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Sample records for aerobic composting bacterial

  1. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants. PMID:20350306

  2. Application of aerobic composting system for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Yoshii, Takahiro; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Composting is a classical technique to decompose organic wastes such as animal bodies, straw, paper, raw sludge, and so on. Compared with burning of wastes, the composting method has many advantages. It is an inexpensive and safer method because of its self-heating without spending extra energy resources. It does not emit toxic pollutants such as dioxin, NOx , and SOx . The composting products can be used as organic fertilizers for agricultural production. Composting is a promising way for digesting organic wastes safely on spaceships or manned exploration on extraterrestrial planets. We have developed a small scale high-temperature composter in order to examine its feasobility to operate food waste disposing facility and fertilizer production in space. This composter has a heated reaction vessel containing compost soil (seed bacteria) provided by a compost factory. To determine the optimal condition for its operation, we analyzed the effect of temperature on metabolic activity (CO2 production rate), and water content. The dynamics of microbial community was studied by polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Water content was maintained to a range between 27% and 40% by continuously adding water. The highest CO2 emission was observed at around 70° C. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that the bacterial community of the compost soil is dramatically changed by changing reaction temperature. We will discuss the application of the composter in space in order to establish the closed recycling loop of bio-elements in space agriculture.

  3. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  4. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y. . E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

  5. Effects of the feeding ratio of food waste on fed-batch aerobic composting and its microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Pan, Songqing; Zhang, Zhaoji; Lin, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    To determine the suitable feeding ratio for fed-batch aerobic composting, four fermenters were operated by adding 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of food waste every day. The results showed that the 5% and 10% treatments were able to maintain continuous thermophilic conditions, while the 15% treatment performed badly in regard to composting temperature, which was probably due to the negative effects of excessive moisture on microbial activity. As composting proceeded, both the 5% and the 10% treatments reached maturity and achieved weight losses of approximately 65%. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of the community structure. The communities sampled at the thermophilic phases had high similarity and relatively low diversity, while species diversity increased in the maturity phase. This study was devoted to optimizing the fed-batch composting process and assessing bacterial communities, both of which were supplied as a reference for practical application.

  6. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  7. Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  8. Assessment of bacterial diversity during composting of agricultural byproducts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Composting is microbial decomposition of biodegradable materials and it is governed by physicochemical, physiological and microbiological factors. The importance of microbial communities (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) during composting is well established. However, the microbial diversity during composting may vary with the variety of composting materials and nutrient supplements. Therefore, it is necessary to study the diversity of microorganisms during composting of different agricultural byproducts like wheat bran, rice bran, rice husk, along with grass clippings and bulking agents. Here it has been attempted to assess the diversity of culturable bacteria during composting of agricultural byproducts. Results The culturable bacterial diversity was assessed during the process by isolating the most prominent bacteria. Bacterial population was found to be maximum during the mesophilic phase, but decreased during the thermophilic phase and declined further in the cooling and maturation phase of composting. The bacterial population ranged from 105 to 109 cfu g-1 compost. The predominant bacteria were characterized biochemically, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative groups belonged to the order Burkholderiales, Enterobacteriales, Actinobacteriales and Bacillales, which includes genera e.g. Staphylococcus, Serratia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Terribacillus, Lysinibacillus Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas. Genera like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax, Comamonas and some new species of Bacillus were also identified for the first time from the compost made from agricultural byproducts. Conclusion The use of appropriate nitrogen amendments and bulking agents in composting resulted in good quality compost. The culture based strategy enabled us to isolate some novel bacterial isolates like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas first time from agro-byproducts compost

  9. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method.

  10. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

    Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and

  11. [Degradation of oxytetracycline in chicken feces aerobic-composting and its effects on their related parameters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Li, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2013-02-01

    In order to illustrate the degradation of tetracyclines (TCs) and their influences on process parameters during the period of chicken feces aerobic-composting, the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), a kind of TCs and its effects on parameters during the period of chick feces aerobic-composting including temperature, pH, and germination index were investigated using the method of aerobic-composting. The contents of OTC decreased gradually with composting time. The degradation rate was high before 10 d, and then decreased gradually. The differences in OTC degradation among the OTC treatments were also found. The degradation rate of OTC was higher at the level of 25 mg.kg-1, than that of other levels. The degradation curve of OTC could be described by the first-order kinetic model, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0. 911 1 to 0. 9913. The impacts of OTC on chick feces composting were found. OTC could decrease the rising rate of composting temperature and make the high temperature (> or =50 degrees C) period shorter than that of the control. The values of pH, TN, WSC, and the content of NH: -N of composting were 4.58%, 12.62%, 49.06%, and 35.30% higher than those of the control. The impacts of OTC on maturity of chicken feces composting was not found when the OTC addition contents were lower than 50 mg.kg-1. However, the strong impacts of OTC on maturity of chicken feces composting were found when the OTC addition contents were higher than 50 mg.kg-1. The rates of NH+4 -N to NO-3 -N, and GI were much higher than 0. 5 and lower than 80% , respectively. Theses results suggest that OTC have strong impacts on chicken feces composting when the contents of TOC was higher than 50 mg.kg-1, although OTC have the short half-life period ranged from 1.79-4.88 d.

  12. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  13. Bacterial composting of animal fleshing generated from tannery industries.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Sekaran, G

    2010-12-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) is the major proteinaceous solid waste generated during the manufacture of leather, which requires to be disposed of by environmentally sound manner. This study reports about the treatment of ANFL into an organic compost and its effects on physiological parameters of different crops in a laboratory study. The ANFL was hydrolysed using Selenomonas ruminantium HM000123 and then the hydrolysed ANFL was mixed with cow dung and leaf litter for producing composted organic fertilizer (COF). The COF was characterized for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), and total organic carbon (TOC). The composting resulted in a significant reduction in pH, TOC and C:N ratio and an increase in TKN after 49 days in a compost reactor. Scanning electron microscope and FT-IR were used to analyse the hydrolysis of intra structural ANFL matrix and changes in the functional groups, respectively, in initial and final day COF. Thermogravimetry (TG) analysis was carried out for the raw mixture and COF samples to identify the weight loss under the nitrogen environment. The relative seed germination was found to be 94% in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), 92% in green gram (Vigna radiata), 86% in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) and 84% in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using the extracts of COF. The results indicate that the combination of both hydrolysis and bacterial composting reduced the overall time required for composting and producing a nutrient-enriched compost product.

  14. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    PubMed

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer.

  15. Evolution of heavy metal speciation during the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Ma, Lanlan; Li, Yaqiong; Zheng, Liting

    2007-03-01

    The contents of heavy metals and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system were the major limitation to the application of sewage sludge compost in soil. This study was conducted to determine the evolution of heavy metal speciation in the course of an aerobic composting, and investigate the influence of changes of composting process parameters including pH, temperature and organic matter (OM) content on distribution of heavy metal speciation in composted sludge. The sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier et al. was used in sludge compost to determine the heavy metal speciation. Results showed that, during composting, (1) the contents of the residue fraction for Pb, Zn and Cd were decreased but those for Ni and Cr were increased; the Cu residue fraction was almost constant; (2) the contents of the total mobile fractions (including fractions 1-4) for Zn and Pb were significantly increased, but the increase of those for Cu and Ni were not so remarkable; (3) there were significant degrees of correlation between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected parameters (for example, pH, composting temperature, and OM content). Only the content of the total mobile fractions for Cu could be predictable from its total content. For the prediction of the total mobile fractions of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr, the R(2) value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as pH, temperature and OM content.

  16. Degradation of typical antibiotics during human feces aerobic composting under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Honglei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Qian; Jiang, Shanqing

    2016-08-01

    Four typical antibiotics were added to human feces for aerobic composting using batch reactors with sawdust as the bulk matrix. Under three composting temperatures (room temperature, 35 ± 2 °C and 55 ± 2 °C), decreases in the extractable concentrations of antibiotics in the compost were monitored for 20 days. As a result, the removals of extractable tetracycline and chlortetracycline were found to be more temperature-dependent than the removals of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin. However, more than 90 % of all of the extractable antibiotics were removed at 55 ± 2 °C. Three specific experiments were further conducted to identify the possible actions for antibiotic removal, including self-degradation in aqueous solution, composting with a moist sterile sawdust matrix without adding feces and composting with human feces and moist sterile sawdust. As a result, it was found that the removal of tetracycline and chlortetracycline was mainly due to chemical degradation in water, whereas the removal of sulfadiazine was mainly attributed to adsorption onto sawdust particles. The microbial activity of compost varied with temperature to a certain extent, but the differences were insignificant among different antibiotics. Although microbial action is important for organic matter decomposition, its contribution to antibiotic degradation was small for the investigated antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin, which was degraded by up to 20 % due to microbial action.

  17. Effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus on cow manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenjie; Zhang, Fabao; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Xie, Kaizhi; Huang, Xu; Huang, Qiaoyi

    2011-06-01

    A simulated aerobic composting experiment was used to explore the effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus during six manure composting treatments. The addition of sulphur led to a decrease of the pH level within the range 6-6.3, which was lower than the control treatment (CK). The concentration of ammonium nitrogen in T1 (0.25% sulphur), T2 (0.5% sulphur), T3 (0.25% sulphur + T. thioparus) and T4 (0.5% sulphur + T. thioparus) were much higher than the ammonium N in CK. The results indicated that addition of sulphur could increase the concentration of ammonium N and reduce loss of nitrogen. However, excess sulphur had a negative effect on temperature and GI. Addition of T. thioparus could increase concentration of available S, alleviate these negative influences and reduce compost biological toxicity.

  18. Determination of degradation of radioactivity and its kinetics in aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ipek, Ubeyde; Obek, Erdal; Akca, Lütfi; Arslan, E Işil; Hasar, Halil; Dogru, Mahmut; Baykara, Oktay

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the kinetics of disappearance of radioactivity in aerobic composting was investigated. For this purpose, compost materials were prepared by mixing sugar beet wastes, wine factory wastes (grape wastes), straw and biological treatment sludge in different amounts. While alpha-radioactivity was not initially detected in all composting materials, the composting materials had some beta-radioactivity. In the mixtures of sugar beet wastes--straw-biological treatment sludge (1), sugar beet wastes-wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (II) and wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (III), the beta-radioactivity reduced by 82%, 58%, 85% respectively of initial values after 52 d. The beta-radioactivity degradation in the composting process could be represented by first-order kinetics and reaction rate constants of mixtures of I, II and III were k = 0.0693 d(-1) (R2 - 0.84), k = 0.0453 d(-1) (R2 = 0.98), k = 0.0234 d(-1) (R2 = 0.97), respectively.

  19. Skycrapper: an above-ground aerobic and solar-assisted composting toilet. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-10

    The Skycrapper is a waterless alternative to the flush toilet: it is a simply built aerobic and solar-assisted composting toilet. The structure can be built by one person using common carpenter's tools and from materials available at most building supply stores. The particular architectural style of this prototype cost approximately $1500 in new materials and took 323 hours of design/construction time. Construction was completed in April 1981 and the toilet has been in use since, with the first cycle of composted products having been removed in January 1982. Solar heating data show that in the winter months at this 39/sup 0/N. latitude the interior daytime temperatures rose to an average 50/sup 0/F above the outdoor temperature; while at night the indoor temperatures remained 15/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/F above the outdoor temperatures. The resulting final composted product comprised of a beginning mix of approximately 2/3 sawdust and 1/3 excrement plus paper was without any visible sign of either paper or feces, its appearance being that of a dark crumbly sawdust/humus mix. Never throughout the entire cycle were any foul odors detected associated with anaerobic decomposition. Laboratory analysis for coliform bacteria indicative of raw feces revealed a dramatic reduction in their number from a mid-cycle sample to a final composted product. Further experiments and fine-tuning of the composting process in this toilet are continuing.

  20. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens.

  1. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste.

  2. Composting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  3. Antibiotic resistome and its association with bacterial communities during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Bei; Ou-Yang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Fu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Composting is widely used for recycling of urban sewage sludge to improve soil properties, which represents a potential pathway of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes to soils. However, the dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the underlying mechanisms during sewage sludge composting were not fully explored. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene based illumina sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during a lab-scale in-vessel composting of sewage sludge. A total of 156 unique ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected encoding resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. ARGs were detected with significantly increased abundance and diversity, and distinct patterns, and were enriched during composting. Marked shifts in bacterial community structures and compositions were observed during composting, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum at the late phase of composting. The large proportion of Actinobacteria may partially explain the increase of ARGs during composting. ARGs patterns were significantly correlated with bacterial community structures, suggesting that the dynamic of ARGs was strongly affected by bacterial phylogenetic compositions during composting. These results imply that direct application of sewage sludge compost on field may lead to the spread of abundant ARGs in soils.

  4. Ozone oxidation and aerobic biodegradation with spent mushroom compost for detoxification and benzo(a)pyrene removal from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Russo, Lara; Rizzo, Luigi; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    The combination of ozonation and spent mushroom compost (SMC)-mediated aerobic biological treatment was investigated in the removal of benzo(a)pyrene from contaminated soil. The performances of the process alone and combined were evaluated in terms of benzo(a)pyrene removal efficiency, mineralization efficiency (as total organic carbon removal), and soil residual toxicity (phytotoxicity to Lepidium Sativum and toxicity to Vibrio fischeri). In spite of the removal efficiency (35%) obtained by SMC-mediated biological process as a stand-alone treatment, the combined process showed a benzo(a)pyrene concentration reduction higher than 75%; the best removal (82%) was observed after 10 min pre-ozonation treatment. In particular, ozonation improved the biodegradability of the contaminant, as confirmed by the increase of CO(2) production (close to 70% compared to the control), mineralization (greater than 60%) and bacterial density (which increased by two orders of magnitude). Moreover, according to phytotoxicity tests on L. Sativum, the aerobic biological process of pre-ozonated soil decreased toxicity. According to the results achieved in the present study, ozonation pre-treatment showed an high potential to overcome the limitation of bioremediation of recalcitrant compound, but it should be carefully operated in order to maximize PAH removal efficiency as well as to minimize soil residual toxicity which can result from the formation of the oxidation intermediates.

  5. Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Moriya, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashita, M.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    A material recycling is one of core issues in engineering for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies such as Mars A new composting system has been developed in Japan which utilizes some thermophilic bacteria to attain higher temperature than normally expected in the ordinary composting system Dead body of rat was found to be eaten up by the thermophilic bacteria under aerated condition and oxidized to carbon dioxide and few other inorganics within two hours Ecology of these composting bacteria is structured on the intensive symbiotic interactions among various species that participate in various reaction networks in a concert Complexity in the composting bacteria might be based on multiple interaction and interdependency among participating species and organisms Species identification and phylogeny of symbiotic bacteria and understanding of their ecology have been made Those bacterial systems are active and durable under temperature high in a range of 80 to 100 r C Biological combustion release heat and temperature goes up when air is fed through the reaction bed Since microbial activity decreases at exceeding temperature and release of heat decreases as well temperature in the reacting bed itself-regulated in the range Even though it should be verified composting bacteria themselves are presumed to be safe for human agricultural plant and animal species Their activity is restricted only to the condition under elevated temperature Their activities depend greatly on their symbiotic partners and extreme environment created by them The

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  7. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  8. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  9. Dynamics of bacterial microbiota during lignocellulosic waste composting: Studies upon its structure, functionality and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    López-González, J A; Suárez-Estrella, F; Vargas-García, M C; López, M J; Jurado, M M; Moreno, J

    2015-01-01

    An intensive isolation program carried out in three replicated composting piles allowed the identification of the resident and transient components of the composting microbiome. More than 4000 bacterial strains were isolated, enzymatically characterized and identified by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. While microorganisms isolated under mesophilic conditions were prominent throughout the process, thermophilic stages gathered the highest total counts and spore-forming bacteria prevailed at the bio-oxidative phase of composting. Enzymatic capabilities related to the degradation of polymeric materials were exhibited by most of the isolates and as a result of these activities, more soluble compounds could be made available to the entire composting microbiota. A high proportion of isolates showed to be thermotolerant as they were detected at mesophilic and thermophilic phases. Isolated strains belonged to 187 bacterial species. Biodiversity was greater at the central stages of composting and mesophilic, thermophilic and cooling phases shared 50% of species.

  10. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-11-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase.

  11. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  12. Comparison of the bacterial composition of two commercial composts with different physicochemical, stability and maturity properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Elisabete F; Lopes, Ana R; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Nunes, Olga C

    2016-04-01

    Previously, two municipal solid waste commercial composts (MSW1 and MSW2) were characterized. Although sharing the same type of raw material, most of their physicochemical, stability and maturity properties differed. The present study aimed to characterize them at a microbiological level, and to infer on possible relationships between the composts properties and the structure of their bacterial communities. Both the 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE profiling and 454-pyrosequencing technology showed that the structure of the bacterial communities of these composts was distinct. The bacterial community of MSW1 was more diverse than that of MSW2. Multivariate analyses revealed that the high electrical conductivity, Cu content as well as the low phytotoxity of compost MSW1, when compared to MSW2, contributed most to shape its bacterial community structure. Indeed, high abundance of halophilic (Halomonadaceae and Brevibacteriaceae) and metal resistant organisms (Brevibacteriaceae and Bacillaceae) were found in MSW1. In addition, Pseudonocardiaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Bacillaceae, and Brevibacteriaceae may have contributed to the high humic-like acids content and low phytotoxicity of MSW1. In contrast, the high organic matter content and the high density of the cultivable fungi population were the parameters most correlated with the structure of the bacterial community of compost MSW2, dominated by Corynebacteriaceae and mainly Aerococcaceae, taxonomic groups not commonly found in composts.

  13. Emission of greenhouse gases from home aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion and vermicomposting of household wastes in Brisbane (Australia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Yiu C; Sinha, Rajiv K; Weijin Wang

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three different home waste treatment methods in Brisbane, Australia. Gas samples were taken monthly from 34 backyard composting bins from January to April 2009. Averaged over the study period, the aerobic composting bins released lower amounts of CH(4) (2.2 mg m(- 2) h(-1)) than the anaerobic digestion bins (9.5 mg m(-2) h(-1)) and the vermicomposting bins (4.8 mg m(-2) h( -1)). The vermicomposting bins had lower N(2)O emission rates (1.2 mg m(-2) h(- 1)) than the others (1.5-1.6 mg m(-2) h( -1)). Total GHG emissions including both N(2)O and CH(4) were 463, 504 and 694 mg CO(2)-e m(- 2) h(-1) for vermicomposting, aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion, respectively, with N(2)O contributing >80% in the total budget. The GHG emissions varied substantially with time and were regulated by temperature, moisture content and the waste properties, indicating the potential to mitigate GHG emission through proper management of the composting systems. In comparison with other mainstream municipal waste management options including centralized composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, landfilling and incineration, home composting has the potential to reduce GHG emissions through both lower on-site emissions and the minimal need for transportation and processing. On account of the lower cost, the present results suggest that home composting provides an effective and feasible supplementary waste management method to a centralized facility in particular for cities with lower population density such as the Australian cities.

  14. DGGE and T-RFLP analysis of bacterial succession during mushroom compost production and sequence-aided T-RFLP profile of mature compost.

    PubMed

    Székely, Anna J; Sipos, Rita; Berta, Brigitta; Vajna, Balázs; Hajdú, Csaba; Márialigeti, Károly

    2009-04-01

    The amount of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) harvested from compost is largely affected by the microbial processes taking place during composting and the microbes inhabiting the mature compost. In this study, the microbial changes during the stages of this specific composting process were monitored, and the dominant bacteria of the mature compost were identified to reveal the microbiological background of the favorable properties of the heat-treated phase II mushroom compost. 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular fingerprinting methods were used to track the succession of microbial communities in summer and winter composting cycles. DNA from individual DGGE bands were reamplified and subjected to sequence analysis. Principal component analysis of fingerprints of the composting processes showed intensive changes in bacterial community during the 22-day procedure. Peak temperature samples grouped together and were dominated by Thermus thermophilus. Mature compost patterns were almost identical by both methods (DGGE, T-RFLP). To get an in-depth analysis of the mature compost bacterial community, the sequence data from cultivation of the bacteria and cloning of environmental 16S rDNA were uniquely coupled with the output of the environmental T-RFLP fingerprints (sequence-aided T-RFLP). This method revealed the dominance of a supposedly cellulose-degrading consortium composed of phylotypes related to Pseudoxanthomonas, Thermobifida, and Thermomonospora.

  15. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  16. Predominance of single bacterial cells in composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galès, Amandine; Bru-Adan, Valérie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delabre, Karine; Catala, Philippe; Ponthieux, Arnaud; Chevallier, Michel; Birot, Emmanuel; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants have become an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. Accurate knowledge of the particle-size distribution in bioaerosols emitted from open-air composting facilities during operational activity is a requirement for improved modeling of air dispersal. In order to investigate the aerodynamic diameter of bacteria in composting bioaerosols this study used an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor for sampling and quantitative real-time PCR for quantification. Quantitative PCR results show that the size of bacteria peaked between 0.95 μm and 2.4 μm and that the geometric mean diameter of the bacteria was 1.3 μm. In addition, total microbial cells were counted by flow cytometry and revealed that these qPCR results corresponded to single whole bacteria. Finally, the enumeration of cultivable thermophilic microorganisms allowed us to set the upper size limit for fragments at an aerodynamic diameter of ∼0.3 μm. Particle-size distributions of microbial groups previously used to monitor composting bioaerosols were also investigated. In collected the bioaerosols, the aerodynamic diameter of the actinomycetes Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula-and-relatives and also of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, appeared to be consistent with a majority of individual cells. Together, this study provides the first culture-independent data on particle-size distribution of composting bioaerosols and reveals that airborne single bacteria were emitted predominantly from open-air composting facilities.

  17. Removal of polychlorinated dioxins by semi-aerobic fed-batch composting with biostimulation of "Dehalococcoides".

    PubMed

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kaiya, Shinichi; Futamata, Hiroyuki; Hiraishi, Akira

    2010-03-01

    A semi-aerobic, mesophilic, fed-batch composting (FBC) reactor loaded with household garbage was used to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The reactor was packed with woodchips as the solid matrix and PCDD/F-contaminated soil or flyash and then operated at a waste-loading rate of 0.5 kg (wet wt) day(-1). All congeners of PCDD/Fs (initial concentration, 200-830 pmol g(-1) [dry wt]) were totally reduced during the over period of operation, with a half reduction time of 4 months. Direct cell counting and respiratory quinone profiling showed that the reactors at the fully acclimated stage harbored a high population density of bacteria (10(11) g(-1) [dry wt]) with members of the Actinobacteria predominating. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the population of "Dehalococcoides" and its phylogenetic relatives of Chloroflexi as the possible dechlorinators varied between at the order of 10(7) to 10(8) g(-1) (dry wt). A "Dehalococcoides"-containing dechlorinating culture from the soil-treating reactor was successfully enriched with a model PCDD/F compound, fthalide. 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR-denaturated gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analyses showed that this culture comprised at least three major phylogenetic groups of bacteria, Acidaminobacter, "Dehalococcoides," and Rhizobium. These results suggest that the semi-aerobic FBC process is applicable for the bioremediation of PCDD/Fs and possibly other haloorganic compounds with the biostimulation of "Dehalococcoides" and its relatives as the potent dechlorinators.

  18. Dynamics of growth and succession of bacterial and fungal communities during composting of feather waste.

    PubMed

    Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Bohacz, Justyna

    2010-02-01

    Succession of communities of different bacteria and fungi, mainly proteolytic and keratinolytic ones, was observed during composting of chicken feathers with pine bark (FB) and with pine bark/rye straw (FBS). The succession was dominated by fungal than bacterial communities. Bacteria, including Actinomycetes, grew intensively during the first 2-4 weeks of composting and included mainly proteolytic, rarely cellulolytic, populations; afterwards, bacteria were gradually replaced by fungi. Meso- and thermophilic ubiquitous fungi, including cellulolytic ones, appeared among fungal representatives as the first, while keratinolytic strains were detected in the compost biomass at the 6th week of the process. The development of strains within the second fungal group was significantly more intensive than that of cellulolytic populations. The intensity of growth of particular ecological-physiological communities was found to be dependent on chemical content and C/N ratio of biomass and was the strongest in C/N=25 composts.

  19. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Kevin A; Pennington, Judith C; Kennedy, Kay R; Cox, Larry G; Hayes, Charolett A; Porter, Beth E

    2008-04-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench-scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually presentwherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway.

  20. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  1. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S S; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md Ahsan; Goswami, L; Sahariah, B; Bhattacharyya, P; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition.

  2. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2015-07-15

    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified.

  3. Influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and NH3 emissions during aerobic composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Guoxue; Gu, Jun; Wang, Guiqin; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Difang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and ammonia (NH3) emissions during kitchen waste composting. Aerobic composting of kitchen waste and cornstalks was conducted at a ratio of 85:15 (wet weight basis) in 60L reactors for 30days. The gas emissions were analyzed with force aeration at rates of 0.1 (A1), 0.2 (A2) and 0.3 (A3) L (kgDMmin)(-1), respectively. Results showed that VSCs emission at the low aeration rate (A1) was more significant than that at other two rates (i.e., A2 and A3 treatment), where no considerable emission difference was observed. On the other hand, NH3 emission reduced as the aeration rate decreased. It is noteworthy that the aeration rate did not significantly affect the compost quality. These results suggest that the aeration rate of 0.2L (kgDMmin)(-1) may be applied to control VSCs and NH3 emissions during kitchen waste composting.

