gluthathione peroxidase 1 was measured by western blotting. Immobilization decreased ATP generating respiration using PM and increased H2O2 emission using both PM and SR similarly in young and older men. Both were restored to baseline after the training period. Furthermore, MnSOD and catalase content increased with endurance training. The young men had a higher leak respiration at inclusion using PM and a higher membrane potential in State 3 using both substrate combinations. Collectively, the findings of the present study support the notion that increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates the detrimental effects seen after physical inactivity. Age, on the other hand, was not associated with impairments in anti-oxidant protein levels, mitochondrial respiration or H2O2 emission using either protocol. Key points Currently, it is not known whether impaired mitochondrial function contributes to human ageing or whether potential impairments in mitochondrial function with age are secondary to physical inactivity. The present study investigated

  4. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Men, Wei-Wei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Fan, Ming-Xia; Ji, Liu; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  5. A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature, affects aerobic capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-07-01

    in beginning and ending core temperatures or baseline 3-mile run time. This capacity difference appears to result from a magnified core to skin gradient via an environmental temperature advantageous to convective heat loss, and in part from an increased sweat rate.

  6. Aerobic and anoxic growth and nitrate removal capacity of a marine denitrifying bacterium isolated from a recirculation aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Borges, Maria-Teresa; Sousa, André; De Marco, Paolo; Matos, Ana; Hönigová, Petra; Castro, Paula M L

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilters used in marine recirculation aquaculture systems need improvements to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. Relatively little is known about biofilter autochthonous population structure and function. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing an autochthonous denitrifying bacterium from a marine biofilter installed at a recirculation aquaculture system. Colonization of four different media in a marine fish farm was followed by isolation of various denitrifying strains and molecular classification of the most promising one, strain T2, as a novel member of the Pseudomonas fluorescens cluster. This strain exhibits high metabolic versatility regarding N and C source utilization and environmental conditions for growth. It removed nitrate through aerobic assimilatory metabolism at a specific rate of 116.2 mg NO(3)-N g dw(-1) h(-1). Dissimilatory NO(3)-N removal was observed under oxic conditions at a limited rate, where transient NO(2)-N formed represented 22% (0.17 mg L(-1)) of the maximum transient NO(2)-N observed under anoxic conditions. Dissimilatory NO(3)-N removal under anoxic conditions occurred at a specific rate of 53.5 mg NO(3)-N g dw(-1) h(-1). The isolated denitrifying strain was able to colonize different materials, such as granular activated carbon (GAC), Filtralite and Bioflow plastic rings, which allow the development of a prototype bioreactor for strain characterization under dynamic conditions and mimicking fish-farm operating conditions.

  7. Effects of epinephrine and lactate on the increase in oxygen consumption of non-exercising skeletal muscle after aerobic exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Motohide; Katsumura, Toshihito; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Osada, Takuya; Sako, Takayuki; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Kime, Ryotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure O2 consumption of nonexercising skeletal muscles (VO2nonex) at rest and after aerobic exercise and to investigate the stimulant factors of O2 consumption. In experiment 1, we measured the resting metabolic rate of the finger flexor muscles in seven healthy males by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during a 15 min arterial occlusion. In experiment 2, the VO2nonex of the finger flexor muscles was measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy at rest, immediate postexercise, and 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min following a cycling exercise at a workload corresponding to 50% of peak pulmonary O2 uptake for 20 min. We also monitored deep tissue temperature in the VO2nonex measurement area and determined catecholamines and lactate concentrations in the blood at rest and immediate postexercise. VO2nonex at rest was 1.1 +/- 0.1 (mu) M O2/s (mean +/- standard error) and VO2nonex after exercise increased 59.6 +/- 7.2% (p < 0.001) from the resting values. There were significant correlations between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01), and between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in lactate concentration (p < 0.05). These results suggest that epinephrine and lactate concentrations are important VO2nonex stimulant factors.

  8. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M; Burks, Tyesha N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D; Leng, Sean X

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p=.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p=.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans.

  9. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C.; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L.; Aitken, Michael D.; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2015-01-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (pre-bioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (post-bioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, post-bioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental to xicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, post-bioremediation (p < 0.05). In addition, a statistically significant increase in developmental toxicity was measured in one polar soil extract fraction, post-bioremediation (p < 0.05). A series of morphological abnormalities, including peculiar caudal fin malformations and hyperpigmentation in the tail, were measured in several soil extract fractions in embryonic zebrafish, both pre- and post-bioremediation. The increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase post-bioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs

  10. Aerobic exercise plus weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and increases skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity in older men.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alice S; Katzel, Leslie I; Prior, Steven J; McLenithan, John C; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ortmeyer, Heidi K

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m(2)). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m(2)/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (-9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men.

  11. Aerobic Exercise Plus Weight Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Katzel, Leslie I.; Prior, Steven J.; McLenithan, John C.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ortmeyer, Heidi K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m2). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (−9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men. PMID:24357038

  12. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    PubMed Central

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jensen, Rigmor; Gard, Gunvor; Skov, Liselotte; Hallström, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Methods Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland-Altman Plots; and by quantifying the variability. Results The results showed an acceptable test-retest repeatability of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (ICC 0.90–0.97). The force steadiness measurements revealed a trend of systematic changes in the direction of neck flexion and need further examination in both healthy and ill children. The rate of force development, Total Tenderness Score, and prediction of VO2 max showed repeatability, with ICC 0.80–0.87. Conclusion The measurements of strength capacity, aerobic power, and tenderness provide acceptable repeatability, suitable for research in children. PMID:24039446

  13. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  14. Algorithm for Increasing Traffic Capacity of Level-Crossing Using Scheduling Theory and Intelligent Embedded Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alps, Ivars; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors present heuristics algorithm for level-crossing traffic capacity increasing. The genetic algorithm is proposed for this task solution. The control of motion speed and operation with level-crossing barriers are proposed to create control centre and installed embedded intelligent devices on railway vehicles. Algorithm is tested using computer. The results of experiments show big promises for rail transport schedule fulfilment and level-crossing traffic capacity increasing using proposed algorithm.

  15. Comparison of metabolic expenditure during CAEP versus a test adapted to aerobic capacity (Harbor test) in elderly healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Page, E; Bonnet, J L; Durand, C

    2000-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise tests are frequently used to test rate responsive pacemakers. The chronotropic assessment exercise protocol (CAEP) has been specifically proposed for the evaluation of rate responsive pacing systems. A mathematical method, based on CAEP measurements, was developed with a view of normalizing the exercise induced metabolic response. CAEP was compared to a tailored protocol (Harbor), adapted to the metabolic capacity of each patient. Harbor was set to keep the exercise duration within 10 minutes and achieve a workload as linear as possible. Metabolic parameters were continuously recorded by a cardiopulmonary system. Those data were used in the construction of slopes by the normalization method. The results of the tests performed in 16 elderly healthy patients showed no differences in metabolic or functional parameters. Slopes of the mathematical model were comparable (1.09 +/- 0.16 for CAEP vs 1.07 +/- 0.17 for Harbor), though both were higher than the value of 1, defined as normal. In both cases, linearity was confirmed by the coefficient of correlation (0.98 +/- 0.02 for CAEP and Harbor). In conclusion, no significant differences were found in the outcomes of the two protocols. Higher values of the slopes with the normalization method can be explained by the definition of the maximal predicted heart rate as 220--age, which is probably not appropriate for elderly, healthy, active subjects.

  16. Development of an aerobic capacity prediction model from one-mile run/walk performance in adolescents aged 13-16 years.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Shultz, Barry B; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    A popular algorithm to predict VO2Peak from the one-mile run/walk test (1MRW) includes body mass index (BMI), which manifests practical issues in school settings. The purpose of this study was to develop an aerobic capacity model from 1MRW in adolescents independent of BMI. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years. The 1MRW was administered on an outside track and a laboratory VO2Peak test was conducted using a maximal treadmill protocol. Multiple linear regression was employed to develop the prediction model. Results yielded the following algorithm: VO2Peak = 7.34 × (1MRW speed in m s(-1)) + 0.23 × (age × sex) + 17.75. The New Model displayed a multiple correlation and prediction error of R = 0.81, standard error of the estimate = 4.78 ml kg(-1) · min(-1), with measured VO2Peak and good criterion-referenced (CR) agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zone (Kappa = 0.62; percentage agreement = 84.4%; Φ = 0.62). The New Model was validated using k-fold cross-validation and showed homoscedastic residuals across the range of predicted scores. The omission of BMI did not compromise accuracy of the model. In conclusion, the New Model displayed good predictive accuracy and good CR agreement with measured VO2Peak in adolescents aged 13-16 years.

  17. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context

    PubMed Central

    Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities. PMID:26030666

  18. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    PubMed

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  19. Thermal optima and tolerance in the eurythermic goldfish (Carassius auratus): relationships between whole-animal aerobic capacity and maximum heart rate.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Elizabeth O; Anttila, Katja; Farrell, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    The wide thermal tolerance range of a eurythermic fish (goldfish, Carassius auratus) was used to evaluate how temperature performance curves derived from maximum heart rate (fH) related to those for aerobic scope. For acclimation temperatures of 12°, 20°, and 28°C, optimum temperatures derived from aerobic scope curves (Topt) were 19.9° ± 0.4°, 19.3° ± 0.8°, and 28.7° ± 0.8°C, respectively. The Arrhenius breakpoint temperatures (TAB) for maximum fH were 21.5° ± 0.6°, 23.8° ± 0.9°, and 24.6° ± 0.5°C, respectively. The TQB (temperature where the incremental Q10 of maximum fH decreased abruptly below 1.9) was 24.0° ± 0.7° and 29.8° ± 0.6°C for the 12° and 28°C acclimation temperatures, respectively, and was within the Topt window (11.5°-30.3° and 26.9°-30.5°C, respectively), but TQB for the 20°C acclimation temperature (27.3° ± 0.6°C) was higher than the Topt window (15.4°-23.2°C). Warm acclimation increased the upper critical temperature (Tcrit; from 37.2° ± 0.7° to 44.7° ± 11.8°C) as well as the temperature that triggered a cardiac arrhythmia (Tarr; from 31.1° ± 0.7° to 39.3° ± 0.4°C). In conclusion, we propose that maximum fH and its associated rate transition temperatures (TAB, TQB, and Tarr) can be used to estimate the upper thermal tolerance of eurythermic as well as stenothermic fish independent of acclimation temperature. All the same, great care is needed with such evaluations. For the goldfish, while TAB and TQB were always within the Topt window for 90% of maximum aerobic scope and Topt was closely associated with TAB for 12°C-acclimated fish, TQB had the closest association after 28°C acclimation, and both TAB and TQB were above the Topt window after 20°C acclimation.

  20. Initial Molecular-Level Response to Artificial Selection for Increased Aerobic Metabolism Occurs Primarily through Changes in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Babik, Wiesław; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Experimental evolution combined with genome or transcriptome resequencing (Evolve and Resequence) represents a promising approach for advancing our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation. Here, we applied this strategy to investigate the effect of selection on a complex trait in lines derived from a natural population of a small mammal. We analyzed the liver and heart transcriptomes of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) that had been selected for increased aerobic metabolism. The organs were sampled from 13th generation voles; at that point, the voles from four replicate selected lines had 48% higher maximum rates of oxygen consumption than those from four control lines. At the molecular level, the response to selection was primarily observed in gene expression: Over 300 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the selected and control lines and the transcriptome-wide pattern of expression distinguished selected lines from controls. No evidence for selection-driven changes of allele frequencies at coding sites was found: No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changed frequency more than expected under drift alone and frequency changes aggregated over all SNPs did not separate selected and control lines. Nevertheless, among genes which showed highest differentiation in allele frequencies between selected and control lines we identified, using information about gene functions and the biology of the selected phenotype, plausible targets of selection; these genes, together with those identified in expression analysis, have been prioritized for further studies. Because our selection lines were derived from a natural population, the amount and the spectrum of variation available for selection probably closely approximated that typically found in populations of small mammals. Therefore, our results are relevant to the understanding of the molecular basis of complex adaptations occurring in natural vertebrate populations.

  1. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life.

  2. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eonho; Dear, Alexis; Ferguson, Steven L; Seo, Dongil; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    This study compared SuperSlow resistance training (SRT) to traditional resistance training (TRT) during early phase adaptations in strength, aerobic capacity, and flexibility in college-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to SRT (n = 14); TRT (n = 13); or control (CON; n = 8) groups. To equalize training times, TRT trained 3 times per week for 25 minutes each session, whereas SRT trained twice a week for 35 minutes each session. Both groups trained for 4 weeks, whereas the CON group maintained normal daily activities. Workouts consisted of 5 exercises: shoulder press, chest press, leg press, low row, and lat pull down. The SRT group completed 1 set of each exercise at 50% 1RM until momentary failure with a 10-second concentric and a 10-second eccentric phase. The TRT group completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM for each exercise, with 4 seconds of contraction time for each repetition. Groups were statistically similar at baseline. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effect for flexibility with the greatest improvements occurring for the training groups (SRT 14.7% and TRT 11%). All strength tests had significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effects but no group or group by time interactions. Both training groups had large percent improvements in strength compared to CON, but the large variability associated with the SRT group resulted in only the TRT group being significantly different from the CON group. In conclusion, percent improvements were similar for the TRT and SRT groups, but only the TRT group reached statistical significance for the strength improvements, and both groups were equally effective for improving flexibility.

  3. Enhancement of leaf photosynthetic capacity through increased stomatal density in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yu; Sugano, Shigeo S; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2013-05-01

    Photosynthetic rate is determined by CO2 fixation and CO2 entry into the plant through pores in the leaf epidermis called stomata. However, the effect of increased stomatal density on photosynthetic rate remains unclear. This work investigated the effect of alteration of stomatal density on leaf photosynthetic capacity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Stomatal density was modulated by overexpressing or silencing STOMAGEN, a positive regulator of stomatal development. Leaf photosynthetic capacity and plant growth were examined in transgenic plants. Increased stomatal density in STOMAGEN-overexpressing plants enhanced the photosynthetic rate by 30% compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants showed increased stomatal conductance under ambient CO2 conditions and did not show alterations in the maximum rate of carboxylation, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthetic rate was caused by gas diffusion changes. A leaf photosynthesis-intercellular CO2 concentration response curve showed that photosynthetic rate was increased under high CO2 conditions in association with increased stomatal density. STOMAGEN overexpression did not alter whole plant biomass, whereas its silencing caused biomass reduction. Our results indicate that increased stomatal density enhanced leaf photosynthetic capacity by modulating gas diffusion. Stomatal density may be a target trait for plant engineering to improve photosynthetic capacity.

  4. Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyung Min; Lee, Eui Seop; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seongpil; Shin, Minkyeong; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

  5. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  6. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-07-10

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%-90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects.

  7. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  8. A New Model of Clinical Education to Increase Student Placement Availability: The Capacity Development Facilitator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Michele; Nicole, Madelyn; Blackford, Julia; Nagarajan, Srivalli Vilapakkam; McAllister, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a trial of a new model of clinical education designed to increase student clinical placement availability and address workforce constraints on supervision. The University of Sydney deployed the Capacity Development Facilitators (CDF) in selected Sydney hospitals to work with staff to expand student clinical placement…

  9. Increasing Capacity in STEM Education Research: A Study Exploring the Potential for a Fellowship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Karen; Harland, Jennie; Springate, Iain

    2007-01-01

    The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned by the Royal Society to complete a study exploring the potential of a Fellowship programme for early- to mid-career education researchers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). The study was set within the broader context of increasing capacity in STEM …

  10. Ultrasound and phenotypic measures of the reproductive tract of prepubertal gilts selected for increased uterine capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct selection for uterine capacity (UC) increases litter size without altering ovulation rate. A method to estimate UC in developing gilts would be beneficial for commercial selection strategies. We tested the hypothesis that selection for UC alters phenotypic characteristics of the reproductiv...

  11. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  12. A culturally-specific dance intervention to increase functional capacity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined a culturally-specific dance intervention on functional capacity in African American women at three time points. The intervention was two times per week for 8 weeks using two African American churches randomly assigned to either the experimental or comparison group, had 126 participants, ages 36-82 years. Analysis of covariance revealed that both groups improved over time and the only significant difference between groups was at 18 weeks. The increase at 18 weeks in the experimental group remained when controlling for baseline covariates. This study supported culturally-specific dance as an intervention to improve functional capacity in African American women.

  13. A Culturally-Specific Dance Intervention to Increase Functional Capacity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a culturally-specific dance intervention on functional capacity in African American women at three time points. The intervention was two times per week for 8 weeks using two African American churches randomly assigned to either the experimental or comparison group, had 126 participants, ages 36–82 years. Analysis of covariance revealed that both groups improved over time and the only significant difference between groups was at 18 weeks. The increase at 18 weeks in the experimental group remained when controlling for baseline covariates. This study supported culturally-specific dance as an intervention to improve functional capacity in African American women. PMID:19202718

  14. Considerations for increasing unit 1 spent fuel pool capacity at the Laguna Verde station

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, A. )

    1992-01-01

    To increase the spent fuel storage capacity at the Laguna Verde Station in a safe and economical manner and assure a continuous operation of the first Mexican Nuclear Plant, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the Nation's Utility, seeked alternatives considering the overall world situation, the safety and licensing aspects, as well as the economics and the extent of the nuclear program of Mexico. This paper describes the alternatives considered, their evaluation and how the decision taken by CFE in this field, provides the Laguna Verde Station with a maximum of 37 years storage capacity plus full core reserve.

  15. Just-in-Time Compound Pooling Increases Primary Screening Capacity without Compromising Screening Quality.

    PubMed

    Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M

    2015-06-01

    Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits.

  16. A capacity building approach to increase sports participation in disadvantaged urban communities: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Mathieu; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Willem, Annick

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence showed that community capacity building is one of the key methods to reach health improvements within disadvantaged communities. Physical activity and sports participation are important means to reach health improvements. This study investigates a capacity building method which aims at increasing sports participation in the community, especially for individuals at higher risk of sports deprivation. The main aims of the present study, are the following: (1) to examine differences in sports participation between individuals living in communities implementing a sports-based capacity building program and individuals living in communities without such capacity building program and (2) to investigate if the community sports program reaches the individuals known to experience higher barriers to engage in sports. In Flanders, Belgium, five disadvantaged urban communities implementing the community capacity building program (program communities) and four without (control communities) were selected based on similarity of sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Two hundred adults (aged 18-56 years) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on sociodemographics, sports participation, and the community sports program. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results showed that adults from program communities reported on average 96 min/week more participation in sports than their counterparts living in control communities. Furthermore, 61.3% of the individuals of program communities indicated to engage in sports, whereas in control communities, this was only 42.4%. Respondents at higher risk of sports deprivation also engaged in significantly more sports participation in program communities than those in control communities. This difference was also noted for groups that are not related with sports deprivation. These results are promising and plead for a community capacity building approach to

  17. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or

  18. Semi-aerobic fermentation as a novel pre-treatment to obtain VFA and increase methane yield from primary sludge.

    PubMed

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Clarke, W P; Jensen, P D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing trend to consider organic wastes as potential sources of renewable energy and value-add products. Fermentation products have emerged as attractive value-add option due to relative easy production and broad application range. However, pre-fermentation and extraction of soluble products may impact down-stream treatment processes, particularly energy recovery by anaerobic digestion. This paper investigates primary sludge pre-fermentation at different temperatures (20, 37, 55, and 70°C), treatment times (12, 24, 48, and 72h), and oxygen availability (semi-aerobic, anaerobic); and its impact on anaerobic digestion. Pre-fermentation at 20 and 37°C succeeded for VFA production with acetate and propionate being major products. Pre-fermentation at 37, 55, and 70°C resulted in higher solubilisation yield but it reduced sludge methane potential by 20%. Under semi-aerobic conditions, pre-fermentation allowed both VFA recovery (43gCODVFAkg(-1)VS) and improved methane potential. The latter phenomenon was linked to fungi that colonised the sludge top layer during pre-fermentation.

  19. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  20. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  1. Actovegin, a non-prohibited drug increases oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Søndergård, Stine D; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W; Larsen, Steen

    2016-10-01

    Actovegin, a deproteinized haemodialysate of calf blood, is suggested to have ergogenic properties, but this potential effect has never been investigated in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this purported ergogenic effect, we measured the mitochondrial respiratory capacity in permeabilized human skeletal muscle fibres acutely exposed to Actovegin in a low and in a high dose. We found that Actovegin, in the presence of complex I-linked substrates increased the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (19 ± 3, 31 ± 4 and 45 ± 4 pmol/mg/s). Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I and II-linked substrate was increased when the fibres were exposed to the high dose of Actovegin (62 ± 6 and 77 ± 6 pmol/mg/s) (p < .05). The respiratory capacity of the electron transfer system as well as Vmax and Km were also increased in a concentration-dependent manner after Actovegin exposure (70 ± 6, 79 ± 6 and 88 ± 7 pmol/mg/s; 13 ± 2, 25 ± 3 and 37 ± 4 pmol/mg/s; 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.21 ± 0.03 and 0.36 ± 0.03 mM, respectively) (p < .05). In summary, we report for the first time that Actovegin has a marked effect on mitochondrial oxidative function in human skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial adaptations like this are also seen after a training program in human subjects. Whether this improvement translates into an ergogenic effect in athletes and thus reiterates the need to include Actovegin on the World Anti-Doping Agency's active list remains to be investigated.