  4. Importance of soil amendments: survival of bacterial pathogens in manure and compost used as organic fertizliers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological soil amendments (BSA’s) like manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to soils to improve its physical and chemical properties. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens like enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella spp, and Listeri...

  5. Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manan; Reynnells, Russell

    2016-08-01

    Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens. In the United States several commodity-specific guidelines and current and proposed federal rules exist to provide guidance on the application of BSAs as fertilizers to soils, some of which require an interval between the application of manure to soils and the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This review examines the survival, persistence, and regrowth/resuscitation of bacterial pathogens in manure, biosolids, and composts. Moisture, along with climate and the physicochemical properties of soil, manure, or compost, plays a significant role in the ability of pathogens to persist and resuscitate in amended soils. Adaptation of enteric bacterial pathogens to the nonhost environment of soils may also extend their persistence in manure- or compost-amended soils. The presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in soils may also be increased by manure application. Overall, BSAs applied as fertilizers to soils can support the survival and regrowth of pathogens. BSAs should be handled and applied in a manner that reduces the prevalence of pathogens in soils and the likelihood of transfer of food-borne pathogens to fruits and vegetables. This review will focus on two BSAs-raw manure and composted manure (and other feedstocks)-and predominantly on the survival of enteric bacterial pathogens in BSAs as applied to soils as organic fertilizers.

  6. Responses of bacterial community and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling to biochar, compost and combined amendments in soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haipeng; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Chen, Jin; Xu, Jijun; Dai, Juan; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zhou, Yaoyu; Li, Fei; Hu, Liang; Wan, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Biochar and compost are seen as two attractive waste management options and are used for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction between biochar and composting may improve the potential benefits of biochar and compost. We investigated soil physicochemical properties, bacterial community, bacterial 16S rRNA, and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling of the soil remedied with nothing (S), compost (SC), biochar (SB), a mixture of compost and biochar (SBC), composted biochar (SBced), and a composted mixture of biochar and biomass (SBCing). The results were that all amendments (1) increased the bacterial community richness (except SB) and SBCing showed the greatest efficiency; (2) increased the bacterial community diversity (SBCing > SBC > SC > SBced > SB > S); and (3) changed the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes of bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). All amendments (except SB) could increase the gene copy number of 16S rRNA, and SBCing had the greatest efficiency. The changes of soil bacterial community richness and diversity and the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA, nirK, nirS, nosZ, AOA, and AOB would affect carbon and nitrogen cycling of the ecosystem and also implied that BCing had the greatest efficiency on soil amendment.

  7. Effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, R; Gibbs, P; Burchett, S; Misselbrook, T

    2004-01-01

    Cattle manure from stock bedded on straw was aerobically composted under ambient conditions, turning with either a tractor-mounted front-end loader or a rear discharge manure spreader. Three composting experiments, each of approximately four months duration, were conducted to investigate the effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure. Manure stacks of 12-15 m(3) initial volume were constructed in separate 5 x 5 m concrete compartments. Experiment 1 (January-April 1999) compared manure heaps turned once (T1) or three times (T3) using a front-end loader with an unturned static (S) control manure stack. Experiment 2 (June-September 1999) compared the same treatments as Experiment 1. Experiment 3 (September-December 1999) compared T1 and T3 turning regimes using a front end loader with turning by a rear-discharge spreader (TR1 and TR1T2) for more effective aeration of the manure. Turning took place at 6 weeks for the one turn treatments, and after 2, 6 and 10 weeks for the three turn treatments. Leachate losses were dominated by NH(4)-N during the first three weeks of composting, after which time NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in leachates were approximately the same, in the range 0-20 mg N l(-1). The concentrations of both NH4-N and NO3-N in leachate were higher after turning. Molybdate-reactive P concentrations in leachate tended not to be significantly influenced by turning regime. Gaseous losses of NH3 and N2O rose quickly during the initial phases of composting, peaking at 152 g N t(-1) d(-1) for the T3 treatment. Mean NH3 emission rate (25-252 g N t(-1) d(-1)) for the first two weeks of Experiment 2 conducted during the period June-September were an order of magnitude greater (1-10 g N t(-1) d(-1)) than Experiment 3, conducted during the colder, wetter autumn period (September-December). Nitrous oxide emission rates ranged between 1-14 g N t(-1) d(-1) and showed little

  8. Composting: Fast 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  9. Diverse microbial communities in non-aerated compost teas suppress bacterial wilt.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, W K; Powell, S M; Evans, K J; Barry, K M

    2017-03-01

    Non-aerated compost teas (NCTs) are water extracts of composted organic materials and are used to suppress soil borne and foliar disease in many pathosystems. Greenhouse trials were used to test the effectiveness of NCTs to suppress potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on plants grown in soils inoculated with a virulent isolate of the pathogen (biovar II). NCTs prepared from matured compost sources: agricultural waste (AWCT), vermicompost (VCT) and solid municipal waste (SMWCT) were evaluated at three initial application times (7 days before inoculation, at time of inoculation and 7 days after inoculation) prior to weekly applications, in a randomized complete-block design. AWCT applied initially at the time of inoculation resulted in the greatest disease suppression, with the disease severity index 2.5-fold less than the non-treated plants and the "area under the disease progress curve" (AUDPC) 3.2-fold less. VCT and SMWCT were less suppressive than AWCT regardless of initial application time. Next generation sequencing of the v4 region of 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) revealed that diversity and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities across the NCTs varied significantly. Dominant bacterial phyla such as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and a fungal phylum Ascomycota were detected in all NCTs. AWCT had optimum physico-chemical measurements with higher bacterial Shannon diversity indices (H) and fungal richness (S) than the other treatments. We conclude that bacterial wilt of potatoes grown in controlled conditions can be suppressed by a non-aerated compost tea with a high microbial diversity when applied at planting and weekly thereafter.

  10. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism.

  11. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API(®) strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder.

  12. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API® strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  13. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  14. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  15. Use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust as adsorbents of ammoniacal nitrogen in aerobic composting process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tian-Jue; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Dan-Lian; Yu, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun; Dai, Fang; Huang, Guo-He

    2007-03-22

    Three kinds of adsorbents-potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sawdust and mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust were added respectively into composting to investigate their adsorption effect on ammonia. The experimental results showed that all the adsorbents could restrain ammonia volatilizing, with the sorption of potassium dihydrogen phosphate adsorbents being the best of all, the sorption of mixture adsorbent with potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust being the second and the sorption of sawdust adsorbent being the last. Therefore, the total nitrogen loss ratios respectively reduced from 38% to 13%, 15% and 21% after adding these three kinds of adsorbents into composting. However, potassium dihydrogen phosphate produced negative influence on composting properties as its supplemented amount exceeded a quantity basis equivalent to 18% of total nitrogen in the composting, for example: pH value had been lessened, microorganism activity reduced, which finally resulted in the reduction of biodegradation ratio of organic matter. But it did not result in these problems when using the mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust as adsorbent, in which the amount of potassium dihydrogen phosphate was under a quantity basis equivalent to 6% of total nitrogen in the composting. Moreover, the mixture adsorbent produced better adsorption effect on ammonia, and raised biodegradation ratio of organic matter from 26% to 33%.

  16. Biodegradability of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate/Bacterial Cellulose Composites under Aerobic Conditions, Measured via Evolution of Carbon Dioxide and Spectroscopic and Diffraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Ruka, Dianne R; Sangwan, Parveen; Garvey, Christopher J; Simon, George P; Dean, Katherine M

    2015-08-18

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bacterial cellulose (BC) are both natural polymeric materials that have the potential to replace traditional, nonrenewable polymers. In particular, the nanofibrillar form of bacterial cellulose makes it an effective reinforcement for PHB. Neat PHB, bacterial cellulose, and a composite of PHB/BC produced with 10 wt % cellulose were composted under accelerated aerobic test conditions, with biodegradability measured by the carbon dioxide evolution method, in conjunction with spectroscopic and diffraction methods to assess crystallinity changes during the biodegradation process. The PHB/BC composite biodegraded at a greater rate and extent than that of PHB alone, reaching 80% degradation after 30 days, whereas PHB did not reach this level of degradation until close to 50 days of composting. The relative crystallinity of PHB and PHB in the PHB/BC composite was found to increase in the initial weeks of degradation, with degradation occurring primarily in the amorphous region of the material and some recrystallization of the amorphous PHB. Small angle X-ray scattering indicates that the change in PHB crystallinity is accompanied by a change in morphology of semicrystalline lamellae. The increased rate of biodegradability suggests that these materials could be applicable to single-use applications and could rapidly biodegrade in compost on disposal.

  17. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  18. Environmental factors shaping the abundance and distribution of laccase-encoding bacterial community with potential phenolic oxidase capacity during composting.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lunhui; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Guo, Jinsong; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; Yuan, Yujie; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Increasing molecular evidence points to a wide occurrence of laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO)-encoding genes in bacteria. Most researches mainly focused on the bacterial LMCO diversity, whereas the processes and the environmental factors responsible for structuring bacterial LMCO communities remain relatively unknown in a composting system. Six gene libraries were constructed from samples in representative stages during composting. A total of 185 sequences obtained from sample DNA extracts were classified to 59 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 10 % cutoff. The distribution profile of bacterial LMCO genes showed that proteobacterial- and actinobacterial-associated species were the dominant communities during composting. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the pile temperature and water-soluble carbon (WSC) content were significantly positively correlated with bacterial LMCO gene OTU numbers, Chao1 and Shannon index, whereas the humic acid (HA)-like carbon content had the most significant effect on the distribution of the bacterial LMCO genes during composting by redundancy analysis. These findings will improve the understanding of the mutual relationship between environmental factors and bacterial LMCO community compositions in composting.

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial community differences in composting and vermicomposting on the stabilization of mixed sewage sludge and cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Liangbo

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the microbial community structures and compositions in composting and vermicomposting processes. We applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria obtained from bio-stabilization of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Results demonstrated that vermicomposting process presented higher operational taxonomic units and bacterial diversity than the composting. Analysis using weighted UniFrac indicated that composting exhibited higher effects on shaping microbial community structure than the vermicomposting. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting and shifted to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. By contrast, Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions in the whole process of the vermicomposting. Furthermore, vermicomposting contained more uncultured and unidentified bacteria at the taxonomy level of genus than the composting. In summary, the bacterial community during composting significantly differed from that during vermicomposting. These two techniques played different roles in changing the diversity and composition of microbial communities.

  20. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens.

  1. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens. PMID:24963997

  2. Bacterial diversity in a finished compost and vermicompost: differences revealed by cultivation-independent analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Fracchia, Letizia; Dohrmann, Anja B; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial communities are important catalysts in the production of composts. Here, it was analysed whether the diversity of bacteria in finished composts is stable and specific for the production process. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based on polymerase chain reaction amplified partial 16S rRNA genes was used to profile and analyse bacterial communities found in total DNA extracted from finished composts. Different batches of compost samples stored over a period of 12 years and a 1-year-old vermicompost were compared to each other. According to digital image analysis, clear differences could be detected between the profiles from compost and vermicompost. Differences between three different periods of compost storage and between replicate vermicompost windrows were only minor. A total of 41 different 16S rRNA genes were identified from the SSCP profiles by DNA sequencing, with the vast majority related to yet-uncultivated bacteria. Sequences retrieved from compost mainly belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. In contrast, vermicompost was dominated by bacteria related to uncultured Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gemmatimonadetes. The differences were underscored with specific gene probes and Southern blot hybridizations. The results confirmed that different substrates and composting processes selected for specific bacterial communities in the finished products. The specificity and consistency of the bacterial communities inhabiting the compost materials suggest that cultivation-independent bacterial community analysis is a potentially useful indicator to characterize the quality of finished composts in regard to production processes and effects of storage conditions.

  3. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  4. Manure phosphorus extractability as affected by aluminum- and iron by-products and aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Dao, T H; Sikora, L J; Hamasaki, A; Chaney, R L

    2001-01-01

    Shifts in manure phosphorus (P) chemical forms and pool sizes induced by water treatment residuals and industrial mineral by-products are largely undefined. We conducted a manure P fractionation study to determine mechanisms of reduction of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in poultry manure upon mineral by-product additions. The effects of composting on the P immobilization efficacy of the by-products were determined using laboratory self-heating composting simulators. The mineral by-products included an aluminum-water treatment residual (Al-WTR) and an iron-rich titanium-processing by-product. The noncomposted manure averaged 0.11 g g(-1) of total P as DRP forms. The by-products significantly reduced manure DRP, by an average of 39 and 48% in the Al- and the Fe-treated manure, respectively. The by-products also reduced the 0.5 M NH4F-extractable phosphorus (FEP) fraction. Shifts in P forms between FEP and 0.1 M NaOH-extractable phosphorus (SHEP) depended upon the Al and Fe contents of the by-products while the combined FEP + SHEP pool remained constant. Phosphate sorption measurements supported the observations that the Fe-rich by-product was more effective at reducing manure DRP and enhancing the formation of SHEP forms at the expense of FEP than the Al-WTR. Composting had no effect on the efficacy of either by-product to reduce DRP. Potential mechanisms of enhanced P stabilization in treated manure upon composting included chemical shifts from the DRP and FEP fractions to the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite extractable P fraction. Thus, the choice of P immobilization agents affected the stability of immobilized P forms and should be taken into consideration in developing manure processing and nutrient stabilization methods.

  5. Molecular Phylogenetic Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Communities in Cooling Stage during Swine Manure Composting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Zhang, Jinliang; Yan, Yongfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Nengwu; Deng, Changyan

    2015-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and subsequent sub-cloning and sequencing were used in this study to analyze the molecular phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of bacterial communities in different spatial locations during the cooling stage of composted swine manure. Total microbial DNA was extracted, and bacterial near full-length 16S rRNA genes were subsequently amplified, cloned, RFLP-screened, and sequenced. A total of 420 positive clones were classified by RFLP and near-full-length 16S rDNA sequences. Approximately 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found among 139 positive clones from the superstratum sample; 26 among 149 were from the middle-level sample and 35 among 132 were from the substrate sample. Thermobifida fusca was common in the superstratum layer of the pile. Some Bacillus spp. were remarkable in the middle-level layer, and Clostridium sp. was dominant in the substrate layer. Among 109 OTUs, 99 displayed homology with those in the GenBank database. Ten OTUs were not closely related to any known species. The superstratum sample had the highest microbial diversity, and different and distinct bacterial communities were detected in the three different layers. This study demonstrated the spatial characteristics of the microbial community distribution in the cooling stage of swine manure compost.

  6. Effect of different biochars on antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erping; Wu, Ying; Zuo, Yiru; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Rice straw biochar (RSB) and mushroom biochar (MB) were added to lab-scale chicken manure composting to evaluate their effects on the behaviors of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and on total and bio-available heavy metals (Cu, Zn and As). The associated bacterial community was characterized by 16SrRNA high-throughput sequencing. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria was also calculated. At the end of the control composting experiment, the average removal rate of ARGs was 0.86 log units and the removal rate of pathogenic bacteria was 57.1%. MB addition resulted in a higher removal rate than that in the control composting experiment. However, RSB addition yielded opposite results, which may be due to the higher abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Family_XI_Incertae_Sedis (belonging to Firmicutes carrying and disseminating ARGs) and pathogenic bacteria carrying ARGs. Furthermore, the correlations between bio-available heavy metals and ARGs were more obvious than those between total heavy metals and ARGs.

  7. Detection, diversity and expression of aerobic bacterial arsenite oxidase genes.

    PubMed

    Inskeep, William P; Macur, Richard E; Hamamura, Natsuko; Warelow, Thomas P; Ward, Seamus A; Santini, Joanne M

    2007-04-01

    The arsenic (As) drinking water crisis in south and south-east Asia has stimulated intense study of the microbial processes controlling the redox cycling of As in soil-water systems. Microbial oxidation of arsenite is a critical link in the global As cycle, and phylogenetically diverse arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms have been isolated from various aquatic and soil environments. However, despite progress characterizing the metabolism of As in various pure cultures, no functional gene approaches have been developed to determine the importance and distribution of arsenite-oxidizing genes in soil-water-sediment systems. Here we report for the first time the successful amplification of arsenite oxidase-like genes (aroA/asoA/aoxB) from a variety of soil-sediment and geothermal environments where arsenite is known to be oxidized. Prior to the current work, only 16 aroA/asoA/aoxB-like gene sequences were available in GenBank, most of these being putative assignments from homology searches of whole genomes. Although aroA/asoA/aoxB gene sequences are not highly conserved across disparate phyla, degenerate primers were used successfully to characterize over 160 diverse aroA-like sequences from 10 geographically isolated, arsenic-contaminated sites and from 13 arsenite-oxidizing organisms. The primer sets were also useful for confirming the expression of aroA-like genes in an arsenite-oxidizing organism and in geothermal environments where arsenite is oxidized to arsenate. The phylogenetic and ecological diversity of aroA-like sequences obtained from this study suggests that genes for aerobic arsenite oxidation are widely distributed in the bacterial domain, are widespread in soil-water systems containing As, and play a critical role in the biogeochemical cycling of As.

  8. Bacterial communities predominant in the degradation of 13C(4)-4,5,9,10-pyrene during composting.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Jianqiang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Jia, Zhongjun; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-09-01

    An in-vessel composting bioremediation of (13)C4-4,5,9,10-pyrene and unlabeled pyrene spiked soil amended with fresh wastes was investigated by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) of active bacteria involved. Highest dissipation of (13)C4-pyrene was detected at 55 °C after 42 days composting. The active bacterial communities in the composting changed over time, showing a distinct difference among different stages. α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were detected mainly involving in pyrene degradation at 38 °C over 14 days composting. Streptomyces appeared to dominate the pyrene degradation at 55 °C. β- and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant pyrene degraders at 70 °C after 42 days composting and at 38 °C after 60 days composting. The results of this study suggest the pyrene degradation was performed by phylogenetically distinct bacterial guilds from the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria during in-vessel composition processes.

  9. Communal microaerophilic-aerobic biodegradation of Amaranth by novel NAR-2 bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Chan, Giek Far; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul; Chua, Lee Suan; Ab llah, Norzarini; Nasiri, Rozita; Ikubar, Mohamed Roslan Mohamad

    2012-02-01

    A novel bacterial consortium, NAR-2 which consists of Citrobacter freundii A1, Enterococcus casseliflavus C1 and Enterobacter cloacae L17 was investigated for biodegradation of Amaranth azo dye under sequential microaerophilic-aerobic condition. The NAR-2 bacterial consortium with E. casseliflavus C1 as the dominant strain enhanced the decolorization process resulting in reduction of Amaranth in 30 min. Further aerobic biodegradation, which was dominated by C. freundii A1 and E. cloacae L17, allowed biotransformation of azo reduction intermediates and mineralization via metabolic pathways including benzoyl-CoA, protocatechuate, salicylate, gentisate, catechol and cinnamic acid. The presence of autoxidation products which could be metabolized to 2-oxopentenoate was elucidated. The biodegradation mechanism of Amaranth by NAR-2 bacterial consortium was predicted to follow the steps of azo reduction, deamination, desulfonation and aromatic ring cleavage. This is for the first time the comprehensive microaerophilic-aerobic biotransformation pathways of Amaranth dye intermediates by bacterial consortium are being proposed.

  10. The relationship between compost bedded pack performance, management, and bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Newman, M C; Akers, K A; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among temperature, moisture, carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio, space per cow, and bacterial counts from bedding material collected from compost bedded pack (CBP) barns. A field survey of 42 routinely aerated CBP barns was conducted in Kentucky between October 2010 and March 2011. Two bedding material samples of 1,064.7 cm(3) each were collected during a single site visit from 9 evenly distributed locations throughout each barn and thoroughly mixed to create a composite sample representative of the entire CBP. Bacterial counts were determined for coliforms, Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, and Bacillus spp. University of Kentucky Regulatory Services (Lexington) laboratory personnel performed nutrient analyses to determine moisture, carbon, and nitrogen contents. Surface and 10.2-cm pack depth temperatures were collected for each of the 9 evenly distributed locations and the mean calculated to produce a composite temperature. Space per cow was calculated as the total CBP area divided by number of cows housed on the CBP. The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) generated models to describe factors affecting bacterial counts. Bacterial counts were 6.3 ± 0.6, 6.0 ± 0.6, 7.2 ± 0.7, 7.9 ± 0.5, and 7.6 ± 0.5 log 10 cfu/g of dry matter for coliform, Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, and Bacillus spp., respectively. Composite temperature, CBP moisture, C:N ratio, and space per cow had no effect on coliform counts. Escherichia coli reached a peak concentration when the C:N ratio was between 30:1 and 35:1. Staphylococci counts increased as ambient temperature increased. Streptococci counts decreased with increased space per cow and composite temperature and increased with increasing ambient temperature and moisture. Streptococci counts peaked at a C:N ratio ranging from 16:1 to 18:1. Bacillus spp. counts were reduced with increasing moisture, C:N ratio, and ambient

  11. Evolution of bacterial diversity during two-phase olive mill waste ("alperujo") composting by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Tortosa, Germán; Castellano-Hinojosa, Antonio; Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main contributing factor responsible for organic matter degradation during composting. In this research, the 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to elucidate evolution of bacterial diversity during mesophilic, thermophilic and maturation composting stages of the two-phase olive mill waste ("alperujo"), the main by-product of the Spanish olive oil industry. Two similar piles were performance composting AL with sheep manure as bulking agent. Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the main phyla found in genomic libraries from each composting phase. Shannon and Chao1 biodiversity indices showed a clear difference between the mesophilic/thermophilic and maturation phases, which was mainly due to detection of new genera. PCA analysis of the relative number of sequences confirmed maturation affected bacterial population structure, and Pearson correlation coefficients between physicochemical composting parameters and relative number of genera sequences suggest that Planomicrobium and Ohtaekwangia could be considered as biomarkers for AL composting maturation.

  12. A Combination of Biochar-Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar-mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming.

  13. A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D.; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar–mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming. PMID:27092104

  14. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  15. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Robrock, Kristin R; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohent, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of the related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di-BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta,- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation.

  16. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  17. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  18. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-14

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  19. Maturity and security assessment of pilot-scale aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Wang, Yao

    2016-03-01

    In this work, penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) and sewage sludge (SWS) were co-composted to analyze the possibility of recycling nutrients in PFDs. The temperature was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days, and the final electrical conductivity (EC), pH and C/N all met the national standards in maturity. A nearly 100% removal of the residual penicillin was achieved, and the seed germination index (GI) increased from 0.02% to 83.54±3.1% by the end of the composting process. However, monitoring the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed that the logarithm of the number of copies of blaTEM increased from 4.17±0.19 at the initial phase to 8.92±0.27 by the end of the composting process, which means that there is a high risk for land use when using PFD compost products.

  20. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, P F

    1985-01-01

    Continuously thermophilic composting was examined with a 4.5-liter reactor placed in an incubator maintained at representative temperatures. Feed was a mixture of dried table scraps and shredded newspaper wetted to 55% moisture. One run at 49 degrees C (run A) employed a 1:4 feed-to-compost ratio, while the other runs used a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 50, 55, 60, or 65 degrees C. Due to self-heating, internal temperatures of the composting mass were 0 to 7 degrees C hotter than the incubator. Two full-scale composting plants (at Altoona, Pa., and Leicester, England) were also examined. Plate counts per gram (dry weight) on Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems) with 2% agar ranged from 0.7 X 10(9) to 5.3 X 10(9) for laboratory composting and 0.02 X 10(9) to 7.4 X 10(9) for field composting. Fifteen taxa were isolated, including 10 of genus Bacillus, which dominated all samples except that from run A. Species diversity decreased markedly in laboratory composting at 60 degrees C and above, but was similar for the three runs incubated at 49, 50, and 55 degrees C. The maximum desirable composting temperature based on species diversity is thus 60 degrees C, the same as that previously recommended based on measures of the rate of decomposition. PMID:4083885

  1. Systemic dexamethasone and its effect on normal aerobic bacterial flora of cow.

    PubMed

    Kojouri, Gholam-Ali; Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-06-15

    This study was carried out on 17 Holestein, heifers, aged between 1 to 2 years for determining the normal aerobic bacterial flora and their changes after dexamethasone injection. Swab samples were taken from eye, ear, pharynx and vagina before and 5 days after twice dexamethasone treatment. Results indicated that Bacillus cereus and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis had higher frequency of isolations than the other bacterial flora in eye, ear and pharynx. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated with considerable frequency from vagina. Klebsiella pneumoniae was also isolated from pharynx and its frequency was increased significantly after dexamethasone injection (p < 0.05).

  2. Succession of bacterial communities during early plant development: transition from seed to root and effect of compost amendment.

    PubMed

    Green, Stefan J; Inbar, Ehud; Michel, Frederick C; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2006-06-01

    Compost amendments to soils and potting mixes are routinely applied to improve soil fertility and plant growth and health. These amendments, which contain high levels of organic matter and microbial cells, can influence microbial communities associated with plants grown in such soils. The purpose of this study was to follow the bacterial community compositions of seed and subsequent root surfaces in the presence and absence of compost in the potting mix. The bacterial community compositions of potting mixes, seed, and root surfaces sampled at three stages of plant growth were analyzed via general and newly developed Bacteroidetes-specific, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methodologies. These analyses revealed that seed surfaces were colonized primarily by populations detected in the initial potting mixes, many of which were not detected in subsequent root analyses. The most persistent bacterial populations detected in this study belonged to the genus Chryseobacterium (Bacteroidetes) and the family Oxalobacteraceae (Betaproteobacteria). The patterns of colonization by populations within these taxa differed significantly and may reflect differences in the physiology of these organisms. Overall, analyses of bacterial community composition revealed a surprising prevalence and diversity of Bacteroidetes in all treatments.