  2. Reorientation of health services: enablers and barriers faced by organisations when increasing health promotion capacity.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, K; Judd, J; Devine, S; Watt, K

    2016-04-20

    Issue addressed: Primary healthcare settings are important providers of health promotion approaches. However, organisational challenges can affect their capacity to deliver these approaches. This review identified the common enablers and barriers health organisations faced and it aimed to explore the experiences health organisations, in particular Aboriginal organisations, had when increasing their health promotion capacity.Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Articles published between 1990-2014 that focused on a health care-settings approach and discussed factors that facilitated or hindered an organisation's ability to increase health promotion capacity were included.Results: Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative (n = 18) and quantitative (n = 7) study designs were included. Only one article described the experiences of an Aboriginal health organisation. Enablers included: management support, skilled staff, provision of external support to the organisation, committed staffing and financial resources, leadership and the availability of external partners to work with. Barriers included: lack of management support, lack of dedicated health promotion staff, staff lacking skills or confidence, competing priorities and a lack of time and resources allocated to health promotion activities.Conclusions: While the literature highlighted the importance of health promotion work, barriers can limit the delivery of health promotion approaches within primary healthcare organisations. A gap in the literature exists about how Aboriginal health organisations face these challenges.So what?: Primary healthcare organisations wanting to increase their health promotion capacity can pre-empt the common barriers and strengthen identified enablers through the shared learnings outlined in this review.

  3. Study of the relationship between the aerobic capacity (VO2 max) and the rating of perceived exertion based on the measurement of heart beat in the metal industries Esfahan

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Dehghan, Habibollah; Moghiseh, Mohammad; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: To establish a balance between work (physical exercise) and human beings, the aerobic capacity (VO2 max) could be used as a measure. Additionally, the subjective and physiological assessment could be applied as one of the methods for assessing physical exercise. The most commonly used tools for the assessment of fatigue during physical exercise include the Borg scale Rating of perceived Exertion (RPE) in relation to subjective symptoms and heart rate (HR) in relation to physiological symptoms. The study is aimed to investigate the relationship between the aerobic capacity and the RPE based on the measurement of heat rate (HR) of workers from the Metal Industries of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 200 male workers from metal components manufacturers in Isfahan selected by using random sampling based on statistic method. The subjects were examined by using ergometer in accordance with A strand 6 minutes cycle test protocol. Furthermore, the subjects were asked to rate their status based on the Borg rating scale at the end of each minute. Additionally, their heat rates were monitored and recorded automatically at the end of each minutes. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the RPE and the aerobic capacity (VO2 max) (r = –0.904, P < 0.05). The results illustrated that there was a stronger correlation between HR and VO2 max (r = 0.991, P < 0.001). The regression analysis of the quadratic equation also indicated that there was also a significant relationship between the VO2 max and HR. Conclusions: The results indicated that there was a strong relationship between the RPE and VO2 max, as well as a greater correlation between HR and VO2 max. Therefore, the HR could be used as a Prediction measure to estimate VO2 max. PMID:25077148

  4. Resveratrol Increases the Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelé, Pauline; Lofek-Czubek, Sébastien; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that has shown protective effects against many disorders including, several types of cancers and other age-associated diseases as well as blood disorders in cultured cells and/or animal models. However, whether resveratrol has any impact specifically on normal blood stem cells remains unknown. Here we show that a three-week treatment of resveratrol increases the frequency and total numbers of normal bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) without any impact on their competitive repopulation capacity. In addition, we show that resveratrol enhances the bone marrow multipotent progenitor capacity in vivo. These results have therapeutic value for disorders of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) as well as for bone marrow transplantation settings. PMID:25163926

  5. Medicaid Expansion And Grant Funding Increases Helped Improve Community Health Center Capacity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinxin; Luo, Qian; Ku, Leighton

    2017-01-01

    Through the expansion of Medicaid eligibility and increases in core federal grant funding, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) sought to increase the capacity of community health centers to provide primary care to low-income populations. We examined the effects of the ACA Medicaid expansion and changes in federal grant levels on the centers' numbers of patients, percentages of patients by type of insurance, and numbers of visits from 2012 to 2015. In the period after expansion (2014-15), health centers in expansion states had a 5 percent higher total patient volume, larger shares of Medicaid patients, smaller shares of uninsured patients, and increases in overall visits and mental health visits, compared to centers in nonexpansion states. Increases in federal grant funding levels were associated with increases in numbers of patients and of overall, medical, and preventive service visits. If federal grant levels are not sustained after 2017, there could be marked reductions in health center capacity in both expansion and nonexpansion states.

  6. Effects of physical exercise on bone mass, balance skill and aerobic capacity in women and men with low bone mineral density, after one year of training--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kronhed, A C; Möller, M

    1998-10-01

    Vadstena is a small community in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, where a project began in 1989 to prevent osteoporosis and to lower the expected incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Persons aged 40-70 years who had a low bone mineral density (BMD) value at screening of the distal radius by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) were invited to participate in a training study during one year. The definition of low BMD was a densitometry value below -1 SD (standard deviation) from a sex- and age-specific reference value (z-score). Fifteen persons wanted to exercise in a group and 15 persons wanted to become a control group. All participants answered a questionnaire about lifestyle, occupation, diseases, medication and heredity. Clinical tests were made regarding mobility of the joints and muscles, balance and physical fitness. BMD for the hip and the lumbar spine were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after the investigation period. The training programme was carried out for 60 min twice a week during one year and had the intention to improve bone mass, muscle strength and flexibility, balance skill and aerobic capacity. After the training period there was a significant increase in BMD at the greater trochanter (P < 0.01), in balance skill (standing on one leg with closed eyes and "ski step"-test) (P < 0.05) and in oxygen uptake capacity (P < 0.05) in the exercise group. In the control group, there was a significant increase in BMD at the lumbar spine (P < 0.05). However, these results should be judged with caution because several participants were over the age of 60, and at that age degenerative changes in the lumbar spine may increase to a greater or lesser extent. Regular weight-bearing exercises during one year seem to influence BMD at the greater trochanter in a training group comprising both women and men. However, our study was small in number and further training studies are needed to assess the effect of weight-bearing training

  7. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  8. The use of resource sharing and coding to increase the capacity of digital satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acampora, A. S.

    1983-01-01

    Resource sharing is a technique which can improve the circuit availability of digital satellites operating at frequencies above 10 GHz, without requiring large fade margins. In this paper, the resource sharing concept is generalized by fully exploiting the available clear-air carrier-to-noise ratio of the satellite link to achieve very high transmission capacity while maintaining low rain outage. During clear-air conditions, convolutional codes with a large channel signaling alphabet are employed to permit a high rate of information transfer. When the fade depth exceeds the built-in fade margin, the signaling alphabet is reduced and enough time slots are borrowed from a resource sharing reserved pool to maintain the data rate at the fade site. It is shown that this approach greatly diminishes the impact of rain attenuation on satellite communications. Effective utilized capacities exceeding 85 percent of that possible if it never rains are feasible, and the increase in capacity compared to a system not using resource-sharing protection is typically a factor of 3-10.

  9. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. SNAIL transcription factor increases the motility and invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    OSORIO, LUIS A.; FARFÁN, NANCY M.; CASTELLÓN, ENRIQUE A.; CONTRERAS, HÉCTOR R.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PCa) are increasing, and PCa is almost the second-leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men. During tumor progression, epithelial cells decrease the number of adhesion molecules, change their polarity and position, rearrange their cytoskeleton and increase their migratory and invasive capacities. These changes are known under the concept of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is characterized by an upregulation of certain transcription factors, including SNAIL1, which represses genes that are characteristic of an epithelial phenotype, including E-cadherin, and indirectly increase the expression levels of genes, which are associated with the mesenchymal phenotype. It has been suggested that the transcription factor, SNAIL1, decreases the proliferation and increases the migratory and invasive capacities of PCa cell lines. The present study was performed using LNCaP and PC3 cell lines, in which the expression levels of SNAIL1 were increased or silenced through the use of lentiviral vectors. The expression levels of EMT markers were quantified using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In addition, cell survival was analyzed using an MTS assay; cell proliferation was examined using an antibody targeting Ki-67; migration on plates with 8 µm pores to allow the passage of cells; and invasiveness was analyzed using a membrane chamber covered in dried basement membrane matrix solution. The levels of apoptosis were determined using a Caspase 3/7 assay containing a substrate modified by caspases 3 and 7. The results demonstrated that the overexpression and silencing of SNAIL1 decreased cell proliferation and survival. However, the overexpression of SNAIL1 decreased apoptosis, compared with cells with the SNAIL1-silenced cells, in which cell apoptosis increased. The migration and invasive capacities increased in the cells overexpressing SNAIL1, and

  11. From Newborn to Senescence Morphological and Functional Remodeling Leads to Increased Contractile Capacity of Arteries.

    PubMed

    Ivic, Ivan; Vamos, Zoltan; Cseplo, Peter; Koller, Akos

    2017-04-01

    Aging induces substantial morphological and functional changes in vessels. We hypothesized that due to morphological remodeling the total contractile forces of arteries increase, especially in older age as a function of age. Mean arterial blood pressure of rats and morphological and functional characteristics of isolated carotid arteries rats, from newborn to senescent, were assessed. The arterial blood pressure of rats increased significantly from 0.25 to the age of 6 months, and then it reached a level, which was maintained until age of 30 months. Wall lumen and wall thickness increased with age, mostly due to media (smooth muscle) thickening, whereas wall tension gradually reduced with age. Contractions of arteries to nonreceptor-mediated vasomotor agent (KCl, 60mM) increased in three consecutive age groups, whereas contractility first increased (until 2 months), then it did not change further with aging. Norepinephrine-induced contractions initially increased in young age and then did not change further in older age. These findings suggest that during normal aging due to remodeling of arterial wall (smooth muscle) the contractile capacity of arteries increases, which seems to be independent from systemic blood pressure. Thus, arterial remodeling can favor the development of increased circulatory resistance in older age.

  12. Using Lean-Based Systems Engineering to Increase Capacity in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamin A.; Chang, Yuchiao; Grabowski, Beth G.; Brown, David F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While emergency department (ED) crowding has myriad causes and negative downstream effects, applying systems engineering science and targeting throughput remains a potential solution to increase functional capacity. However, the most effective techniques for broad application in the ED remain unclear. We examined the hypothesis that Lean-based reorganization of Fast Track process flow would improve length of stay (LOS), percent of patients discharged within one hour, and room use, without added expense. Methods This study was a prospective, controlled, before-and-after analysis of Fast Track process improvements in a Level 1 tertiary care academic medical center with >95,000 annual patient visits. We included all adult patients seen during the study periods of 6/2010–10/2010 and 6/2011–10/2011, and data were collected from an electronic tracking system. We used concurrent patients seen in another care area used as a control group. The intervention consisted of a simple reorganization of patient flow through existing rooms, based in systems engineering science and modeling, including queuing theory, demand-capacity matching, and Lean methodologies. No modifications to staffing or physical space were made. Primary outcomes included LOS of discharged patients, percent of patients discharged within one hour, and time in exam room. We compared LOS and exam room time using Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and chi-square tests for percent of patients discharged within one hour. Results Following the intervention, median LOS among discharged patients was reduced by 15 minutes (158 to 143 min, 95%CI 12 to 19 min, p<0.0001). The number of patients discharged in <1 hr increased by 2.8% (from 6.9% to 9.7%, 95%CI 2.1% to 3.5%, p<0.0001), and median exam room time decreased by 34 minutes (90 to 56 min, 95%CI 31 to 38 min, p<0.0001). In comparison, the control group had no change in LOS (265 to 267 min) or proportion of patients discharged in <1 hr (2.9% to 2.9%), and an

  13. Theoretical Investigation of Substituent Effects on the Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitch: Increasing the Energy Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mia Harring; Elm, Jonas; Olsen, Stine T; Gejl, Aske Nørskov; Storm, Freja E; Frandsen, Benjamin N; Skov, Anders B; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the effects of substituents on the properties of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch. The focus is on the changes of the thermochemical properties by placing electron withdrawing and donating groups on the monocyano and dicyano structures of the parent dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene compounds. We wish to increase the energy storage capacity, that is, the energy difference between the dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene isomers, of the photoswitch by computational molecular design and have performed over 9000 electronic structure calculations using density functional theory. Based on these calculations, we obtain design rules for how to increase the energy storage capacity of the photoswitch. Furthermore, we have investigated how the activation energy for the thermally induced vinylheptafulvene to dihydroazulene conversion depends on the substitution pattern, and based on these results, we have outlined molecular design considerations for obtaining new desired target structures exhibiting long energy storage times. Selected candidate systems have also been investigated in terms of optical properties to elucidate how sensitive the absorption maxima are to the functionalizations.

  14. One hundred fold increase in current carrying capacity in a carbon nanotube–copper composite

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Yamada, Takeo; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Increased portability, versatility and ubiquity of electronics devices are a result of their progressive miniaturization, requiring current flow through narrow channels. Present-day devices operate close to the maximum current-carrying-capacity (that is, ampacity) of conductors (such as copper and gold), leading to decreased lifetime and performance, creating demand for new conductors with higher ampacity. Ampacity represents the maximum current-carrying capacity of the object that depends both on the structure and material. Here we report a carbon nanotube–copper composite exhibiting similar conductivity (2.3–4.7 × 105 S cm−1) as copper (5.8 × 105 S cm−1), but with a 100-times higher ampacity (6 × 108 A cm−2). Vacuum experiments demonstrate that carbon nanotubes suppress the primary failure pathways in copper as observed by the increased copper diffusion activation energy (∼2.0 eV) in carbon nanotube–copper composite, explaining its higher ampacity. This is the only material with both high conductivity and high ampacity, making it uniquely suited for applications in microscale electronics and inverters. PMID:23877359

  15. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m-3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m-2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  16. Investigating the effect of increased wind generation capacity on investment in transmission infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, Michael G.

    The transmission network that connects electricity generators with consumers is a critical yet often-overlooked component of the nation's electrical power infrastructure. However, the transmission grid has suffered from chronic underinvestment in recent decades due to various economic and regulatory factors that impede timely and efficient investments in transmission. One factor that might help offset these obstacles to transmission is the growth in wind power generation. The assumption among many in the electrical power industry is that wind power investments necessarily require greater investment in transmission due to the fact that wind power is a geographically-restricted resource and cannot always be situated close to areas of high electricity demand. However, to date there have been few, if any, empirical studies to verify this connection. This paper discusses a state-by-state empirical study exploring the relationship between increased wind generation capacity and the level of investment in transmission infrastructure. This study begins with the hypothesis that increases in installed wind generation capacity, in combination with other policies that promote wind energy more generally, should result in higher levels of transmission investment. Using data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), this paper develops regression models suggesting that wind investment has a small but distinct positive impact on transmission investment. This paper then explores the effects of other state renewable energy promotion policies, and discusses the policy implications of these findings.

  17. Effects of increasing carboxyhemoglobin on the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity.

    PubMed

    Graham, Brian L; Mink, Joseph T; Cotton, David J

    2002-06-01

    Although carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is often increased in smokers, American Thoracic Society recommendations for adjusting the single breath carbon monoxide (CO) diffusing capacity (DL(CO)(SB)) for COHb remain optional. Using a previously described 3-equation technique, we measured DL(CO)(SB) and an index of diffusion inhomogeneity (DI) in 10 healthy, nonsmoking subjects who performed DL(CO)(SB) maneuvers both before and after increasing COHb. CO backpressure (FA(CO)) was measured from the exhaled gas of a standardized deep breath of room air that immediately preceded each DL(CO)(SB) and was validated by measurement of FA(CO) from an identical "sham" maneuver without inhaling CO. Without adjustments for FA(CO) or COHb, DL(CO)(SB) decreased with increasing COHb. This effect persisted when DL(CO)(SB) was adjusted only for FA(CO), but it was eliminated with further adjustment for the anemia effect of increasing COHb. The anemia adjustment was proportional to the fractional COHb. DI, adjusted for FA(CO), was unaffected by increasing COHb. We conclude that DL(CO)(SB) must be adjusted for both the buildup of CO backpressure and the anemia effect of increasing COHb. Adequate corrections of DL(CO)(SB) can be implemented using FA(CO) measured during a standardized deep breath immediately preceding the DL(CO)(SB) maneuver. Current American Thoracic Society recommendations for DL(CO)(SB) standardization do not adequately compensate for COHb.

  18. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B.; Buhmann, Anne K.; Seal, Charlotte E.; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. PMID:25125698

  19. Sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test does not increase the muscle force generation capacity.

    PubMed

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2011-06-01

    A positive inotropic action by the sympathetic nervous system on skeletal muscles has been observed and investigated in animal and in vitro studies. This action provided a theoretical basis for the putative ergogenic action of catecholamines and adrenergic agonists, although there is no clear evidence of this effect in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of inotropic effects associated to physiological sympathetic activation in healthy subjects. The muscle force capacity was investigated in the tibialis anterior (n = 9 subjects) and in the soleus (n = 9) muscles electrically stimulated with single pulses and double pulses with variable interspike interval (4-1,000 ms) and short pulse trains (frequency: 5-14 Hz) before, during, and after sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test (CPT). CPT significantly decreased by 10.4 ± 7.2 and 10.6 ± 4.4% the force produced by single and double pulse stimulation, respectively, and produced smaller decreases in the force obtained by train stimulation in the tibialis anterior, while no significant changes were observed in either type of contraction in the soleus muscle. CPT failed to induce any increase in the force capacity of the investigated muscles. The prevalent decrease in force evidenced in this study supports the concept that the weakening sympathetic action on type I fiber, already shown to occur in humans, prevails over the putative potentiating action.

  20. Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; Alves-Wagner, Ana B; Hirshman, Michael F; Gallagher, Iain J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Atkins, Ryan; Greenhaff, Paul L; Qi, Nathan R; Gustafsson, Thomas; Fielding, Roger A; Timmons, James A; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2013-08-01

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a risk factor for diabetes and a strong predictor of mortality, yet some individuals are "exercise-resistant" and unable to improve exercise capacity through exercise training. To test the hypothesis that resistance to aerobic exercise training underlies metabolic disease risk, we used selective breeding for 15 generations to develop rat models of low and high aerobic response to training. Before exercise training, rats selected as low and high responders had similar exercise capacities. However, after 8 weeks of treadmill training, low responders failed to improve their exercise capacity, whereas high responders improved by 54%. Remarkably, low responders to aerobic training exhibited pronounced metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and increased adiposity, demonstrating that the exercise-resistant phenotype segregates with disease risk. Low responders had impaired exercise-induced angiogenesis in muscle; however, mitochondrial capacity was intact and increased normally with exercise training, demonstrating that mitochondria are not limiting for aerobic adaptation or responsible for metabolic dysfunction in low responders. Low responders had increased stress/inflammatory signaling and altered transforming growth factor-β signaling, characterized by hyperphosphorylation of a novel exercise-regulated phosphorylation site on SMAD2. Using this powerful biological model system, we have discovered key pathways for low exercise training response that may represent novel targets for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  1. Increasing research capacity at the New England School of Acupuncture: building grants management infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Peter M; Pensack, Lawrence M; Connors, Ellen M; Buring, Julie E; Davis, Roger B; Schachter, Steve C; Hrbek, Andrea; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Andrews, Sally M

    2008-01-01

    A significant practical, yet perhaps under-appreciated, barrier to a more active role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) institutions in research is the organizational infrastructure required for submitting and managing research grants. In this article, we discuss how the New England School of Acupuncture, in collaboration with the Harvard Medical School Osher Institute and with the support of a Developmental Center for Research on Complementary and Alternative Medicine grant awarded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health, developed its grants management infrastructure and increased its research capacity. We highlight initiatives that have been successful, challenges we have encountered, and lessons we learned that may be relevant to other CAM institutions that may wish to develop a research program.

  2. Human Land-Use Practices Lead to Global Long-Term Increases in Photosynthetic Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Tucker, Compton J.; Dressler, Gunnar; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Leimgruber, Peter; Dubayah, Ralph O.; Hurtt, George C.; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Fagan, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term trends in photosynthetic capacity measured with the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are usually associated with climate change. Human impacts on the global land surface are typically not accounted for. Here, we provide the first global analysis quantifying the effect of the earth's human footprint on NDVI trends. Globally, more than 20% of the variability in NDVI trends was explained by anthropogenic factors such as land use, nitrogen fertilization, and irrigation. Intensely used land classes, such as villages, showed the greatest rates of increase in NDVI, more than twice than those of forests. These findings reveal that factors beyond climate influence global long-term trends in NDVI and suggest that global climate change models and analyses of primary productivity should incorporate land use effects.

  3. Increased distractibility in schizotypy: Independent of individual differences in working memory capacity?

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Vachon, François; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically show increased levels of distractibility. This has been attributed to impaired working memory capacity (WMC), since lower WMC is typically associated with higher distractibility, and schizophrenia is typically associated with impoverished WMC. Here, participants performed verbal and spatial serial recall tasks that were accompanied by to-be-ignored speech tokens. For the few trials wherein one speech token was replaced with a different token, impairment was produced to task scores (a deviation effect). Participants subsequently completed a schizotypy questionnaire and a WMC measure. Higher schizotypy scores were associated with lower WMC (as measured with operation span, OSPAN), but WMC and schizotypy scores explained unique variance in relation to the mean magnitude of the deviation effect. These results suggest that schizotypy is associated with heightened domain-general distractibility, but that this is independent of its relationship with WMC.

  4. Unexpected increase in the oxidation capacity of the urban atmosphere of Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Borge, R.; Notario, A.; Adame, J. A.; Paz, D. de la; Querol, X.; Artíñano, B.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Cuevas, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric oxidants such as ozone (O3), hydroxyl and nitrate radicals (OH and NO3) determine the ability of the urban atmosphere to process organic and inorganic pollutants, which have an impact on air quality, environmental health and climate. Madrid city has experienced an increase of 30–40% in ambient air O3 levels, along with a decrease of 20–40% in NO2, from 2007 to 2014. Using air pollution observations and a high-resolution air quality model, we find a large concentration increase of up to 70% and 90% in OH and NO3, respectively, in downtown Madrid (domain-wide average increase of 10% and 32% for OH and NO3, respectively). The results also show an 11% reduction in the nitric acid concentrations, leading to a remarkable denoxification of this urban atmosphere with implications for lower PM2.5 levels and nitrogen input into ecosystems. This study suggests that projected worldwide NOx emission reductions, following air quality standards, will lead to important changes in the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere in and around large cities.

  5. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lawler, John M; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R

    2003-07-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  6. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales

    PubMed Central

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

  7. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  8. Artemin is hypoxia responsive and promotes oncogenicity and increased tumor initiating capacity in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhengsheng; Liu, Shumin; Sun, Linchong; Zhong, Yanghao; Zhang, Xiao; Kong, Xiangjun; Qian, Pengxu; Zhang, Huafeng; Lobie, Peter E.; Zhu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to regulate the cancer stem cell (CSC) population yet the underlying mechanism is poorly characterized. Herein, we show that Artemin (ARTN), a member of the glial cell derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands, is a hypoxia-responsive factor and is essential for hypoxia-induced CSC expansion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Clinically, elevated expression of ARTN in HCC was associated with larger tumor size, faster relapse and shorter survival. In vitro, HCC cells with forced expression of ARTN exhibited reduced apoptosis, increased proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced motility. Additionally, ARTN dramatically increased xenograft tumor size and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, ARTN also enhanced tumorsphere formation and the tumor initiating capacity of HCC cells, consequent to expansion of the CD133+ CSC population. ARTN transcription was directly activated by hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and hypoxia induced ARTN promoted EMT and increased the CSC population via AKT signaling. We herein identify a novel HIF-1α/ARTN axis promoting CSC-like behavior in hypoxic environments which implicates ARTN as a valuable therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:26675549

  9. Green tea supplementation increases glutathione and plasma antioxidant capacity in adults with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Mulugeta, Afework; Tong, Capella; Newman, Emily; Lyons, Timothy J

    2013-03-01

    Green tea, a popular polyphenol-containing beverage, has been shown to alleviate clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. However, its effects in endogenous antioxidant biomarkers are not clearly understood. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that green tea supplementation will upregulate antioxidant parameters (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five obese participants with the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive one of the following for 8 weeks: green tea (4 cups per day), control (4 cups water per day), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water per day). Blood samples and dietary information were collected at baseline (0 week) and 8 weeks of the study. Circulating carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol) and trace elements were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, respectively. Serum antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, catalase) and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Green tea beverage and green tea extract significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 to 2.3 μmol/L and 1.2 to 2.5 μmol/L, respectively; P < .05) and whole blood glutathione (1783 to 2395 μg/g hemoglobin and 1905 to 2751 μg/g hemoglobin, respectively; P < .05) vs controls at 8 weeks. No effects were noted in serum levels of carotenoids and tocopherols and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Green tea extract significantly reduced plasma iron vs baseline (128 to 92 μg/dL, P < .02), whereas copper, zinc, and selenium were not affected. These results support the hypothesis that green tea may provide antioxidant protection in the metabolic syndrome.

  10. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  11. In Hispanic, obese adolescents, a controlled aerobic exercise program teduced visceral and hepatic fat and improved insulin sensitivity, while resistance training only increased lean body mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern. Aerobic and/or resistance exercise are potential strategies to improve metabolism, but data are scarce on the effects of well-controlled exercise programs in adolescents. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk controlled aerobic o...

  12. Visual Working Memory Capacity Can Be Increased by Training on Distractor Filtering Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cui-Hong; He, Xu; Wang, Yu-Juan; Hu, Zhe; Guo, Chun-Yan

    2017-01-01

    It is generally considered that working memory (WM) capacity is limited and that WM capacity affects cognitive processes. Distractor filtering efficiency has been suggested to be an important factor in determining the visual working memory (VWM) capacity of individuals. In the present study, we investigated whether training in visual filtering efficiency (FE) could improve VWM capacity, as measured by performance on the change detection task (CDT) and changes of contralateral delay activity (CDA) (contralateral delay activity) of different conditions, and evaluated the transfer effect of visual FE training on verbal WM and fluid intelligence, as indexed by performance on the verbal WM span task and Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test, respectively. Participants were divided into high- and low-capacity groups based on their performance in a CDT designed to test VWM capacity, and then the low-capacity individuals received 20 days of FE training. The training significantly improved the group’s performance in the CDT, and their CDA models of different conditions became more similar with high capacity group, and the effect generalized to improve verbal WM span. These gains were maintained at a 3-month follow-up test. Participants’ RSPM scores were not changed by the training. These findings support the notion that WM capacity is determined, at least in part, by distractor FE and can be enhanced through training. PMID:28261131

  13. Seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black heifers with increased plasma total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Haga, Satoshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Forest-grazing enables the intake of high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) plants that might be beneficial for the TAC status of cattle. This study evaluated the relation between the seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black (JB) heifers or the TAC levels in shrubs and trees and the changes of plasma TAC. We examined 12 JB heifers, four each of which were allocated to forest-grazing (F), pasture-grazing, and pen-housed groups. The plasma TAC level in F heifers on July 26, August 13, 30 and September 17 were significantly higher than those on April 27 and June 4 (P < 0.05). In F group, the mean rates of foraging frequency (FF) of shrubs and trees during July 5-8 and September 13-16 were much higher than that during May 31-June 3 (P < 0.05). The rate of FF of grass significantly decreased later in the season (P < 0.05). The mean TAC levels in these shrubs and trees were higher than those in grasses, concentrates, and timothy hay. Results suggest that an important factor in the increase of plasma TAC in forest-grazing cattle might be the increased foraging of TAC-rich shrubs and trees during summer-fall.

  14. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    PubMed Central

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ΦX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  15. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  16. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and Revising Exemption Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the exemption provisions applicable to handler diversion activities prescribed under the...

  17. Liquid films on shake flask walls explain increasing maximum oxygen transfer capacities with elevating viscosity.

    PubMed

    Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up.

  18. Is Maximum Food Intake in Endotherms Constrained by Net or Factorial Aerobic Scope? Lessons from the Leaf-Eared Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Karin; Sabat, Pablo; Piriz, Gabriela; Bogdanovich, José M.; Nespolo, Roberto F.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Food availability varies substantially throughout animals' lifespans, thus the ability to profit from high food levels may directly influence animal fitness. Studies exploring the link between basal metabolic rate (BMR), growth, reproduction, and other fitness traits have shown varying relationships in terms of both magnitude and direction. The diversity of results has led to the hypothesis that these relationships are modulated by environmental conditions (e.g., food availability), suggesting that the fitness consequences of a given BMR may be context-dependent. In turn, there is indirect evidence that individuals with an increased capacity for aerobic work also have a high capacity for acquiring energy from food. Surprisingly, very few studies have explored the correlation between maximum rates of energy acquisition and BMR in endotherms, and to the best of our knowledge, none have attempted to elucidate relationships between the former and aerobic capacity [e.g., maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (Factorial aerobic scope, FAS; Net aerobic scope, NAS)]. In this study, we measured BMR, MMR, maximum food intake (recorded under low ambient temperature and ad libitum food conditions; MFI), and estimated aerobic scope in the leaf-eared mouse (Phyllotis darwini). We, then, examined correlations among these variables to determine whether metabolic rates and aerobic scope are functionally correlated, and whether an increased aerobic capacity is related to a higher MFI. We found that aerobic capacity measured as NAS is positively correlated with MFI in endotherms, but with neither FAS nor BMR. Therefore, it appears plausible that the capacity for assimilating energy under conditions of abundant resources is determined adaptively by NAS, as animals with higher NAS would be promoted by selection. In theory, FAS is an invariant measurement of the extreme capacity for energy turnover in relation to resting expenditure, whereas NAS represents the maximum capacity for

  19. Health-Promoting Effects of Serial vs. Integrated Combined Strength and Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Karatrantou, K; Gerodimos, V; Häkkinen, K; Zafeiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises. SCG performed the strength exercises prior to aerobic; in ICG, the aerobic and strength exercises were altered in a predetermined order. Body composition/circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function, flexibility, balance, muscle strength/endurance, power and aerobic capacity were measured before and after training. SCG and ICG significantly increased muscle strength and endurance, power, aerobic capacity, flexibility, balance, fat-free mass and respiratory function (p<0.001-0.05), while significant reductions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate and body fat/circumferences (p<0.001-0.05). However, there were no significant differences between SCG and ICG after training. Serial and integrated combined training programs confer analogous adaptations and can be used interchangeably for counteracting the detrimental effects of sedentary lifestyle on indices of physical fitness and health.

  20. Methods for providing ceramic matrix composite components with increased thermal capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steibel, James Dale (Inventor); Utah, David Alan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method for enhancing the cooling capability of a turbine component made from a ceramic matrix composite. The method improves the thermal performance of the component by producing a surface having increased cooling capacity, thereby allowing the component to operate at a higher temperature. The method tailors the available surface area on the cooling surface of the composite component by depositing a particulate layer of coarse grained ceramic powders of preselected size onto the surface of the ceramic matrix composite component. The size of the particulate is selectively tailored to match the desired surface finish or surface roughness of the article. The article may be designed to have different surface finishes for different locations, so that the application of different sized powders can provide different cooling capabilities at different locations, if desired. The compositions of the particulates are chemically compatible with the ceramic material comprising the outer surface or portion of the ceramic matrix composite. The particulates are applied using a slurry and incorporated into the article by heating to an elevated temperature without melting the matrix, the particulates or the fiber reinforcement.

  1. Republic of Kazakhstan: Capacity Building through the Increasing of Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, G.

    Currently, a new space policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is being formulated. Basic directions are: Adherence to principal agreements of the International Space Law. Optimal utilization and modernization of the Baikonur spaceport launch infrastructure. Creation of the national satellite communication system In accordance with the above listed goals and objectives, the following priority actions should be taken in national level: Increasing of the National activities in COPUOS Developing of the National space activities Program and Space activities Act; Funding of a new and upgraded facilities at the Baikonur spaceport; Creating of the educational and training system for national space industry In 2004 Kazakhstan-Russia cooperation in space activities has entered to a new perspectives. Both countries proceeded to develop joint projects in the field of space activities connected to modernization of existing space infrastructure of the Baikonur spaceport for launchers that meet requirements of ecological security. Three relevant bilateral agreements were signed. All signed documents ensure more wide participation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in realization of space programs and projects implemented at the Baikonur spaceport through shared financing and realization jointly with Russia of projects on building of the space missile complex ``Baiterek'' and launching of geostationary communication satellite. It opens great opportunities for Kazakhstan in terms of capacity building. Implementation of the mentioned two projects will allow to use the available scientific, technical and intellectual potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of space activities, and to utilize effectively the infrastructure of Baikonur complex, to get affordable access to space technologies, to create conditions for development, test and operation of space facilities, new science --capacity technologies that will lead to close integration with Russian space industry and with

  2. Increased Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Impaired Executive Performance Capacity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Thiago T.; Silva, Rosyvaldo F.; Guerra, Renan S.; Lima, Marta F.; Barbosa, Eline R.F.; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Lobo, Denise M.L.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Busatto-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Ueno-Pardi, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response and executive performance during mental stress in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Individuals with no other comorbidities (age = 52 ± 1 y, body mass index = 29 ± 0.4, kg/m2) were divided into two groups: (1) control (n = 15) and (2) untreated OSA (n = 20) defined by polysomnography. Mini-Mental State of Examination (MMSE) and Inteligence quocient (IQ) were assessed. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and MSNA (microneurography) were measured at baseline and during 3 min of the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT). Sustained attention and inhibitory control were assessed by the number of correct answers and errors during SCWT. Results: Control and OSA groups (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI = 8 ± 1 and 47 ± 1 events/h, respectively) were similar in age, MMSE, and IQ. Baseline HR and BP were similar and increased similarly during SCWT in control and OSA groups. In contrast, baseline MSNA was higher in OSA compared to controls. Moreover, MSNA significantly increased in the third minute of SCWT in OSA, but remained unchanged in controls (P < 0.05). The number of correct answers was lower and the number of errors was significantly higher during the second and third minutes of SCWT in the OSA group (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between the number of errors in the third minute of SCWT with AHI (r = 0.59), arousal index (r = 0.55), and minimum O2 saturation (r = −0.57). Conclusions: As compared to controls, MSNA is increased in patients with OSA at rest, and further significant MSNA increments and worse executive performance are seen during mental stress. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number: NCT002289625. Citation: Goya TT, Silva RF, Guerra RS, Lima MF, Barbosa ER, Cunha PJ, Lobo DM, Buchpiguel CA, Busatto-Filho G, Negrão CE, Lorenzi-Filho G, Ueno-Pardi LM. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and

  3. Aerobically trained individuals have greater increases in rectal temperature than untrained ones during exercise in the heat at similar relative intensities.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Estevez, Emma; Ortega, Juan F

    2010-07-01

    To determine if the increases in rectal temperature (T(REC)) during exercise in the heat at a given percent of VO2peak depend on a subject's aerobic fitness level. On three occasions, 10 endurance-trained (Tr) and 10 untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak: 60 +/- 6 vs. 44 +/- 3 mL kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-dry environment (36 +/- 1 degrees C; 25 +/- 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). At the same percent of VO2peak, on average, Tr had 28 +/- 5% higher heat production but also higher skin blood flow (29 +/- 3%) and sweat rate (20 +/- 7%; P = 0.07) and lower skin temperature (0.5 degrees C; P < 0.05). Pre-exercise T(REC) was lower in the Tr subjects (37.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 37.6 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05) but similar to the UTr at the end of 40 and 60% VO2peak trials. Thus, exercise T(REC) increased more in the Tr group than in the UTr group (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C at 40% VO2peak and 1.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C at 60% VO2peak; P < 0.05). At 80% VO2peak not only the increase in T(REC) (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C) but also the final T(REC) was larger in Tr than in UTr subjects (39.15 +/- 0.1 vs. 38.85 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05). During exercise in the heat at the same relative intensity, aerobically trained individuals have a larger rise in T(REC) than do the untrained ones which renders them more hyperthermic after high-intensity exercise.

  4. Pecans acutely increase plasma postprandial antioxidant capacity and catechins and decrease LDL oxidation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Haddad, Ella Hasso; McCarthy, Katie; Wang, Piwen; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive constituents of pecan nuts such as γ-tocopherol and flavan-3-ol monomers show antioxidant properties in vitro, but bioavailability in humans is not known. We examined postprandial changes in plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in concentrations of tocopherols, catechins, oxidized LDL, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in response to pecan test meals. Sixteen healthy men and women (23-44 y, BMI 22.7 ± 3.4) were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of test meals composed of whole pecans, blended pecans, or an isocaloric meal of equivalent macronutrient composition but formulated of refined ingredients in a crossover design with a 1-wk washout period between treatments. Blood was sampled at baseline and at intervals up to 24 h postingestion. Following the whole and blended pecan test meals, plasma concentrations of γ-tocopherols doubled at 8 h (P < 0.001) and hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC increased 12 and 10% at 2 h, respectively. Post whole pecan consumption, oxidized LDL decreased 30, 33, and 26% at 2, 3, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate concentrations at 1 h (mean ± SEM; 95.1 ± 30.6 nmol/L) and 2 h (116.3 ± 80.5 nmol/L) were higher than at baseline (0 h) and after the control test meal at 1 h (P < 0.05). The postprandial molar ratio of MDA:triglycerides decreased by 37, 36, and 40% at 3, 5, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), only when whole and blended pecan data were pooled. These results show that bioactive constituent of pecans are absorbable and contribute to postprandial antioxidant defenses.

  5. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  6. Fermentable dietary fiber increases GLP-1 secretion and improves glucose homeostasis despite increased intestinal glucose transport capacity in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Massimino, S P; McBurney, M I; Field, C J; Thomson, A B; Keelan, M; Hayek, M G; Sunvold, G D

    1998-10-01

    Ileal proglucagon gene expression and postprandial plasma concentrations of proglucagon-derived peptides are reported to change with the type and quantity of dietary fiber ingested by rats. Within the intestine, proglucagon encodes several proglucagon-derived peptides known to modulate intestinal absorption capacity and pancreatic insulin secretion. To determine whether the chronic ingestion of fermentable dietary fiber regulates the expression and synthesis of proglucagon-derived peptides in the distal intestine to modulate glucose homeostasis, the following study was conducted: 16 adult dogs (23 +/- 2 kg) were fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing a mixture of high fermentable dietary fibers (HFF) or low fermentable (LFF) wood cellulose for 14 d in a randomized cross-over design. Food was withheld for 16 h before an oral glucose tolerance test was conducted supplying 2 g of glucose/kg body wt, and peripheral blood was collected via a hind-leg catheter at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min for plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)NH2 (GLP-1) analyses. Intestinal samples were collected after the second dietary treatment. Ileal proglucagon mRNA, intestinal (GLP-1) concentrations and the integrated area under the curves (AUC) for plasma GLP-1 and insulin were greater and plasma glucose AUC was reduced when dogs were fed the HFF diet compared to the LFF diet (P < 0.05). Intestinal villi heights, brush border and basolateral glucose transporter protein abundance and jejunal transport capacities were significantly greater when dogs were fed the HFF diet than when fed the LFF diet. In conclusion, improvements in glucose homeostasis are observed in healthy dogs when they ingest fermentable fibers.

  7. Developmentally regulated ceramide synthase 6 increases mitochondrial Ca2+ loading capacity and promotes apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Novgorodov, Sergei A; Chudakova, Daria A; Wheeler, Brian W; Bielawski, Jacek; Kindy, Mark S; Obeid, Lina M; Gudz, Tatyana I

    2011-02-11

    Ceramides, which are membrane sphingolipids and key mediators of cell-stress responses, are generated by a family of (dihydro) ceramide synthases (Lass1-6/CerS1-6). Here, we report that brain development features significant increases in sphingomyelin, sphingosine, and most ceramide species. In contrast, C(16:0)-ceramide was gradually reduced and CerS6 was down-regulated in mitochondria, thereby implicating CerS6 as a primary ceramide synthase generating C(16:0)-ceramide. Investigations into the role of CerS6 in mitochondria revealed that ceramide synthase down-regulation is associated with dramatically decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+)-loading capacity, which could be rescued by addition of ceramide. Selective CerS6 complexing with the inner membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore was detected by immunoprecipitation. This suggests that CerS6-generated ceramide could prevent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, leading to increased Ca(2+) accumulation in the mitochondrial matrix. We examined the effect of high CerS6 expression on cell survival in primary oligodendrocyte (OL) precursor cells, which undergo apoptotic cell death during early postnatal brain development. Exposure of OLs to glutamate resulted in apoptosis that was prevented by inhibitors of de novo ceramide biosynthesis, myriocin and fumonisin B1. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA reduced glutamate-triggered OL apoptosis, whereas knockdown of CerS5 had no effect: the pro-apoptotic role of CerS6 was not stimulus-specific. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA improved cell survival in response to nerve growth factor-induced OL apoptosis. Also, blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake or decreasing Ca(2+)-dependent protease calpain activity with specific inhibitors prevented OL apoptosis. Finally, knocking down CerS6 decreased calpain activation. Thus, our data suggest a novel role for CerS6 in the regulation of both mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis and calpain, which appears to

  8. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Cui, Qingjie; Zheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners. PMID:25009812

  9. Conceptus development during blastocyst elongation in lines of pigs selected for increased uterine capacity or ovulation rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lines of pigs selected for increased uterine capacity (UC) have improved conceptus survival while pigs selected for increased ovulation rate (OR) have decreased conceptus survival relative to an unselected control (CO) line. The objective of this study was to evaluate conceptus development during em...

  10. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Steen; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Whitesell, Thomas; Boushel, Robert; Bergdahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder, characterized by an almost or complete insulin deficiency. Widespread tissue dysfunction and deleterious diabetes-complications are associated with long-term elevations of blood glucose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of type I diabetes, as induced by streptozotocin, on the mitochondria in skeletal muscles that predominantly consist of either slow or fast twitch fibers. Soleus (primarily slow twitch fiber type) and the plantaris muscle (mainly fast twitch fiber type) were removed in order to measure mitochondrial protein expression and integrated mitochondrial respiratory function. Mitochondrial capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) was found to be higher in the slow (more oxidative) soleus muscle from STZ rats when evaluating lipid and complex I linked OXPHOS capacity, whereas no difference was detected between the groups when evaluating the more physiological complex I and II linked OXPHOS capacity. These findings indicate that chronic hyperglycemia results in an elevated intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in both soleus and, at varying degree, plantaris muscle, findings that are consistent with human T1DM patients. PMID:26197936

  11. Measures to increase airfield capacity by changing aircraft runway occupancy characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, G. D.; Kanafani, A.; Rockaday, S. L. M.

    1981-01-01

    Airfield capacity and aircraft runway occupancy characteristics were studied. Factors that caused runway congestion and airfield crowding were identified. Several innovations designed to alleviate the congestion are discussed. Integrated landing management, the concept that the operation of the final approach and runway should be considered in concert, was identified as underlying all of the innovations.