  3. Developmental hazard assessment with FETAX: Aerobic metabolites in bacterial transformation of naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Dawson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    The underlying principle of bioremediation is the capability of microorganisms to biodegrade pollutants. When a contaminated site is biotreated, it is usually assumed that the disappearance of the pollutant means a reduction in the toxic effects of the contaminants. However, pollutants can undergo partial biodegradation or biotransformation. Microbial-mediated transformations play a critical role in the toxic effects of pollutants, as any alteration in structure can result in a change in physicochemical properties which influence toxicity. Therefore, a relevant question is; what is the toxicity of accumulative metabolites relative to the parent chemical? One class of chemicals that consistently appears at Superfund hazard waste sites is aromatic hydrocarbons. Studies of the aerobic bacterial metabolism of representative compounds, including benzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene, have revealed similar oxidative pathways. Bacterial degradation of these aromatic hydrocarbons was initiated by the addition of two molecules of oxygen via a dioxygenase enzyme, with the resulting intermediate being converted to a catechol-like compound. From a biotransformation standpoint, one of the more thoroughly studied aromatic hydrocarbons has been naphthalene. Cerniglia (1984) has identified five major intermediates, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid, gentisic acid and catechol in the aerobic bacterial degradation of naphthalene. In vitro test systems such as the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay - Xenopus (FETAX) provide a time- and resource-effective means for assessing developmental toxicity on a preliminary basis. FETAX is a 96-hr static-renewal system that uses early embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the developmental hazard, using FETAX, of exposure to the model aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthalene, and it`s known major aerobic metabolites from bacterial transformation. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  5. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K; Davenport, Russell J; Head, Ian M; Werner, David

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition.

  6. Comparative study of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial flora of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, B; Garges, S; Conrad, B; Harding, E E; Colwell, R R; Simidu, U; Taga, N

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of the bacterial flora of the water of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay was undertaken to assess similarities and differences between the autochthonous flora of the two geographical sites and to test the hypothesis that, given similarities in environmental parameters, similar bacterial populations will be found, despite extreme geographic distance between locations. A total of 195 aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay water were examined for 115 biochemical, cultural, morphological, nutritional, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by the methods of numerical taxonomy. From sorted similarity matrices, 77% of the isolates could be grouped into 30 phena and presumptively identified as Acinetobacter-Moraxella, Caulobacter, coryneforms, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. Vibrio and Acinetobacter species were found to be common in the estuarine waters of Chesapeake Bay, whereas Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Caulobacter predominated in Tokyo Bay waters, at the sites sampled in the study. PMID:453838

  7. Mineralization of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate by a Four-Member Aerobic Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Luis; Breen, Alec; Thomas, Nikki; Federle, Thomas W.; Sayler, Gary S.

    1991-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. The consortium, designated KJB, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. Three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of Pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the Aeromonas spp. Cell suspensions were grown together in minimal medium with [14C]LAS as the only carbon source. After 13 days of incubation, more than 25% of the [14C]LAS was mineralized to 14CO2 by the consortium. Pure bacterial cultures and combinations lacking any one member of the KJB bacterial consortium did not mineralize LAS. Three isolates carried out primary biodegradation of the surfactant, and one did not. This study shows that the four bacteria complemented each other and synergistically mineralized LAS, indicating catabolic cooperation among the four consortium members. PMID:16348496

  8. Aerobic bacterial microbiota isolated from the cloaca of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer; Gnat, Sebastian; Wójcik, Mariusz; Dziedzic, Roman; Kostruba, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of the aerobic cloacal bacteria of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) living in their natural environment and juvenile turtles reared under controlled conditions in a breeding center. We included 130 turtles in the study. The aerobic bacteria isolated from the cloaca of the juvenile turtles were less diverse and more prevalent than the bacteria isolated from free-living adults. We isolated 17 bacterial species from juvenile captive turtles, among which the dominant species were Cellulomonas flavigena (77/96), Enterococcus faecalis (96/96), Escherichia coli (58/96), and Proteus mirabilis (41/96). From the adult, free-living turtles, we isolated 36 bacterial species, some of which are a potential threat to public health (e.g., Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Daytona, and Braenderup; Listeria monocytogenes; Yersinia enterocolitica; Yersinia ruckeri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Vibrio fluvialis; and Serratia marcescens), and pathogens that are etiologic agents of diseases of ectothermic animals (e.g., Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, and Citrobacter braakii; the last two species were isolated from both groups of animals). The cloacal bacterial biota of the European pond turtle was characterized by numerous species of bacteria, and its composition varied with turtle age and environmental conditions. The small number of isolated bacteria that are potential human pathogens may indicate that the European pond turtle is of relatively minor importance as a threat to public health.

  9. Characterisation of the aerobic bacterial flora of boid snakes: application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Krüger, Monika; Pees, Michael

    2015-03-14

    The aim of this study was to identify aerobic bacterial isolates from the respiratory tract of boids with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). From 47 boid snakes, swabs from the oral cavity, tracheal wash samples and, in cases in which postmortem examination was performed, pulmonary tissue samples were taken. Each snake was classified as having inflammation of the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, or without evidence of inflammation based on combination of clinical, cytological and histopathological findings. Samples collected from the respiratory tract and oral cavity were inoculated onto routine media and bacteria were cultured aerobically. All morphologically distinct individual colonies obtained were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS. Unidentified isolates detected in more than three snakes were selected for further 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. Among all examined isolates (n=243), 49 per cent (n=119) could be sufficiently speciated using MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular biology revealed several bacterial species that have not been previously described in reptiles. With an average of 6.3 different isolates from the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, boids with inflammatory disease harboured significantly more bacterial species than boids without inflammatory disease (average 2.8 isolates).

  10. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-05-05

    Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/LPG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  11. Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang; Ma, Hongrui

    2011-04-01

    Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the bacterial community diversity in treatment with bamboo charcoal was greater than that of the control. Both results demonstrated that amendment with bamboo charcoal can increase microorganism population and microorganism community diversity in a sludge composting system. Moreover, the results of FTIR spectroscopy disclosed that aerobic composting can promote the formation of surface acid groups on bamboo charcoal. These surface acid groups may deprotonate and react with NH4+ to form stable complexes. Therefore, the increase of functional groups accompanied with greater assimilation of nitrogen by microorganisms could reduce nitrogen loss in sludge composting.

  12. Aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Hernández, Giovanna; Caballero, Magaly

    2006-12-01

    Bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera. Two hundred thirty-nine were Gram-negative and 86 were Gram-positive isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal samples. The Enterobacteriaceae family, including Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, was the largest Gram-negative group of bacteria recovered and comprised 127 of 239 (53.1%) of the Gram-negative isolates. Staphylococcus species was the largest Gram-positive bacteria group, including S. aureus, S. cromogenes, S. epidermis, and S. intermedius, and made up 63 of 86 (73.2%) of the Gram-positive isolates recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero National Park is composed of a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including several potential pathogens.

  13. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil.

  14. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  15. Pyrosequencing analysis of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterial community structure in the oligotrophic western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Liu, Yanting; Steindler, Laura; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) represent a widespread functional bacterial group defined by their obligate aerobic and facultative photoheterotrophic abilities. They are an active part of the marine microbial community as revealed by a large number of previous investigations. Here, we made an in-depth comparison of AAPB community structures in the subsurface water and the upper twilight zone of the western Pacific Ocean using high-throughput sequencing based on the pufM gene. Approximately, 100 000 sequences, grouped into 159 OTUs (94% cut-off value), included 44 and 24 OTUs unique to the subsurface and the upper twilight zone, respectively; 92 OTUs were common to both subsurface and twilight zone, and 3 OTUs were found in all samples. Consistent with previous studies, AAPB belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria were the dominant group in the whole water column, followed by the alphaproteobacterial AAPB. Comparing the relative abundance distribution patterns of different clades, an obvious community-structure separation according to deeper or shallower environment could be observed. Sulfitobacter-like, Loktanella-like, Erythrobacter-like, Dinoroseobacter-like and Gamma-HIMB55-like AAPB preferred the high-light subsurface water, while Methylobacterium-like, 'Citromicrobium'-like, Roseovarius-like and Bradyrhizobium-like AAPB, the dim light environment.

  16. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by an aerobic bacterial consortium using a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, T Emilia; Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, Jegan J; Poulose, T P; Thomas, P P

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye mixture by an aerobic bacterial consortium was studied in a rotating biological reactor. Laterite pebbles of particle size 850 microm to 1.44 mm were fixed on gramophone records using an epoxy resin on which the developed consortium was immobilized. Rate of degradation, BOD, biomass determination, enzymes involved, and fish bioassay were studied. The RBC has a high efficiency for dye degradation even at high dye concentrations (100 microg/mL) and high flow rate (36 L/h) at alkaline pH and salinity conditions normally encountered in the textile effluents. Bioassays (LD-50) using Thilapia fish in treated effluent showed that the percentage mortality was zero over a period of 96 h, whereas the mortality was 100% in untreated dye water within 26 h. Fish bioassay confirms that the effluent from RBC can be discharged safely to the environment.

  17. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  18. The influence of bacterial inoculants on the microbial ecology of aerobic spoilage of barley silage.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Kawchuk, L M; McAllister, T A

    1999-01-01

    The aerobic decomposition of barley silage treated with two inoculants (LacA and LacB) containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium was investigated over a 28-day period. Initially, yeast and bacterial populations were larger in silage inoculated with LacA than in silage treated with LacB or water alone (control). Differences in the succession of yeasts in silage treated with LacA were observed relative to the other two treatments. From silage treatment with LacA, Issatchenkia orientalis was the most prevalent yeast taxon over all of the sample times, and the filamentous fungus Microascus brevicaulis was also frequently isolated at later sample dates (> or = 14 days). In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus was the most prominent yeast recovered from silage treated with LacB and water alone on days 2 and 4, although it was supplanted by I. orientalis at later sample times. Successional trends of bacteria were similar for all three treatments. Lactobacillus spp. were initially the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (primarily Bacillus pumilus). However, the onset of Bacillus spp. prominence was faster in LacA silage, and Klebsiella planticola was frequently recovered at later sample times (> or = 14 days). More filamentous fungi were recovered from LacA silage on media containing carboxylmethylcellulose, pectin, or xylan. The most commonly isolated taxa were Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Byssochlamys nivea, Monascus ruber, Penicillium brevicompactum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, and M. brevicaulis. The results of this study indicated that the two bacterial inoculants incorporated into barley at the time of ensilage affected the microbial ecology of silage decomposition following exposure to air. However, neither of the microbial inoculants effectively delayed aerobic spoilage of barley silage, and the rate of decomposition of silage treated with one of the inoculants (LacA) was actually enhanced.

  19. A quasi-universal medium to break the aerobic/anaerobic bacterial culture dichotomy in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Dione, N; Khelaifia, S; La Scola, B; Lagier, J C; Raoult, D

    2016-01-01

    In the mid-19th century, the dichotomy between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was introduced. Nevertheless, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacterial species such as Ruminococcus gnavus and Fusobacterium necrophorum, in a culture medium containing antioxidants, was recently demonstrated. We tested aerobically the culture of 623 bacterial strains from 276 bacterial species including 82 strictly anaerobic, 154 facultative anaerobic, 31 aerobic and nine microaerophilic bacterial species as well as ten fungi. The basic culture medium was based on Schaedler agar supplemented with 1 g/L ascorbic acid and 0.1 g/L glutathione (R-medium). We successively optimized this media, adding 0.4 g/L uric acid, using separate autoclaving of the component, or adding haemin 0.1 g/L or α-ketoglutarate 2 g/L. In the basic medium, 237 bacterial species and ten fungal species grew but with no growth of 36 bacterial species, including 22 strict anaerobes. Adding uric acid allowed the growth of 14 further species including eight strict anaerobes, while separate autoclaving allowed the growth of all tested bacterial strains. To extend its potential use for fastidious bacteria, we added haemin for Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Eikenella corrodens and α-ketoglutarate for Legionella pneumophila. This medium allowed the growth of all tested strains with the exception of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Testing primoculture and more fastidious species will constitute the main work to be done, but R-medium coupled with a rapid identification method (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) will facilitate the anaerobic culture in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  20. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  1. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  2. [Aerobic bacterial flora from the digestive tract of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)].

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Gloriana

    2006-09-01

    This study addresses the composition of microbial flora in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) primarily because all available data are outdated, and because of the economical significance of this bat species. Twenty-one bats were collected and their aerobic bacteria documented separately for stomach and intestine. Bacteria were identified through the Analytical Profile Index (API), and results analyzed with the APILAB software. A total of thirty bacterial species were isolated from sixteen females and five males. The most common species were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, although other bacteria, such as Acinetobacterjohnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus and S. xylosus were also common. The number of species found in the stomach and intestine was significantly different, and the intestine presented a higher diversity compared to the stomach. This has previously been found in other mammals and it is attributed to a reduction of acidity. Most of the species found in this study are considered normal components of the digestive tract of mammals, although other bacteria common in the skin of mammals and from aquatic environments were found. Bacteria from the skin may invade the vampire's stomach and/or intestine when the bat has contact with its prey, and may suggest that the vampire's feeding habit facilitates the invasion of other microbes not common in its digestive tract. The fact that bacteria from aquatic environments were also found suggests that D. rotundus, as previously found by other researchers, drinks free water when available, and water may be another source of microbial invasion.

  3. Efficacy of soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol on aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves for serial mouse laparotomies.

    PubMed

    Keen, Jessica N; Austin, MaryKay; Huang, Li-Shan; Messing, Susan; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

    2010-11-01

    Rodent surgeries in biomedical research facilities are often performed in series. This practice presents many challenges to maintaining aseptic technique between animals. Here, we examined using soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol for aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves used in a series of as many as 10 mouse laparotomy surgeries. These surgeries were performed on mice that were euthanized immediately prior to the procedure. Instruments and gloves were cultured before and after each procedure to determine the presence of aerobic bacterial contamination. To assess the efficacy of the decontamination protocol, culture results were grouped by procedure and then paired (before soak and after soak) for analysis using McNemar test at an α level of 0.05. In addition, by using the Fisher exact test, this modified aseptic method was compared with strict aseptic technique, for which autoclaved instruments and sterile surgical gloves were used for each procedure. In this study, we observed that the modified aseptic technique using 70% isopropyl alcohol soaks pre- vented aerobic bacterial contamination of instruments and gloves for as many as 5 mice.

  4. Assessing the impact of composting and vermicomposting on bacterial community size and structure, and microbial functional diversity of an olive-mill waste.

    PubMed

    Vivas, A; Moreno, B; Garcia-Rodriguez, S; Benitez, E

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to couple biochemical and molecular methodologies for evaluating the impact of two recycling technologies (composting and vermicomposting) on a toxic organic waste. To do this, six enzyme activities controlling the key metabolic pathways of the breakdown of organic matter, real-time PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling-sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA fragments have been used to determine the functional diversity, bacterial number, and bacterial community structure, respectively, in a mixture of olive waste and sheep manure, and in the derived compost and vermicompost. Both the recycling technologies were effective in activating the microbial parameters of the toxic waste, the vermicomposting being the best process to produce greater bacterial diversity, greater bacterial numbers and greater functional diversity. Although several identical populations were detected in the processed and non-processed materials, each technology modified the original microbial communities of the waste in a diverse way, indicating the different roles of each one in the bacterial selection.

  5. New evidence for Cu-decorated binary-oxides mediating bacterial inactivation/mineralization in aerobic media.

    PubMed

    Rtimi, S; Pulgarin, C; Bensimon, M; Kiwi, J

    2016-08-01

    Binary oxide semiconductors TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 (TiO2-ZrO2-Cu) uniform films were sputtered on polyester (PES). These films were irradiated under low intensity solar simulated light and led to bacterial inactivation in aerobic and anaerobic media as evaluated by CFU-plate counting. But bacterial mineralization was only induced by TiO2-ZrO2-Cu in aerobic media. The highly oxidative radicals generated on the films surface under light were identified by the use of appropriate scavengers. The hole generated on the TiO2-ZrO2 films is shown to be the main specie leading to bacterial inactivation. TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 films release Zr and Ti <1ppb and Cu 4.6ppb/cm(2) as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) This level is far below the citotoxicity permitted level allowed for mammalian cells suggesting that bacterial disinfection proceeds through an oligodynamic effect. By Fourier transform attenuated infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) the systematic shift of the predominating νs(CH2) vibrational-rotational peak making up most of the bacterial cell-wall content in C was monitored. Based on this evidence a mechanism suggested leading to CH bond stretching followed by cell lysis and cell death. Bacterial inactivation cycling was observed on TiO2-ZrO2-Cu showing the stability of these films leading to bacterial inactivation.

  6. Escherichia coli removal in biochar-augmented biofilter: effect of infiltration rate, initial bacterial concentration, biochar particle size, and presence of compost.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-10-07

    Bioretention systems and biofilters are used in low impact development to passively treat urban stormwater. However, these engineered natural systems are not efficient at removing fecal indicator bacteria, the contaminants responsible for a majority of surface water impairments. The present study investigates the efficacy of biochar-augmented model sand biofilters for Escherichia coli removal under a variety of stormwater bacterial concentrations and infiltration rates. Additionally, we test the role of biochar particle size and "presence of compost on model" biofilter performance. Our results show that E. coli removal in a biochar-augmented sand biofilter is ∼ 96% and is not greatly affected by increases in stormwater infiltration rates and influent bacterial concentrations, particularly within the ranges expected in field. Removal of fine (<125 μm) biochar particles from the biochar-sand biofilter decreased the removal capacity from 95% to 62%, indicating biochar size is important. Addition of compost to biochar-sand biofilters not only lowered E. coli removal capacity but also increased the mobilization of deposited bacteria during intermittent infiltration. This result is attributed to exhaustion of attachment sites on biochar by the dissolved organic carbon leached from compost. Overall, our study indicates that biochar has potential to remove bacteria from stormwater under a wide range of field conditions, but for biochar to be effective, the size should be small and biochar should be applied without compost. Although the results aid in the optimization of biofilter design, further studies are needed to examine biochar potential in the field over an entire rainy season.

  7. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Faron, Matthew L; Buchan, Blake W; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L; Granato, Paul A; Wilson, Deborah A; Procop, Gary W; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Faron, Matthew L.; Buchan, Blake W.; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L.; Granato, Paul A.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Procop, Gary W.; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26529504

  9. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  12. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  13. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-09-30

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  14. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  15. Bacterial community and groundwater quality changes in an anaerobic aquifer during groundwater recharge with aerobic recycled water.

    PubMed

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Morris, Christina; Shackelton, Mark; Patterson, Bradley M

    2013-09-01

    Managed aquifer recharge offers the opportunity to manage groundwater resources by storing water in aquifers when in surplus and thus increase the amount of groundwater available for abstraction during high demand. The Water Corporation of Western Australia (WA) is undertaking a Groundwater Replenishment Trial to evaluate the effects of recharging aerobic recycled water (secondary treated wastewater subjected to ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet disinfection) into the anaerobic Leederville aquifer in Perth, WA. Using culture-independent methods, this study showed the presence of Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, Cytophaga, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria, and a decrease in microbial diversity with an increase in depth of aquifer. Assessment of physico-chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater before and after recharge revealed that recharging the aquifer with aerobic recycled water resulted in elevated redox potentials in the aquifer and increased bacterial numbers, but reduced microbial diversity. The increase in bacterial numbers and reduced microbial diversity in groundwater could be a reflection of an increased denitrifier and sulfur-oxidizing populations in the aquifer, as a result of the increased availability of nitrate, oxygen, and residual organic matter. This is consistent with the geochemical data that showed pyrite oxidation and denitrification within the aquifer after recycled water recharge commenced.

  16. Studies on bacterial activities in aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification.

    PubMed

    Adamse, A D; Deinema, M H; Zehnder, A J

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of the bacteriology of aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification are discussed in view of current opinions and recent developments in the technology of waste water treatment. Various contributions of scientific workers attached to the Department of Microbiology of the Agricultural University, Wageningen, during the past 65 years are summarized. Besides, present investigations are described and research activities in future indicated.

  17. Modelling aerobic biodegradation in vertical flow sand filters: impact of operational considerations on oxygen transfer and bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Wanko, A; Laurent, J; Molle, P; Mosé, R; Sadowski, A

    2012-05-01

    Oxygen renewal, as a prominent phenomenon for aerobic bacterial activity, deeply impacts Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW) treatment efficiency. We introduce a multiphase model able to simulate multi-component transfer in VFCWs. It is based on a two-phase flow module, and a transport module. The flow module can quantify both water and air velocities throughout the filter during operation. The reactive transport module follows dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations, and the transport of solutes such as ammonium and readily biodegradable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). The consumption of components is governed by Monod-type kinetics. Heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria, which are responsible for COD and ammonium degradation respectively, are part of the model components. The kinetics are based on the Constructed Wetlands Model 1. The results from the simulation tool were compared with existing experimental data, and two kinds of operation with VFCWs were investigated. The authors show strong interplay between oxygen renewal and bacterial consumption in case of sequential batch feeding with transient flooding of surface. Oxygen renewal is essentially convection mediated in such operation, while convection is not significant in non-flooding operation. Simulated bacterial patterns are impacted by the operation, both quantitatively and spatially. From a modelling point of view, the authors highlight some limitations of the biological model: the description of bacterial lysis processes needs to be enhanced, as well as ammonium adsorption to organic matter.

  18. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns.

  19. Colorado composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.

  20. Incomplete aerobic degradation of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and identification of the bacterial dead-end transformation product Guanylurea.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as personal care products are detected in increasing prevalence in different environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater and soil. Still little is known about the environmental fate of these substances. The type II antidiabetic drug Metformin has already been detected in different surface waters worldwide, but concentrations were significantly lower than the corresponding predicted environmental concentration (PEC). In human and mammal metabolism so far no metabolites of Metformin have been identified, so the expected environmental concentrations should be very high. To assess the aerobic biodegradability of Metformin and the possible formation of degradation products, three Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test series were performed in the present study. In the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), a screening test that simulates the conditions of an environmental surface water compartment, Metformin was classified as not readily biodegradable (no biodegradation). In the Manometric Respiratory test (OEDC 301 F) working with high bacterial density, Metformin was biodegraded in one of three test bottles to 48.7% and in the toxicity control bottle to 57.5%. In the Zahn-Wellens test (OECD 302 B) using activated sludge, Metformin was biodegraded in both test vessels to an extent of 51.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) showed in the tests vessels were biodegradation was observed full elimination of Metformin and revealed Guanylurea (Amidinourea, Dicyandiamidine) as single and stable aerobic bacterial degradation product. In another Manometric Respiratory test Guanylurea showed no more transformation. Photodegradation of Guanylurea was also negative. A first screening in one of the greatest sewage treatment plant in southern Germany found Metformin with high concentrations

  1. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost.

  2. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de

  3. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  4. Flexible bacterial strains that oxidize arsenite in anoxic or aerobic conditions and utilize hydrogen or acetate as alternative electron donors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Freire, Lucía; Sun, Wenjie; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2012-02-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic compound widely distributed in the groundwater around the world. The fate of arsenic in groundwater depends on the activity of microorganisms either by oxidizing arsenite (As(III)), or by reducing arsenate (As(V)). Because of the higher toxicity and mobility of As(III) compared to As(V), microbial-catalyzed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) can lower the environmental impact of arsenic. Although aerobic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria are well known, anoxic oxidation of As(III) with nitrate as electron acceptor has also been shown to occur. In this study, three As(III)-oxidizing bacterial strains, Azoarcus sp. strain EC1-pb1, Azoarcus sp. strain EC3-pb1 and Diaphorobacter sp. strain MC-pb1, have been characterized. Each strain was tested for its ability to oxidize As(III) with four different electron acceptors, nitrate, nitrite, chlorate and oxygen. Complete As(III) oxidation was achieved with both nitrate and oxygen, demonstrating the novel ability of these bacterial strains to oxidize As(III) in either anoxic or aerobic conditions. Nitrate was only reduced to nitrite. Different electron donors were used to study their suitability in supporting nitrate reduction. Hydrogen and acetate were readily utilized by all the cultures. The flexibility of these As(III)-oxidizing bacteria to use oxygen and nitrate to oxidize As(III) as well as organic and inorganic substrates as alternative electron donors explains their presence in non-arsenic-contaminated environments. The findings suggest that at least some As(III)-oxidizing bacteria are flexible with respect to electron-acceptors and electron-donors and that they are potentially widespread in low arsenic concentration environments.