  12. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  13. Tactical increases in operating room block time for capacity planning should not be based on utilization.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2008-01-01

    When a decision has been made to expand operating room (OR) capacity, the choice of surgical subspecialties to receive additional block time and fill the additional OR capacity is a tactical decision. Such decisions are made approximately once a year. Afterwards, typically a few months before the day of surgery, a second stage occurs in which operational decisions allocate OR time and determine the hours of staffing for each specialty based on its expected workload. In practice, cases are not scheduled into block time that has been planned tactically, but instead are scheduled during the second stage into the staffed time that is allocated operationally. This article reviews the literature on tactical decision-making for expansion of OR capacity. When additional OR capacity is available, it should be planned for those subspecialties that have the greatest contribution margin per OR hour, that have the potential for growth, and that have minimal need for limited resources such as intensive care unit beds. Numerous reasons are presented to explain why tactical planning of additional block time should not be based on current or past utilization of block time.

  14. Remarkable cycle-activated capacity increasing in onion-like carbon nanospheres as lithium battery anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jiajun; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Huafang; Liu, Ran; Yao, Mingguang; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-01-01

    Onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) with an average diameter of 43 nm were produced on a large scale via a combustion method and examined as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The OCNSs exhibit a remarkable electrochemical cycling behavior and a capacity much higher than that of graphite. The capacity increases significantly with increasing charge-discharge cycles and reaches a value of 178% of the initial value (from 586 mA h g-1to 1045 mA h g-1) after 200 cycles. Further investigation provides unambiguous experimental evidence that such a remarkable capacity increase is related to the stable onion-like structure of the OCNSs and to the existence of large numbers of disordered/short graphitic fragments, which gradually provide more active sites for Li ion storage. The unique electrochemical performance of OCNSs provides a new way to design a high-performance anode material for rechargeable batteries.

  15. Remarkable cycle-activated capacity increasing in onion-like carbon nanospheres as lithium battery anode material.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiajun; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Huafang; Liu, Ran; Yao, Mingguang; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-01-20

    Onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) with an average diameter of 43 nm were produced on a large scale via a combustion method and examined as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The OCNSs exhibit a remarkable electrochemical cycling behavior and a capacity much higher than that of graphite. The capacity increases significantly with increasing charge-discharge cycles and reaches a value of 178% of the initial value (from 586 mA h g(-1)to 1045 mA h g(-1)) after 200 cycles. Further investigation provides unambiguous experimental evidence that such a remarkable capacity increase is related to the stable onion-like structure of the OCNSs and to the existence of large numbers of disordered/short graphitic fragments, which gradually provide more active sites for Li ion storage. The unique electrochemical performance of OCNSs provides a new way to design a high-performance anode material for rechargeable batteries.

  16. The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested

  17. Optical Orthogonal Code Construction Using Rejected Delays Reuse for Increasing SubWavelength-Switching Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattab, Tamer M. S.; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.

    2006-09-01

    Using a mathematical proof, the authors establish that in element-by-element greedy algorithms based on extended set representation of optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), smaller delay elements rejected during a construction step can be accepted in later steps. They design a novel algorithm that exploits this property and call it the rejected delays reuse (RDR) greedy algorithm. They show that employing the RDR method leads to code lengths that are shorter than those achieved for OOCs constructed using the classical greedy algorithm for the same code weight and the same number of simultaneous codes constraints. They then define a quantitative measure (factor) for OOCs efficiency based on its ability to expand subwavelength-switching capacity. They call this factor the expansion efficiency factor. They use this factor to show that reducing the code length, for the same code constraints, enhances the capacity of subwavelength optical code switched networks.

  18. Variation in and correlation between intrinsic rate of increase and carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic population growth rate and density dependence are fundamental components of population dynamics. Theory suggests that variation in and correlations between these parameters among patches within a population can influence overall population size, but data on the degree of variation and correlation are rare. Replicate populations of a specialist aphid (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii) were followed on 11 genotypes of host plant (Fragaria chiloensis) in the greenhouse. Population models fit to these census data provide estimates of intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity for aphid populations on each plant genotype. Growth rate and carrying capacity varied substantially among plant genotypes, and these two parameters were not significantly correlated. These results support the existence of spatial variation in population dynamic parameters; data on frequency distributions and correlations of these parameters in natural populations are needed for evaluation of the importance of variation in growth rate and density dependence for population dynamics in the field.

  19. Increasing thermomagnetic stability of composite superconductors with additives of extremely-large-heat-capacity substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lupanov, D. É.; Shcherbakov, V. I.

    2008-05-01

    We have studied the thermomagnetic stability (with respect to magnetic flux disturbances) of composite superconductors screened by additives of rare earth compounds possessing extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures. Three tubular composite structures have been manufactured and studied with respect to screening of the central region from variations of an external magnetic field. The effect of large-heat-capacity substances (LHCSs) was evaluated by measuring a jump in the magnetic flux in response to the rate of variation (ramp) of the external magnetic field. It is established that the adiabatic criterion of stability (magnetic-flux jump field) in the sample structures containing LHCSs significantly increases—by 20% for HoCu2 intermetallic compound and 31% for Gd2O2S ceramics—as compared to the control structure free of such additives.

  20. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  1. Increasing Participation in Genomic Research and Biobanking Through Community-Based Capacity Building

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Elizabeth Gross; Husamudeen, Maryam; Larson, Elaine L.; Williams, Janet K.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving equitable minority representation in genomic biobanking is one of the most difficult challenges faced by researchers today. Capacity building—a framework for research that includes collaborations and on-going engagement—can be used to help researchers, clinicians and communities better understand the process, utility, and clinical application of genomic science. The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine factors that influence the decision to participate in genomic research, and identify essential components of capacity building with a community at risk of being under-represented in biobanks. Results of focus groups conducted in Central Harlem with 46 participants were analyzed by a collaborative team of community and academic investigators using content analysis and AtlisTi. Key themes identified were: (1) the potential contribution of biobanking to individual and community health, for example the effect of the environment on health, (2) the societal context of the science, such as DNA criminal databases and paternity testing, that may affect the decision to participate, and (3) the researchers’ commitment to community health as an outcome of capacity building. These key factors can contribute to achieving equity in biobank participation, and guide genetic specialists in biobank planning and implementation. PMID:25228357

  2. Nonenzymatic glycation of transferrin: decrease of iron-binding capacity and increase of oxygen radical production.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, S; Kawakami, N; Ohara, A

    1995-03-01

    The total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and iron contents of diabetic rat serum, as well as the iron-binding capacity of glycated transferrin and oxygen radical production by the glycated proteins were examined. The TIBC and iron content of diabetic rat sera were found to be much lower than those of control rat sera. Incubation of human serum with glucose in vitro resulted in a significant fall of its unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) with time. When apotransferrin was incubated with glucose, its UIBC significantly decreased. The iron content of holotransferrin was markedly reduced by incubation with bathophenanthroline sulphonic acid (BPSA) in the presence of glucose, although the content was not altered by incubation with BPSA alone. The generation of superoxide radical (O2-) and hydroxyl radical (OH.) by the glycated holotransferrin was much greater than that by glycated apotransferrin. Glycated holotransferrin showed significantly accelerated hydroxyl radical production by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system, while intact holotransferrin did not. Treatment of holotransferrin with glucose caused the fragmentation of the protein, while the same treatment of apotransferrin did not. These results suggest that iron ions in the glycated transferrin molecule are bound loosely to the protein and are redox-active and the glycated holotransferrin produces oxygen radicals including O2- and OH. efficiently, and that the glycated transferrin does not function as an iron-binding protein.

  3. Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C; Wagenaar, Robert C; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory.

  4. Has photosynthetic capacity increased with 80 years of soybean breeding? An examination of historical soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Koester, Robert P; Nohl, Brittany M; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Crop biomass production is a function of the efficiencies with which sunlight can be intercepted by the canopy and then converted into biomass. Conversion efficiency has been identified as a target for improvement to enhance crop biomass and yield. Greater conversion efficiency in modern soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars was documented in recent field trials, and this study explored the physiological basis for this observation. In replicated field trials conducted over three successive years, diurnal leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic CO2 response curves were measured in 24 soybean cultivars with year of release dates (YOR) from 1923 to 2007. Maximum photosynthetic capacity, mesophyll conductance and nighttime respiration have not changed consistently with cultivar release date. However, daily carbon gain was periodically greater in more recently released cultivars compared with older cultivars. Our analysis suggests that this difference in daily carbon gain primarily occurred when stomatal conductance and soil water content were high. There was also evidence for greater chlorophyll content and greater sink capacity late in the growing season in more recently released soybean varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms that have improved conversion efficiency in the past may help identify new, promising targets for the future.

  5. Increased sample capacity for genotyping and expression profiling by kinetic polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert M; Griaznova, Olga I; Long, Christopher M; Holland, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    We fabricated and evaluated high-throughput kinetic thermal cyclers with 768-reaction capacity for kinetic polymerase chain reaction (kPCR)-based genotyping and kinetic reverse transcription (kRT)-PCR-based transcript quantitation. The system uses dye-based detection with ethidium bromide and a single DNA polymerase-based PCR or RT-PCR assay. Allele-specific detection of the two most common hereditary hemochromotosis mutant alleles, C282Y and H63D, was reliably measured by kPCR using human DNA templates as low as 10 genome equivalents per assay. Transcript profiling was performed for 16 yeast transcripts ranging in intracellular abundance over four orders of magnitude. Standard deviations of the PCR cycle threshold values determined from multiple kRT-PCR assays in three different instruments ranged from 0.11 to 0.97 PCR cycles and were reproducible, transcript specific, and instrument independent. The effects of the sin3, gal11, and snf2 knockout mutations on expression of 385 yeast genes were evaluated by kRT-PCR and compared to published values determined by high-density oligonucleotide array and/or microarray analysis for snf2 and sin3. The 768-reaction kinetic thermalcyclers, each with a capacity for more than a half million assays per year, are well suited to genomics applications such as single nucleotide polymorphism/disease association studies and genomewide transcription profiling where high sensitivity and accuracy are required.

  6. VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A B; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger maximizes the diameter of the vesicle and the spore chain length. The length and width of the conidiophore stalk and vesicle were reduced nearly twofold in a ΔveA strain. The latter implies a fourfold reduced surface area to develop chains of spores. Over and above this, the conidial chain length was approximately fivefold reduced. The calculated 20-fold reduction in formation of conidia by ΔveA fits the 8- to 17-fold decrease in counted spore numbers. Notably, morphology of the ΔveA conidiophores of A. niger was very similar to that of wild-type Aspergillus sydowii. This suggests that VeA is key in conidiophore architecture diversity in the fungal kingdom. The finding that biomass formation of the A. niger ΔveA strain was reduced twofold shows that VeA not only impacts dispersion capacity but also colonization capacity of A. niger.

  7. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Activation Increases Axonal Growth Capacity of Injured Peripheral Nerves*

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Namiko; Borson, Steven H.; Gambello, Michael J.; Wang, Fan; Cavalli, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Unlike neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), injured neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) can regenerate their axons and reinnervate their targets. However, functional recovery in the PNS often remains suboptimal, especially in cases of severe damage. The lack of regenerative ability of CNS neurons has been linked to down-regulation of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. We report here that PNS dorsal root ganglial neurons (DRGs) activate mTOR following damage and that this activity enhances axonal growth capacity. Furthermore, genetic up-regulation of mTOR activity by deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) in DRGs is sufficient to enhance axonal growth capacity in vitro and in vivo. We further show that mTOR activity is linked to the expression of GAP-43, a crucial component of axonal outgrowth. However, although TSC2 deletion in DRGs facilitates axonal regrowth, it leads to defects in target innervation. Thus, whereas manipulation of mTOR activity could provide new strategies to stimulate nerve regeneration in the PNS, fine control of mTOR activity is required for proper target innervation. PMID:20615870

  8. Supercooling Capacity Increases from Sea Level to Tree Line in the Hawaiian Tree Species Metrosideros polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Melcher; Cordell; Jones; Scowcroft; Niemczura; Giambelluca; Goldstein

    2000-05-01

    Population-specific differences in the freezing resistance of Metrosideros polymorpha leaves were studied along an elevational gradient from sea level to tree line (located at ca. 2500 m above sea level) on the east flank of the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. In addition, we also studied 8-yr-old saplings grown in a common garden from seeds collected from the same field populations. Leaves of low-elevation field plants exhibited damage at -2 degrees C, before the onset of ice formation, which occurred at -5.7 degrees C. Leaves of high-elevation plants exhibited damage at ca. -8.5 degrees C, concurrent with ice formation in the leaf tissue, which is typical of plants that avoid freezing in their natural environment by supercooling. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed that water molecules of both extra- and intracellular leaf water fractions from high-elevation plants had restricted mobility, which is consistent with their low water content and their high levels of osmotically active solutes. Decreased mobility of water molecules may delay ice nucleation and/or ice growth and may therefore enhance the ability of plant tissues to supercool. Leaf traits that correlated with specific differences in supercooling capacity were in part genetically determined and in part environmentally induced. Evidence indicated that lower apoplastic water content and smaller intercellular spaces were associated with the larger supercooling capacity of the plant's foliage at tree line. The irreversible tissue-damage temperature decreased by ca. 7 degrees C from sea level to tree line in leaves of field populations. However, this decrease appears to be only large enough to allow M. polymorpha trees to avoid leaf tissue damage from freezing up to a level of ca. 2500 m elevation, which is also the current tree line location on the east flank of Mauna Loa. The limited freezing resistance of M. polymorpha leaves may be partially responsible for the occurrence of tree line at a relatively

  9. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant–water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Methods Root system development, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> –10 kPa) and mildly dry (> –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψleaf was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψleaf. Ψleaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψleaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep

  10. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  11. Co-Learning With Home Care Aides and Their Clients: Collaboratively Increasing Individual and Organizational Capacities

    PubMed Central

    MURAMATSU, NAOKO; MADRIGAL, JESSICA; BERBAUM, MICHAEL L.; HENDERSON, VIDA A.; JURIVICH, DONALD A.; ZANONI, JOSEPH; MARQUEZ, DAVID X.; MADRID, KATYA CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Changes in health care provide unprecedented opportunities for collaboration across research, education, and practice for the common goal of enhancing the well-being of older adults and their caregivers. This article describes how a pilot project, “Promoting Seniors’ Health with Home Care Aides,” has synergistic education, research and practice effects that enhance individual and organizational capacities. This pilot is an innovative partnership with home care aides to deliver a safe physical activity program appropriate for frail seniors in a real-life public home care program. The intervention and research occur in older adults’ homes and thus provide rare opportunities for the research team and partners to learn from each other about dynamics of home care in older adults’ life contexts. Co-learning is essential for continuous quality improvement in education, research and practice. We propose to establish “Teaching Home Care” to ensure ongoing co-learning in gerontology and geriatrics. PMID:25671492

  12. Co-learning with home care aides and their clients: collaboratively increasing individual and organizational capacities.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Madrigal, Jessica; Berbaum, Michael L; Henderson, Vida A; Jurivich, Donald A; Zanoni, Joseph; Marquez, David X; Cruz Madrid, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Changes in health care provide unprecedented opportunities for collaboration across research, education, and practice for the common goal of enhancing the well-being of older adults and their caregivers. This article describes how a pilot project, Promoting Seniors' Health with Home Care Aides, has synergistic education, research, and practice effects that enhance individual and organizational capacities. This pilot is an innovative partnership with home care aides to deliver a safe physical activity program appropriate for frail seniors in a real-life public home care program. The intervention and research occur in older adults' homes and thus provide rare opportunities for the research team and partners to learn from each other about dynamics of home care in older adults' life contexts. Co-learning is essential for continuous quality improvement in education, research and practice. The authors propose to establish "teaching home care" to ensure ongoing co-learning in gerontology and geriatrics.

  13. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Technologies for Increased Capacity and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, Kathryn A.; Shipman, Floyd S.; Bryant, Wayne H.; Eckhardt, Dave E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity and safety issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration presented an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning system (DGPS) receiver, a high speed very high frequency (VHF) data link, an Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on an AMASS display. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with test results.

  14. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zulezwan Ab; Cobley, James N; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Edwards, Ben J; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001) in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides) subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA) of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH) was 1.54-fold (p

  15. LunHab: Interactive effects of a 10-day sustained exposure to hypoxia and bedrest on aerobic exercise capacity in male lowlanders.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2017-04-09

    The study examined the interactive effects of a 10-day exposure to hypoxia and bedrest on the whole body peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2 peak ) during maximal exercise, and on skeletal-muscle and cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Nine males underwent three 10-day confinements, in a Latin-square order: (i) a normoxic bedrest [NBR; partial pressure of inspired O2 (PI O2 ) = 134.2 ± 0.7 mmHg], (ii) a hypoxic bedrest (HBR; PI O2  = 102.9 ± 0.1 mmHg at day 1, 91.5 ± 1.2 mmHg at days 3-10), and (iii) a hypoxic ambulation (HAMB; PI O2 as in HBR). Before, one (R + 1) and three (R+3) days after each confinement, subjects performed exhaustive, incremental-load and moderate-intensity constant-load (CLTs) cycle-ergometry trials, while breathing either room air, or a hypoxic gas mixture. During the CLTs, changes in the regional oxygenation of the cerebral frontal cortex, and the vastus lateralis and intercostal muscles were monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. At R+1, the confinement-related impairment in V˙O2 peak was greater after HBR than after NBR or HAMB, regardless of whether the trial was performed in room-air or hypoxia (HBR: -16.2%, NBR: -8.3%, HAMB: -4.1%; P = 0.001). During the CLTs, bedrest aggravated the exercise-induced reduction in locomotor- and respiratory-muscle oxygenation (P ≤ 0.05); an effect that was less after HBR than after NBR (P ≤ 0.05). The hypoxia exercise-induced cerebral vasodilatatory response was blunted by HBR, likely due to the marked hyperventilation-dependent hypocapnea, attendant to the sustained hypoxic stimulus. Hence, short-term exposure to hypoxia potentiates the reduction in V˙O2 peak , but it mitigates the impairment in skeletal-muscle oxidative capacity induced by bedrest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  17. Ultraviolet-B light treatment increases antioxidant capacity of carrot products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abiotic stresses such as cutting and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure of plant cells triggers an increased activity response by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase resulting in increased synthesis of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins and flavonoids. This study investigated ...

  18. Investing in Ontario's Economic Development. Opportunities and Issues for Increasing Capacity in Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    In response to workplace needs, the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology across Ontario are becoming market-driven learning centers for the 21st century. A significant increase in demand for college education, estimated as a 21% increase in enrollment, will occur due to: (1) a rise in participation rates; (2) demographic changes, particularly…

  19. SOAR Online Course Increases Capacity for Assisting Individuals with Disabilities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Lupfer, Kristin; Elder, Jen

    2016-01-01

    For adults with disabilities who are experiencing homelessness, chances of being approved for social security disability benefits are very low, without assistance. Assisting with the Supplemental Security Income (SSI)/Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) application process can be challenging for case managers who lack capacity and expertise. Training caseworkers to document disability and submit complete, high-quality applications using the SSI/SSDI Outreach, Access and Recovery (SOAR) model improves efficiency and outcomes. Nationally, 65% of applications using the SOAR model are approved, with decisions received in an average of 81 days in 2015. The SOAR Online Course was created to expand training opportunities for individuals to learn how to effectively assist with SSI/SSDI applications for individuals experiencing or at risk for homelessness. From October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015, 1049 individuals from 49 states, Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico successfully completed the SOAR Online Course. The course is a unique public health training model; in that, it incorporates a realistic and multimodal practice SSI/SSDI application with comprehensive feedback provided by experts. Local SOAR leaders around the county are trained to facilitate and guide groups through the course. This study evaluated data on online course usage, user experience, and the translation from learning to practice for online course trainees. We found that successful course completions were most concentrated in areas that had local SOAR leaders, trainees through the online course had higher data entry rates about case outcomes in the SOAR Online Application Tracking system, and that trainees reported a high satisfaction rate with the course and comprehensive feedback. The evaluation found that key success factors for online training models include the integration of a practice case component (or other generative learning activity), support from local facilitators, and feedback and

  20. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Garcia, Jose Carlos; Alcaide, Juan; Santiago-Fernandez, Concepcion; Roca-Rodriguez, MM.; Aguera, Zaida; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernandez-Real, Jose M.; Fruhbeck, Gema; Gomez-Ambrosi, Javier; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Menchon, Jose M.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell–taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines. Materials and methods 179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity) were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR)), leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin’ Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively. Results We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification)) in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI), leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores. Discussion We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions. PMID:28158237

  1. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded.

  2. Proposed renovation of a district cooling plant to optimize the existing distribution system and increase production capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Tredinnick, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    The phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) production in January 1996 is making district cooling (DC) an increasingly popular alternative to chiller retrofits and replacements. By connecting to a DC system, building owners and managers can focus on issues other than chilled-water production, thus liberating personnel, space, and financial resources for other important functions. A San Diego company has been serving the downtown business district of San Diego with reliable DC service since 1971. The existing system presently serves nine customers and, based on the current system plant pumping configuration, requires modifications in order to handle additional capacity. They are interested in signing on additional customers in the near future but cannot due to the limitations of the existing distribution system. This paper addresses modifications recommended to the company based on a hydraulic analysis and conceptual design completed in June 1995. The results of the analysis increased system distribution capacity from 5,245 tons (19.9 MW{sub th}) to almost 18,000 tons (62.9 MW{sub th}), while maintaining the present pipe system sizes. Investigations to increase plant capacity was not part of the scope of this paper since the focus was on the distribution system.