  5. Characterisation and optimisation of three potential aerobic bacterial strains for kraft lignin degradation from pulp paper waste.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R; Raj, A; Purohit, H J; Kapley, A

    2007-03-01

    Eight aerobic bacterial strains were isolated from pulp paper mill effluent sludge. Out of eight through nutrient enrichment technique three potential aerobic bacterial strains ITRC S(6), ITRC S(7) and ITRC S(8) were found capable to effectively degrade the kraft lignin (KL), a major byproduct of the chemical pulping process and main contributor to the colour and toxicity of effluent. Further, these potential strains (ITRC S(6), ITRC S(7) and ITRC S(8)) were biochemically characterised as Gram variable small rod, Gram negative rod and Gram positive rod respectively. Subsequently, 16S rRNA sequencing showed 95% base sequence homology and it was identified as Paenibacillus sp. (AY952466), Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus (AY856831), Bacillus sp. (AY952465) for ITRC S(6), IITRC S(7) and ITRC S(8), respectively. In batch decolourization experiments Bacillus sp. ITRC S(8) reduced the colour of lignin amended mineral salt medium, pH 7.6 by 65% after 6th d, at 30 degrees C, A. aneurinilyticus ITRC S(7) by 56% and Paenibacillus ITRC S(6) 43%. Under these conditions the three strains degraded the KL by 37%, 33% and 30%, respectively while the mixed culture of these three bacteria reduced colour by 69%, lignin by 40% and total substrate by 50% under same conditions. Biodegradation of the KL was not affected by low (<0.2 mg l(-1)) dissolved oxygen content; thus oxygen inhibition is more likely to be a metabolism-dependent event. Initially with 48 h incubation the decolourization was slow with decreased pH. Further incubation there was rapid decolourization with slight increase in pH at 6d compared with initial pH by increasing culture optical density. The lignin analysis from medium with HPLC indicated complete degradation rather than biotransformation with complete loss of absorbance peak at 280 nm.

  6. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Qing-Song; Zhang, You-Bing; Guo, Mao-Wei; Gong, An-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Wu, Ai-Bo; Huang, Tao; Qu, Bo; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON). Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10) and temperatures (20–37 °C) values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation. PMID:27669304

  7. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  8. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  9. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  10. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting.

  11. Bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products under aerobic conditions at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rongrong; Yu, Xiaoqiao; Wang, Renhuan; Luo, Xin; Mao, Yanwei; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzed the bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically at 4°C, using "bone and chicken string," a product popular in the People's Republic of China, as the study subject. Samples collected from three different factories were tray packaged with cling film and stored at 4°C. Bacterial diversity and dominant bacteria were analyzed using PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Combined with selective cultivation of the dominant bacteria and correlation analysis, the dominant spoilage microbiota was determined. The results showed that bacterial diversity varied with different manufacturers. Such bacteria as Acinetobacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Rahnella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix sp., and Weissella sp. were detected in freshly prepared chicken products during storage. And Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Brochothrix sp. bacteria were the common dominant spoilage bacteria groups in most freshly prepared chicken products from different factories. Carnobacterium was, for the first time, shown to be an important contributor to the spoilage-related microflora of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. Our work shows the bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage microbiota of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration.

  12. Continuous Thermophilic Composting12

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, K. L.

    1962-01-01

    Under complete mixing conditions, aerobic decomposition of mixed organic waste materials has been maintained continuously in the thermophilic phase in a 55-gal rotating drum. Temperatures ranged between 53 and 70 C. Raw material was added daily or every second day in amounts up to 18 lb per 100 lb of decomposing material. The weight of material removed ranged between 42 and 60% of the raw material added. Factors influencing the operation of the composting unit were studied in detail. Images FIG. 2 PMID:13909559

  13. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. Results: The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively. PMID:26114142

  14. The p-nitroaniline test to asses the bacterial microbiota of raw ground meat aerobically stored.

    PubMed

    López Tomás, L A; Ordóñez, J A; de Fernando, G García

    2006-02-01

    The previously developed p-nitroaniline test for assessing the microbial load of meat surfaces has been now adapted to determine the microbial quality of raw ground meat. A good correlation (r=0.91) between bacterial count determined by the pour plate method and the p-nitroaniline test was obtained. The sensitivity of the new method was of the order of magnitude of 10(4)cfu/g. This method allows the assay of ground meat in approximately 2.5h, it does not require expensive equipment and the results can be interpreted both spectrophotometrically and visually. Additionally, it has been proven that the method is useful in estimating the microbial quality of raw meat irrespective of the species of Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria prevailing in the meat during refrigerated storage.

  15. Characterization of a Planctomycetal Organelle: a Novel Bacterial Microcompartment for the Aerobic Degradation of Plant Saccharides

    PubMed Central

    Erbilgin, Onur; McDonald, Kent L.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles that encapsulate functionally linked enzymes within a proteinaceous shell. The prototypical example is the carboxysome, which functions in carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophs. It is increasingly apparent that diverse heterotrophic bacteria contain BMCs that are involved in catabolic reactions, and many of the BMCs are predicted to have novel functions. However, most of these putative organelles have not been experimentally characterized. In this study, we sought to discover the function of a conserved BMC gene cluster encoded in the majority of the sequenced planctomycete genomes. This BMC is especially notable for its relatively simple genetic composition, its remote phylogenetic position relative to characterized BMCs, and its apparent exclusivity to the enigmatic Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes. Members of the phylum Planctomycetes are known for their morphological dissimilarity to the rest of the bacterial domain: internal membranes, reproduction by budding, and lack of peptidoglycan. As a result, they are ripe for many discoveries, but currently the tools for genetic studies are very limited. We expanded the genetic toolbox for the planctomycetes and generated directed gene knockouts of BMC-related genes in Planctomyces limnophilus. A metabolic activity screen revealed that BMC gene products are involved in the degradation of a number of plant and algal cell wall sugars. Among these sugars, we confirmed that BMCs are formed and required for growth on l-fucose and l-rhamnose. Our results shed light on the functional diversity of BMCs as well as their ecological role in the planctomycetes, which are commonly associated with algae. PMID:24487526

  16. Aerobic degradation of ibuprofen in batch and continuous reactors by an indigenous bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, María Susana; Fuentes Abril, Nancy Piedad; Martinefski, Manuela; Trípodi, Valeria; Papalia, Mariana; Rádice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith

    2016-10-01

    Water from six points from the Riachuelo-Matanza basin was analyzed in order to assess ibuprofen biodegradability. In four of them biodegradation of ibuprofen was proved and degrading bacterial communities were isolated. Biodegradation in each point could not be correlated with sewage pollution. The indigenous bacterial community isolated from the point localized in the La Noria Bridge showed the highest degradative capacity and was selected to perform batch and continuous degradation assays. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the community consisted of Comamonas aquatica and Bacillus sp. In batch assays the community was capable of degrading 100 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen in 33 h, with a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.21 h(-1). The removal of the compound, as determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exceeded 99% of the initial concentration, with a 92.3% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In a down-flow fixed-bed continuous reactor, the community shows a removal efficiency of 95.9% of ibuprofen and 92.3% of COD for an average inlet concentration of 110.4 mg. The reactor was kept in operation for 70 days. The maximal removal rate for the compound was 17.4 g m(-3) d(-1). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe biofilm development in the reactor. The ability of the isolated indigenous community can be exploited to improve the treatment of wastewaters containing ibuprofen.

  17. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  18. Effects of composting process on the dissipation of extractable sulfonamides in swine manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Xuelian; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Shen, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of composting on the fate of sulfonamides (SAs) in the manure-straw mixture were explored through a simulation of aerobic composting process. Additionally, factors of temperature and coexistence of heavy metal Cu that might influence the removal efficiency were particularly investigated. As shown in the results, the extractable SAs dissipated rapidly during the composting process. The coexistence of Cu in the composting process might have delayed the decline of SAs, but the drugs could still be completely removed by the end of the composting. In contrast to the thermophilic aerobic composting, extractable SAs in air-temperature-placed mixture dissipated much slower and 1.12-1.56mg/kg could be detected after 35days of incubation. The results confirmed that temperature could influence the dissipation of SAs, which was identified as a more important factor than Cu-coexistence. Hence, thermophilic aerobic composting is an effective process to eliminate VAs before manure land application.

  19. Aerobic Degradation of Dinitrotoluenes and Pathway for Bacterial Degradation of 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Shirley F.; Paoli, George C.; Spain, Jim C.

    2000-01-01

    An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. We report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize 2,4-DNT by the same pathway and the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that mineralize 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkholderia cepacia strain JS850 and Hydrogenophaga palleronii strain JS863 grew on 2,6-DNT as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The initial steps in the pathway for degradation of 2,6-DNT were determined by simultaneous induction, enzyme assays, and identification of metabolites through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. 2,6-DNT was converted to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol by a dioxygenation reaction accompanied by the release of nitrite. 3-Methyl-4-nitrocatechol was the substrate for extradiol ring cleavage yielding 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoic acid, which was converted to 2-hydroxy-5-nitropenta-2,4-dienoic acid. 2,4-DNT-degrading strains also converted 2,6-DNT to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol but did not metabolize the 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. Although 2,6-DNT prevented the degradation of 2,4-DNT by 2,4-DNT-degrading strains, the effect was not the result of inhibition of 2,4-DNT dioxygenase by 2,6-DNT or of 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol monooxygenase by 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. PMID:10788393

  20. Risk factors for aerobic bacterial conjunctival flora in preoperative cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, S; Hashida, M; Urabe, K

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo investigate the relationship between the background of preoperative cataract patients and bacterial conjunctival flora.MethodsA total of 990 cataract patients who had completed preoperative examinations in 2007 and 2008 were included. Patients using topical antibiotics at the preoperative examination or having a history of intraocular surgery were excluded. Conjunctival cultures had been preoperatively obtained. Patient characteristics were investigated via medical records. Risk factors for conjunctival flora of seven typical bacteria were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsThe detection rate of alpha-hemolytic streptococci and Enterococcus faecalis increased with age (P=0.044 and P=0.002, respectively). The detection rate of Gram-negative bacilli was higher among patients with oral steroid use or lacrimal duct obstruction (P=0.038 and P=0.002, respectively). The detection rate of Corynebacterium species was higher among older patients and men, and lower among patients with glaucoma eye drop use (P<0.001, P=0.012 and P=0.001, respectively). The detection rate of methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative Staphylococci was higher among men and lower among patients with a surgical history in other departments (P=0.003 and P=0.046, respectively). The detection rate of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MR-CNS) was higher among patients with oral steroid use, a visit history to ophthalmic facilities, or a surgical history in other departments (P=0.002, P=0.037 and P<0.001, respectively).ConclusionsElderly patients, men, patients with lacrimal duct obstruction or immunosuppressed patients are more likely to be colonized by pathogens that cause postoperative endophthalmitis. Moreover, MR-CNS colonization was associated with healthcare-associated infection.

  1. Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments.

    PubMed

    Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Gorbushina, Anna; Fortune, Irene; Marquardt, Jürgen; Saarela, Maria

    2007-09-01

    Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 10(5) and 10(7)cfug(-1) substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. "vulgaris" (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.

  2. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages.

  3. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages

  4. Effects of different compost amendments on the abundance and composition of alkB harboring bacterial communities in a soil under industrial use contaminated with hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Wallisch, Stefanie; Gril, Tjasa; Dong, Xia; Welzl, Gerd; Bruns, Christian; Heath, Ester; Engel, Marion; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alkane degrading microorganisms play an important role for the bioremediation of petrogenic contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of compost addition on the abundance and diversity of bacteria harboring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in an oil-contaminated soil originated from an industrial zone in Celje, Slovenia (Technosol). Soil without any amendments (control soil) and soil amended with two composts differing in their maturation stage and nutrient availability, were incubated under controlled conditions in a microcosm experiment and sampled after 0, 6, 12, and 36 weeks of incubation. As expected the addition of compost stimulated the degradation of alkanes in the investigated soil shortly after the addition. By using quantitative real-time PCR higher number of alkB genes were detected in soil samples amended with compost compared to the control soils. To get an insight into the composition of alkB harboring microbial communities, we performed next generation sequencing of amplicons of alkB gene fragment. Richness and diversity of alkB gene harboring prokaryotes was higher in soil mixed with compost compared to control soils with stronger effects of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost. The phylogenetic analysis of communities suggested that the addition of compost stimulated the abundance of alkB harboring Actinobacteria during the experiment independent from the maturation stage of the compost. AlkB harboring γ-proteobacteria like Shewanella or Hydrocarboniphaga as well as α-proteobacteria of the genus Agrobacterium responded also positively to the addition of compost to soil. The amendment of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost resulted in addition in a large increase of alkB harboring bacteria of the Cytophaga group (Microscilla) mainly at the early sampling time points. Our data indicates that compost amendments significantly change abundance and diversity pattern of alkB harboring microbes in Technosol and

  5. Effects of different compost amendments on the abundance and composition of alkB harboring bacterial communities in a soil under industrial use contaminated with hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wallisch, Stefanie; Gril, Tjasa; Dong, Xia; Welzl, Gerd; Bruns, Christian; Heath, Ester; Engel, Marion; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alkane degrading microorganisms play an important role for the bioremediation of petrogenic contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of compost addition on the abundance and diversity of bacteria harboring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in an oil-contaminated soil originated from an industrial zone in Celje, Slovenia (Technosol). Soil without any amendments (control soil) and soil amended with two composts differing in their maturation stage and nutrient availability, were incubated under controlled conditions in a microcosm experiment and sampled after 0, 6, 12, and 36 weeks of incubation. As expected the addition of compost stimulated the degradation of alkanes in the investigated soil shortly after the addition. By using quantitative real-time PCR higher number of alkB genes were detected in soil samples amended with compost compared to the control soils. To get an insight into the composition of alkB harboring microbial communities, we performed next generation sequencing of amplicons of alkB gene fragment. Richness and diversity of alkB gene harboring prokaryotes was higher in soil mixed with compost compared to control soils with stronger effects of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost. The phylogenetic analysis of communities suggested that the addition of compost stimulated the abundance of alkB harboring Actinobacteria during the experiment independent from the maturation stage of the compost. AlkB harboring γ-proteobacteria like Shewanella or Hydrocarboniphaga as well as α-proteobacteria of the genus Agrobacterium responded also positively to the addition of compost to soil. The amendment of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost resulted in addition in a large increase of alkB harboring bacteria of the Cytophaga group (Microscilla) mainly at the early sampling time points. Our data indicates that compost amendments significantly change abundance and diversity pattern of alkB harboring microbes in Technosol and

  6. Aerobic biodegradation of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye by a bacterial community immobilized in a multistage packed-bed BAC reactor.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arias, Alfredo; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; de los Cobos-Vasconcelos, Daniel; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Salmerón-Alcocer, Angélica; Ahuatzi-Chacón, Deifilia; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio

    2010-11-01

    A microbial community able to aerobically degrade the azo dye Acid Orange 7 was selected from riparian or lacustrine sediments collected at sites receiving textile wastewaters. Three bacterial strains, pertaining to the genera Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Rhizobium, constitute the selected community. The biodegradation of AO7 was carried out in batch-suspended cell culture and in a continuously operated multistage packed-bed BAC reactor. The rapid decolorization observed in batch culture, joined to a delay of about 24 h in COD removal and cell growth, suggests that enzymes involved in biodegradation of the aromatic amines generated after AO7 azo-bond cleavage (1-amino-2-naphthol [1-A2N] and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid [4-ABS]), are inducible in this microbial consortium. After this presumptive induction period, the accumulated byproducts, measured through COD, were partially metabolized and transformed in cell mass. At all azo dye loading rates used, complete removal of AO7 and 1-A2N was obtained in the multistage packed-bed BAC reactor (PBR).; however, the overall COD (eta ( COD )) and 4-ABS (eta ( ABS )) removal efficiencies obtained in steady state continuous culture were about 90%. Considering the toxicity of 1-A2N, its complete removal has particular relevance. In the first stages of the packed-bed BAC reactor (Fig. 4a-c), major removal was observed. In the last stage, only a slight removal of COD and 4-ABS was obtained. Comparing to several reported studies, the continuously operated multistage packed-bed BAC reactor showed similar or superior results. In addition, the operation of large-packed-bed BAC reactors could be improved by using several shallow BAC bed stages, because the pressure drop caused by bed compaction of a support material constituted by small and fragile particles can be reduced.

  7. Cloacal aerobic bacterial flora and absence of viruses in free-living slow worms (Anguis fragilis), grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and European Adders (Vipera berus) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Mock, Ronja; Burgkhardt, Eileen; Junghanns, Anja; Ortlieb, Falk; Szabo, Istvan; Marschang, Rachel; Blindow, Irmgard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Disease problems caused by viral or bacterial pathogens are common in reptiles kept in captivity. There is no information available on the incidence of viral pathogens or the physiological cloacal bacterial flora of common free-living reptiles in Germany. Therefore, 56 free-living reptiles including 23 European adders (Vipera berus), 12 grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and 21 slow worms (Anguis fragilis) were investigated on the island Hiddensee in northeastern Germany. Pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken immediately after capture. Bacteriological examination was performed from the cloacal swabs to study the aerobic cloacal flora. Molecular biological examination included amplification of DNA or RNA from adeno-, rana- and ferlaviruses as well as culturing on Russell's viper heart cells for virus isolation. Salmonella spp. were isolated from European adders but not from the other reptiles examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined from the isolated Salmonella spp. However, some potentially human pathogenic bacteria, such as Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were isolated. Viruses were not detected in any of the examined reptiles. To the authors' best knowledge, the present study is the first survey of viral pathogens in free-living snakes and slow worms in Germany and the first survey of cloacal aerobic bacterial flora of slow worms.

  8. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-06-15

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  9. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  10. Successful bioremediation with compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    An Air Force Base has begun using a composting process developed by a private company to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons on site. In the process, a layer of compost is placed on top of the sealer to prevent accidental damage by the equipment. Then a layer of contaminated soil is applied, followed by another layer of compost and a final layer of turkey manure supplied by a local farmer on top. Two passes are made with the Scat to provide thorough mixing. Different techniques were examined to turn volumes of the material and it was found that this equipment works very well for smaller batches. After mixing, materials are covered with a gray, vinyl-coated nylon cover to protect the pile from the elements and encourage bacterial growth. The tarp is tied to eyelets inserted every five feet along the curb of the treatment area. Although not specifically developed for hazardous materials, PXS has piloted the process to handle PCBs, trichlorethylene, benzopyrene and other chemicals found around wood preservative plants, manufactured gas plants and military installations. It is seen that they are all degraded: first the white rot degrades them and then the bacteria metabolizes them.

  11. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Srinath R. . E-mail: srinathrangamani@yahoo.com; Bhave, Prashant P. . E-mail: drppbhave@vsnl.net

    2006-07-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  12. Biogas, compost and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wichert, B.; Wittrup, L.; Robel, R.

    1994-08-01

    A pilot project now under development in Folsom, California, incorporates an anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process that could eventually supply enough biogas to a fuel cell. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has two fuel cells in operation and is participating in the research project. Recently, the California Prison Industry Authority (PIA) began operating a processing facility at the Folsom prison, designed for 100 tons/day of mixed waste from the City of Folsom. The 35,000 square foot Correctional Resource Recovery Facility (CRRF) uses minimum security inmates from Folsom`s Return to Custody Facility to manually separate recyclables and compostable materials from the waste stream. The PIA will be using a new technology, high solids anaerobic digestion, to compost the organic fraction (representing approximately 60 to 70 percent of the waste stream). Construction began in June on a 40-foot wide by 120-foot long and 22-foot deep anaerobic digester. Once the vessel is operational in 1995, the composting process and the gradual breakdown of organic material will produce biogas, which SMUD hopes to use to power an adjacent two megawatt fuel cell. The electricity generated will serve SMUD customers, including the waste facility and nearby correctional institutions. 1 fig.

  13. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  14. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  15. Anaerobic and aerobic degradation of cyanophycin by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1 and role of three other coisolates in a mixed bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    Four bacterial strains were isolated from a cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP)-degrading anaerobic consortium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and assigned to species of the genera Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Paenibacillus. The consortium member responsible for CGP degradation was assigned as Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain DIP1. The growth of and CGP degradation by strain DIP1 under anaerobic conditions were enhanced but not dependent on the presence of nitrate as an electron acceptor. CGP was hydrolyzed to its constituting beta-Asp-Arg dipeptides, which were then completely utilized within 25 and 4 days under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The end products of CGP degradation by strain DIP1 were alanine, succinate, and ornithine as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The facultative anaerobic Enterococcus casseliflavus strain ELS3 and the strictly anaerobic Clostridium sulfidogenes strain SGB2 were coisolates and utilized the beta-linked isodipeptides from the common pool available to the mixed consortium, while the fourth isolate, Paenibacillus odorifer strain PNF4, did not play a direct role in the biodegradation of CGP. Several syntrophic interactions affecting CGP degradation, such as substrate utilization, the reduction of electron acceptors, and aeration, were elucidated. This study demonstrates the first investigation of CGP degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions by one bacterial strain, with regard to the physiological role of other bacteria in a mixed consortium.

  16. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council... Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composting management or conditions that result in inadequate exposure of the compostable materials to destructive time-temperature regimens can result in survival of enteric human pathogens. Bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., can regrow in finished compost. ...

  17. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  18. Aerobic bacterial flora of the vagina and prepuce of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and investigation of associations with urogenital carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shawn; Lowenstine, Linda; Gulland, Frances; Jang, Spencer; Imai, Denise; Almy, Frederic; Delong, Robert; Gardner, Ian

    2006-04-16

    To investigate the association between genital bacterial infection and urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), vaginal and preputial swabs for bacterial isolation were taken from 148 free-ranging and 51 stranded California sea lions including 16 animals with urogenital carcinoma. Cytological examination of vaginal or preputial smears showed a majority (65.5%, 57/87) of animals examined had mild or no inflammation. Aerobic bacteria were isolated from 116 (78.4%) wild sea lions and 100% of stranded animals. A total of 403 isolates were identified representing 51 unique bacterial species. The median number of isolates per animal increased with age in the wild group, but there was no difference in the number of isolates per animal between wild and stranded adults. The most common bacteria isolated from the wild sea lions were Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (39 isolates), non-hemolytic Streptococcus (35 isolates), Corynebacterium spp. (30 isolates), and Escherichia coli (20 isolates). More bacterial species were isolated from stranded animals than wild animals (33 versus 26) and there was significantly less growth of P. phenylpyruvicus, Corynebacterium spp., and Moraxella-like spp. in the stranded animals. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was the only bacterium significantly associated with urogenital carcinomas in California sea lions, but only in females.

  19. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw.

  20. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  1. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems.

  2. Effects of Copper Addition on Copper Resistance, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and intl1 during Swine Manure Composting

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Wen; Zhang, Kaiyu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao

    2017-01-01

    Copper is one of the most abundant heavy metals present in swine manure. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerobic composting system was amended with Cu at three levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg-1, i.e., control, Cu200, and Cu2000 treatments, respectively) to determine its effect on the fate of copper resistance genes [copper resistance genes (CRGs): pcoA, cusA, copA, and tcrB], antibiotic resistance genes [antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): erm(A) and erm(B)], and intl1. The results showed that the absolute abundances of pcoA, tcrB, erm(A), erm(B), and intl1 were reduced, whereas those of copA and cusA increased after swine manure composting. Redundancy analysis showed that temperature significantly affected the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1. The decreases in CRGs, ARGs, and intI1 were positively correlated with the exchangeable Cu levels. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments, where the high concentration of copper had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. Network analysis determined that the co-occurrence of CRGs, ARGs, and intI1, and the bacterial community were the main contributors to the changes in CRGs, ARG, and intl1. Thus, temperature, copper, and changes in the bacterial community composition had important effects on the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1 during manure composting in the presence of added copper. PMID:28316595

  3. Effects of Copper Addition on Copper Resistance, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and intl1 during Swine Manure Composting.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Wen; Zhang, Kaiyu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao

    2017-01-01

    Copper is one of the most abundant heavy metals present in swine manure. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerobic composting system was amended with Cu at three levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg(-1), i.e., control, Cu200, and Cu2000 treatments, respectively) to determine its effect on the fate of copper resistance genes [copper resistance genes (CRGs): pcoA, cusA, copA, and tcrB], antibiotic resistance genes [antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): erm(A) and erm(B)], and intl1. The results showed that the absolute abundances of pcoA, tcrB, erm(A), erm(B), and intl1 were reduced, whereas those of copA and cusA increased after swine manure composting. Redundancy analysis showed that temperature significantly affected the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1. The decreases in CRGs, ARGs, and intI1 were positively correlated with the exchangeable Cu levels. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments, where the high concentration of copper had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. Network analysis determined that the co-occurrence of CRGs, ARGs, and intI1, and the bacterial community were the main contributors to the changes in CRGs, ARG, and intl1. Thus, temperature, copper, and changes in the bacterial community composition had important effects on the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1 during manure composting in the presence of added copper.

  4. [Effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Wan; Xu, Xiu-Hong; Li, Hong-Tao

    2011-10-01

    Taking the cow dung and straw as composting raw materials, effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost was investigated with the traditional culture method and PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the microbiological inocula showed a more rapid rate of temperature elevation at the start of composting and prolonged the time of high-temperature process and increased the number of microbial. The DGGE map of cellulose-decomposing strain compost was different from natural compost, the succession of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain was faster than natural compost. Sequence comparison revealed that the Pseudomonas sp. of bacterial appeared at the initial stage and Acinetobacter sp., Flavobacteria were existed at the high-temperature process in natural compost; while Arthrobacter sp. was appeared at the high-temperature process in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Bacillus sp. was dominant species at middle and later stage in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Eimeriidae of fungal appeared in compost materials, Aspergillus and thermophilic fungi were dominant species at the high-temperature process in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Ascomycota appeared at middle and later stage in natural compost; while Basidiomycetes in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Aspergillus was found throughout the process. This result suggested that the microbiological inocula were able to facilitate the bacterial microbial diversity of the compost; reduced the fungal microbial diversity of the compost. The aims of this study were to provide a scientific basis to the diversity of microbial community by monitoring the dynamics of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain compost and represent an important step towards the understanding of microbiological inocula and its function in the degradation process of compost.