  3. Increasing the thermal storage capacity of a phase change material by encapsulation: preparation and application in natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Phadungphatthanakoon, Songpon; Poompradub, Sirilux; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P

    2011-09-01

    Existing encapsulated organic phase change materials (PCM) usually contain a shell material that possesses a poor heat storage capacity and so results in a lowered latent heat storage density of the encapsulated PCM compared to unencapsulated PCM. Here, we demonstrate the use of a novel microencapsulation process to encapsulate n-eicosane (C20) into a 2:1 (w/w) ratio blend of ethyl cellulose (EC):methyl cellulose (MC) to give C20-loaded EC/MC microspheres with an increased heat storage capacity compared to the unencapsulated C20. Up to a 29 and 24% increase in the absolute enthalpy value during crystallization and melting were observed for the encap-C20/EC/MC microparticles with a 9% (w/w) EC/MC polymer content. The mechanism that leads to the increased latent heat storage capacity is discussed. The blending of the water-dispersible C20-loaded EC/MC microspheres into natural rubber latex showed excellent compatibility, and the obtained rubber composite showed not only an obvious thermoregulation property but also an improved mechanical property.

  4. Heterosis of Arabidopsis hybrids between C24 and Col is associated with increased photosynthesis capacity.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ryo; Taylor, Jennifer M; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2012-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana shows hybrid vigor (heterosis) in progeny of crosses between Columbia-0 and C24 accessions. Hybrid vigor was evident as early as mature seeds and in seedlings 3 d after sowing (DAS). At 3 DAS, genes encoding chloroplast-located proteins were significantly overrepresented (187) among the 724 genes that have greater than midparent values of expression in the hybrid. Many of these genes are involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis was constant per unit leaf area in parents and hybrids. Larger cell sizes in the hybrids were associated with more chloroplasts per cell, more total chlorophyll, and more photosynthesis. The increased transcription of the chloroplast-targeted genes was restricted to the 3-7 DAS period. At 10 DAS, only 118 genes had expression levels different from the expected midparent value in the hybrid, and only 12 of these genes were differentially expressed at 3 DAS. The early increase in activity of genes involved in photosynthesis and the associated phenomena of increases in cell size and number through development, leading to larger leaf areas of all leaves in the hybrid, suggest a central role for increased photosynthesis in the production of the heterotic biomass. In support of this correlation, we found that an inhibitor of photosynthesis eliminated heterosis and that higher light intensities enhanced both photosynthesis and heterosis. In hybrids with low-level heterosis (Landsberg erecta x Columbia-0), chloroplast-targeted genes were not up-regulated and leaf areas were only marginally increased.

  5. Increasing Student Evaluation Capacity through a Collaborative Community-Based Program Evaluation Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Shauna K.; Kruzich, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation literature reflects a long-standing interest in ways to provide practical hands-on training experience in evaluation courses. Concomitantly, some funders have shown rising expectations for increased accountability on the part of Community-Based organizations (CBOs), even though agencies often lack the associated funding and…

  6. Increasing Assistant Principals' Capacity for Success Based on the New Principal Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Rhonda Keever

    2012-01-01

    The importance of leadership is critical with current accountability for student performance. The increased accountability for school leaders has caused a change in leadership roles to incorporate collaboration and shared leadership. Assistant principals are included in the concept of distributive leadership. A review of the literature shows…

  7. Reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and increased mitochondrial uncoupling impair myocardial energetics in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in obese humans and animals demonstrated increased myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE); however, the underlying mechanisms r...

  8. Forage kochia (Kochia Prostrata) increases nutritional value, carrying capacity, and livestock performance on semiarid rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extending the grazing season into the fall and winter increases the sustainability of livestock production by reducing winter feed costs. However, without exception, stockpiled range grasses do not meet nutritional requirements for ruminant livestock. This study compared fall/winter grazing of tra...

  9. Edible bird's nest enhances antioxidant capacity and increases lifespan in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Li, G; Yao, H; He, S; Li, H; Liu, S; Wu, Y; Lai, X

    2016-04-30

    In this study, we aims to investigate the effects of edible bird's nest (EBN) on anti-aging efficacy. In order to investigate lifespan and mortality rate of flies, we treated flies with various doses of EBN. Besides, fecundity, water content and food are determined and heat-stress test is conducted after flies treating with different medium. Effects of EBN on total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), super-oxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in drosophila melanogaster. Results indicated that flies in EBN treated group illustrated significantly lower mortality rates and longer median and maximum lifespan compared to control group (P<0.05). The fecundity in EBN-treated group was increased compared to control group. SOD levels and CAT activity were significantly increased, and MDA levels decreased in EBN-treated group compared to control group (P<0.01). In conclusion, EBN can extend lifespan, decrease mortality rate and increase survival rate in heat-stress test, and which can also promote SOD and CAT activity and reduce MDA levels. EBN is able to delay drosophila melanogaster aging, attributing to the increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing content of lipid peroxidation products in drosophila melanogaster.

  10. International Development and Research Capacities: Increasing Access to African Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Esseh, Samuel; Willinsky, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the evolving relationship between Canada and the African academic research community through the promotion of a concept known as Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) and with an eye to its implications for increasing the circulation of research through such means as open access (OA) publishing…

  11. Seventy years of continuous encroachment substantially increases 'blue carbon' capacity as mangroves replace intertidal salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J; Saintilan, Neil; Macreadie, Peter I; Skilbeck, Charles G; Zawadzki, Atun; Ralph, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in ecosystem structure have been observed over recent decades as woody plants encroach upon grasslands and wetlands globally. The migration of mangrove forests into salt marsh ecosystems is one such shift which could have important implications for global 'blue carbon' stocks. To date, attempts to quantify changes in ecosystem function are essentially constrained to climate-mediated pulses (30 years or less) of encroachment occurring at the thermal limits of mangroves. In this study, we track the continuous, lateral encroachment of mangroves into two south-eastern Australian salt marshes over a period of 70 years and quantify corresponding changes in biomass and belowground C stores. Substantial increases in biomass and belowground C stores have resulted as mangroves replaced salt marsh at both marine and estuarine sites. After 30 years, aboveground biomass was significantly higher than salt marsh, with biomass continuing to increase with mangrove age. Biomass increased at the mesohaline river site by 130 ± 18 Mg biomass km(-2)  yr(-1) (mean ± SE), a 2.5 times higher rate than the marine embayment site (52 ± 10 Mg biomass km(-2) yr(-1) ), suggesting local constraints on biomass production. At both sites, and across all vegetation categories, belowground C considerably outweighed aboveground biomass stocks, with belowground C stocks increasing at up to 230 ± 62 Mg C km(-2) yr(-1) (± SE) as mangrove forests developed. Over the past 70 years, we estimate mangrove encroachment may have already enhanced intertidal biomass by up to 283 097 Mg and belowground C stocks by over 500 000 Mg in the state of New South Wales alone. Under changing climatic conditions and rising sea levels, global blue carbon storage may be enhanced as mangrove encroachment becomes more widespread, thereby countering global warming.

  12. Glycan heterogeneity on gold nanoparticles increases lectin discrimination capacity in label-free multiplexed bioassays†

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Lucienne; Vlachou, Denise; Richards, Sarah-Jane; Gibson, Matthew I.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new analytical tools as point-of-care biosensors is crucial to combat the spread of infectious diseases, especially in the context of drug-resistant organisms, or to detect biological warfare agents. Glycan/lectin interactions drive a wide range of recognition and signal transduction processes within nature and are often the first site of adhesion/recognition during infection making them appealing targets for biosensors. Glycosylated gold nanoparticles have been developed that change colour from red to blue upon interaction with carbohydrate-binding proteins and may find use as biosensors, but are limited by the inherent promiscuity of some of these interactions. Here we mimic the natural heterogeneity of cell-surface glycans by displaying mixed monolayers of glycans on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These are then used in a multiplexed, label-free bioassay to create ‘barcodes’ which describe the lectin based on its binding profile. The increased information content encoded by using complex mixtures of a few sugars, rather than increased numbers of different sugars makes this approach both scalable and accessible. These nanoparticles show increased lectin identification power at a range of lectin concentrations, relative to single-channel sensors. It was also found that some information about the concentration of the lectins can be extracted, all from just a simple colour change, taking this technology closer to being a realistic biosensor. PMID:27181289

  13. Subtoxic product levels limit the epoxidation capacity of recombinant E. coli by increasing microbial energy demands.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Daniel; Fritzsch, Frederik S O; Zhang, Xiumei; Wendisch, Volker F; Blank, Lars M; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas

    2013-01-20

    The utilization of the cellular metabolism for cofactor regeneration is a common motivation for the application of whole cells in redox biocatalysis. Introduction of an active oxidoreductase into a microorganism has profound consequences on metabolism, potentially affecting metabolic and biotransformation efficiency. An ambitious goal of systems biotechnology is to design process-relevant and knowledge-based engineering strategies to improve biocatalyst performance. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has shown that the competition for NAD(P)H between redox biocatalysis and the energy metabolism becomes critical during asymmetric styrene epoxidation catalyzed by growing Escherichia coli containing recombinant styrene monooxygenase. Engineering TCA-cycle regulation allowed increased TCA-cycle activities, a delay of acetate formation, and enhanced NAD(P)H yields during batch cultivation. However, at low biomass and product concentrations, the cellular metabolism of both the mutants as well as the native host strains could cope with increased NADH demands during continuous two-liquid phase biotransformations, whereas elevated but still subtoxic product concentrations were found to cause a significantly increased NAD(P)H demand and a compromised efficiency of metabolic operation. In conclusion, operational conditions determine cellular energy and NAD(P)H demands and thus the biocatalytic efficiency of whole-cell redox biocatalysts.

  14. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects. PMID:27757381

  15. Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity.

    PubMed

    Kotoki, D; Deka, S C

    2010-01-01

    Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8-80.8%) and PF (61.7-71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation increased shelf-life (6-7 days) as compared to HPMC and honey. HPMC incorporated bread had higher moisture content (36.8-38.0%) followed by PF (34.5-35.8%) and honey (34.7%). The ash content was in the order of PF (1%) > honey (4%) > PF (2%) > normal bread > HPMC (0.5 g) > PF (4%) > HPMC (1 g) > HPMC (1.5 g). PF incorporated bread had sensorily highest acceptance followed by HPMC and honey.

  16. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  17. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  18. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents increase with gamma irradiation in two types of Malaysian honey.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2011-07-27

    Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.

  19. Multiplexing terbium- and europium-based TR-FRET readouts to increase kinase assay capacity.

    PubMed

    Horton, Robert A; Vogel, Kurt W

    2010-09-01

    Identification and characterization of kinase inhibitor potency and selectivity is often an iterative process in which a library of compounds is first screened against a single kinase, and hits from that screen are then profiled against other kinases to determine specificity. By developing kinase assays that employ either a terbium- or a europium-based time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) readout, one can take advantage of the distinct emission properties of these labels to develop assays for 2 kinases that can be performed simultaneously in the same well. This not only increases the information content provided per assay well but can immediately provide information on compound specificity. The authors have applied this strategy to the development of multiplexed assays for 2 examples systems: EGFR and IKKbeta, as well as lipid kinase family members mTOR and PIK3C3. They demonstrate the ability of these multiplexed assays to characterize selective kinase inhibitors in a dose-response mode, with no difference in results obtained from traditional single kinase assays performed separately.

  20. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  1. Increased flexibility and liposome-binding capacity of CD1e at endosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Bushmarina, Natalia; Tourne, Sylvie; Giacometti, Gaëlle; Signorino-Gelo, François; Garcia-Alles, Luis F; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Hanau, Daniel; de la Salle, Henri

    2011-06-01

    The plasma membrane proteins CD1a, CD1b and CD1c are expressed by human dendritic cells, the professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, and present lipid antigens to T lymphocytes. CD1e belongs to the same family of molecules, but accumulates as a membrane-associated form in the Golgi compartments of immature dendritic cells and as a soluble cleaved form in the lysosomes of mature dendritic cells. In lysosomes, the N-terminal propeptide of CD1e is also cleaved, but the functional consequences of this step are unknown. Here, we investigated how the pH changes encountered during transport to lysosomes affect the structure of CD1e and its ligand-binding properties. Circular dichroism studies demonstrated that the secondary and tertiary structures of recombinant CD1e were barely altered by pH changes. Nevertheless, at acidic pH, guanidium chloride-induced unfolding of CD1e molecules required lower concentrations of denaturing agent. The nonfunctional L194P allelic variant was found to be structurally less stable at acidic pH than the functional forms, providing an explanation for the lack of its detection in lysosomes. The number of water-exposed hydrophobic patches that bind 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate was higher in acidic conditions, especially for the L194P variant. CD1e molecules interacted with lipid surfaces enriched in anionic lipids, such as bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, a late endosomal/lysosomal lipid, especially at acidic pH, or when the propeptide was present. Altogether, these data indicate that, in the late endosomes/lysosomes of DCs, the acid pH promotes the binding of lipid antigens to CD1e through increased hydrophobic and ionic interactions.

  2. The effects of aerobic training on children's creativity, self-perception, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Herman-Tofler, L R; Tuckman, B W

    1998-10-01

    The article examines whether participation in an aerobic exercise program (AE), as compared with a traditional physical education class (PE), significantly increased children's perceived athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth; increased their figural creativity; and improved aerobic power as measured by an 800-meter run around a track. Further research on the effects of different types of AE is discussed, as well as the need for aerobic conditioning in the elementary school.

  3. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Morino, Katsutaro; Mengistu, Lemecha; Ishibashi, Taishi; Kiriyama, Kohei; Ikami, Takao; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  4. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Morino, Katsutaro; Mengistu, Lemecha; Ishibashi, Taishi; Kiriyama, Kohei; Ikami, Takao; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders. PMID:27340504

  5. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  6. The impact of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Yazici Guvenc, Senem; Alan, Burcu; Adar, Elanur; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The amount of nanoparticles released from industrial and consumer products has increased rapidly in the last decade. These products may enter landfills directly or indirectly after the end of their useful life. In order to determine the impact of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on aerobic landfilling processes, municipal solid waste was loaded to three pilot-scale aerobic landfill bioreactors (80 cm diameter and 350 cm height) and exposed to TiO2 (AT) and Ag (AA) nanoparticles at total concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste. Aerobic landfill bioreactors were operated under the conditions about 0.03 L min(-1) kg(-1) aeration rate for 250 days, during which the leachate, solid waste, and gas characteristics were measured. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the leachate characteristics, gas constituents, solid quality parameters, and temperature variations, which are the most important indicators of landfill operations, and overall aerobic degradation performance between the reactors containing TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles, and control (AC) reactor. The data also indicate that the pH levels, ionic strength, and the complex formation capacity of nanoparticles with Cl(-) ions can reduce the toxicity effects of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation processes. The results suggest that TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles at concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste do not have significant impacts on aerobic biological processes and waste management systems.

  7. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  8. Dimethyloxaloylglycine increases bone repair capacity of adipose-derived stem cells in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen-Hong; Song, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Yin, Ji-Min

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been widely studied to promote local bone regeneration of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Previous studies observed that dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) enhanced the angiogenic and osteogenic activity of mesenchymal stem cells by activating the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), thereby improving the bone repair capacity of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, it was investigated whether DMOG could increase the bone repair capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the treatment of ONFH. Western blot analysis was performed to detect HIF-1α protein expression in ASCs treated with different concentrations of DMOG. The results showed DMOG enhanced HIF-1α expression in ASCs in a dose-dependent manner at least for 7 days. Furthermore, DMOG-treated ASCs were transplanted into the necrotic area of a rabbit model of ONFH to treat the disease. Four weeks later, micro-computed tomography (CT) quantitative analysis showed that 58.8±7.4% of the necrotic area was regenerated in the DMOG-treated ASCs transplantation group, 45.5±3.4% in normal ASCs transplantation group, 25.2±2.8% in only core decompression group and 10.6±2.6% in the untreated group. Histological analysis showed that transplantation of DMOG-treated ASCs clearly improved the bone regeneration of the necrotic area compared with the other three groups. Micro-CT and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the revasculation of the necrotic area were also increased significantly in the DMOG-treated ASC group compared with the control groups. Thus, it is hypothesized that DMOG could increase the bone repair capacity of ASCs through enhancing HIF-1α expression in the treatment of ONFH. PMID:27882083

  9. Aerobic Production and Utilization of Lactate Satisfy Increased Energy Demands Upon Neuronal Activation in Hippocampal Slices and Provide Neuroprotection Against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Avital; Gozal, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Ever since it was shown for the first time that lactate can support neuronal function in vitro as a sole oxidative energy substrate, investigators in the field of neuroenergetics have been debating the role, if any, of this glycolytic product in cerebral energy metabolism. Our experiments employed the rat hippocampal slice preparation with electrophysiological and biochemical methodologies. The data generated by these experiments (a) support the hypothesis that lactate, not pyruvate, is the end-product of cerebral aerobic glycolysis; (b) indicate that lactate plays a major and crucial role in affording neural tissue to respond adequately to glutamate excitation and to recover unscathed post-excitation; (c) suggest that neural tissue activation is accompanied by aerobic lactate and NADH production, the latter being produced when the former is converted to pyruvate by mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH); (d) imply that NADH can be utilized as an endogenous scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to provide neuroprotection against ROS-induced neuronal damage. PMID:22275901

  10. After more than a decade of soil moisture deficit, tropical rainforest trees maintain photosynthetic capacity, despite increased leaf respiration.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Lucy; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel L; Christoffersen, Bradley O; Melém, Eliane A; Kruijt, Bart; Vasconcelos, Steel S; Domingues, Tomas; Binks, Oliver J; Oliveira, Alex A R; Metcalfe, Daniel; da Costa, Antonio C L; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Meir, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Determining climate change feedbacks from tropical rainforests requires an understanding of how carbon gain through photosynthesis and loss through respiration will be altered. One of the key changes that tropical rainforests may experience under future climate change scenarios is reduced soil moisture availability. In this study we examine if and how both leaf photosynthesis and leaf dark respiration acclimate following more than 12 years of experimental soil moisture deficit, via a through-fall exclusion experiment (TFE) in an eastern Amazonian rainforest. We find that experimentally drought-stressed trees and taxa maintain the same maximum leaf photosynthetic capacity as trees in corresponding control forest, independent of their susceptibility to drought-induced mortality. We hypothesize that photosynthetic capacity is maintained across all treatments and taxa to take advantage of short-lived periods of high moisture availability, when stomatal conductance (gs ) and photosynthesis can increase rapidly, potentially compensating for reduced assimilate supply at other times. Average leaf dark respiration (Rd ) was elevated in the TFE-treated forest trees relative to the control by 28.2 ± 2.8% (mean ± one standard error). This mean Rd value was dominated by a 48.5 ± 3.6% increase in the Rd of drought-sensitive taxa, and likely reflects the need for additional metabolic support required for stress-related repair, and hydraulic or osmotic maintenance processes. Following soil moisture deficit that is maintained for several years, our data suggest that changes in respiration drive greater shifts in the canopy carbon balance, than changes in photosynthetic capacity.

  11. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  12. A synchronous increase in hydraulic conductive capacity and mechanical support in conifers with relatively uniform xylem structure.

    PubMed

    Jagels, Richard; Visscher, George E

    2006-02-01

    The dual function provided by longitudinal tracheids in conifers has led to a generally held trade-off concept that increasing wall thickness and/or volume of latewood tracheids improves mechanical support, while increasing cell diameter and/or volume of earlywood tracheids enhances conductive potential. Yet, some conifers have either uniform cell structure across the growth ring or, at most, a small amount of latewood. How do these trees accomplish the needs for increasing support and conduction with height growth? We examined Metasequoia glyptostroboides, a species that we previously demonstrated improves its mechanical properties with increasing age without a change in specific gravity or secondary wall microfibril angle. In this paper, we showed that lignin and extractive contents are not contributing factors, and through composite structure analysis, we eliminated a role for tracheid length. Using micromorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that as cell diameter increases, total primary wall decreases, secondary wall increases, and strength and conductive capacity increase with no change in specific gravity. Meta-analysis using other species of Cupressaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Araucariaceae provided strong corroborative evidence for this design strategy.

  13. Sequential elution liquid chromatography can significantly increase the probability of a successful separation by simultaneously increasing the peak capacity and reducing the separation disorder.

    PubMed

    Socia, Adam; Foley, Joe P

    2014-01-10

    This paper demonstrates that sequential elution liquid chromatography (SE-LC), an approach in which two or more elution modes are employed in series for the separation of two or more groups of compounds, can be used to separate not only weak acids (or weak bases) from neutral compounds, but weak acids and weak bases from neutral compounds (and each other) by the sequential application of either of two types of an extended pH gradient prior to a solvent gradient. It also details a comparison, based on peak capacity and separation disorder, of the probability of success of this approach with the unimodal elution approach taken by conventional column liquid chromatography. For an HPLC peak capacity of 120 and samples of moderate complexity (e.g., 12 components), the probability of success (Rs≥1) increases from 37.9% (HPLC) to 85.8% (SE-LC). Different columns were evaluated for their utility for SE-LC using the following criteria: (1) the prediction of the elution order of the groups based on the degree of ionization of the compounds; and (2) the closeness of the peak shape to the ideal Gaussian distribution. The best columns overall were the Zorbax SB-AQ and Waters XBridge Shield columns, as they provided both between-class and within-class separations of all compounds, as well as the lowest degree of tailing of 4-ethylaniline using the pH 2 to pH 8 gradient.