  5. Co-composting of gelatin industry sludge combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste and poultry waste employing zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    This work illustrates the co-composting of gelatin industry sludge (GIS) combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and poultry waste (PW) employing 10% zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacteria consortium (ENBC). Five piles of GIS were prepared mixed with OFMSW and PW at 2:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5, 6:1:0.5 and 8:1:0.5 and without GIS 0:1:0.5 (dry weight basis) served as control, while 10% zeolite mixed with ENBC was inoculated in all piles and composted for 42days. The Pile-4 with GIS, OFMSW and PW ratio 6:1:0.5 and 10% zeolite+ENBC were drastically reduced the nitrogen loss and enhance the mineralization rate as compare to other piles. The co-amendment of 6% GIS effectively buffered the pH between ∼7.5 to 8.0 and shortened the compost maturity period, while lower concentration of GIS was comparatively delayed the early decomposition. Therefore, our results suggested that suitability of 10% zeolite+ENBC with initial feedstock ratio 6:1:0.5 as the best formulation for the composting of GIS into value-added stable product.

  6. Comparative assessment of bacterial inoculation and propionic acid treatment of aerobic stability and microbial populations of ensiled high-moisture ear corn.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, S; Phillip, L E; Fellner, V; Idziak, E S

    1996-02-01

    High-moisture ear corn (HMEC) was untreated, treated with propionic acid (PA), or inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and allowed to ensile in laboratory silos for 0, 7, 21, 42, 138, or 202 d. The silages were evaluated for fermentation quality, microbial populations, and aerobic stability. In all treatments, silage pH declined rapidly within 7 d, but the rate of decline seemed greatest with the inoculum. The lactic acid content of inoculated HMEC was higher (P < .05) than that of control of PA-treated HMEC. Regardless of treatment, the population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased (P < .1) up to 7 to 21 d of fermentation then declined; LAB counts decreased (P < .05) up to 42 d in control and PA-treated silage but continued to decline until 138 d for inoculated silage. Yeast and mold counts tended to decrease up to 42 d of ensiling then decreased (P < .05) as fermentation progressed. Between 138 and 202 d of ensiling, the control silage showed a marked increase (P < .10) in pH and yeast and mold populations, providing evidence of secondary fermentation; PA treatment and bacterial inoculation prevented secondary fermentation. Inoculation tended to reduce estimates of sample temperature for silage stored for 138 d and exposed to air, but not for the corresponding silage stored for 202 d. Treatment with PA prevented the loss (P > .05) of acetic acid and the rise (P > .05) in pH during air exposure of the 138-d silage; both control and PA-treated silage showed an increase (P < .05) in yeast and mold populations, but the increments were 38% and 23%, respectively. Compared with PA, the relative efficacy of inoculation in improving aerobic spoilage of HMEC depended on the period of silo storage and the criterion used to assess aerobic stability.

  7. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobic cultivation.

    PubMed

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M; Weightman, Andrew J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by "JW") was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  8. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  9. The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G

    2007-03-01

    Composting is a natural biological decomposition process that takes place under aerobic and thermophilic conditions. It can be used for the day-to-day management of mortalities on farms and for carcass disposal in emergency animal disease (EAD) outbreaks. In mortality composting, carcasses are placed in piles or bins together with supplemental carbon sources such as sawdust, litter, straw or wood shavings. Composting is particularly suitable for broiler-farm mortalities and litter. In the case of emergency disease outbreaks, composting can be conducted either inside or outside the poultry house following killing. Composting has been successfully employed for emergency disposal of carcasses in a few cases in North America, but research is lacking on the biosecurity of the process. Composting is a well-established pathogen reduction technology, but process management and heterogenous pile conditions pose particular challenges for validating the microbiological safety of mortality composting. This paper reviews the available information on the biosecurity of mortality composting, identifies potential sources of risk, and highlights emerging research needs. Reports to date of the use of composting in EAD outbreaks are also discussed.

  10. Composting barrel for sustainable organic waste management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, Md Azizul; Bushra, Quazi Sifat; Rahman, M H

    2011-12-01

    To ensure quick and uniform aerobic stabilization of biowaste through domestic composting and to prevent malodorous emissions, two modifications were made to a conventional steel barrel composter by: (1) providing 0.0125 m diameter openings throughout the sides and (2) placing a 0.0254 m diameter perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in the middle portion of the barrel. The volume of composting waste before modification of the composting barrel was 40% of the original volume and it was 70%, 4 weeks following the modifications. In addition, the nutrients in the compost were found to be in a more suitable range after modification of the composting barrel. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the compost was in the ideal range of 11-15 in the modified composting reactor but it was quite high (24-25) in the conventional barrel. This modified barrel composting plant proved to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective solution for the management of organic solid waste materials in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries such as Bangladesh.

  11. The influence of treatment with dual purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Salawu, M B; Dean, D B; Staples, C R

    2004-10-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of an inoculant (BB), molasses, or a mixture of either BB and molasses (BBM) or BB and fibrolytic enzymes (BBE) for improving the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass. A 6-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved in quadruplicate mini silos alone or after treatment application. The inoculant contained a mixture of P. pentosaceus 12455, 1 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, L. buchneri 40788, 4 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, and xylanase; BBE contained similar bacteria and enzymes as BB, but greater enzyme activities. Chemical composition was quantified after 2, 4, 7, 30, and 60 d of ensiling. Microbial composition and aerobic stability were measured after 60 d of ensiling, at which point the pH of additive-treated silages was consistently lower and DM recovery was higher than in untreated silages. The BB, BBM, and molasses-treated silages had less ammonia N than untreated silages, and BB, BBM, and BBE-treated silages had less residual water-soluble carbohydrates than untreated silages. All silages had high acetic acid (47.5 g/kg DM) and low lactic acid (1.7 g/kg DM) concentrations. However, untreated and BBE-treated silages had more butyric acid and ammonia N, suggesting that a clostridial fermentation had occurred. These butyric forages were more aerobically stable (27 d) but less desirable for feeding than those ensiled with BB or molasses, which were stable for 6.9 d. In conclusion, BB and molasses treatments improved the digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass and produced higher quality silages that were stable for 6.9 d. Mixing BB with molasses or the inoculant tested was not more beneficial than BB or molasses alone.

  12. Performance of compostable baby used diapers in the composting process with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Colón, Joan; Mestre-Montserrat, Maria; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    In modern societies, disposable diapers constitute a significant percentage of municipal solid wastes. They have been traditionally landfilled or incinerated as only limited recycling processes are being implemented in some parts of Europe. With the implementation of separated collection systems for the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSWs) and the need to preserve the environment, compostable diapers have appeared in the market to avoid the main environmental impacts associated to non-biodegradable disposable diapers. In this study, a full-scale composting of door-to-door collected OFMSW with a 3% (w/w) of compostable diapers has also been carried out. Previously, lab-scale experiments confirmed that almost 50% of carbon of compostable diapers is emitted as CO2 under aerobic controlled conditions. The results obtained at full-scale demonstrate that both the composting process and the final end product (compost) are not altered by the presence of compostable diapers in crucial aspects such as pathogenic content, stability and elemental composition (including nutrients and heavy metals). The main conclusion of this study is that the collection of the OFMSW with compostable diapers can be a new way to transform this waste into high-quality compost.

  13. Cultivation of a bacterial consortium with the potential to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon using waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Song, Y C; Kim, S H; Jang, S H

    2015-11-01

    Waste activated sludge was aerobically treated to demonstrate multiple uses such as cultivating an oil degrading bacterial consortium; studying the influence of a bulking agent (peat moss) and total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration on bacterial growth and producing a soil conditioner using waste activated sludge. After 30 days of incubation, the concentration of oil-degrading bacteria was 4.3 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) and 4.5 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) for 5 and 10 g of total petroleum hydrocarbon, respectively, in a mixture of waste activated sludge (1 kg) and peat moss (0.1 kg). This accounts for approximately 88.4 and 91.1%, respectively, of the total heterotrophic bacteria (total-HB). The addition of bulking agent enhanced total-HB population and total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. Over 90% of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was achieved by the mixture of waste activated sludge, bulking agent and total petroleum hydrocarbon. The results of physico-chemical parameters of the compost (waste activated sludge with and without added peat moss compost) and a substantial reduction in E. coli showed that the use of this final product did not exhibit risk when used as soil conditioner. Finally, the present study demonstrated that cultivation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium and production of compost from waste activated sludge by aerobic treatment was feasible.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial community in a full scale autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) treating mixed domestic wastewater sludge for land spread.

    PubMed

    Piterina, Anna V; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, J Tony

    2012-05-15

    The bacterial community associated with a full scale autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) treating sludge, originating from domestic wastewater and destined for land spread, was analysed using a number of molecular approaches optimised specifically for this high temperature environment. 16S rDNA genes were amplified directly from sludge with universally conserved and Bacteria-specific rDNA gene primers and a clone library constructed that corresponded to the late thermophilic stage (t = 23 h) of the ATAD process. Sequence analyses revealed various 16S rDNA gene sequence types reflective of high bacterial community diversity. Members of the bacterial community included α- and β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria with High G + C content and Gram-Positive bacteria with a prevalence of the Firmicutes (Low G + C) division (class Clostridia and Bacillus). Most of the ATAD clones showed affiliation with bacterial species previously isolated or detected in other elevated temperature environments, at alkaline pH, or in cellulose rich environments. Several phylotypes associated with Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing anaerobes were also detected. The presence of anaerobes was of interest in such large scale systems where sub-optimal aeration and mixing is often the norm while the presence of large amounts of capnophiles suggest the possibility of limited convection and entrapment of CO(2) within the sludge matrix during digestion. Comparative analysis with organism identified in other ATAD systems revealed significant differences based on optimised techniques. The abundance of thermophilic, alkalophilic and cellulose-degrading phylotypes suggests that these organisms are responsible for maintaining the elevated temperature at the later stages of the ATAD process.

  15. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  16. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  17. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in corn silage experimentally contaminated at ensiling, at silo opening, or after aerobic exposure, and protective effect of various bacterial inoculants.

    PubMed

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (10⁵ CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (10⁶ CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain.

  18. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH.

  19. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    PubMed Central

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  20. Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

    1981-05-01

    Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners.

  1. Microbial succession in a compost-packed biofilter treating benzene-contaminated air.

    PubMed

    Borin, Sara; Marzorati, Massimo; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Zilli, Mario; Cherif, Hanene; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Converti, Attilio; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2006-03-01

    Air artificially contaminated with increasing concentrations of benzene was treated in a laboratory scale compost-packed biofilter for 240 days with a removal efficiency of 81-100%. The bacterial community in the packing material (PM) at different heights of the biofilter was analysed every 60 days. Bacterial plate counts and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) of the isolated strains showed that the number of cultivable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and the species diversity increased with benzene availability. Identification of the isolated species and the main bands in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from total compost DNA during the treatment revealed that, at a relatively low volumetric benzene load (1.2< or =VBL< or =6.4 g m(-3) (PM) h(-1)), besides low G+C Gram positive bacteria, originally present in the packing compost, bacteroidetes and beta- and gamma-proteobacteria became detectable in the colonising population. At the VBL value (24.8 g m(-3) (PM) h(-1)) ensuring the maximum elimination capacity of the biofilter (20.1 g m(-3) (PM) h(-1)), strains affiliated to the genus Rhodococcus dominated the microflora, followed by beta-proteobacteria comprising the genera Bordetella and Neisseria. Under these conditions, more than 35% of the isolated strains were able to grow on benzene as the sole carbon source. Comparison of DGGE and automated RISA profiles of the total community and isolated strains showed that a complex bacterial succession occurred in the reactor in response to the increasing concentrations of the pollutant and that cultivable bacteria played a major role in benzene degradation under the adopted conditions.

  2. Chemical, physical and morphological properties of bacterial biofilms affect survival of encased Campylobacter jejuni F38011 under aerobic stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinsong; Lamour, Guillaume; Xue, Rui; Mirvakliki, Mehr Negar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Xu, Jie; Li, Hongbin; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-12-05

    Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic pathogen and leading cause of human gastroenteritis. The presence of C. jejuni encased in biofilms found in meat and poultry processing facilities may be the major strategy for its survival and dissemination in aerobic environment. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with C. jejuni F38011 as a culture to form dual-species biofilms. After 4days' exposure to aerobic stress, no viable C. jejuni cells could be detected from mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. In contrast, at least 4.7logCFU/cm(2) of viable C. jejuni cells existed in some dual-species biofilms. To elucidate the mechanism of protection mode, chemical, physical and morphological features of biofilms were characterized. Dual-species biofilms contained a higher level of extracellular polymeric substances with a more diversified chemical composition, especially for polysaccharides and proteins, than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. Structure of dual-species biofilms was more compact and their surface was >8 times smoother than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm, as indicated by atomic force microscopy. Under desiccation stress, water content of dual-species biofilms decreased slowly and remained at higher levels for a longer time than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. The surface of all biofilms was hydrophilic, but total surface energy of dual-species biofilms (ranging from 52.5 to 56.2mJ/m(2)) was lower than that of mono-species C. jejuni biofilm, leading to more resistance to wetting by polar liquids. This knowledge can aid in developing intervention strategies to decrease the survival and dispersal of C. jejuni into foods or environment.

  3. Effect of high compost temperature on enzymatic activity and species diversity of culturable bacteria in cattle manure compost.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Fumihito; Iwabuchi, Kazunori

    2005-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of thermophilic bacteria in cattle manure compost, enzymatic activity and species diversity of cultivated bacteria were investigated at 54, 60, 63, 66 and 70 degrees C, which were dependent on composting temperature. The highest level of thermophilic bacterial activity was observed at 54 degrees C. Following an increase in temperature to 63 degrees C, a reduction in bacterial diversity was observed. At 66 degrees C, bacterial diversity increased again, and diverse bacteria including Thermus spp. and thermophilic Bacillus spp. appeared to adapt to the higher temperature. At 70 degrees C, bacterial activity measured as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was significantly higher than at 66 degrees C. However, the decomposition rate of protein in the compost was lower than the rate at 66 degrees C due to the higher compost temperature.

  4. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L; Heimlich, Derek R; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E; Justice, Sheryl S; Thompson, J Will; Mason, Kevin M

    2016-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  5. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment*

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G.; St. John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M. Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L.; Heimlich, Derek R.; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E.; Justice, Sheryl S.; Thompson, J. Will; Mason, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  6. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5).

  7. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  8. Detection of Bacterial and Yeast Species with the Bactec 9120 Automated System with Routine Use of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Fungal Media▿

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Palmeri, Angelo; Amato, Teresa; Immordino, Rita; Distefano, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2006 and 2007, all blood cultures required by four units at high infective risk and most of those required by other units of the University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy were performed using a Bactec 9120 automated blood culture system with a complete set of Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Mycosis IC/F bottles. The aim of the study was to enable the authors to gain firsthand experience of the culture potentialities of the three different media, to obtain information regarding the overall and specific recovery of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures in the hospital, and to reach a decision as to whether and when to utilize anaerobic and fungal bottles. Although very few bloodstream infections (1.8%) were associated with obligate anaerobes, the traditional routine use of anaerobic bottles was confirmed because of their usefulness, not only in the detection of anaerobes, but also in that of gram-positive cocci and fermentative gram-negative bacilli. In this study, Mycosis IC/F bottles detected 77.4% of all the yeast isolates, 87.0% of yeasts belonging to the species Candida albicans, and 45.7% of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli resistant to chloramphenicol and tobramycin. In order to improve the diagnosis of fungemia in high-risk patients, the additional routine use of fungal bottles was suggested when, as occurred in the intensive-care unit and in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Palermo, high percentages of bloodstream infections are associated with yeasts, and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or multiple bacterial isolates capable of inhibiting yeast growth in aerobic bottles. PMID:18923011

  9. Successful School Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  10. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Vos, Aurin M; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T S; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2017-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control. In contrast, it increased to 1200 nmol g(-1) compost in the presence of A. bisporus. Laccase activity was absent throughout culturing in the negative control, while it correlated with the fungal PLFA marker in the presence of A. bisporus. PLFA was also used to quantify living bacterial biomass. In the negative control, the bacterial markers remained constant at 3000-3200 nmol PLFA g(-1) compost. In contrast, they decreased to 850 nmol g(-1) compost during vegetative growth of A. bisporus, implying that bacterial biomass decreased from 17.7 to 4.7 mg g(-1) compost. The relative amount of the Gram positive associated PLFA markers a15:0 and a17:0 and the Gram negative PLFA associated markers cy17:0 and cy19:0 increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting that Gram negative bacteria are more suppressed by A. bisporus. Together, these data indicate that fungal biomass can make up 6.8% of the compost after A. bisporus colonization, 57% of which being dead. Moreover, results show that A. bisporus impacts biomass and composition of bacteria in compost.

  11. Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

    2009-04-01

    Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting.

  12. Bacterial structure of aerobic granules is determined by aeration mode and nitrogen load in the reactor cycle.

    PubMed

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated how the microbial composition of biomass and kinetics of nitrogen conversions in aerobic granular reactors treating high-ammonium supernatant depended on nitrogen load and the number of anoxic phases in the cycle. Excellent ammonium removal and predomination of full nitrification was observed in the reactors operated at 1.1 kg TKN m(-3) d(-1) and with anoxic phases in the cycle. In all reactors, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria predominated, comprising between 90.14% and 98.59% of OTUs. Extracellular polymeric substances-producing bacteria, such as Rhodocyclales, Xanthomonadaceae, Sphingomonadales and Rhizobiales, were identified in biomass from all reactors, though in different proportions. Under constant aeration, bacteria capable of autotrophic nitrification were found in granules, whereas under variable aeration heterotrophic nitrifiers such as Pseudomonas sp. and Paracoccus sp. were identified. Constant aeration promoted more even bacteria distribution among taxa; with 1 anoxic phase, Paracoccus aminophilus predominated (62.73% of OTUs); with 2 phases, Corynebacterium sp. predominated (65.10% of OTUs).

  13. Analytical performance issues: comparison of ATP bioluminescence and aerobic bacterial count for evaluating surface cleanliness in an Italian hospital.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Emanuele; Cannova, Lucia; Villafrate, Maria Rosaria; Merendino, Anna Maria; Aprea, Luigi; Calamusa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated hospital surfaces have been demonstrated to be an important environmental reservoir of microorganisms that can increase the risk of nosocomial infection in exposed patients. As a consequence, cleaning and disinfecting hospital environments play an important role among strategies for preventing healthcare-associated colonization and infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) presence, measured by bioluminescence methods, can predict microbiological contamination of hospital surfaces. The study was carried out between September and December 2012 at the University Hospital "P. Giaccone" of Palermo. A total of 193 randomly selected surfaces (tables, lockers, furnishings) were sampled and analyzed in order to assess ATP levels (expressed as relative light units or RLU) and aerobic colony count (ACC) or presence of S. aureus. ACC had median values of 1.85 cfu/cm(2)(interquartile range = 4.16) whereas ATP median was 44.6 RLU/cm(2)(interquartile range = 92.3). Overall, 85 (44.0%) surfaces exceeded the established microbial benchmark: 73 (37.8%) exceeded the 2.5 cfu/cm(2)ACC standard, 5 (2.6%) surfaces were positive for S. aureus and 7 (3.6%) showed both the presence of S. aureus and an ACC of more than 2.5 cfu/cm(2). ACC and bioluminescence showed significant differences in the different surface sites (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between ACC and RLU values (p-value < 0.001; R(2)= 0.29) and increasing RLU values were significantly associated with a higher risk of failing the benchmark (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that bioluminescence could help in measuring hygienic quality of hospital surfaces using a quick and sensitive test that can be an useful proxy of microbial contamination; however, further analysis will be necessary to assess the cost-efficacy of this methodology before requiring incorporation in hospital procedures.

  14. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  15. Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, M.E.; McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S.

    1997-10-01

    The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

  16. Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle.

  17. A new combination of microbial indicators for monitoring composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Olivier; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Milferstedt, Kim; Bacheley, Hélène; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2012-12-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on occupational health and neighboring residential areas. The aim of this study was to identify microbial indicators that are most useful for monitoring bioaerosol emittance and dispersal by industrial composting plants. Seven microbial indicators were measured in air collected outdoors in natural environments and at eleven composting plants. The indicators were: cultivable bacteria and fungi, total bacteria (epifluorescent microscopy), viable bacteria (solid-phase cytometry) and quantification by qPCR of three microbial indicators which had been previously shown as strongly associated with composting. For each indicator, the increase in concentrations due to the turning of composting piles as compared to the background concentration obtained in natural environments and upwind of composting plants was determined. Based on these results, the most effective combination of three indicators was selected for monitoring composting bioaerosol emissions: viable bacteria as one general indicator of bioaerosol emission and two bacterial phylotypes specific to composting bioaerosol: NA07, affiliated to Saccharopolyspora sp. and NC38, affiliated to the Thermoactinomycetaceae. This set of indicator was then quantified on-site and at increasing distances downwind during the turning of compost windrows in thermophilic phase. Composting activity was considered to affect bioaerosol emission when the concentrations of the three indicators were higher than their respective background levels. For all the composting sites studied, an impact was measureable up to distances of 100 m. Further away, the impact was not systematically observed as it depended on meteorological conditions (wind speed) and on levels of bioaerosol emissions.

  18. Long-term exposure of bacterial and protozoan communities to TiO2 nanoparticles in an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supha, Chitpisud; Boonto, Yuphada; Jindakaraked, Manee; Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowders at different concentrations (0-50 mg L-1) were injected into an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to nanoparticles on bacterial and protozoan communities. The detection of nanoparticles in the bioflocs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The SBR wastewater experiments were conducted under the influence of ultraviolet light with photocatalytic TiO2. The intrusion of TiO2 nanoparticles was found both on the surface and inside of the bioflocs. The change of microbial population in terms of mixed liquor-suspended solids and the sludge volume index was monitored. The TiO2 nanoparticles tentatively exerted an adverse effect on the microbial population, causing the reduction of microorganisms (both bacteria and protozoa) in the SBR. The respiration inhibition rate of the bacteria was increased, and the viability of the microbial population was reduced at the high concentration (50 mg L-1) of TiO2. The decreasing number of protozoa in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles during 20 days of treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 TiO2 is clearly demonstrated. The measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent tends to increase with a long-term operation. The increase of COD in the system suggests a decrease in the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. However, the SBR can effectively remove the TiO2 nanoparticles (up to 50 mg L-1) from the effluent.

  19. Long-term exposure of bacterial and protozoan communities to TiO2 nanoparticles in an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor

    PubMed Central

    Supha, Chitpisud; Boonto, Yuphada; Jindakaraked, Manee; Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowders at different concentrations (0–50 mg L−1) were injected into an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to nanoparticles on bacterial and protozoan communities. The detection of nanoparticles in the bioflocs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The SBR wastewater experiments were conducted under the influence of ultraviolet light with photocatalytic TiO2. The intrusion of TiO2 nanoparticles was found both on the surface and inside of the bioflocs. The change of microbial population in terms of mixed liquor-suspended solids and the sludge volume index was monitored. The TiO2 nanoparticles tentatively exerted an adverse effect on the microbial population, causing the reduction of microorganisms (both bacteria and protozoa) in the SBR. The respiration inhibition rate of the bacteria was increased, and the viability of the microbial population was reduced at the high concentration (50 mg L−1) of TiO2. The decreasing number of protozoa in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles during 20 days of treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 mg L−1 TiO2 is clearly demonstrated. The measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent tends to increase with a long-term operation. The increase of COD in the system suggests a decrease in the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. However, the SBR can effectively remove the TiO2 nanoparticles (up to 50 mg L−1) from the effluent. PMID:27877796

  20. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil.

  1. Prolonged Survival of Campylobacter Species in Bovine Manure Compost

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; McAllister, Tim A.; Larney, Francis J.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of naturally occurring campylobacteria in aerobic compost constructed of manure from beef cattle that were administered chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (AS700) or from cattle not administered antibiotics (control) was examined. Although there were no differences in population sizes of heterotrophic bacteria, the temperature of AS700 compost was more variable and did not become as high as that of control compost. There were significant differences in water content, total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and electrical conductivity but not in the C/N ratio or pH between the two compost treatments. Campylobacteria were readily isolated from pen manure, for up to day 15 from control compost, and throughout the active phase of AS700 compost. Campylobacter DNA (including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and Campylobacter jejuni) was detected over the ca. 10-month composting period, and no reductions in quantities of C. jejuni DNA were observed over the duration of the active phase. The utilization of centrifugation in combination with ethidium monoazide (EMA) significantly reduced (>90%) the amplification of C. jejuni DNA that did not originate from cells with intact cell membranes. No differences were observed in the frequency of Campylobacter DNA detection between EMA- and non-EMA-treated samples, suggesting that Campylobacter DNA amplified from compost was extracted from cells with intact cell membranes (i.e., from viable cells). The findings of this study indicate that campylobacteria excreted in cattle feces persist for long periods in compost and call into question the common belief that these bacteria do not persist in manure. PMID:20023098

  2. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  3. Composting Begins at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  4. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature.

  5. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  6. Monitoring of Bacillus thermodenitrificans OHT-1 in compost by whole cell hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hatsu, Masahiro; Ohta, Junji; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

    2002-09-01

    Thermophilic aerobic composting is a widely practiced method for the disposal of exhaust materials. We isolated a thermophilic bacteria strain from a compost sample under aerobic conditions at 60 degrees C. On the basis of its 16S rRNA sequence and physiological characteristics, this strain was identified as Bacillus thermodenitrificans OHT-1. An 18-subunit oligonucleotide probe for 16S rRNA, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was developed for the detection of B. thermodenitrificans. Spores and vegetative cells of B. thermodenitrificans OHT-1 were detected in liquid culture and laboratory compost by whole cell hybridization using this oligonucleotide probe. The results obtained by whole cell hybridization were evaluated in growth experiments of B. thermodenitrificans OHT-1 in laboratory compost and were used to enumerate spores and vegetative cells.

  7. Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni.

  8. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  9. Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants

    PubMed Central

    García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

  10. Characterisation of source-separated household waste intended for composting.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Cecilia; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Kauppi, Sari; Yu, Dan; Romantschuk, Martin; Insam, Heribert; Jönsson, Håkan

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale composting of source-separated household waste has expanded in recent years in the Nordic countries. One problem can be low pH at the start of the process. Incoming biowaste at four composting plants was characterised chemically, physically and microbiologically. The pH of food waste ranged from 4.7 to 6.1 and organic acid concentration from 24 to 81 mmol kg(-1). The bacterial diversity in the waste samples was high, with all samples dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter). Lactic acid bacteria were also numerically important and are known to negatively affect the composting process because the lactic acid they produce lowers the pH, inhibiting other bacteria. The bacterial groups needed for efficient composting, i.e. Bacillales and Actinobacteria, were present in appreciable amounts. The results indicated that start-up problems in the composting process can be prevented by recycling bulk material and compost.

  11. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ogbonna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. POME was initially centrifuged at 4,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was enriched with (NH4)2SO4 (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.25%) to boost its nitrogen content. At optimum pH (pH 4) and temperature (40°C) conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 10,350 to 1,000 mg/L (90.3%) after 7 days. The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2.4 × 106 CFU/mL, while the fungal count was 1.8 × 103 colonies/mL. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged. However, at 75 and 50% POME dilutions, the COD dropped by 52 and 44%, respectively, while the pH increased from 4 to 7.53. POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. PMID:27433536

  12. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  13. The Science of Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  14. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  15. Production and physical characteristics of composted poultry carcases.

    PubMed

    Lawson, M J; Keeling, A A

    1999-12-01

    1. Experiments were designed to determine whether composting could be a safe and effective method for the disposal of poultry carcases in the UK climate. Laying hen carcases (125) were composted in a wooden compost bin over autumn and winter months, using the United States Department of Agriculture method. 2. The process took 8 weeks and effectively decomposed the carcases to leave only leg and breast bones. The compost was turned once, which ensured that all the material reached the high temperatures (60 degrees to 70 degrees C) required to control pathogens. Salmonella was fully heat-inactivated, indicating that many poultry-associated bacterial pathogens would also have been inactivated. 3. It is concluded that this method is suitable for use in the UK and provides a sanitised fertiliser supplement.

  16. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  17. Composting: The next step?

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Composting is a natural process, and is, therefore, as old as the earth. And yet, while composting is growing as a method of solid waste management--for municipal solid waste (MSW), yard waste, sludge, food waste, etc.--in many ways, it is still in its infancy. Like recycling, municipal composting (as opposed to agricultural) existed in various sporadic or fledgling enterprises in years past. But unlike recycling, which can point to a past history of scrap and steel recycling and a nationwide effort during World War II, municipal composting programs of the 1950s and 1960s are either looked on as failures or rural experiments whose example did not transfer well when carried out on a larger scale in metropolitan areas. Today, however, there are an estimated 4,000 + municipal composting facilities in the US, according to various sources, the vast majority of which are dedicated to yard waste. One reason for this is that the concept of composting is easy to understand--reusing of waste in another form rather than discarding it.

  18. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  19. Biochar influences the microbial community structure during tomato stalk composting with chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Shutao, Wang; Jin, Zhang; Tong, Xu

    2014-02-01

    A batch composting study was performed to evaluate effects of biochar addition on dynamics of microbial community and changes of key physic-chemical properties during composting of tomato stalk and chicken manure. As a comparison, two amendments of peat bog and zeolite were selected. The results indicated that biochar addition for composting showed a shorter time to enter thermophilic phase (3 d) and a higher temperature (56°C) and longer duration of thermophilic phase compared to that of peat bog addition, zeolite addition and raw composts. The highest C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids' concentration with biochar addition were obtained. Biochar addition also showed more influence on bacterial community changes than that of peat bog and zeolite. Thus, biochar addition could significantly affect physic-chemical process and microbial community diversity on tomato stalk and chicken manure composting. This study provides valuable information for improving composting and a better understanding of biodegradation processes.

  20. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  1. Citrus compost and its water extract for cultivation of melon plants in greenhouse nurseries. Evaluation of nutriactive and biocontrol effects.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Vicente, A; Ros, M; Tittarelli, F; Intrigliolo, F; Pascual, J A

    2008-12-01

    Two different types of citrus composts, and their water extracts, were tested with regard to their utilisations as partial substitutes for peat in growing media for melon seedlings in greenhouse nurseries. Both compost showed higher plant growth than peat. Compost composed by citrus waste and green residue (C2) showed greater plant growth than compost obtained from the same organic matrices mentioned above further the addition of sludge obtained from citrus industry (C1). Compost C2 showed a greater auxinic effect than C1 and it was the only one that showed cytokinic effect. Both composts also demonstrated a biocontrol effect against Fusarium oxysporum for melon plants: the effects were also higher in C2 than in C1. Higher number of isolated fungi was active against F. oxysporum in compost C2, than compost C1. No different bacterial biocontrol efficacy was observed between both composts. The water extracts of both composts gave lower plant yields than their solid matrices, their relative effects being similar to those of the solid composts (C2 extract gave higher plant yields than the extract from C1). The biocontrol effects of compost water extracts followed the same trend.

  2. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases.

  3. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67–75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  4. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high.

  5. Co-variations of bacterial composition and catabolic genes related to PAH degradation in a produced water treatment system consisting of successive anoxic and aerobic units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jian; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; He, Shaowu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zijian; Yang, Min

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of concentration levels of PAHs, community structure, as well as the abundance of PAH-related catabolic genes including upper-pathway dioxygenase genes (nahAc and phnAc) and down-pathway catechol dioxygenase genes (C12O and C23O) in a successive anoxic and aerobic treatment of produced water from the Jidong Oilfield, China. 93% of total PAHs were removed, almost equally contributed by the anoxic and aerobic units. However, PAHs of more than 3 benzene rings remained almost unchanged. The signals for phnAc and C12O were undetectable in this biological system, whereas the existence of nahAc and C23O was confirmed in the system and the copies of the two genes in the aerobic tank were 2 or 3 orders higher than those in the influent water sample. The different behavior of C23O demonstrated that mineralization of PAHs might mainly occur in the aerobic unit. The existence of nahAc and C23O genes in the influent and the high similarity of genotype between the influent and the two sludge samples suggested that bacteria existing in the influent contributed to PAH removal and bacteria harboring PAH catabolic genes were enriched in the sludge.

  6. Degradation of tetracycline and sulfadiazine during continuous thermophilic composting of pig manure and sawdust.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Zhao, Zhenyong; Li, Yunchun; Chen, Yumei; Leung, Kelvin S-Y; Wong, Jonathan W-C

    2013-01-01

    During composting, the thermophilic phase resulted in high degradation of antibiotics in the composting mass; thus temperature is considered as the major factor for degradation of antibiotics. Therefore, to achieve complete removal of antibiotics, the effect of continuous thermophilic composting on the degradation of antibiotics and their effect on antibiotic resistant bacteria in the pig manure were evaluated. Pig manure was mixed with sawdust, spiked with tetracycline (10 and 100 mg/kg) and sulfadiazine (2 and 20mg/kg) on dry weight (DW) basis and composted at 55 degrees C for six weeks. Based on the organic decomposition, the antibiotics did not affect the composting process significantly, but negatively influenced the bacterial population. Tetracycline clearly exhibited a negative but marginal influence on carbon decomposition at 100 mg/kg level. The bacterial population initially decreased steeply approximately 2 logs and slowly increased thereafter. Sulfadiazine and tetracycline resistant bacterial populations were stable/marginally increased after an initial decrease of about 2 or 3-5 logs, respectively. Sulfadiazine was not detectable after three days; whereas, approximately 8% of tetracycline was detected after 42 days of composting with a t(1/2) of approximately 11 days, irrespective of the initial concentration. The presence of tetracycline in the compost after 42 days of thermophilic composting indicates the involvement of a mesophilic microbial-mediated degradation; however, further studies are required to confirm the direct microbial involvement in the degradation of antibiotics.

  7. High-rate anaerobic composting with biogas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    DeBaere, L.; Verstraete, W.

    1984-03-01

    In Belgium a novel high rate anaerobic composting process with biogas has been developed as an alternative to aerobic systems, producing a commercial dry compost and 60 to 95 cubic metres methane per ton of municipal solid waste. This is a high value energy source simultaneously yielding a stabilized end product. The process was developed so that digestion could take place at 25 to 35% total solids, thus reducing the amount of water needed to dilute the waste, decreasing the digestor volume and cutting transportation costs. The end product is odorless and stable. High rate anaerobic composting of MSW can be combined with sewage sludge stabilization. Manure, vegetable or fruit wastes can be co-treated in certain proportions as required. About 15 to 20% of the energy produced is transformed into electricity and heat and consumed as the waste disposal plant itself. 120 to 140 US $ worth of methane gas and compost can be produced per cubic metre of reactor per year, making anaerobic composting economically attractive.

  8. Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities.

  9. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  10. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  11. Relating Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Effects to Reaction Mechanisms during Aerobic or Anaerobic Degradation of RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) by Pure Bacterial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Heraty, Linnea; Condee, Charles W.; Vainberg, Simon; Sturchio, Neil C.; Böhlke, J. K.; Hatzinger, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kinetic isotopic fractionation of carbon and nitrogen during RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation was investigated with pure bacterial cultures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Relatively large bulk enrichments in 15N were observed during biodegradation of RDX via anaerobic ring cleavage (ε15N = −12.7‰ ± 0.8‰) and anaerobic nitro reduction (ε15N = −9.9‰ ± 0.7‰), in comparison to smaller effects during biodegradation via aerobic denitration (ε15N = −2.4‰ ± 0.2‰). 13C enrichment was negligible during aerobic RDX biodegradation (ε13C = −0.8‰ ± 0.5‰) but larger during anaerobic degradation (ε13C = −4.0‰ ± 0.8‰), with modest variability among genera. Dual-isotope ε13C/ε15N analyses indicated that the three biodegradation pathways could be distinguished isotopically from each other and from abiotic degradation mechanisms. Compared to the initial RDX bulk δ15N value of +9‰, δ15N values of the NO2− released from RDX ranged from −7‰ to +2‰ during aerobic biodegradation and from −42‰ to −24‰ during anaerobic biodegradation. Numerical reaction models indicated that N isotope effects of NO2− production were much larger than, but systematically related to, the bulk RDX N isotope effects with different bacteria. Apparent intrinsic ε15N-NO2− values were consistent with an initial denitration pathway in the aerobic experiments and more complex processes of NO2− formation associated with anaerobic ring cleavage. These results indicate the potential for isotopic analysis of residual RDX for the differentiation of degradation pathways and indicate that further efforts to examine the isotopic composition of potential RDX degradation products (e.g., NOx) in the environment are warranted. IMPORTANCE This work provides the first systematic evaluation of the isotopic fractionation of carbon and nitrogen in the organic explosive RDX during degradation by different pathways. It also

  12. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure.

  13. Chemical, physical and microbial properties and microbial diversity in manufactured soils produced from co-composting green waste and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J; Sturm, E C

    2012-12-01

    The effects of adding biosolids to a green waste feedstock (100% green waste, 25% v/v biosolids or 50% biosolids) on the properties of composted products were investigated. Following initial composting, 20% soil or 20% fly ash/river sand mix was added to the composts as would be carried out commercially to produce manufactured soil. Temperatures during composting reached 50 °C, or above, for 23 days when biosolids were included as a composting feedstock but temperatures barely reached 40 °C when green waste alone was composted. Addition of biosolids to the feedstock increased total N, EC, extractable NH(4), NO(3) and P but lowered pH, macroporosity, water holding capacity, microbial biomass C and basal respiration in composts. Additions of soil or ash/sand to the composts greatly increased the available water holding capacity of the materials. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA amplicons separated bacterial communities according to addition of soil to the compost. For fungal ITS-RNA amplicons, PCA separated communities based on the addition of biosolids. Bacterial species richness and Shannon's diversity index were greatest for composts where soil had been added but for fungal communities these parameters were greatest in the treatments where 50% biosolids had been included. These results were interpreted in relation to soil having an inoculation effect and biosolids having an acidifying effect thereby favouring a fungal community.

  14. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  15. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J.S.A.; Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro Júnior, J.W.; Almeida, M.C.S.; Silva, D.R.; Ferreira, D.R.A.; Azevedo, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca’s samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms’ participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians. PMID:24031343

  16. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.

  17. Effects of different bulking agents on the maturity, enzymatic activity, and microbial community functional diversity of kitchen waste compost.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenwei; Gu, Jie; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-10-01

    Aerobic composting is an effective method for the disposal and utilization of kitchen waste. However, the addition of a bulking agent is necessary during kitchen waste composting because of its high moisture content and low C/N ratio. In order to select a suitable bulking agent, we investigated the influence of leaf litter (LL), sawdust (SD), and wheat straw (WS) on the enzymatic activity, microbial community functional diversity, and maturity indices during the kitchen waste composting process. The results showed that the addition of WS yielded the highest maturity (the C/N ratio decreased from 25 to 13, T value = 0.5, and germination index (GI) = 114.7%), whereas the compost containing SD as a bulking agent had the lowest maturity (GI = 32.4%). The maximum cellulase and urease activities were observed with the WS treatment on day 8, whereas the SD treatment had the lowest cellulase activity and the LL treatment had the lowest urease activity. The compost temperature and microbial activity (as the average well color development) showed that bulking the composts with SD prolonged the composting process. The diversity index based on the community-level physiological profile showed that the composts bulked with LL and WS had greater microbial community functional diversity compared with those bulked with SD. Thus, the maturity indexes and enzymatic activities suggest that WS is a suitable bulking agent for use in kitchen waste composting systems.

  18. Genotoxicity of the extracts from the compost of the organic and the total municipal garbage using three plant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G L; Rodriguez, D M; Maruri, A B

    1999-05-19

    The production of compost is one of the alternatives for the disposal of non-hazardous solid wastes. Compost is used in agriculture and gardening as fertilizer. In the State of Queretaro, Mexico, there is a project to produce compost from the municipal garbage which could be used as a fertilizer. The presence of mutagenic compounds in the compost could be a major disadvantage for the selection of this alternative. For the above reason, this study was initiated as a pilot project to determine the potential mutagenic activity in the compost using three plant bioassays: Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN), Tradescantia stamen hair mutations (Trad-SHM) and Allium root anaphase aberrations (AL-RAA). Compost was produced using both aerobic and anaerobic processes from either organic waste (from the residential area) or from the total components of the municipal garbage. Extractions from the compost were done using distilled water and organic solvents and shaking the sample for about 12 h under relatively low temperatures (15-20 degrees C). Plant cuttings of Tradescantia or the roots of Allium were treated by submerging them in the extracts. Three replicates of each sample were analyzed in each one of the three bioassays. As expected the samples of compost from the total garbage showed a higher genetoxicity than those from organic waste. In conclusion, there are some substances present in the compost capable of inducing genotoxicity in the plant assays and therefore there must be some restrictions for its use as a fertilizer.

  19. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shanwei; Reuter, Tim; Gilroyed, Brandon H.; Tymensen, Lisa; Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying; Belosevic, Miodrag; Leonard, Jerry J.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  20. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  1. Nutrient dynamics and decomposition rates during composting of sulphitation pressmud by different methods.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R; Kumar, Narendra; Tyagi, A K

    2007-07-01

    Decomposition rates and nutrient contents of sulphitation pressmud (SPM), either alone or by mixing with cow dung and rice straw, under the aerobic (heap and NADEP), anaerobic (pit) and vermicomposting methods were compared. Loss in Organic C and C/N ratios of the decomposing materials indicated the heap and NADEP methods faster for the composting of SPM alone and SPM + cow dung and vermicomposting method for SPM + rice straw registering significant reductions in Organic C ranging from 45.0 to 61.0% from the respective decomposing materials at termination time (119 days). The heap and NADEP methods recorded C/N ratio of SPM alone as low as 11 and 12 and SPM + cow dung as 12.0 and 13.9 at termination stage. Vermicomposting method brought the C/N ratio of SPM + rice straw to 16.4 as compared to 18.6 to 29.8 with the other methods. Irrespective of the composting methods, CO2 evolution from the decomposing materials was higher in early period (up to 28 days). Among methods, NADEP and heap methods recorded more CO2 evolution in early period while vermicomposting method showed more CO2 evolution at the later intervals in comparison to the other methods. Nutrient content in the decomposing materials at different intervals depended on their initial contents. Total N in the composts were statistically comparable, however, the composts of SPM alone recorded relatively more N than SPM + cow dung and SPM + rice-straw prepared by the respective methods. Total P and K contents of the composts increased with time irrespective of the composting methods. Composts of SPM alone recorded significantly more total P than SPM + cow dung and SPM + rice straw at 62, 91 and 119 days while SPM + rice straw recorded more total K than the composts of other materials. Total P in the composts did not differ with the composting methods, but total K in composts of SPM alone was relatively more with heap and NADEP methods, in SPM + cow dung with pit method and in SPM + rice straw by vermicomposting

  2. Involvement of microbial populations during the composting of olive mill wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Abid, N; Chamkha, M; Godon, J J; Sayadi, S

    2007-07-01

    Olive mill waste water sludge obtained by the electro-Fenton oxidation of olive mill waste water was composted in a bench scale reactor. The evolution of microbial species within the composter was investigated using a respirometric test and by means of both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism, PCR SSCP). During the period of high respiration rate (7-24 days), cultivation method showed that thermophilic bacteria as well as actinomycetes dominated over eumycetes. During the composting process, the PCR-SSCP method showed a higher diversity of the bacterial community than the eukaryotic one. After 60 days of composting, the compost exhibited a microbial stability and a clear absence of phytotoxicity.

  3. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  4. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  5. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production.

  6. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented.

  7. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting.

  8. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  9. Denitrification in soil amended with thermophile-fermented compost suppresses nitrate accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ohmori, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshifumi; Sonoda, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Jirou; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    NO (3) (-) is a major nitrogen source for plant nutrition, and plant cells store NO (3) (-) in their vacuoles. Here, we report that a unique compost made from marine animal resources by thermophiles represses NO (3) (-) accumulation in plants. A decrease in the leaf NO (3) (-) content occurred in parallel with a decrease in the soil NO (3) (-) level, and the degree of the soil NO (3) (-) decrease was proportional to the compost concentration in the soil. The compost-induced reduction of the soil NO (3) (-) level was blocked by incubation with chloramphenicol, indicating that the soil NO (3) (-) was reduced by chloramphenicol-sensitive microbes. The compost-induced denitrification activity was assessed by the acetylene block method. To eliminate denitrification by the soil bacterial habitants, soil was sterilized with γ irradiation and then compost was amended. After the 24-h incubation, the N(2)O level in the compost soil with presence of acetylene was approximately fourfold higher than that in the compost soil with absence of acetylene. These results indicate that the low NO (3) (-) levels that are often found in the leaves of organic vegetables can be explained by compost-mediated denitrification in the soil.

  10. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  11. Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: process dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cofie, Olufunke; Kone, Doulaye; Rothenberger, Silke; Moser, Daya; Zubruegg, Chris

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the potentials and performance of combined treatment of faecal sludge (FS) and municipal solid waste (SW) through co-composting. The objectives were to investigate the appropriate SW type, SW/FS mixing ratio and the effect of turning frequency on compost maturity and quality. Solid waste (SW, as market waste, MW, or household waste, HW) was combined with dewatered FS in mixing ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 by volume and aerobically composted for 90 days. Four composting cycles were monitored and characterised to establish appropriate SW type and mixing ratio. Another set of five composting cycles were monitored to test two different turning frequencies: (i) once in 3-4 days during the thermophilic phase and 10 days during maturation phase and (ii) once in every 10 days throughout the composting period. Samples were taken at every turning and analysed for total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Temperature, C/N ratio, NO(3)-N/NH(4)-N ratio and cress planting trials were chosen as maturity indicators. Result showed a preference of MW over HW and mixing ratio of 2:1 over 3:1. There was no significant effect of different turning frequencies on the temperature changes and the quality of mature compost. The final product contained C/N ratio of 13 and NO(3)/NH(4)-ratio of about 7.8, while TVS was about 21% TS and the NH(4)-N content was reduced to 0.01%. A co-composting duration of 12 weeks was indicated by the cress test to achieve a mature and stable product. The turning frequency of 10 days is recommended as it saves labour and still reaches safe compost with fairly high nutrient content.

  12. Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Hanada, Satoshi; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kim, Hongik; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

    2003-07-01

    A phylogenetically novel aerobic bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic-aerobic sequential batch reactor operated under enhanced biological phosphorus removal conditions for wastewater treatment. The isolation strategy used targeted slowly growing polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria by combining low-speed centrifugations and prolonged incubation on a low-nutrient medium. The isolate, designated strain T-27T, was a gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobe. Cells often appeared to divide by budding replication. Strain T-27T grew at 25-35 degrees C with an optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C, whilst no growth was observed below 20 degrees C or above 37 degrees C within 20 days incubation. The pH range for growth was 6.5-9.5, with an optimum at pH 7.0. Strain T-27T was able to utilize a limited range of substrates, such as yeast extract, polypepton, succinate, acetate, gelatin and benzoate. Neisser staining was positive and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells displayed a yellow fluorescence, indicative of polyphosphate inclusions. Menaquinone 9 was the major respiratory quinone. The cellular fatty acids of the strain were mainly composed of iso-C15:0, C16:1 and C14:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 66 mol%. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain T-27T belongs to candidate division BD (also called KS-B), a phylum-level lineage in the bacterial domain, to date comprised exclusively of environmental 16S rDNA clone sequences. Here, a new genus and species are proposed, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (type strain T-27T=JCM 11422T=DSM 14586T) gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. Environmental sequence data indicate that this phylum is widespread in nature and has a phylogenetic breadth (19% 16S rDNA sequence divergence) that is greater than well-known phyla such as the Actinobacteria (18% divergence).

  13. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    PubMed

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.

  14. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... clipping bags labeled as “Compostable in California Municipal Yard Trimmings Composting Facilities.” When... compost piles. Yard trimmings programs in many communities compost these bags, but such programs are not... yard trimmings bags only to consumers residing in particular geographic areas served by county...

  15. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... clipping bags labeled as “Compostable in California Municipal Yard Trimmings Composting Facilities.” When... compost piles. Yard trimmings programs in many communities compost these bags, but such programs are not... yard trimmings bags only to consumers residing in particular geographic areas served by county...

  16. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  17. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  18. Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater in an industrial three-reactor plant: effect of aeration regime on performances and on protozoan and bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Tocchi, Carlo; Federici, Ermanno; Fidati, Laura; Manzi, Rodolfo; Vinciguerra, Vittorio; Vincigurerra, Vittorio; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2012-06-15

    An industrial three-reactor plant treating 45 m(3) d(-1) of dairy wastewater was monitored to investigate the effect of different aeration regimes on performance efficiency and to find relationships with bacterial and protozoan communities in the activated sludge. During the study, the plant was maintained at six different "on/off" cycles of the blower (45/15, 15/15, 15/45, 30/30, 30/45 and 30/60 min), providing between 30.2 and 90.6 kg O(2) d(-1), and the main chemical/biochemical parameters (COD, BOD, NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), etc.) were determined. When at least 45.4 kg O(2) d(-1) (30/45) were provided, COD removal efficiencies were always in the range 88-94% but decreased to about 70% under aeration regimes 15/45 and 30/60. Ammonium ion degradation performance was compromised only in the lowest aeration regime (15/45). Total number of protozoa and their species richness, and bacterial viable counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were used to characterize the microbiota of the activated sludge. Cell abundances and community structures of protozoa and bacteria were very similar in the three aerated reactors but changed with the aeration regimes. In particular, the 15/45 and 30/60 regimes led to low protozoan diversity with prevalence of flagellates of the genus Trepomonas at the expense of the mobile and sessile forms and, thus, to a less efficient activated sludge as indicated by Sludge Biotic Index values (3 and 4.5 for the two regimes, respectively). The structure of the bacterial community strongly changed when the aeration regimes varied, as indicated by the low similarity values between the DGGE profiles. On the contrary, number of viable bacteria and values of the biodiversity index remained stable throughout the whole experimentation. Taken together, the results of the present study clearly indicate that aeration regime variations strongly influence the structure of both protozoan and bacterial communities and

  19. Physical analyses of compost from composting plants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barreira, L P; Philippi Junior, A; Rodrigues, M S; Tenório, J A S

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the composting process has shown itself to be an alternative in the treatment of municipal solid wastes by composting plants. However, although more than 50% of the waste generated by the Brazilian population is composed of matter susceptible to organic composting, this process is, still today, insufficiently developed in Brazil, due to low compost quality and lack of investments in the sector. The objective of this work was to use physical analyses to evaluate the quality of the compost produced at 14 operative composting plants in the Sao Paulo State in Brazil. For this purpose, size distribution and total inert content tests were done. The results were analyzed by grouping the plants according to their productive processes: plants with a rotating drum, plants with shredders or mills, and plants without treatment after the sorting conveyor belt. Compost quality was analyzed considering the limits imposed by the Brazilian Legislation and the European standards for inert contents. The size distribution tests showed the influence of the machinery after the sorting conveyer on the granule sizes as well as the inert content, which contributes to the presence of materials that reduce the quality of the final product.