  14. Root channels to indicate the increase in soil matrix water infiltration capacity of arid reclaimed mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Liu, Yu; Yang, Zheng; Cui, Zeng; Deng, Lei; Chang, Xiao-Feng; Shi, Zhi-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Soil matrix flow plays a critical role in redistributing the precipitation input and enhancing water storage in arid areas. Root channels can result in macropore flow which strongly influences soil infiltration. Prior research has addressed the influence of vegetation on erosion and runoff, but the effects of root channels on infiltration capacity are less studied. In this study, we studied the root channels and soil water infiltration rates in ten artificial grasslands in an arid area. The results showed that the average root channel diameter (ARCD) of leguminous grasslands and of shrub grasslands were greater than that of gramineous grasslands (p < 0.05). Importantly, the ARCD and root channel area (RCA) were significantly and positively related to the average infiltration rate in stage I (AIRS I) and the initial infiltration rate (IIR). The IIR and the AIRS I increased at rates of 31.13 and 14.60 mm h-1, respectively, and at the same time there was an increase in ARCD. Overall, our results suggest that root channels played a significant role in the matrix infiltration capacity, resulting in a higher infiltration rate in leguminous grasslands and in mixed sown grasslands than in gramineous grasslands. We suggest that leguminous grasslands or the combination of leguminous and gramineous species in grassland should be given greater attention as suitable materials for mine-soil reclamation in arid regions. Our research improve the understanding of the influence of vegetation on soil hydrological processes and of the hydrology of reclaimed mine soils in arid regions.

  15. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.307 Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands...

  16. Activating HSP72 in rodent skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity and decreases insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Henstridge, Darren C; Bruce, Clinton R; Drew, Brian G; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L; Hevener, Andrea L; Febbraio, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised.

  17. Activating HSP72 in Rodent Skeletal Muscle Increases Mitochondrial Number and Oxidative Capacity and Decreases Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Henstridge, Darren C.; Bruce, Clinton R.; Drew, Brian G.; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J.; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L.; Hevener, Andrea L.; Febbraio, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised. PMID:24430435

  18. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells.

  19. Increased Left Ventricular Stiffness Impairs Exercise Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure Symptoms Despite Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Sinning, David; Kasner, Mario; Westermann, Dirk; Schulze, Karsten; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Aims. Several mechanisms can be involved in the development of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure despite normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF) and may include impairment of left ventricular (LV) stiffness. We therefore investigated the influence of LV stiffness, determined by pressure-volume loop analysis obtained by conductance catheterization, on exercise capacity in HFNEF. Methods and Results. 27 HFNEF patients who showed LV diastolic dysfunction in pressure-volume (PV) loop analysis performed symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and were compared with 12 patients who did not show diastolic dysfunction in PV loop analysis. HFNEF patients revealed a lower peak performance (P = .046), breathing reserve (P = .006), and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at rest (P = .002). LV stiffness correlated with peak oxygen uptake (r = −0.636, P < .001), peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (r = −0.500, P = .009), and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold (r = 0.529, P = .005). Conclusions. CPET parameters such as peak oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold correlate with LV stiffness. Increased LV stiffness impairs exercise capacity in HFNEF. PMID:21403885

  20. Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronan-Pulsed Human Dendritic Cells Showed Increased Migration Capacity and Induced Resistance to Tumor Chemoattraction

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Manglio; Bayo, Juan; Piccioni, Flavia; Malvicini, Mariana; Fiore, Esteban; Peixoto, Estanislao; García, Mariana G.; Aquino, Jorge B.; Gonzalez Campaña, Ariel; Podestá, Gustavo; Terres, Marcelo; Andriani, Oscar; Alaniz, Laura; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that ex vivo pre-conditioning of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) with low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW HA) induces antitumor immunity against colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in mice. In the present study we investigated the effects of LMW HA priming on human-tumor-pulsed monocytes-derived dendritic cells (DC/TL) obtained from healthy donors and patients with CRC. LMW HA treatment resulted in an improved maturation state of DC/TL and an enhanced mixed leucocyte reaction activity in vivo. Importantly, pre-conditioning of DC/TL with LMW HA increased their ability to migrate and reduced their attraction to human tumor derived supernatants. These effects were associated with increased CCR7 expression levels in DC. Indeed, a significant increase in migratory response toward CCL21 was observed in LMW HA primed tumor-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC/TL/LMW HA) when compared to LWM HA untreated cells (DC/TL). Moreover, LMW HA priming modulated other mechanisms implicated in DC migration toward lymph nodes such as the metalloproteinase activity. Furthermore, it also resulted in a significant reduction in DC migratory capacity toward tumor supernatant and IL8 in vitro. Consistently, LMW HA dramatically enhanced in vivo DC recruitment to tumor-regional lymph nodes and reduced DC migration toward tumor tissue. This study shows that LMW HA –a poorly immunogenic molecule- represents a promising candidate to improve human DC maturation protocols in the context of DC-based vaccines development, due to its ability to enhance their immunogenic properties as well as their migratory capacity toward lymph nodes instead of tumors. PMID:25238610

  1. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment.

  2. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  3. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J; Preisler, N; Ørngreen, M C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42 years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1 year. The patients had a median disease duration of 3.4 years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4 years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0 years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal workload (W(max)) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9 weeks out of the 12-week program and one dropped out of the study. Training increased VO(2max) and W(max) by 26% and 30% (P < 0.001). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal pre-training and did not change with training, reflecting no muscle damage. We also found that at a given workload, heart rate was lowered significantly after the 12-week training period, indicating an improvement in cardiovascular fitness. This study shows that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training is an effective and safe method to increase oxidative capacity and fitness in persons who have recovered from JDM. The results indicate that the low oxidative capacity in JDM patients in remission is reversible and can be improved. Thus, we recommend frequent aerobic training to be incorporated

  4. Meta-analysis of intrinsic rates of increase and carrying capacity of populations affected by toxic and other stressors.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Maas-Diepeveen, Johanna L M; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Van Straalen, Nico M

    2005-09-01

    Most of the thousands of substances and species that are of concern for environmental management will not be investigated empirically at ecologically relevant levels because of financial, practical, and ethical constraints. To allow risk assessment for these less well-known categories, we have developed a mechanistic model with classical equations from toxicology and ecology. The parameters are linked to well-known properties, such as the octanol-water partition ratio K(ow), acute lethal (body) concentrations, and organism size. This allows estimation of intrinsic rates of increase r and carrying capacity K over a wide range of substances and species. The model was calibrated with parameter values (micro +/- 95% confidence interval) obtained in reviews and validated by a meta-analysis with largely independent data from 200 laboratory experiments. For single substances, the 5 to 95% interval of the observations on intrinsic rates of increase overlapped with the range predicted by the model. Model and experiments independently indicated that population growth ceased below 1% of the acute median lethal concentration in about 5% of the cases. Exceptional values and possible explanations were identified. The reduction of the carrying capacity K was nearly proportional to the inhibition of the population growth r. Population-level effects of mixtures as estimated by concentration addition were confirmed by observations in the experiments. The impact of a toxicant and another stressor could generally be described by response multiplication, with the exception of cases with extreme stress. Data sets on population laboratory experiments are biased to metals and crustaceans. This field will benefit from empirical studies on chemicals, conditions, and species, identified as risky by the model. Other implications of the model for environmental management and research are discussed.

  5. Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Ortiz, Jennifer; Simmons, Brandi; Wu, Mingyuan; Lyons, Timothy J

    2011-03-01

    Cranberries, high in polyphenols, have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits, although limited clinical trials have been reported to validate these findings. We tested the hypothesis that commercially available low-energy cranberry juice (Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc, Lakeville-Middleboro, Mass) will decrease surrogate risk factors of cardiovascular disease, such as lipid oxidation, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants identified with metabolic syndrome (n = 15-16/group) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: cranberry juice (480 mL/day) or placebo (480 mL/day) for 8 weeks. Anthropometrics, blood pressure measurements, dietary analyses, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screen and 8 weeks of the study. Cranberry juice significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 ± 0.6 to 2.2 ± 0.4 μmol/L [means ± SD], P < .05) and decreased oxidized low-density lipoprotein and malondialdehyde (120.4 ± 31.0 to 80.4 ± 34.6 U/L and 3.4 ± 1.1 to 1.7 ± 0.7 μmol/L, respectively [means ± SD], P < .05) at 8 weeks vs placebo. However, cranberry juice consumption caused no significant improvements in blood pressure, glucose and lipid profiles, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6. No changes in these parameters were noted in the placebo group. In conclusion, low-energy cranberry juice (2 cups/day) significantly reduces lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Strength and Aerobic Physical Exercises Are Able to Increase Survival of Toxoplasma gondii-Infected C57BL/6 Mice by Interfering in the IFN-γ Expression.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Miguel J S; Silva, Murilo V; Alonso, Fábio M; Medeiros, Luciana A; Carvalho, Fernando R; Costa, Lourenço F; Silva, Neide M; Penha-Silva, Nilson; Mineo, Tiago W P; Mineo, José R

    2016-01-01

    groups (P = 0.0005). In both sets of experiments, mice have been submitted to moderate exercises: aerobic (14 m/min; 3 x/week) and strength (60-80% of one maximum repetition; 2 x/week). Overall, our findings are showing that the aerobic and strength exercises are able to modulate immune response against T. gondii infection, being these immunological features beneficial to the host.

  7. Strength and Aerobic Physical Exercises Are Able to Increase Survival of Toxoplasma gondii-Infected C57BL/6 Mice by Interfering in the IFN-γ Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bortolini, Miguel J. S.; Silva, Murilo V.; Alonso, Fábio M.; Medeiros, Luciana A.; Carvalho, Fernando R.; Costa, Lourenço F.; Silva, Neide M.; Penha-Silva, Nilson; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    sedentary groups (P = 0.0005). In both sets of experiments, mice have been submitted to moderate exercises: aerobic (14 m/min; 3 x/week) and strength (60–80% of one maximum repetition; 2 x/week). Overall, our findings are showing that the aerobic and strength exercises are able to modulate immune response against T. gondii infection, being these immunological features beneficial to the host. PMID:28066269

  8. Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain. Methods 98 female, overweight health care workers were cluster-randomized to an intervention group or a reference group. The intervention consisted of an individually dietary plan with an energy deficit of 1200 kcal/day (15 min/hour), strengthening exercises (15 min/hour) and cognitive behavioral training (30 min/hour) during working hours 1 hour/week. Leisure time aerobic fitness was planned for 2 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage (bioimpedance), waist circumference, blood pressure, musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake (maximal bicycle test), and isometric maximal muscle strength of 3 body regions were measured before and after the intervention period. Results In an intention-to-treat analysis from pre to post tests, the intervention group significantly reduced body weight with 3.6 kg (p < 0.001), BMI from 30.5 to 29.2 (p < 0.001), body fat percentage from 40.9 to 39.3 (p < 0.001), waist circumference from 99.7 to 95.5 cm (p < 0.001) and blood pressure from 134/85 to 127/80 mmHg (p < 0.001), with significant difference between the intervention and control group (p < 0.001) on all measures. No effect of intervention was found in musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength, but on aerobic fitness. Conclusion The significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference and blood pressure as well as increased aerobic fitness

  9. Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.

    PubMed

    Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production.

  10. Effect of increased UV-B radiation on carotenoid accumulation and total antioxidant capacity in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Jiang, C Q; Yan, Y F; Liu, B R; Zu, C L

    2017-03-08

    Carotenoids are important components of plant antioxidant systems, which protect photosystems from photooxidative destruction during ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure. The influence of carotenoids on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plants has rarely been studied. In this study, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., 'K326') seedlings exposed to UV-B radiation were used in order to evaluate the effects of ambient levels of UV-B radiation on carotenoid accumulation. The aim was to investigate whether carotenoids could enhance TAC as a means of UV protection. Our results showed that leaf carotenoid content in the low UV-B exposure (+9.75 μW/cm(2)) plants was approximately 8% higher than that observed in control plants at 2-8 days of exposure. At high UV-B exposure (+20.76 μW/cm(2)), the carotenoid content increased rapidly after 1 day's exposure (10.41% higher than the control), followed by a return to the content as in control plants. Furthermore, carotenoid content positively correlated with TAC (P = 0.024). These results suggest that carotenoids have antioxidant properties and play an important role in the antioxidant system. UV-B exposure increased the carotenoid synthesis capability of plants. The plants could deplete the carotenoids to scavenge excess ROS at high UV-B radiation levels, which protects the tobacco plant from oxidative damage caused by UV-B stress.

  11. Antioxidative capacity in the fat body of Bombyx mori is increased following oral administration of 4-methylumbelliferone.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Hua; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Hengjiang; He, Yue; Xu, Xu; Yin, Weimin; Sima, Yanghu; Xu, Shiqing

    2014-01-01

    Plant sources of umbelliferones have tumor-inhibitory effects at the cellular level. However, their physiological functions in animals are largely unresolved. In this study, we provide evidence to show that 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) participates in the regulation of antioxidative capacity in the fat body of Bombyx mori, a tissue similar to mammalian liver in this model invertebrate. Larvae (3rd day of the 5th instar) were orally exposed to 4 mM 4-MU, an umbelliferone, which swiftly induced the generation of a large number of ROS (e.g. H2O2 increased 6 to 8-fold), and 4-MU was detected in the fat body 8 min after administration. In addition, the activities of CAT and GPx were up-regulated 4 to 11-fold and 2 to 16-fold, respectively, and were helpful in defending fat body cells against oxidative injury in combination with NADPH. Furthermore, significant increases in the contents of T-AOC (up to approx. 2-fold), antioxidants of ASAFR (by 2 to 4-fold) and GSH were detected.

  12. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Increase in the Facility Capacity and Petroleum Inventory at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Bryan Mound Storage Facility, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-11-24

    The DOE proposes that the authorized capacity of the BM facility and, upon Administration authorization, the petroleum inventory be increased by 3.5 million m{sup 3} (22 MMB). The proposed action may be subdivided into two distinct actions, the action to increase the facility capacity and the action to increase the facility's petroleum inventory, which is conditioned upon future authorization by the Administration. A portion of the proposed increase in facility capacity would be obtained via modification of the existing internal cavern infrastructure. Specifically, of the proposed increase in cavern capacity, up to 1.4 million m{sup 3} (8.8 MMB) would result from adjustment of the suspended casing of 10 caverns, thereby increasing the working cavern volumes without changing the cavern dimensions. The balance of the proposed increase to facility capacity, 2.1 million m{sup 3} (13.2 MMB), would result from administrative activities including the return of cavern 112 to service at its full capacity [approximately 1.9 million m{sup 3} (12 MMB)] and volume upgrades of at least 0.19 million m{sup 3} (1.2 MMB) based on new information obtained during sonar investigation of caverns.

  14. Effect of NaCl on aerobic denitrification by strain Achromobacter sp. GAD-3.

    PubMed

    Gui, Mengyao; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the effect of NaCl on aerobic denitrification by a novel aerobic denitrifier strain Achromobacter sp. GAD-3. Results indicated that the aerobic denitrification process was inhibited by NaCl concentrations ≥20 g L(-1), leading to lower nitrate removal rates (1.67∼4.0 mg L(-1) h(-1)), higher nitrite accumulation (50.2∼87.4 mg L(-1)), and increasing N2O emission ratios (13∼72 mg L(-1)/mg L(-1)). Poor performance of aerobic denitrification at high salinity was attributed to the suppression of active microbial biomass and electron donating capacity of strain GAD-3. Further studies on the corresponding inhibition of the denitrifying gene expression by higher salinities revealed the significant sensitivity order of nosZ (for N2O reductase) > cnorB (for NO reductase) ≈ nirS (for cytochrome cd(1) nitrite reductase) > napA (for periplasmic nitrate reductase), accompanied with a time-lapse expression between nosZ and cnorB based on reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The insights into the effect of NaCl on aerobic denitrification are of great significance to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) containing varying levels of salinity.

  15. Expression of the high capacity calcium-binding domain of calreticulin increases bioavailable calcium stores in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah E.; Tsou, Pei-Lan; Robertson, Dominique; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of cytosolic calcium levels in both plants and animals is achieved by a system of Ca2+-transport and storage pathways that include Ca2+ buffering proteins in the lumen of intracellular compartments. To date, most research has focused on the role of transporters in regulating cytosolic calcium. We used a reverse genetics approach to modulate calcium stores in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our goals were two-fold: to use the low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ binding characteristics of the C-domain of calreticulin to selectively increase Ca2+ storage in the endoplasmic reticulum, and to determine if those alterations affected plant physiological responses to stress. The C-domain of calreticulin is a highly acidic region that binds 20-50 moles of Ca2+ per mole of protein and has been shown to be the major site of Ca2+ storage within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells. A 377-bp fragment encoding the C-domain and ER retention signal from the maize calreticulin gene was fused to a gene for the green fluorescent protein and expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of a heat shock promoter. Following induction on normal medium, the C-domain transformants showed delayed loss of chlorophyll after transfer to calcium depleted medium when compared to seedlings transformed with green fluorescent protein alone. Total calcium measurements showed a 9-35% increase for induced C-domain transformants compared to controls. The data suggest that ectopic expression of the calreticulin C-domain increases Ca2+ stores, and that this Ca2+ reserve can be used by the plant in times of stress.

  16. Hydrogen-rich water enhances cadmium tolerance in Chinese cabbage by reducing cadmium uptake and increasing antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Cai, Jiangtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Cui, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present paper was to understand the specific mechanism of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in alleviating cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. chinensis L.). Our results showed that the addition of 50% saturation HRW significantly alleviated the Cd toxic symptoms, including the improvement of both root elongation and seedling growth inhibition. These responses were consistent with a significant decrease of Cd accumulation in roots and shoots, which was further confirmed by the histochemical staining. Molecular evidence illustrated that Cd-induced up-regulations of IRT1 and Nramp1 genes, responsible for Cd absorption, were blocked by HRW. By contrast, Cd-induced up-regulation of the HMA3 gene, which regulates Cd sequestration into the root vacuoles, was substantially strengthened by HRW. Furthermore, compared with those in Cd stress alone, the expressions of HMA2 and HMA4, which function in the transportation of Cd to xylem, were repressed by co-treatment with HRW. HRW enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. These results were further confirmed by the alleviation of oxidative damage, as indicated by the decrease of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Taken together, these results suggest that the improvement of Cd tolerance by HRW was associated with reduced Cd uptake and increased antioxidant defense capacities. Therefore, the application of HRW may be a promising strategy to improve Cd tolerance of Chinese cabbage.

  17. Three minutes of all-out intermittent exercise per week increases skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and improves cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Skelly, Lauren E; Martin, Brian J; Tan, Rachel B; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether a training protocol that involved 3 min of intense intermittent exercise per week--within a total training time commitment of 30 min including warm up and cool down--could increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and markers of health status. Overweight/obese but otherwise healthy men and women (n = 7 each; age = 29±9 y; BMI = 29.8±2.7 kg/m2) performed 18 training sessions over 6 wk on a cycle ergometer. Each session began with a 2 min warm-up at 50 W, followed by 3×20 s "all-out" sprints against 5.0% body mass (mean power output: ∼450-500 W) interspersed with 2 min of recovery at 50 W, followed by a 3 min cool-down at 50 W. Peak oxygen uptake increased by 12% after training (32.6±4.5 vs. 29.1±4.2 ml/kg/min) and resting mean arterial pressure decreased by 7% (78±10 vs. 83±10 mmHg), with no difference between groups (both p<0.01, main effects for time). Skeletal muscle biopsy samples obtained before and 72 h after training revealed increased maximal activity of citrate synthase and protein content of cytochrome oxidase 4 (p<0.01, main effect), while the maximal activity of β-hydroxy acyl CoA dehydrogenase increased in men only (p<0.05). Continuous glucose monitoring measured under standard dietary conditions before and 48-72 h following training revealed lower 24 h average blood glucose concentration in men following training (5.4±0.6 vs. 5.9±0.5 mmol/L, p<0.05), but not women (5.5±0.4 vs. 5.5±0.6 mmol/L). This was associated with a greater increase in GLUT4 protein content in men compared to women (138% vs. 23%, p<0.05). Short-term interval training using a 10 min protocol that involved only 1 min of hard exercise, 3x/wk, stimulated physiological changes linked to improved health in overweight adults. Despite the small sample size, potential sex-specific adaptations were apparent that warrant further investigation.

  18. Optimizing Intramuscular Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate Restriction and Protein Supplementation on Mitochondrial Biogenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5′AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise. PMID:24228194

  19. Towards an Informed Mexican and Mexican-American Citizenry: Bridging the Gap to Increase Human Capacity and Information Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, M. D.; Ramirez, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The research translation and community outreach goal of The University of Arizona's (UA) Superfund Basic Research Program and U.S.-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Sciences and Toxicology is to increase human capacity and information dissemination to diverse stakeholders, including federal, state, and local government agencies as well as northern Mexican and border community stakeholders. Due to Arizona's demographic characteristics and the UA's proximity to the U.S. - Mexico border, activities target primarily Mexican and Mexican-American populations. With this in mind, a model has been established that pulls from human capital, community-based participatory research and public participation theories. The theories applied to our target population have resulted in the creation of a successful model that is used in both research translation and community outreach work. The model contains four components: community needs (participation), science translation (information), engagement (outreach), and training (education). Examples of how this model operates for various stakeholders involved in environmental science and health issues will be discussed. A case in point of how this model has been applied effectively is the partnership with promotoras (community health advocates) to do environmental science and health trainings to increase the knowledge base of specific populations disproportionately exposed to contaminants of concern. Additional case studies and methodologies used to develop innovative communicative tools (that takes into consideration cultural idiosyncrasies) for stakeholders at all levels in Arizona, the border, and Mexico will be highlighted, such as: 1) information sheets regarding local environmental issues for communities neighboring contaminated sites, 2) SciTransfer Bulletins targeting professional level stakeholders such as Project Managers, Community Involvement Coordinators and the general public, 3) coordinating technical and

  20. Enhanced antigen-presenting capacity of cultured Langerhans' cells is associated with markedly increased expression of Ia antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, S.; Caughman, S.W.; Sharrow, S.O.; Stephany, D.; Katz, S.I.

    1987-10-15

    Recent studies indicate that when epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) are cultured for 2 to 3 days they, in comparison to freshly prepared LC, exhibit markedly enhanced ability to stimulate T cell proliferative responses in oxidative mitogenesis and in the mixed epidermal-leukocyte reaction. In this study, we determined whether cultured LC enhance antigen-specific T cell responses, and whether such enhanced stimulatory capacity correlates with the level of Ia antigen expressed on LC. We used C3H/He (Iak) epidermal cells as stimulators and, as responder cells, both the trinitrophenyl-specific clones D8 and SE4, which were assayed for (/sup 3/H)dThd incorporation, and the pigeon cytochrome c specific hybridoma 2C2, which was assayed for interleukin 2 production. Cultured LC induced 10 to 100 times greater proliferation or interleukin 2 production by responder cells than did freshly prepared LC. The intensity of I-Ak and I-Ek, expressed on cultured LC as assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, was found to be 10 to 36 times greater on a per cell basis than that on freshly prepared LC. Depletion of LC from fresh epidermal cell suspensions by anti-Iak and complement or treatment with 50 mJ/cm/sup 2/ medium range ultraviolet light or cycloheximide before culture abrogated both the increase in Ia expression and antigen-specific clonal proliferation. The results suggest that when LC are removed from their usual epidermal milieu, they express increased amounts of Ia and become more potent stimulators of T cell responses.

  1. Aerobic Fitness Is Disproportionately Low in Adult Burn Survivors Years After Injury.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Pearson, James; Schlader, Zachary J; Brothers, Robert Matthew; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Rivas, Eric; Kowalske, Karen J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-01-01

    A maximal aerobic capacity below the 20th percentile is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (Blair 1995). Adult Adult burn survivors have a lower aerobic capacity compared with nonburned adults when evaluated 38 ± 23 days postinjury (deLateur 2007). However, it is unknown whether burn survivors with well-healed skin grafts (ie, multiple years postinjury) also have low aerobic capacity. This project tested the hypothesis that aerobic fitness, as measured by maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), is reduced in well-healed adult burn survivors when compared with normative values from nonburned individuals. Twenty-five burn survivors (36 ± 12 years old; 13 females) with well-healed split-thickness grafts (median, 16 years postinjury; range, 1-51 years) covering at least 17% of their BSA (mean, 40 ± 16%; range, 17-75%) performed a graded cycle ergometry exercise to test volitional fatigue. Expired gases and minute ventilation were measured via a metabolic cart for the determination of VO2max. Each subject's VO2max was compared with sex- and age-matched normative values from population data published by the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Heart Association, and recent epidemiological data (Aspenes 2011). Subjects had a VO2max of 29.4 ± 10.1 ml O2/kg body mass/min (median, 27.5; range, 15.9-53.3). The use of American College of Sports Medicine normative values showed that mean VO2max of the subjects was in the lower 24th percentile (median, 10th percentile). A total of 88% of the subjects had a VO2max below American Heart Association age-adjusted normative values. Similarly, 20 of the 25 subjects had a VO2max in the lower 25% percentile of recent epidemiological data. Relative to nongrafted subjects, 80 to 88% of the evaluated skin-graft subjects had a very low aerobic capacity. On the basis of these findings, adult burn survivors are disproportionally unfit relative to the general U.S. population, and this puts

  2. Gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen (Mehler and PTOX reactions) in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Shirao, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Shu; Kaneko, Kaoru; Kinjo, Yuriko; Tsuyama, Michito; Förster, Britta; Takahashi, Shunichi; Badger, Murray R

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in photosynthesis by participating in a number of O2-consuming reactions. O2 inhibits CO2 fixation by stimulating photorespiration, thus reducing plant production. O2 interacts with photosynthetic electron transport in the chloroplasts' thylakoids in two main ways: by accepting electrons from PSI (Mehler reaction); and by accepting electrons from reduced plastoquinone (PQ) mediated by the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX). In this study, we show, using 101 plant species, that there is a difference in the potential for photosynthetic electron flow to O2 between angiosperms and gymnosperms. We found, from measurements of Chl fluorescence and leaf absorbance at 830 nm, (i) that electron outflow from PSII, as determined by decay kinetics of Chl fluorescence after application of a saturating light pulse, is more rapid in gymnosperms than in angiosperms; (ii) that the reaction center Chl of PSI (P700) is rapidly and highly oxidized in gymnosperms during induction of photosynthesis; and (iii) that these differences are dependent on oxygen. Finally, rates of O2 uptake measured by mass spectrometry in the absence of photorespiration were significantly promoted by illumination in dark-adapted leaves of gymnosperms, but not in those of angiosperms. The light-stimulated O2 uptake was around 10% of the maximum O2 evolution in gymnosperms and 1% in angiosperms. These results suggest that gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms. The involvement of the Mehler reaction and PTOX in the electron flow to O2 is discussed.

  3. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobics can reach up to six times the force of gravity, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate ...

  4. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  5. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  6. Interstitial lung disease increases mortality in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension without affecting hemodynamics and exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Michelfelder, M; Becker, M; Riedlinger, A; Siegert, E; Drömann, D; Yu, X; Petersen, F; Riemekasten, G

    2017-02-01

    Published data suggest that coexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) has an impact on mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but there is scarce knowledge if this is reflected by hemodynamics, exercise capacity, autoantibody profile, or pulmonary function. In this partially retrospective study, 27 SSc-PAH patients were compared to 24 SSc-PAH patients with coexisting ILD respecting to survival, pulmonary function, hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and laboratory parameters. Survival was significantly worse in SSc-PAH-ILD patients than in SSc patients with isolated PAH (1, 5, and 10-year survival rates 86, 54, and 54% versus 96, 92, and 82%, p = 0.013). Compared to isolated SSc-PAH patients, patients with SSc-PAH-ILD revealed lower forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV1) values at the time of PAH diagnosis as well as 1 and 2 years later (p = 0.002) without significant decrease in the PAH course in both groups. At PAH diagnosis, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) values were lower in the ILD-PAH group. Coexisting ILD was not associated with lower exercise capacity, different FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, higher WHO functional class, or reduced hemodynamics. Higher levels of antibodies against angiotensin and endothelin receptors predict mortality in all SSc-PAH patients but could not differentiate between PAH patients with and without ILD. Our study confirmed an impact of ILD on mortality in SSc-PAH patients. Pulmonary function parameters can be used to distinguish PAH from PAH-ILD. The higher mortality rate cannot be explained by differences in hemodynamics, exercise capacity, or autoantibody levels. Mechanisms of mortality remain to be studied.

  7. Temperature dependent growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Simon, Cedric J; Smith, Gregory G; Carter, Chris G; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2017-05-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on the growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, in order to determine if temperature acclimated aerobic scope correlates with optimum for growth and to establish the thermal tolerance window for this emerging aquaculture species. Juvenile lobsters (initial weight=10.95±0.47g) were reared (n=7) at temperatures from 11.0 to 28.5°C for 145days. All lobsters survived from 14.5 to 25.0°C while survival was reduced at 11.0°C (86%) and all lobsters died at 28.5°C. Lobster specific growth rate and specific feed consumption displayed a unimodal response with temperature, peaking at 21.5°C. Lobster standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates, and aerobic scope all increased exponentially up to maximum non-lethal temperature. Optimum temperature for growth did not correspond to that for maximum aerobic scope suggesting that aerobic scope is not an effective predictor of the thermal optimum of spiny lobsters. Plateauing of specific feed consumption beyond 21.5°C suggests that temperature dependent growth of lobsters is limited by capacity to ingest or digest sufficient food to meet increasing maintenance metabolic demands at high temperatures. The nutritional condition of lobsters was not influenced by temperature and feed conversion ratio was improved at lower temperatures. These findings add to a growing body of evidence questioning the generality of aerobic scope to describe the physiological thermal boundaries of aquatic ectotherms and suggest that feed intake plays a crucial role in regulating performance at thermal extremes.

  8. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P < 0.05) on meat quality (pH, Drip loss, Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  9. Arbuscule frequency in grapevine roots is more responsive to reduction in photosynthetic capacity than to increased levels of shoot phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether altering photosynthetic capacity or shoot P plays bigger role in regulating arbuscule abundance in fine roots of grapevine. Pinot noir grapevines were grown in an unsterilized vineyard soil and colonized by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in two experiments where p...

  10. Enhancing electrochemical intermediate solvation through electrolyte anion selection to increase nonaqueous Li–O2 battery capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Colin M.; Pande, Vikram; Khetan, Abhishek; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; McCloskey, Bryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Among the “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries, nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and, as a result, have attracted significant research attention over the past decade. A critical scientific challenge facing nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries is the electronically insulating nature of the primary discharge product, lithium peroxide, which passivates the battery cathode as it is formed, leading to low ultimate cell capacities. Recently, strategies to enhance solubility to circumvent this issue have been reported, but rely upon electrolyte formulations that further decrease the overall electrochemical stability of the system, thereby deleteriously affecting battery rechargeability. In this study, we report that a significant enhancement (greater than fourfold) in Li–O2 cell capacity is possible by appropriately selecting the salt anion in the electrolyte solution. Using 7Li NMR and modeling, we confirm that this improvement is a result of enhanced Li+ stability in solution, which, in turn, induces solubility of the intermediate to Li2O2 formation. Using this strategy, the challenging task of identifying an electrolyte solvent that possesses the anticorrelated properties of high intermediate solubility and solvent stability is alleviated, potentially providing a pathway to develop an electrolyte that affords both high capacity and rechargeability. We believe the model and strategy presented here will be generally useful to enhance Coulombic efficiency in many electrochemical systems (e.g., Li–S batteries) where improving intermediate stability in solution could induce desired mechanisms of product formation. PMID:26170330

  11. Assessing the potential for increased capacity of combined heat and power facilities based on available corn stover and forest logging residue in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Selvarani

    The amount of available biomass feedstock and associated cost components were analyzed to determine the potential increase in energy capacity of two existing combined heat and power plants in Mississippi. The amount of corn stover and forest logging residue within a 10-mile radius can satisfy the existing requirements of CHP plants in Scott (1 MW) and Washington counties (5 MW). Transporting feedstock within a smaller source area had lower transportation costs, but higher total unit cost than the two other source buffer scenarios. However, capital costs associated with higher plant capacities were significantly higher and plant expansion may not be economically advantageous. Increasing the CHP capacity from 1 MW to 2 MW in Scott county and 5 MW to 10 MW in Washington county might be a sustainable approach by drawing feedstock from a smaller area and at lower utilization rates, while keeping transportation costs low.

  12. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  13. Ionizing radiation promotes the acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype and impairs angiogenic capacity in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells: role of increased DNA damage and decreased DNA repair capacity in microvascular radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Podlutsky, Andrej; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Deak, Ferenc; Gautam, Tripti; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2013-12-01

    Cerebromicrovascular rarefaction is believed to play a central role in cognitive impairment in patients receiving whole-brain irradiation therapy. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the deleterious effects of γ-irradiation on the cerebral microcirculation, rat primary cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) were irradiated in vitro. We found that in CMVECs, γ-irradiation (2-8 Gy) elicited increased DNA damage, which was repaired less efficiently in CMVECs compared with neurons, microglia, and astrocytes. Increased genomic injury in CMVECs associated with increased apoptotic cell death. In the surviving cells, γ-irradiation promotes premature senescence (indicated by SA-β-galactosidase positivity and upregulation of p16 (INK4a) ), which was associated with impaired angiogenic capacity (decreased proliferation and tube-forming capacity). γ-Irradiated CMVECs acquired a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, characterized by upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (including IL-6, IL-1α, and MCP-1). Collectively, increased vulnerability of γ-irradiated CMVECs and their impaired angiogenic capacity likely contribute to cerebromicrovascular rarefaction and prevent regeneration of the microvasculature postirradiation. The acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype in irradiated CMVECs is biologically highly significant as changes in the cytokine microenvironment in the hippocampus may affect diverse biological processes relevant for normal neuronal function (including regulation of neurogenesis and the maintenance of the blood brain barrier).

  14. Aerobic exercise is the critical variable in an enriched environment that increases hippocampal neurogenesis and water maze learning in male C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Mustroph, Martina L.; Chen, Shi; Desai, Shalin C.; Cay, Edward B.; DeYoung, Erin K.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that housing mice with toys and running wheels increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances performance on the water maze. However, the relative contribution of running versus enrichment to the neurogenic and pro-cognitive effects is not clear. Recently, it was demonstrated that enrichment devoid of running wheels does not significantly enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis in female C57BL/6J mice. However, novel toys were not rotated into the cages, and dietary enrichment was not included, so it could be argued that the environment was not enriched enough. In addition, only females were studied, and animals were group-housed, making it impossible to record individual running behavior or to determine the time spent running versus exploring the toys. Therefore, we repeated the study in singly housed male C57BL/6J mice and enhanced enrichment by rotating novel tactile, visual, dietary, auditory, and vestibular stimuli into the cages. Mice were housed for 32 days in one of 4 groups: running-only, enrichment-only, running plus enrichment, and standard cage. The first 10 days BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) was administered to label dividing cells. The last 5 days mice were tested on the water maze, and then euthanized to measure number of BrdU cells co-labeled with NeuN (neuronal nuclear marker) in the dentate gyrus. Mice in the running-only group ran, on average, greater distances than animals in the running plus enrichment group. The combination of enrichment and running did not significantly increase hippocampal neurogenesis any more than running alone did. Animals in the running-only condition were the only group to show enhanced acquisition on water maze relative to standard cage controls. We confirm and extend the conclusion that environmental enrichment alone does not significantly increase hippocampal neurogenesis or bestow spatial learning benefits in male C57BL/6J mice, even when the modalities of enrichment are very broad. PMID

  15. Biguanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction yields increased lactate production and cytotoxicity of aerobically-poised HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Dykens, James A. Jamieson, Joseph; Marroquin, Lisa; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Billis, Puja A.; Will, Yvonne

    2008-12-01

    As a class, the biguanides induce lactic acidosis, a hallmark of mitochondrial impairment. To assess potential mitochondrial impairment, we evaluated the effects of metformin, buformin and phenformin on: 1) viability of HepG2 cells grown in galactose, 2) respiration by isolated mitochondria, 3) metabolic poise of HepG2 and primary human hepatocytes, 4) activities of immunocaptured respiratory complexes, and 5) mitochondrial membrane potential and redox status in primary human hepatocytes. Phenformin was the most cytotoxic of the three with buformin showing moderate toxicity, and metformin toxicity only at mM concentrations. Importantly, HepG2 cells grown in galactose are markedly more susceptible to biguanide toxicity compared to cells grown in glucose, indicating mitochondrial toxicity as a primary mode of action. The same rank order of potency was observed for isolated mitochondrial respiration where preincubation (40 min) exacerbated respiratory impairment, and was required to reveal inhibition by metformin, suggesting intramitochondrial bio-accumulation. Metabolic profiling of intact cells corroborated respiratory inhibition, but also revealed compensatory increases in lactate production from accelerated glycolysis. High (mM) concentrations of the drugs were needed to inhibit immunocaptured respiratory complexes, supporting the contention that bioaccumulation is involved. The same rank order was found when monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, and glutathione levels in primary human hepatocytes. In toto, these data indicate that biguanide-induced lactic acidosis can be attributed to acceleration of glycolysis in response to mitochondrial impairment. Indeed, the desired clinical outcome, viz., decreased blood glucose, could be due to increased glucose uptake and glycolytic flux in response to drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  16. Toward increased capacity for practice-based research among health professionals: implementing a multisite qualitative research project with dietitians.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gwen E; Sellaeg, Kari; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Barr, Susan I

    2007-09-01

    Despite repeated efforts to encourage health professionals to conduct practice-based research, including qualitative research, few practitioners have become active researchers. Mentoring, networking, and hands-on experience have been identified as potential approaches for changing this situation. In this article, the authors describe how they implemented a research mentoring/training component in a national study exploring Canadian dietitians' attitudes and practices with regard to obesity and weight management. They discuss the successes and challenges experienced by mentors and trainees, and provide recommendations for future initiatives to enhance capacity for qualitative, practice-based research among health care practitioners.

  17. Design assessment for the Melton Valley Storage Tanks capacity increase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This project was initiated to find ways to increase storage capacity for the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) requirement for the transfer of LLW from existing tank systems not in full FFA compliance.

  18. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not covered by the permit? 166.307 Section 166.307 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations...

  19. Dietary quebracho tannins are not absorbed, but increase the antioxidant capacity of liver and plasma in sheep.

    PubMed

    López-Andrés, Patricia; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Gibson, Trevor M; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-08-01

    A total of sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Of these, eight lambs were fed a control diet (C) and eight lambs were fed the C diet supplemented with quebracho tannins (C+T). The objective of the present study was to assess whether dietary quebracho tannins can improve the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma and if such improvement is due to a direct transfer of phenolic compounds or their metabolites, to the animal tissues. Feed, liver and plasma samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography-MS for phenolic compounds. Profisitinidin compounds were identified in the C+T diet. However, no phenolic compounds were found in lamb tissues. The liver and the plasma from lambs fed the C+T diet displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than tissues from lambs fed the C diet, but only when samples were not purified with SPE. Profisetinidin tannins from quebracho seem not to be degraded or absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, they induced antioxidant effects in animal tissues.

  20. Elevated CO2 enhances aerobic scope of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Rummer, Jodie L; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Couturier, Christine S; Watson, Sue-Ann; Nilsson, Göran E; Munday, Philip L

    2013-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean has been suggested to impact marine ecosystems by decreasing the respiratory capacity of fish and other water breathers. We investigated the aerobic metabolic scope of the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia when exposed for 17 days to CO2 conditions predicted for the end of the century (946 μatm CO2). Surprisingly, resting O2 consumption rates were significantly lower and maximal O2 consumption rates significantly higher in high-CO2-exposed fish compared with control fish (451 μatm CO2). Consequently, high-CO2-exposed fish exhibited an unexpected increase in absolute (38%) and factorial aerobic scopes (47%). Haematological and muscle water changes associated with exercise were not affected by CO2 treatment. Thus, contrary to predictions, our results suggest that elevated CO2 may enhance aerobic scope of some fish species. Long-term experiments are now required to assess the response to elevated CO2 further, because developmental and transgenerational effects can be dramatic in fish. Ultimately, understanding the variability among species regarding the effects of CO2 on aerobic scope will be critical in predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on marine communities and ecosystems.

  1. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  2. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Calorie Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    menstrual cycles has produced significant increases in aerobic capacity (28-33%), weight loss ranging from 1.0 to 9 kg, and loss Of body fat ranging...decrease in body fat percent (-3.1%), and no changes in body weight . \\. Despite the highly significant changes in body composition and body weight ...breast cancer. BODY Study Design: The study utilizes a prospective, randomized design that tests the effects of a moderate exercise program (4X/wk; 4

  3. Utilization of Collaborative Practice Agreements between Physicians and Pharmacists as a Mechanism to Increase Capacity to Care for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Julianna A.; Shapiro, Jamie F.; Gulbis, Alison M.; Rao, Kamakshi V.; Bubalo, Joseph; Lanum, Scott; Engemann, Ashley Morris; Shayani, Sepideh; Williams, Casey; Leather, Helen; Walsh-Chocolaad, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Survival following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has improved and the number of allogeneic HSCTs performed annually in the United States is expected to reach 10,000 by 2015. The National Marrow Donor Program created the System Capacity Initiative to formulate mechanisms to care for the growing number of HSCT recipients. One proposed method to increase capacity is utilization of pharmacists to manage drug therapy via collaborative practice agreements (CPAs). Pharmacists have managed drug therapy in oncology patients with CPAs for decades; however, there are limited HSCT centers that employ this practice. Engaging in collaborative practice and billing agreements with credentialed pharmacists to manage therapeutic drug monitoring, chronic medical conditions and supportive care in HSCT recipients may be cost-effective and enable physicians to spend more time on new or more complex patients. The goal of this paper is to provide a framework for implementation of a CPA and address how it may improve HSCT program capacity. PMID:23419976

  4. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  5. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  6. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  7. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  8. A shirt containing multistage phase change material and active cooling components was associated with increased exercise capacity in a hot, humid environment.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S; Williams, Randall R; Best Sampson, Jill N

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in clothing design include the incorporation of phase change materials (PCM) and other active cooling components (ACC) to provide better body heat dissipation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing a shirt containing multistage PCM/ACC on exercise capacity at low (5.0), moderate-high (7.5) and extreme (9.0) levels of the physiological strain index (PSI). Fourteen individuals tested two shirts (control vs. cooling) during 45-min of interval running in a hot, humid (35 ± 1 °C; 55 ± 6% RH) environment. The cooling shirt resulted in an 8% improvement in exercise capacity at a PSI of 7.5 (p < 0.05). The observed increase in exercise capacity would likely translate to a significant improvement in exercise performance. More research is needed to determine a best practice approach for the use of cooling clothing as a counter to exercise-induced heat exposure. Practitioner Summary: In this report, we demonstrate that when forced to exercise in a hot, humid environment, an individual's exercise capacity may increase by as much as 8% when wearing a shirt composed of multistage phase change material and active cooling components.