  20. The impact of landfilling and composting on greenhouse gas emissions--a review.

    PubMed

    Lou, X F; Nair, J

    2009-08-01

    Municipal solid waste is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions through decomposition and life-cycle activities processes. The majority of these emissions are a result of landfilling, which remains the primary waste disposal strategy internationally. As a result, countries have been incorporating alternative forms of waste management strategies such as energy recovery from landfill gas capture, aerobic landfilling (aerox landfills), pre-composting of waste prior to landfilling, landfill capping and composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. As the changing global climate has been one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today, there is an increasing need to understand the impact of waste management on greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper serves to provide an overview on the impact of landfilling (and its various alternatives) and composting on greenhouse gas emissions taking into account streamlined life cycle activities and the decomposition process. The review suggests greenhouse gas emissions from waste decomposition are considerably higher for landfills than composting. However, mixed results were found for greenhouse gas emissions for landfill and composting operational activities. Nonetheless, in general, net greenhouse gas emissions for landfills tend to be higher than that for composting facilities.

  1. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-10-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation-reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward “aerobic” composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology.

  2. Composting of de-inking sludge from the recycled paper manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Gea, Teresa; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2005-07-01

    Composting of two different types of sludge from the recycled paper manufacturing industry was carried out at laboratory scale. Physico-chemical sludge (PCS) from the de-inking process and biological sludge (BS) from the wastewater treatment plant were composted and co-composted with and without addition of a bulking material. Despite its poor initial characteristics (relatively high C/N ratio, low organic content and moisture), PCS showed excellent behaviour in the composting process, reaching and maintaining thermophilic temperatures for more than 7 days at laboratory scale, and therefore complete hygienization. Pilot scale composting of PCS was also studied, and a respiratory quotient of 1.19 was obtained, indicating a full aerobic biological process. Respiration tests showed a complete stabilization of the material, with final values of the static respiration index in the range of 1.1 mg O2gTOM(-1)h(-1). Composting is proposed as a suitable technology for the effective recycling of this type of sludge from the recycled paper manufacturing industry.

  3. Composting for Biocontained Cattle Mortality Disposal and Associated Greenhouse Gas and Leachate Emissions.

    PubMed

    Gilroyed, Brandon H; Conrad, Cheyenne; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A; Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Composting can be an effective means of biodegrading livestock mortalities in emergency disposal situations, such as disease outbreaks. Within the past decade, our knowledge detailing composting has increased substantially. However, research data linking the environmental impact of composting to atmospheric and terrestrial systems are limited. We investigated composting efficacy, greenhouse gas emissions, and leachate properties from two static compost piles, each containing 16 cattle mortalities, built with either beef manure (BM) or wood shavings (WS) as envelope material. Wood shavings achieved a greater maximum temperature than BM (60 vs. 50°C) and maintained higher temperatures over 200 d ( < 0.001). Greenhouse gas emissions were evaluated using a static chamber and gas chromatography. Emissions of NO ( < 0.001), CH ( < 0.01), and CO ( < 0.05) were lower from WS than BM, resulting in 3-fold lower total CO equivalent emissions. After 250 d of composting, piles were relocated, and soil cores were taken (i) from beneath the piles, (ii) adjacent to the piles where leachate had accumulated, and (iii) in a control zone without compost exposure. Elevated concentrations of ammonium ( < 0.05) and chloride ( < 0.05) were found in soil beneath both BM and WS. Microbial DNA profiles suggested that leachate from BM compost increased bacterial diversity in soil, maintaining a biological soil impact after pile removal. Degradation of bovine mitochondrial DNA fragments was monitored by polymerase chain reaction. Limited migration of genetic bovine material from compost into soil was observed. Based on the mortalities decomposition and leachate contents, both BM and WS are suitable envelope materials for composting.

  4. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization.

  5. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2016-09-01

    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting.

  6. Physical degradation of wheat straw by the in-vessel and windrow methods of mushroom compost production.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G A; McCall, R D; Sharma, H S

    2000-09-01

    Mushroom compost manufacturers in Ireland are moving away from the traditional outdoor phase I windrow method, favouring in-vessel production. Composters and growers have reported better quality compost with faster spawn run and higher yields produced by this process. In the present study, physical examination of samples highlighted differences when comparing the windrow and in-vessel methods of compost production. Observations using scanning electron microscopy suggest that the cuticle of wheat straw from in-vessel production is damaged during phase I, peeling away from the surface in fragments, and exposing the epidermis. Changes in silicon levels on the straw surface acted as a marker for cuticle damage when comparing both composting systems. Cuticle damage may be important during composting and afterwards, as substrate colonisation is faster, and consequently spawn run is shorter. The phase I compost microbial community is altered by the in-vessel technique, producing a predominantly thermophilic bacterial flora in contrast to the mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and fungi found in windrow phase I compost. These differences may be significant in mushroom compost production.

  7. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council microbial detection methods in finished compost and regrowth potential of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost.

    PubMed

    Reynnells, Russell; Ingram, David T; Roberts, Cheryl; Stonebraker, Richard; Handy, Eric T; Felton, Gary; Vinyard, Bryan T; Millner, Patricia D; Sharma, Manan

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial pathogens may survive and regrow in finished compost due to incomplete thermal inactivation during or recontamination after composting. Twenty-nine finished composts were obtained from 19 U.S. states and were separated into three broad feedstock categories: biosolids (n=10), manure (n=4), and yard waste (n=15). Three replicates of each compost were inoculated with ≈ 1-2 log CFU/g of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) protocols and U.S. Composting Council's (USCC) Test Methods for the Examination of Composting and Compost (TMECC) were compared to determine which method recovered higher percentages of inoculated E. coli (representing fecal coliforms) and Salmonella spp. from 400-g samples of finished composts. Populations of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were determined over 3 days while stored at 25°C and compared to physicochemical parameters to predict their respective regrowth potentials. EPA Method 1680 recovered significantly (p=0.0003) more inoculated E. coli (68.7%) than TMECC 07.01 (48.1%) due to the EPA method using more compost in the initial homogenate, larger transfer dilutions, and a larger most probable number scheme compared to TMECC 07.01. The recoveries of inoculated Salmonella spp. by Environmental Protection Agency Method 1682 (89.1%) and TMECC 07.02 (72.4%) were not statistically significant (p=0.44). The statistically similar recovery percentages may be explained by the use of a nonselective pre-enrichment step used in both methods. No physicochemical parameter (C:N, moisture content, total organic carbon) was able to serve as a sole predictor of regrowth of Salmonella spp. or E. coli O157:H7 in finished compost. However, statistical analysis revealed that the C:N ratio, total organic carbon, and moisture content all contributed to pathogen regrowth potential in finished composts. It is recommended that the USCC modify TMECC protocols to test

  8. Changes in the aerobic vaginal bacterial mucous load after treatment with intravaginal sponges in anoestrous ewes: effect of medroxiprogesterone acetate and antibiotic treatment use.

    PubMed

    Gatti, M; Zunino, P; Ungerfeld, R

    2011-04-01

    Intravaginal sponges (IS) impregnated with progestagens are widely used for oestrous synchronization in ewes. As progestogens depress the immuno response, the first aim was to determine whether medroxiprogesterone acetate (MAP) content affects the vaginal bacteria number (VBN) in IS-treated anoestrous ewes. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of different antibiotic treatments to control the VBN increase caused by IS. In both experiments, IS were inserted during 14 days in anoestrous ewes. In the first, 11 ewes received commercial sponges (50 mg MAP), and 10 ewes received placebo sponges. For the second experiment, IS were inserted in three groups (n = 12/group), containing oxytetracycline im (20 mg/kg); injected into the sponge (0.02 mg), or control (no antibiotic). At sponge withdrawal, all ewes received 300 UI eCG. Mucous samples were collected from the vagina before sponge insertion, at sponge withdrawal, 24, 48 and 72 h later, and the VBN (colony-forming units per ml; CFU/ml) was counted after 48-h incubation. Medroxiprogesterone content did not affect VBN (log CFU/ml: 4.3 ± 0.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.2 with and without MAP, respectively). Bacterial number increased from 3.5 ± 0.2 at sponge insertion to 6.9 ± 0.1 at sponge withdrawal (p < 0.0001) and decreased the following day to 4.3 ± 0.2 (p < 0.0001). In the second experiment, VBN increased at sponge withdrawal (p < 0.0001) in all groups and decreased the following day (p < 0.0001). The CFU/ml at sponge withdrawal was lower in ewes treated with antibiotics (p < 0.0001), being even lower when local rather than systemic antibiotic was administered (log CFU/ml: 3.3 ± 1.8 vs 7.2 ± 1.8). The day of oestrous VBN was similar for all treatments and similar to that observed before sponge insertion. We concluded that MAP does not influence the increase in VBN, as the main effect is provoked by the sponge device itself, and local antibiotic treatment resulted in a lower bacterial growth than systemic treatments.

  9. Microbiological study on bioremediation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) contaminated soil by agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaoning; Ma, Shuang; Li, Yuanping; Yan, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Jie; Tan, Xuebin

    2016-11-01

    This paper studied the degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in contaminated soil under composting and natural conditions, respectively. BDE-47 residue in agricultural waste-composting pile was determined during 45-day composting. The microbial communities were determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the relationships between the DGGE results and physico-chemical parameters were evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA) and heatmap-clustering analysis. The results showed that the degradation rate of BDE-47 was significantly higher in agricultural waste-composting pile compared with control group, which was enhanced up to almost 15 % at the end of composting. There were different environmental factors which affected the distribution of composting bacterial and fungal communities. The bacterial community composition was more significantly affected by the addition of BDE-47 compared with other physico-chemical parameters, and BDE-47 had stronger influences on bacterial community than fungal community during the composting. Meanwhile, the most variation in distribution of fungal community was explained by pile temperature.

  10. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The content, behaviour and significance of heavy metals in composted waste materials is important from two potentially conflicting aspects of environmental legislation in terms of: (a) defining end-of-waste criteria and increasing recycling of composted residuals on land and (b) protecting soil quality by preventing contamination. This review examines the effects of heavy metals in compost and amended soil as a basis for achieving a practical and sustainable balance between these different policy objectives, with particular emphasis on agricultural application. All types of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contain more heavy metals than the background concentrations present in soil and will increase their contents in amended soil. Total concentrations of heavy metals in source-segregated and greenwaste compost are typically below UK PAS100 limits and mechanical segregated material can also comply with the metal limits in UK PAS100, although this is likely to be more challenging. Zinc and Pb are numerically the elements present in the largest amounts in MSW-compost. Lead is the most limiting element to use of mechanically-segregated compost in domestic gardens, but concentrations are typically below risk-based thresholds that protect human health. Composted residuals derived from MSW and greenwaste have a high affinity for binding heavy metals. There is general consensus in the scientific literature that aerobic composting processes increase the complexation of heavy metals in organic waste residuals, and that metals are strongly bound to the compost matrix and organic matter, limiting their solubility and potential bioavailability in soil. Lead is the most strongly bound element and Ni the weakest, with Zn, Cu and Cd showing intermediate sorption characteristics. The strong metal sorption properties of compost produced from MSW or sewage sludge have important benefits for the remediation of metal contaminated industrial and urban soils. Compost and sewage sludge

  11. Nitrate capture and slow release in biochar amended compost and soil

    PubMed Central

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Slow release of nitrate by charred organic matter used as a soil amendment (i.e. biochar) was recently suggested as potential mechanism of nutrient delivery to plants which may explain some agronomic benefits of biochar. So far, isolated soil-aged and composted biochar particles were shown to release considerable amounts of nitrate only in extended (>1 h) extractions (“slow release”). In this study, we quantified nitrate and ammonium release by biochar-amended soil and compost during up to 167 h of repeated extractions in up to six consecutive steps to determine the effect of biochar on the overall mineral nitrogen retention. We used composts produced from mixed manures amended with three contrasting biochars prior to aerobic composting and a loamy soil that was amended with biochar three years prior to analysis and compared both to non-biochar amended controls. Composts were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C and 65°C, after sterilization, after treatment with H2O2, after removing biochar particles or without any modification. Soils were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C. Ammonium was continuously released during the extractions, independent of biochar amendment and is probably the result of abiotic ammonification. For the pure compost, nitrate extraction was complete after 1 h, while from biochar-amended composts, up to 30% of total nitrate extracted was only released during subsequent extraction steps. The loamy soil released 70% of its total nitrate amount in subsequent extractions, the biochar-amended soil 58%. However, biochar amendment doubled the amount of total extractable nitrate. Thus, biochar nitrate capture can be a relevant contribution to the overall nitrate retention in agroecosystems. Our results also indicate that the total nitrate amount in biochar amended soils and composts may frequently be underestimated. Furthermore, biochars could prevent nitrate loss from agroecosystems and may be developed into slow-release fertilizers to reduce global N

  12. An airborne actinobacteria Nocardiopsis alba isolated from bioaerosol of a mushroom compost facility.

    PubMed

    Paściak, Mariola; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Gamian, Andrzej; Szponar, Bogumiła; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in many environments and represent the most important trigger to the occupant respiratory health. Health complaints, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis of the workers, were recorded in a mushroom compost facility (MCF). The studies on the airborne bacteria were carried out to find a possible microbiological source of these symptoms. Culture analysis of compost bioaerosols collected in different location of the MCF was performed. An assessment of the indoor microbial exposure revealed bacterial flora of bioaerosol in the mushroom compost facility represented by Bacillus, Geobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus spp., and actinobacterial strain with white aerial mycelium. The thermotolerant actinobacterial strain of the same morphology was repeatedly isolated from many locations in MCF: air, compost sample, and solid surface in production hall. On the base of complex morphological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate has been classified as Nocardiopsis alba. Dominant position of N. alba in microbial environment of the mushroom compost facility may represent an indicator microorganism in compost bioaerosol. The bioavailability of N. alba in mushroom compost facility creates potential risk for the health of workers, and the protection of respiratory tract and/or skin is strongly recommended.

  13. Pattern of elemental release during the granite dissolution can be changed by aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Damma Glacier (central Alps) deglaciated granite sand.

    PubMed

    Lapanje, Aleš; Wimmersberger, Celine; Furrer, Gerhard; Brunner, Ivano; Frey, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Colonisation and weathering of freshly deglaciated granite are key processes in initial soil formation and development. We have obtained 438 isolates from granite sand covering glacial toe, 284 isolates at 22°C and 154 at 4°C incubation temperatures, respectively, to obtain cultures for the investigation of their weathering capabilities under laboratory conditions. The isolation of bacteria from granite sand was performed on rich-, intermediate- and low-nutrient-content solid media. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. According to the genera-associated weathering capabilities described in the literature and according to their abundance in our culture collection, we selected eight strains to analyse their effects on the weathering dynamics of granite sand during the batch culture experiment. Analysis of culturable bacteria showed higher species richness among isolates from 22°C than from 4°C incubations. In the R2A and 1/100 Ravan media, we observed the highest species richness of isolates obtained at 22°C and 4°C incubation temperatures, respectively. The obtained 16S rRNA sequences revealed the presence of alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The most numerous group of isolates was distantly related to Collimonas representatives, and according to the sequences of the 16S rRNA genes, they can form a new genus. Isolates from this group had the capability of causing increased dissolution rates for Fe, W, Ni and Rb. In general, at each sampling during the 30-day experiment, every strain showed a unique weathering profile resulting from differential rates of the dissolution and the precipitation of different minerals in the batch culture. Consequently, the presence of different strains, their growth stage and changes in proportions of strains in the bacterial community can affect further soil development and the successive colonisation by plants.

  14. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules.

  15. Study of biochemical and microbiological parameters during composting of pine and eucalyptus bark.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Queda, A C; Ribeiro, H M; Ramos, A; Cabral, F

    2007-12-01

    To study the possibility of some residues from pulp and paper industry being used as substrates to produce seedlings in containers, three composting experiments were carried out using eucalyptus bark, pine bark and a mixture (60:40, v:v) of pine bark+eucalyptus bark. Biochemical parameters studied were: acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipase (C10), protease, urease, beta-glucosidase and total cellulases. The microbiological populations of total aerobic bacteria, total fungi, actinomycetes, nitrifying bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and fungi were also evaluated. At the end of the process physicochemical characterization of composts was also performed. Results showed in general that the highest microbiological populations as well as for enzymatic activities occurred during the thermophilic phase (>40 degrees C) of the process. On the other hand and according to the physicochemical characteristics of composts pine bark is the most appropriate material to be used in the formulation of substrates to produce plants in containers.

  16. Dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during mainstream large-scale composting in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianfei; Shen, Xiuli; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2016-11-01

    This study characterized some physicochemical and biological parameters to systematically evaluate the dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that long active phases, low maximum temperatures, low organic matter losses and high pore methane concentrations were observed in different composting layers. Pore oxygen concentrations in the top, middle and bottom layers maintained <5vol.% for 40, 42 and 45days, respectively, which accounted for more than 89% of the whole period. After each mechanical turning, oxygen was consumed at a stable respiration rate to a concentration of 5vol.% in no more than 99min and remained anaerobic in the subsequent static condition. The daily percentage of time under aerobic condition was no more than 14% of a single day. Therefore, improving FAS, adjusting aeration interval or combining turning with forced aeration was suggested to provide sufficient oxygen during composting.

  17. NASA tests composters for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C.

    1997-01-01

    For long term missions, composters may be an integral part of a life support system that provides edible food crops, extracts nutrients from plant biomass and removes contaminants from the recycling stream.

  18. Coffee husk composting: An investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. PMID:24369846

  19. Characterization of compost biofiltration media.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, B; Ergas, S J; Switzenbaum, M S

    1999-07-01

    The effect of compost quality on performance of biofiltration media was investigated. Three types of compost media were characterized in terms of their key properties, including pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen, moisture content, oxygen uptake rates and heterotrophic and fungal plate counts. Laboratory-scale biofilter columns were each filled with a different compost medium mixed with buffer and a bulking agent. The columns were operated with a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture consisting of ethyl alcohol, butyraldehyde, ethyl acetate, and 1,1-diethoxybutane and subjected to various operating conditions. After 13 months, the columns were sampled and post-characterization of the media was performed. A mixture of biosolids/horse manure compost, which had a high initial microbial activity, had the shortest acclimation period. Best overall performance, however, was observed with yard waste compost, which was the most stable medium. Media hydrophobicity was a key factor in long-term performance. Significant changes in compost structure, moisture content, pH, volatile solids, oxygen uptake rates, and microbial population densities were observed over the course of the study. Analyses of organic nitrogen content showed that significant amounts of nitrogen were not depleted from the media.

  20. Study and assessment of segregated biowaste composting: The case study of Attica municipalities.

    PubMed

    Malamis, D; Bourka, A; Stamatopoulou, Ε; Moustakas, K; Skiadi, O; Loizidou, M

    2016-10-23

    This work aims to assess the operation of the first large scale segregated biowaste composting scheme in Greece to divert Household Food Waste (HFW) from landfill and produce a material which can be recovered and used as compost. The source separation and collection of HFW was deployed in selected areas in Attica Region serving about 3700 households. Sorted HFW is collected & transported to the Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plant in Attica Region that has been designed to produce Compost Like Output (CLO) from mixed MSW. The MBT facility has been adjusted in order to receive and treat aerobically HFW mixed with shredded green waste in a dedicated composting tunnel. The composting process was monitored against temperature, moisture and oxygen content indicating that the biological conditions are sufficiently developed. The product quality was examined and assessed against the quality specifications of EU End of Waste Criteria for biowaste subjected to composting aiming to specify whether the HFW that has undergone recovery ceases to be waste and can be classified as compost. More specifically, the heavy metals concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg) are within the set limits and much lower compared to the CLO material that currently is being produced at the MBT plant. In regard to the hygienic requirements of the product it has been found that the process conditions result in a pathogen free material (i.e. E. Coli and Salmonella) which does not favor the growth of viable weeds and plant propagules, while it acquires sufficient organic matter content for soil fertilization. Noticeable physical impurities (mainly fractions of glass) have been detected exceeding the quality control threshold limit of 0.5% w/w (plastics, metals and glass). The latter is related to the missorted materials and to the limited pre-treatment configurations prior to composting. The above findings indicate that effective source separation of biowaste is prerequisite for

  1. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  2. Assessment of the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from dairy manure and rice chaff by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Yu, Guanghui; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of maturity and biological parameters is important in the composting process. In this study, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from the co-composting of dairy and rice chaff. The results from a Pearson correlation analysis between traditional physico-chemical maturity indices and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) parameters showed that among the FRI parameters, P(V,n)/P(III,n) and P(V,n) were suitable for the assessment of compost maturity. Moreover, the FRI parameters could be used to evaluate biological parameters including the germination index (GI) and ribotype evolution which indicate the bacterial community structure and dynamics. P(IV,n) was the most suitable indicator for revealing the community structure and dynamics during the composting process. Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with the FRI analysis could be used as a sensitive and efficient tool for assessing compost maturity and biological parameters.

  3. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  4. Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

    2011-10-01

    An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, i17 : 0 and ai17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2 % (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) ( = DSM 23976(T) = ICMP 18418(T)).

  5. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, M; Marques, M; Hogland, W; Nammari, D R

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of aerobic degradation with emphasis on the 16 U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), oily sludge generated by a dissolved air flotation flocculation unit of a wastewater treatment plant in a petroleum refinery was amended with remediated oil-contaminated soil and non-mature garden waste compost 40:40:20 (wet weight) respectively. About 21 t of the mixture with a top-layer formed by 30 cm of remediated soil was treated in a 28 m3 air-forced reactor. The PAH concentration was monitored for 370 days. In the top-layer, a reduction of 88 % of the total extractable PAH was measured at day 62 and a final reduction of 93% at day 370. In the mixture, a reduction of 72% in total PAH was measured at day 62, followed by fluctuation in concentration with a final measured reduction of 53% at day 370. The analysis of individual PAH in the mixture suggested that volatilization and biodegradation are the main mechanisms responsible for the reduction of 2 ring PAH and 3-4 ring PAH, respectively. Fluctuation of 5-6 ring PAH concentrations with increase observed at the end of the period might result from a combination of the following: (i) sequestration of large PAH in the organic matrix (reducing bioavailability, biodegradability and eventually, extractability) and desorption as composting progresses; (ii) heterogeneous distribution of the stable large PAH in the mixture, thus affecting sampling. It was concluded that one-time composting in static-aerated biopiles with organic amendments as the sole strategy to treat oily sludge is very effective in reducing the content of 2-4 ring PAH, but it is not effective in reducing the content of 5-6 ring PAHs, even after a relatively long time span (370 d). The concentrations measured in the remediated soil that formed the top layer after 62 days of composting suggests that further relevant reduction of residual PAH (89% of total PAH and 69% of 5-6 ring PAH) can be obtained if the

  6. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  7. Assessment of Composting Feasibility at Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    composting organic matter include the suppression of certain plant diseases , the reduced need for fertilizers and pesticides, the prevention of soil...beautification, and soil enrichment. Composting also helps suppress plant diseases and pests. In addition, compost facilities are not likely to contaminate... compost enriched soil can also help suppress diseases and ward off pests. It destroys disease organisms and creates a nutrient-rich

  8. Effect of inoculation with Penicillium expansum on the microbial community and maturity of compost.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-yuan; Fan, Bing-quan; Hu, Qing-xiu; Yin, Zhong-wei

    2011-12-01

    Compost prepared from wheat straw and cattle/chicken mature was inoculated with the lignocellulolytic fungus, Penicillium expansum. Compared to uninoculated compost, the inoculated compost exhibited a 150% higher germination index, more than 1.2 g kg(-1)-dw of changes in NH(4)(+)-N concentrations, a ca. 12.0% higher humus content and a lignocellulose degradation that proceeded 57.5% faster. Culture-based determinations of microbial populations demonstrated that aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and fungi were about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in inoculated than in uninoculated compost. The number of ammonifying, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrite-oxidizing, denitrifying bacteria and cellulose-decomposing bacteria was 6.1-9.0 log(10) CFU g(-1)-dw, 1.2-4.3 log(10) MPN g(-1)-dw, 3.5-6.8 log(10) MPN g(-1)-dw, 3.58-4.34 log(10) MPN g(-1)-dw, 1.4-3.8 log(10)MPN g(-1)-dw, and 4.2-8.8 log(10) CFU g(-1)-dw higher in the compost inoculated with P. expansum.

  9. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel.