  9. Intraspecific variation in aerobic metabolic rate of fish: relations with organ size and enzyme activity in brown trout.

    PubMed

    Norin, Tommy; Malte, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Highly active animals require a high aerobic capacity (i.e., a high maximum metabolic rate [MMR]) to sustain such activity, and it has been speculated that a greater capacity for aerobic performance is reflected in larger organs, which serve as energy processors but are also expensive to maintain and which increase the minimal cost of living (i.e., the basal or standard metabolic rate [SMR]). In this study, we assessed the extent of intraspecific variation in metabolic rate within a group of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and tested whether the observed variation in residual (body-mass-corrected) SMR, MMR, and absolute aerobic scope could be explained by variations in the residual size (mass) of metabolically active internal organs. Residual SMR was found to correlate positively with residual MMR, indicating a link between these two metabolic parameters, but no relationship between organ mass and metabolic rate was found for liver, heart, spleen, intestine, or stomach. Instead, activity in the liver of two aerobic mitochondrial enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and, to a lesser extent, citrate synthase, was found to correlate with whole-animal metabolic rate, indicating that causes for intraspecific variation in the metabolic rate of fish can be found at a lower organizational level than organ size.

  10. The effect of an aerobic interval training program on intermittent anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Gaiga, M C; Docherty, D

    1995-12-01

    The effects of a 9-week aerobic interval training program on anaerobic intermittent performance were investigated. Intermittent work consisted of four repeat 30-sec maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer (Wingate test) with 3-min recovery intervals. Thirteen men trained 3 days a week on the cycle ergometer, completing 3-min work-to-rest intervals and progressing from 5 to 10 reps. Relative and absolute values of aerobic power increased significantly for the training group (p < .05). No significant change was observed for the control group (n = 11). The training group demonstrated significant increases in the four anaerobic variables of short-term peak power (SPP), short-term anaerobic capacity (SAC), intermediate-term peak power (IPP), and total work (TW), and across the four 30-sec maximal repeats for anaerobic performance (T1-T4) (p < .05). Greater percentages of increase occurred for IPP and TW, especially during Repeats 3 and 4. The control group only demonstrated a significant increase in SPP for Repeat 3. These data suggest that the type of interval training program used in the study increased aerobic power and also enhanced performance in repeated high intensity, short duration work.

  11. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    PubMed Central

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762

  12. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity.

  13. Effects of aerobic conditioning in lupus fatigue: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robb-Nicholson, L C; Daltroy, L; Eaton, H; Gall, V; Wright, E; Hartley, L H; Schur, P H; Liang, M H

    1989-12-01

    Fatigue, a complex symptom, significantly affects the quality of life in many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To understand this phenomenon, 23 patients with SLE and fatigue were studied. Standardized tests of depression (NIMH), fatigue, exercise tolerance (ETT) on a bicycle ergometer, and SLE activity were obtained. At baseline, SLE patients had significantly lower maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) than normals (p less than 0.005). Adjusted for age and sex, SLE patients perform at 54% of their expected maximum VO2, which is similar to published data from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Depression by NIMH was not correlated with VO2 max or length of time on ETT. Fatigue measured by Profile of Mood States (POMS) was correlated with ETT time (r = 0.476, p less than 0.025) and with VO2 max (r = -0.402, p less than 0.07). After an 8-week aerobic conditioning programme the experimental group increased their aerobic capacity by 19% in contrast to 8% in controls. This change correlated with decreased fatigue as measured by visual analogue scales. Exercise did not exacerbate disease, and only two of 16 experimental subjects experienced transient joint symptoms during exercise.

  14. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  15. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (P<0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner, with no dose by linetype interaction. Wheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally.

  16. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R.; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account. PMID:27736913

  17. Mechanisms of Change in the ARC Organizational Strategy: Increasing Mental Health Clinicians' EBP Adoption Through Improved Organizational Culture and Capacity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The development of efficient and scalable implementation strategies in mental health is restricted by poor understanding of the change mechanisms that increase clinicians' evidence-based practice (EBP) adoption. This study tests the cross-level change mechanisms that link an empirically-supported organizational strategy for supporting implementation (labeled ARC for Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity) to mental health clinicians' EBP adoption and use. Four hundred seventy-five mental health clinicians in 14 children's mental health agencies were randomly assigned to the ARC intervention or a control condition. Measures of organizational culture, clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers were collected before, during, and upon completion of the three-year ARC intervention. EBP adoption and use were assessed at 12-month follow-up. Multilevel mediation analyses tested changes in organizational culture, clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers as linking mechanisms explaining the effects of ARC on clinicians' EBP adoption and use. ARC increased clinicians' EBP adoption (OR = 3.19, p = .003) and use (81 vs. 56 %, d = .79, p = .003) at 12-month follow-up. These effects were mediated by improvement in organizational proficiency culture leading to increased clinician intentions to adopt EBPs and by reduced job-related EBP barriers. A combined mediation analysis indicated the organizational culture-EBP intentions mechanism was the primary carrier of ARC's effects on clinicians' EBP adoption and use. ARC increases clinicians' EBP adoption and use by creating proficient organizational cultures that increase clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs.

  18. The protective effect of supplemental calcium on colonic permeability depends on a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Marloes A A; ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M; Schonewille, Arjan J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2012-04-01

    An increased intestinal permeability is associated with several diseases. Previously, we have shown that dietary Ca decreases colonic permeability in rats. This might be explained by a calcium-phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity, which protects against an acidic pH due to microbial fermentation. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary phosphate is a co-player in the effect of Ca on permeability. Rats were fed a humanised low-Ca diet, or a similar diet supplemented with Ca and containing either high, medium or low phosphate concentrations. Chromium-EDTA was added as an inert dietary intestinal permeability marker. After dietary adaptation, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) were added to all diets to stimulate fermentation, acidify the colonic contents and induce an increase in permeability. Dietary Ca prevented the scFOS-induced increase in intestinal permeability in rats fed medium- and high-phosphate diets but not in those fed the low-phosphate diet. This was associated with higher faecal water cytotoxicity and higher caecal lactate levels in the latter group. Moreover, food intake and body weight during scFOS supplementation were adversely affected by the low-phosphate diet. Importantly, luminal buffering capacity was higher in rats fed the medium- and high-phosphate diets compared with those fed the low-phosphate diet. The protective effect of dietary Ca on intestinal permeability is impaired if dietary phosphate is low. This is associated with a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity. Dragging phosphate into the colon and thereby increasing the colonic phosphate concentration is at least part of the mechanism behind the protective effect of Ca on intestinal permeability.

  19. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, G N; Eiteman, M A; McEwen, J E; Olsson, L; Nielsen, J

    2007-02-13

    Respiratory metabolism plays an important role in energy production in the form of ATP in all aerobically growing cells. However, a limitation in respiratory capacity results in overflow metabolism, leading to the formation of byproducts, a phenomenon known as "overflow metabolism" or "the Crabtree effect." The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely respiratory to mixed respiratory and fermentative. It is well known that glucose repression of respiratory pathways occurs at high glycolytic fluxes, resulting in a decrease in respiratory capacity. Despite many years of detailed studies on this subject, it is not known whether the onset of the Crabtree effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation by overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase reduced aerobic glycerol formation. The metabolic response to elevated alternative oxidase occurred predominantly in the mitochondria, whereas NADH oxidase affected genes that catalyze cytosolic reactions. Moreover, NADH oxidase restored the deficiency of cytosolic NADH dehydrogenases in S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that NADH oxidase localizes in the cytosol, whereas alternative oxidase is directed to the mitochondria.

  20. Cellulose-based filter aids increase the capacity of depth filters during the downstream processing of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes F; Opdensteinen, Patrick; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Downstream processing (DSP) is a major cost factor during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Clarification can account for ∼40% of these costs, especially when a large amount of dispersed particulate material is generated, such as during the extraction of intracellular proteins from plants. Filter capacity can be increased (and DSP costs reduced) by using flocculants. Here we show that cellulose-based filter aids can enhance the positive effect of flocculants by improving depth filter capacity even further. A design-of-experiments (DoE) approach was used to identify the optimal size and concentration of filter aids, at different values of pH and conductivity, for the clarification of tobacco leaf extracts during the production of a monoclonal antibody and a fluorescent protein. Filter aids ∼28 or ∼100 μm in length at concentrations of ∼10 and ∼5 g L(-1) respectively were most efficient in combination with a strong cationic flocculant, but were ineffective without the flocculant. The filter aids increased depth filter capacity by 35-fold compared to an additive-free extract reaching ∼1000 L m(-2) without affecting the target proteins. Thus, filter aids can be used to reduce production costs of plant-derived biopharmaceuticals while the DoE approach enabled the identification of robust process conditions.

  1. Improving iSC performance through outsourcing - Considerations for using third-party service providers to increase innovation, capacity and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wright, Martin; Forster, Gary; Beale, John

    2017-04-19

    Development partners and donors have encouraged and incentivized governments in developing countries to explore ways of working with third-party service suppliers to reduce costs and increase service delivery capacity. The distribution of vaccines and medicines has for a long time shown demand for outsourcing but public health systems have struggled to develop the expertise and capital assets necessary to manage such ventures. Existing transport and logistics capacity within public health systems, in particular, is well documented as being insufficient to support existing, let alone future immunization needs. Today, a number of countries are contracting party logistics providers (3PLs) to supplement the in-house distribution operations of public health systems. This commentary reflects on recent, leading examples of outsourcing initiatives to address critical gaps in transport and logistics.

  2. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: a strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre- and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22-26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47-88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72-100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students.

  3. "Increasing the carbohydrate storage capacity of plants by engineering a glycogen-like polymer pool in the cytosol".

    PubMed

    Eicke, Simona; Seung, David; Egli, Barbara; Devers, Emanuel A; Streb, Sebastian

    2017-02-16

    Global demand for higher crop yields and for more efficient utilization of agricultural products will grow over the next decades. Here, we present a new concept for boosting the carbohydrate content of plants, by channeling photosynthetically fixed carbon into a newly engineered glucose polymer pool. We transiently expressed the starch/glycogen synthases from either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Cyanidioschyzon merolae, together with the starch branching enzyme from C. merolae, in the cytosol of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This effectively built a UDP-glucose-dependent glycogen biosynthesis pathway. Glycogen synthesis was observed with Transmission Electron Microscopy, and the polymer structure was further analyzed. Within three days of enzyme expression, glycogen content of the leaf was 5 to 10 times higher than the starch levels of the control. Further, the leaves produced less starch and sucrose, which are normally the carbohydrate end-products of photosynthesis. We conclude that after enzyme expression, the newly fixed carbohydrates were routed into the new glycogen sink and trapped. Our approach allows carbohydrates to be efficiently stored in a new subcellular compartment, thus increasing the value of vegetative crop tissues for biofuel production or animal feed. The method also opens new potential for increasing the sink strength of heterotrophic tissues.

  4. Ewing's sarcoma cells with CD57-associated increase of tumorigenicity and with neural crest-like differentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Joachim; Bogatyreva, Liubov; Boukamp, Petra; Rojewski, Markus; van Valen, Frans; Fiedler, Jörg; Hipp, Nora; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Beltinger, Christian

    2010-09-01

    The Ewing family of tumors (EFT) is an important group of pediatric malignancies with a guarded prognosis. Little is known about the heterogeneity of EFT cells, and the cellular origin of EFT is disputed. We now add evidence that EFT are heterogeneous by showing that EFT cells from spheres growing in serum-free medium are markedly more tumorigenic than adherently growing EFT cells. Furthermore, EFT cells strongly expressing CD57 (HNK-1), a surface marker for migrating and proliferating neural crest cells, are more tumorigenic than cells with low expression of CD57, possibly mediated in part by enhanced adhesion and invasion. We contribute to the controversy about the cellular origin of EFT by clonal analysis, showing that EFT cells can differentiate similar to neural crest cells. These data increase our knowledge about the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of EFT.

  5. Decreased cyclin A2 and increased cyclin G1 levels coincide with loss of proliferative capacity in rat Leydig cells during pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Ge, R S; Hardy, M P

    1997-09-01

    relative protein levels of cyclin A2 and G1 paralleled their mRNA levels. Increased proliferative capacity was observed in PLC and ILC, but not ALC, after treatment with either LH or IGF-I. Treatment with MENT increased proliferative capacity only in ILC and had no effect in any other group. Treatment with E2 decreased proliferative capacity in PLC but not in ILC or ALC. The changes in proliferative capacity after hormonal treatment paralleled cyclin A2 mRNA and were the inverse of cyclin G1 mRNA levels. We conclude that: 1) decreased cyclin A2 and increased cyclin G1 are associated with the withdrawal of the Leydig cell from the cell cycle; 2) the proliferative capacity of Leydig cells is regulated differentially by hormones and is progressively lost during postnatal differentiation.

  6. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ravera, Silvia; Podestà, Marina; Cossu, Claudia; Santucci, Laura; Bartolucci, Martina; Bruschi, Maurizio; Calzia, Daniela; Sabatini, Federica; Bruschettini, Matteo; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Romantsik, Olga; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pistoia, Vito; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Frassoni, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are able to transfer RNA and proteins to target cells. The emerging role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes as promoters of aerobic ATP synthesis restoration in damaged cells, prompted us to assess whether they contain an extramitochondrial aerobic respiration capacity. Exosomes were isolated from culture medium of human MSCs from umbilical cord of ≥37-wk-old newborns or between 28- to 30-wk-old newborns (i.e.,term or preterm infants). Characterization of samples was conducted by cytofluorometry. Oxidative phosphorylation capacity was assessed by Western blot analysis, oximetry, and luminometric and fluorometric analyses. MSC exosomes express functional respiratory complexes I, IV, and V, consuming oxygen. ATP synthesis was only detectable in exosomes from term newborns, suggestive of a specific mechanism that is not completed at an early gestational age. Activities are outward facing and comparable to those detected in mitochondria isolated from term MSCs. MSC exosomes display an unsuspected aerobic respiratory ability independent of whole mitochondria. This may be relevant for their ability to rescue cell bioenergetics. The differential oxidative metabolism of pretermvs.term exosomes sheds new light on the preterm newborn's clinical vulnerability. A reduced ability to repair damaged tissue and an increased capability to cope with anoxic environment for preterm infants can be envisaged.-Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L. A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

  7. Aerobic glycolysis and lymphocyte transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A.; Radik, Judith L.; Ferber, Ernst; Weidemann, Maurice J.

    1978-01-01

    1. The role of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in the transformation of rat thymocytes by concanavalin A has been investigated. Concanavalin A addition doubled [U-14C]glucose uptake by rat thymocytes over 3h and caused an equivalent increased incorporation into protein, lipids and RNA. A disproportionately large percentage of the extra glucose taken up was converted into lactate, but concanavalin A also caused a specific increase in pyruvate oxidation, leading to an increase in the percentage contribution of glucose to the respiratory fuel. 2. Acetoacetate metabolism, which was not affected by concanavalin A, strongly suppressed pyruvate oxidation in the presence of [U-14C]glucose, but did not prevent the concanavalin A-induced stimulation of this process. Glucose uptake was not affected by acetoacetate in the presence or absence of concanavalin A, but in each case acetoacetate increased the percentage of glucose uptake accounted for by lactate production. 3. [3H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA in concanavalin A-treated thymocyte cultures was sensitive to the glucose concentration in the medium in a biphasic manner. Very low concentrations of glucose (25μm) stimulated DNA synthesis half-maximally, but maximum [3H]thymidine incorporation was observed only when the glucose concentration was raised to 1mm. Lactate addition did not alter the sensitivity of [3H]-thymidine uptake to glucose, but inosine blocked the effect of added glucose and strongly inhibited DNA synthesis. 4. It is suggested that the major function of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in transforming lymphocytes is to maintain higher steady-state amounts of glycolytic intermediates to act as precursors for macromolecule synthesis. PMID:310305

  8. Herbivory by an Outbreaking Moth Increases Emissions of Biogenic Volatiles and Leads to Enhanced Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Capacity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Copolovici, Lucian; Kännaste, Astrid; Noe, Steffen; Blande, James D; Mikkonen, Santtu; Klemola, Tero; Pulkkinen, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Laaksonen, Ari; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Niinemets, Ülo; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-11-01

    In addition to climate warming, greater herbivore pressure is anticipated to enhance the emissions of climate-relevant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal and subarctic forests and promote the formation of secondary aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of Epirrita autumnata, an outbreaking geometrid moth, feeding and larval density on herbivore-induced VOC emissions from mountain birch in laboratory experiments and assessed the impact of these emissions on SOA formation via ozonolysis in chamber experiments. The results show that herbivore-induced VOC emissions were strongly dependent on larval density. Compared to controls without larval feeding, clear new particle formation by nucleation in the reaction chamber was observed, and the SOA mass loadings in the insect-infested samples were significantly higher (up to 150-fold). To our knowledge, this study provides the first controlled documentation of SOA formation from direct VOC emission of deciduous trees damaged by known defoliating herbivores and suggests that chewing damage on mountain birch foliage could significantly increase reactive VOC emissions that can importantly contribute to SOA formation in subarctic forests. Additional feeding experiments on related silver birch confirmed the SOA results. Thus, herbivory-driven volatiles are likely to play a major role in future biosphere-vegetation feedbacks such as sun-screening under daily 24 h sunshine in the subarctic.

  9. Building Research Integrity and Capacity (BRIC): An Educational Initiative to Increase Research Literacy among Community Health Workers and Promotores

    PubMed Central

    Nebeker, Camille; López-Arenas, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs), also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and implementation of community- and clinic-based research studies. Recognizing that CHWs typically have no formal academic training in research design or methods, and considering that rigor in research is critical to obtaining meaningful results, we designed instruction to fill this gap. We call this educational initiative “Building Research Integrity and Capacity” or BRIC. The BRIC training consists of eight modules that can be administered as a self-paced training or incorporated into in-person, professional development geared to a specific health intervention study. While we initially designed this culturally-grounded, applied ethics training for Latino/Hispanic community research facilitators, BRIC training modules have been adapted for and tested with non-Latino novice research facilitators. This paper describes the BRIC core content and instructional design process. PMID:27047588

  10. Increasing Bellevue School District's elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science: Using ideas from contemporary learning theory to inform professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, Tracy Anne

    This Capstone project examined how leaders in the Bellevue School District can increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science through the use of professional learning activities that are grounded in ideas from human learning theory. A framework for professional development was constructed and from that framework, a set of professional learning activities were developed as a means to support teacher learning while project participants piloted new curriculum called the Isopod Habitat Challenge. Teachers in the project increased their understanding of the learning theory principles of preconceptions and metacognition. Teachers did not increase their understanding of the principle of learning with understanding, although they did articulate the significance of engaging children in student-led inquiry cycles. Data from the curriculum revision and professional development project coupled with ideas from learning theory, cognition and policy implementation, and learning community literatures suggest Bellevue's leaders can encourage peer-to-peer interaction, link professional development to teachers' daily practice, and capitalize on technology as ways to increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science. These lessons also have significance for supporting teacher learning and efficacy in other subject areas and at other levels in the system.

  11. Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) knockout mice display an increased capacity for in vitro creatine biosynthesis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Russell, Aaron P; Ghobrial, Lobna; Wright, Craig R; Lamon, Séverine; Brown, Erin L; Kon, Michihiro; Skelton, Matthew R; Snow, Rodney J

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8) knockout mice (CrT(-/y)) actually contained creatine (Cr) and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT(-/y) and wild type (CrT(+/y)) mice were analyzed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP), and total Cr (TCr) content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine amidotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were also determined as were the rates of in vitro Cr biosynthesis. CrT(-/y) mice muscle contained measurable (22.3 ± 4.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass), but markedly reduced (P < 0.05) TCr levels compared with CrT(+/y) mice (125.0 ± 3.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass). AGAT gene and protein expression were higher (~3 fold; P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle, however GAMT gene and protein expression remained unchanged. The in vitro rate of Cr biosynthesis was elevated 1.5 fold (P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle. These data clearly demonstrate that in the absence of CrT protein, skeletal muscle has reduced, but not absent, levels of Cr. This presence of Cr may be at least partly due to an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis as evidenced by an increased AGAT protein expression and in vitro Cr biosynthesis rates in CrT(-/y) mice. Of note, the up regulation of Cr biosynthesis in CrT(-/y) mice muscle was unable to fully restore Cr levels to that found in wild type muscle.

  12. Hypoxic Preconditioning Increases Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Capacity of Human Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Andreas Matthäus; Klose, Kristin; Bieback, Karen; Korinth, Dirk; Schneider, Maria; Seifert, Martina; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Kurtz, Andreas; Falk, Volkmar; Stamm, Christof

    2015-01-01

    might be a translationally relevant strategy to increase the tolerance of cord blood MSCs to ischemia and improve their therapeutic efficacy in clinical applications. PMID:26380983

  13. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  14. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  15. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  16. Aerobic landfill bioreactor