  10. Monitoring of pile composting process of OFMSW at full scale and evaluation of odour emission impact.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M C; Martín, M A; Serrano, A; Chica, A F

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the evolution of odour concentration (ouE/m(3)STP) emitted during the pile composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was monitored by dynamic olfactometry. Physical-chemical variables as well as the respirometric variables were also analysed. The aim of this work was twofold. The first was to determine the relationship between odour and traditional variables to determine if dynamic olfactometry is a feasible and adequate technique for monitoring an aerobic stabilisation process (composting). Second, the composting process odour impact on surrounding areas was simulated by a dispersion model. The results showed that the decrease of odour concentration, total organic carbon and respirometric variables was similar (around 96, 96 y 98% respectively). The highest odour emission (5224 ouE/m(3)) was reached in parallel with the highest microbiological activity (SOUR and OD20 values of 25 mgO2/gVS · h and 70 mgO2/gVS, respectively). The validity of monitoring odour emissions during composting in combination with traditional and respirometric variables was demonstrated by the adequate correlation obtained between the variables. Moreover, the quantification of odour emissions by dynamic olfactometry and the subsequent application of the dispersion model permitted making an initial prediction of the impact of odorous emissions on the population. Finally, the determination of CO2 and CH4 emissions allowed the influence of composting process on carbon reservoirs and global warming to be evaluated.

  11. Characterization of lignocellulosic compositions' degradation during chicken manure composting with added biochar by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Jialiang; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-05-15

    Biorefractory high polymer lignocellulosic compositions may limit rapid composting and stable decomposition. Because their degradation during composting is not well understood, the correlation with microbial community profiles was assessed to reveal degradation mechanism of lignocellulosic compositions. Testing of chicken manure aerobic composting with added biochar was performed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and correlation analysis. Results demonstrated a good composting effect with good dynamic correlation between microbial characteristic (PLFA) and lignocellulosic compositions' degradation ratio. The prediction model for hemicellulose degradation ratio (R(2)=0.97, SEP=3.24) and the prediction model for cellulose degradation ratio (R(3)=0.94, SEP=3.09), built using PLFA 16:0-18:2ω6c and PLFA 18:2ω6c-18:3ω3 as the arguments had good predictive ability. Based on microbial analysis and quantitative characterization of the degradation ratio, the prediction models provided methodological support for delineating the mechanism of lignocellulosic compositions' degradation during chicken manure aerobic composting with added biochar.

  12. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  13. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  14. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  15. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  16. Biosolids composting in Davenport, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, R.A.; Williams, T.; Plett, S.

    1996-09-01

    The City of Davenport, Iowa constructed an aerated static pile composting facility to process 28 dry tons per day of dewatered biosolids and 25,000 cubic yards per year of yard wastes. This is the first large totally enclosed aerated static pile biosolids composting facility to be built in several years in the US. Design of the facility was completed in March 1994, construction began in July 1994, with substantial completion of the facility in August 1995. This paper outlines the major operating systems and describes the major components of the facility. The facility processes all of the City`s anaerobically digested biosolids which is currently dewatered by belt filter presses to 20% solids. Yard wastes are used as the primary bulking agent supplemented by wood chips and shredded rubber tires to minimize O and M costs. A mechanized continuous feed mixing system consisting of hoppers, conveyors, and pugmill mixers is used to combine bulk agents with the dewatered biosolids to the desired ratio for composting. Composting and drying of these materials occurs in a totally enclosed pre-fabricated metal building for maximum environmental control and odor control. Multiple aeration stations provide both positive and negative aeration through pre-cast aeration trenches beneath compost piles.

  17. [Technology of composting].

    PubMed

    Jäger, B

    1983-09-01

    The technology of composting must guarantee the material-chemical, biological and physical-technical reaction conditions essential for the rotting process. In this, the constituents of the input material and the C/N ratio play an important role. Maintaining optimum decomposition conditions is rendered difficult by the fact that the physical-technical reaction parameters partly exclude each other. These are: optimum humidity, adequate air/oxygen supply, large active surface, loose structure with sufficient decomposition volume. The processing of the raw refuse required to maintain the physical-technical reaction parameters can be carried out either by the conventional method of preliminary fragmentizing, sieving and mixing or else in conjunction with separating recycling in adapted systems. The latter procedure obviates some drawbacks which mainly result from the high expenditure required for preliminary fragmentation of the raw refuse. Moreover, presorting affords the possibility of reducing the heavy-metal content of the organic composing fraction and this approaches a solution to the noxa disposal problem which at present stands in the way of being accepted as an ecological waste disposal method.

  18. High abundance and role of antifungal bacteria in compost-treated soils in a wildfire area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, In Sung; Moon, Eun Young; Park, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sang-Jong; Lim, Joo-Hoon; Park, Byung Tae; Lee, Eun Ju

    2011-10-01

    Compost has been widely used in order to promote vegetation growth in post-harvested and burned soils. The effects on soil microorganisms were scarcely known, so we performed the microbial analyses in a wildfire area of the Taebaek Mountains, Korea, during field surveys from May to September 2007. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we found that compost used in burned soils influenced a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria. Compost-treated soils contained higher levels of antifungal strains in the genera Bacillus and Burkholderia than non-treated soils. When the antifungal activity of Burkholderia sp. strain O1a_RA002, which had been isolated from a compost-treated soil, was tested for the growth inhibition of bacteria and fungi isolated from burned soils, the membrane-filtered culture supernatant inhibited 19/37 fungal strains including soil fungi, Eupenicillium spp. and Devriesia americana; plant pathogens, Polyschema larviformis and Massaria platani; an animal pathogen, Mortierella verticillata; and an unidentified Ascomycota. However, this organism only inhibited 11/151 bacterial strains tested. These patterns were compatible with the culture-independent DGGE results, suggesting that the compost used in burned soils had a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria through the promotion of the growth of antifungal bacteria. Our findings indicate that compost used in burned soils is effective in restoring soil conditions to a state closer to those of nearby unburned forest soils at the early stage of secondary succession.

  19. Changes induced by Trichoderma harzianum in suppressive compost controlling Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Josefa; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Lloret, Eva; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Ros, Margarita

    2013-09-01

    The addition of species of Trichoderma to compost is a widespread technique used to control different plant diseases. The biological control activity of these species is mainly attributable to a combination of several mechanisms of action, which may affect the microbiota involved in the suppressiveness of compost. This study was therefore performed to determine the effect of inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) on compost, focusing on bacterial community structure (16S rRNA) and chitinase gene diversity. In addition, the ability of vineyard pruning waste compost, amended (GCTh) or not (GC) with T. harzianum, to suppress Fusarium wilt was evaluated. The addition of T. harzianum resulted in a high relative abundance of certain chitinolytic bacteria as well as in remarkable protection against Fusarium oxysporum comparable to that induced by compost GC. Moreover, variations in the abiotic characteristics of the media, such as pH, C, N and iron levels, were observed. Despite the lower diversity of chitinolytic bacteria found in GCTh, the high relative abundance of Streptomyces spp. may be involved in the suppressiveness of this growing media. The higher degree of compost suppressiveness achieved after the addition of T. harzianum may be due not only to its biocontrol ability, but also to changes promoted in both abiotic and biotic characteristics of the growing media.

  20. Composting of food waste subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment and inoculated with Paecilomyces sp. FA13.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Mimoto, Hiroshi; Tran, Quyen Ngoc Minh; Oinuma, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Food waste collected from restaurants, convenience stores, and food-processing factories was mixed with sawdust and subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 30min to prepare compost raw material. Furan compounds such as 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural were produced at concentration levels of approximately 8 and 0.5mg/g-ds, respectively, through hydrothermal pretreatment. The furan compounds inhibited the activity of composting microorganisms, thus delaying the start of organic matter degradation during composting. A newly identified fungus, Paecilomyces sp. FA13, which possesses the ability to degrade furan compounds, was isolated and used as an inoculum for the composting of the raw material prepared by hydrothermal pretreatment. By inoculating the FA13 into the compost raw material at 10(5)CFU/g-ds, the degradation of furan compounds was accelerated. As a result, bacterial activity, which contributed to composting, was enhanced, significantly promoting the start of vigorous degradation of organic materials.

  1. Co-composting of two-phase olive-mill pomace and poultry manure with tomato harvest stalks.

    PubMed

    Sülük, Kemal; Tosun, İsmail; Ekinci, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored. Compost mass and volume changes were determined at the beginning, during remixings, and at the end of composting. While the stabilization period took less time for the mixtures containing a high amount of poultry manure, the mixtures having the high portion of two-phase olive-mill pomace took a longer time due to the structure of olive stone and its lignin content. Dry matter loss (range: 18.1-34.0%.) in the mixtures increased with an increase in the share of poultry manure and tomato stalks in the initial mixture. OM loss (range: 21.7-46.1%) for tomato stalks (measured separately) during composting increased due to an increase in the ratio of poultry manure in the initial mixtures.

  2. Effects of Cu exposure on enzyme activities and selection for microbial tolerances during swine-manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xuelian; Gao, Min; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A simulated experiment of aerobic composting was conducted on swine manure to evaluate the effects of Cu at two exposure levels (200 and 2000 mg kg(-1), corresponding to low-Cu and high-Cu treatments, respectively) on the activity of microorganisms. In addition, the microbial pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu and co-tolerance to selected antibiotics (tylosin and vancomycin) in the composted products were also investigated using the Biolog Ecoplates™ method. It was demonstrated that the enzymatic activities were significantly inhibited by the high-Cu treatment, with maximal inhibition rates of 56.8% and 65.1% for urease and dehydrogenase, respectively. In response to the PICT test, the IC50 (half-maximal inhibition concentrations) values on the microorganisms in the high-Cu-treated composts were clearly higher than those in the low-Cu-treated and control composts, for the toxicity tests on both Cu and antibiotics, including tylosin and vancomycin. The data demonstrated that high-Cu exposure to the microbial community during the composting not only selected for Cu resistance but also co-selected for antibiotic resistance, which was of significance because the tolerance might be transferred to the soil after the land application of composted manure.

  3. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  4. Microbial community structure and dynamics in thermophilic composting viewed through metagenomics and metatranscriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Luciana Principal; Martins, Layla Farage; Pereira, Roberta Verciano; Thomas, Andrew Maltez; Barbosa, Deibs; Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; Silva, Gianluca Major Machado; Moura, Livia Maria Silva; Epamino, George Willian Condomitti; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio; Lombardi, Karen Cristina; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Quaggio, Ronaldo Bento; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Pascon, Renata Castiglioni; Cruz, João Batista da; da Silva, Aline Maria; Setubal, João Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Composting is a promising source of new organisms and thermostable enzymes that may be helpful in environmental management and industrial processes. Here we present results of metagenomic- and metatranscriptomic-based analyses of a large composting operation in the São Paulo Zoo Park. This composting exhibits a sustained thermophilic profile (50 °C to 75 °C), which seems to preclude fungal activity. The main novelty of our study is the combination of time-series sampling with shotgun DNA, 16S rRNA gene amplicon, and metatranscriptome high-throughput sequencing, enabling an unprecedented detailed view of microbial community structure, dynamics, and function in this ecosystem. The time-series data showed that the turning procedure has a strong impact on the compost microbiota, restoring to a certain extent the population profile seen at the beginning of the process; and that lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction occurs synergistically and sequentially, with hemicellulose being degraded preferentially to cellulose and lignin. Moreover, our sequencing data allowed near-complete genome reconstruction of five bacterial species previously found in biomass-degrading environments and of a novel biodegrading bacterial species, likely a new genus in the order Bacillales. The data and analyses provided are a rich source for additional investigations of thermophilic composting microbiology. PMID:27941956

  5. Microbial community structure and dynamics in thermophilic composting viewed through metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Luciana Principal; Martins, Layla Farage; Pereira, Roberta Verciano; Thomas, Andrew Maltez; Barbosa, Deibs; Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; Silva, Gianluca Major Machado; Moura, Livia Maria Silva; Epamino, George Willian Condomitti; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio; Lombardi, Karen Cristina; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Quaggio, Ronaldo Bento; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Pascon, Renata Castiglioni; Cruz, João Batista da; da Silva, Aline Maria; Setubal, João Carlos

    2016-12-12

    Composting is a promising source of new organisms and thermostable enzymes that may be helpful in environmental management and industrial processes. Here we present results of metagenomic- and metatranscriptomic-based analyses of a large composting operation in the São Paulo Zoo Park. This composting exhibits a sustained thermophilic profile (50 °C to 75 °C), which seems to preclude fungal activity. The main novelty of our study is the combination of time-series sampling with shotgun DNA, 16S rRNA gene amplicon, and metatranscriptome high-throughput sequencing, enabling an unprecedented detailed view of microbial community structure, dynamics, and function in this ecosystem. The time-series data showed that the turning procedure has a strong impact on the compost microbiota, restoring to a certain extent the population profile seen at the beginning of the process; and that lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction occurs synergistically and sequentially, with hemicellulose being degraded preferentially to cellulose and lignin. Moreover, our sequencing data allowed near-complete genome reconstruction of five bacterial species previously found in biomass-degrading environments and of a novel biodegrading bacterial species, likely a new genus in the order Bacillales. The data and analyses provided are a rich source for additional investigations of thermophilic composting microbiology.

  6. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO−3-N than NH+4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition. PMID:26361474

  7. Monitoring operational and leachate characteristics of an aerobic simulated landfill bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Giannis, A; Makripodis, G; Simantiraki, F; Somara, M; Gidarakos, E

    2008-01-01

    Long-term biodegradation of MSW in an aerobic landfill bioreactor was monitored as a function of time during 510 days of operation. Operational characteristics such as air importation, temperature and leachate recirculation were monitored. The oxygen utilization rates and biodegradation of organic matter rates showed that aerobic biodegradation was feasible and appropriate to proceed in aerobic landfill bioreactor. Leachate analyses showed that the aerobic bioreactor could remove above 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and close to 100% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) from leachate. Ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and sulphate (SO4(2-)) concentrations of leachate samples were regularly measured. Results suggest that nitrification and denitrification occurred simultaneously, and the increase in nitrate did not reach the levels predicted stoichiometrically, suggesting that other processes were occurring. Leachate recirculation reduced the concentrations of heavy metals because of the effect of the high pH of the leachate, causing heavy metals to be retained by processes such as sorption on MSW, carbonate precipitation, and hydroxide precipitation. Furthermore, the compost derived from the aerobic biodegradation of the organic matter of MSW may be considered as soil improvement in the agricultural plant production. Bio-essays indicated that the ecotoxicity of leachate from the aerobic bioreactor was not toxic at the end of the experiment. Finally, after 510 days of degradation, waste settlement reached 26% mainly due to the compost of the organic matter.

  8. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  9. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  10. Microbial communities in pyrene amended soil-compost mixture and fertilized soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Iris K U; Duarte, Márcia; Pathmanathan, Jananan; Miltner, Anja; Brüls, Thomas; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are distributed ubiquitously in the environment and form metabolites toxic to most organisms. Organic amendment of PAH contaminated soil with compost and farmyard manure has proven to be efficient for PAH bioremediation mediated by native microorganisms, even though information on the identity of PAH degraders in organic-amended soil is still scarce. Here we provide molecular insight into the bacterial communities in soil amended with compost or farmyard manure for which the degradation mass balances of (13)C-labeled pyrene have been recently published and assess the relevant bacterial genera capable of degrading pyrene as a model PAH. We performed statistical analyses of bacterial genera abundance data based on total DNA and RNA (for comparison) extracted from the soil samples. The results revealed complex pyrene degrading communities with low abundance of individual degraders instead of a limited number of abundant key players. The bacterial degrader communities of the soil-compost mixture and soil fertilized with farmyard manure differed considerably in composition albeit showing similar degradation kinetics. Additional analyses were carried out on enrichment cultures and enabled the reconstruction of several nearly complete genomes, thus allowing to link microcosm and enrichment experiments. However, pyrene mineralizing bacteria enriched from the compost or unfertilized soil-compost samples did not dominate pyrene degradation in the soils. Based on the present findings, evaluations of PAH degrading microorganisms in complex soil mixtures with high organic matter content should not target abundant key degrading species, since the specific degraders may be highly diverse, of low abundance, and masked by high bacterial background.

  11. Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, T; Utkhede, R S; Paul, J W; Punja, Z K

    2000-11-01

    Three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (FORC) on cucumber. Two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (WDS) or vermicomposting (VMC) while the third, obtained from International Bio-Recovery (IBR), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. Three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at varying ratios, and seeded with cucumber cv. Corona. After 14 days of growth in the greenhouse, inoculum of FORC (20 mL of 5 x 10(6) micro-conidia per mL) was applied to each pot at three different times (14, 21, and 35 days). In unamended inoculated pots, the pathogen caused stunted growth and reduced flowers. Amendment of WDS in the potting mix suppressed these symptoms, while VMC and IBR had no effect. All three composts reduced the FORC colony forming units (cfu) at the end of the experiment (10 weeks). There was a large increase of fluorescent bacteria near the vicinity of roots particularly in WDS amended potting mixes. When water extracts of the composts were plated onto acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), only IBR contained a potent thermostable inhibitor to FORC. This inhibitor was removed by activated charcoal but was not partitioned into petroleum ether at acid, basic, or neutral pH. Inhibition of FORC by IBR was not due to electrical conductivity or trace elements in the compost. Contrasting effectiveness of the WDS and VMC made from the same waste suggests that composting method can influence the disease suppression properties of the finished compost.

  12. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  13. Survival of Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 during holding of manure-based compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures as influenced by the carbon amendment.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    During the early phases of aerobic composting of animal manures, pathogens are inactivated primarily from the accumulation of heat produced by indigenous microbial activity. When compost materials are not exposed to these lethal temperatures, the required holding time needed to obtain a pathogen-free product that may be applied to fields is unknown. Consequently, a series of studies examined whether the carbon amendment (wheat straw, peanut hulls, rice hulls, and pine needles) added to animal manures affected survival of either Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 during storage of compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures (20 to 40°C). Pathogens consistently survived for longer periods of time in compost mixtures prepared with pine needles than compost mixtures prepared with either of the other three carbon amendments. Pathogen inactivation in wheat straw- or peanut hull-amended compost mixtures was dependent on the target pathogen, moisture level, and storage temperature. Moisture levels in wheat straw-amended compost mixtures stored at 40°C had no effect on inactivation of E. coli O157:H7. In contrast, wheat straw-amended mixtures stored at 30 to 35°C and equilibrated to suboptimal moisture contents (30 to 40%) were less effective for inactivating pathogens compared with drier (25% moisture) or moister (60% moisture) mixtures. In peanut hull-amended compost mixtures, inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 was affected minimally by moisture levels, whereas Salmonella survival increased as the moisture level was decreased. The different inactivation responses of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures prepared with wheat straw or peanut hulls and equilibrated to different moisture levels suggest that there are different mechanisms for inactivation. Hence, developing reliable guidelines relying on time-temperature for holding of compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures will be challenging and, perhaps, not possible.

  14. Effects of bedding type on compost quality of equine stall waste: implications for small horse farms.

    PubMed

    Komar, S; Miskewitz, R; Westendorf, M; Williams, C A

    2012-03-01

    Our objective in this study is to compare 4 of the most common bedding materials used by equine operations on the chemical and physical characteristics of composted equine stall waste. Twelve Standardbred horses were adapted to the barn and surrounding environment for 2 wk before the start of the study. Groups of 3 horses were bedded on 1 of 4 different bedding types (wood shavings, pelletized wood materials, long straw, and pelletized straw) for 16 h per day for 18 d. Stalls were cleaned by trained staff daily, and all contents removed were weighed and stored separately by bedding material on a level covered concrete pad for the duration of the study. Compost piles were constructed using 3 replicate piles of each bedding type in a randomized complete block design. Each pile was equipped with a temperature sensor and data logger. Water was added and piles were turned weekly throughout the 100-d compost process. Initial and final samples were taken, dried, and analyzed for DM mass, OM, inorganic nitrogen (nitrate-N and ammonium-N), electrical conductivity, and soluble (plant-available) nutrients. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure, and means were separated using Fischer's protected LSD test (P < 0.05). No significant temperature differences were observed among the bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in DM mass for each of the 4 bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in OM and C:N ratio for all 4 bedding materials. The composted long straw material had greater concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (P < 0.05), nitrate-N (P < 0.05), and ammonium-N (P < 0.05) than the composted wood shavings. This study demonstrated that incorporating a simple aerobic composting system may greatly reduce the overall volume of manure and yield a material that is beneficial for land application in pasture-based systems. The straw-based materials may be better suited for

  15. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  16. Microbial communities in the garbage composting with rice hull as an amendment revealed by culture-dependent and -independent approaches.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Hiroaki; Kodaira, Shoko; Kimoto, Ayumi; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Takagi, Masamichi

    2006-01-01

    The diversity and succession of microbial communities during the garbage composting with rice hull as an amendment were studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) with universal primers. Based on temperature changes, the composting process could be divided into thermophilic, cooling-down, and maturing stages. The DGGE profiles and clone library analysis revealed that the microbial community drastically changed during the composting process from the thermophilic to the maturing stages. The dominant bacterial group changed from the phylum Firmicutes in the thermophilic stage to the phylum Bacteroidetes in the maturing stage. This change in microbial communities may be significant for the composting process. The diversity of cultivated bacteria isolated from samples taken at various stages of the composting process was low. A total of 87 isolates were classified as belonging to only four different groups. These groups were also detected in the DGGE profiles and by the clone library analysis. Our study indicated that a combination of culture-dependent and -independent approaches could be very useful for monitoring both bacterial diversity and the succession of communities during the composting process. This study would be beneficial for assessing the ecological consequences of disposal of organic waste.

  17. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: co-composting versus incorporation.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R; Nason, Mark A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2009-02-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost.

  18. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  19. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang.

  20. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  1. Biodegradation of paper waste under controlled composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J V López; Larrucea, M Aguilar; Bermúdez, P Arraiza; Chicote, B León

    2009-05-01

    The presence of paper in municipal solid waste (MSW) interferes with the efficiency of composting plants. The compost feedstock to these plants is between 12% and 27% paper on a dry weight basis, with an initial C:N ratio ranging from 32:1 to 57:1. Tests of the last aerobic biodegradability (LAB) of the type of paper present in paper and cardboard packaging were carried out, following UNE-EN 14046 standards. The results obtained, measured through the quantity of CO(2) generated over 45 days, compared with the maximum that could be produced (ThCO(2)), showed that the presence of paper retards, to a great degree, the biodegradation of organic material in general. Specifically, the presence of papers with a degradation D (%) >60% at 45 days (white (W) and recycled paper (R)) could be allowed, but always in proportions that did not exceed 27% in dry weight. These results can be achieved with an industrial level process, pre-treated by trituration.

  2. Microbial Abundances Predict Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from a Windrow Composting System.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuqing; Song, Lina; Gao, Xiang; Jin, Yaguo; Liu, Shuwei; Shen, Qirong; Zou, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    Manure composting is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that are two potent greenhouse gases. The CH4 and N2O fluxes are mediated by methanogens and methanotrophs, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in composting manure, respectively, while these specific bacterial functional groups may interplay in CH4 and N2O emissions during manure composting. To test the hypothesis that bacterial functional gene abundances regulate greenhouse gas fluxes in windrow composting systems, CH4 and N2O fluxes were simultaneously measured using the chamber method, and molecular techniques were used to quantify the abundances of CH4-related functional genes (mcrA and pmoA genes) and N2O-related functional genes (amoA, narG, nirK, nirS, norB, and nosZ genes). The results indicate that changes in interacting physicochemical parameters in the pile shaped the dynamics of bacterial functional gene abundances. The CH4 and N2O fluxes were correlated with abundances of specific compositional genes in bacterial community. The stepwise regression statistics selected pile temperature, mcrA and NH4(+) together as the best predictors for CH4 fluxes, and the model integrating nirK, nosZ with pmoA gene abundances can almost fully explain the dynamics of N2O fluxes over windrow composting. The simulated models were tested against measurements in paddy rice cropping systems, indicating that the models can also be applicable to predicting the response of CH4 and N2O fluxes to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and rising temperature. Microbial abundances could be included as indicators in the current carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical models.

  3. Microbial Abundances Predict Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from a Windrow Composting System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuqing; Song, Lina; Gao, Xiang; Jin, Yaguo; Liu, Shuwei; Shen, Qirong; Zou, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    Manure composting is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that are two potent greenhouse gases. The CH4 and N2O fluxes are mediated by methanogens and methanotrophs, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in composting manure, respectively, while these specific bacterial functional groups may interplay in CH4 and N2O emissions during manure composting. To test the hypothesis that bacterial functional gene abundances regulate greenhouse gas fluxes in windrow composting systems, CH4 and N2O fluxes were simultaneously measured using the chamber method, and molecular techniques were used to quantify the abundances of CH4-related functional genes (mcrA and pmoA genes) and N2O-related functional genes (amoA, narG, nirK, nirS, norB, and nosZ genes). The results indicate that changes in interacting physicochemical parameters in the pile shaped the dynamics of bacterial functional gene abundances. The CH4 and N2O fluxes were correlated with abundances of specific compositional genes in bacterial community. The stepwise regression statistics selected pile temperature, mcrA and NH4+ together as the best predictors for CH4 fluxes, and the model integrating nirK, nosZ with pmoA gene abundances can almost fully explain the dynamics of N2O fluxes over windrow composting. The simulated models were tested against measurements in paddy rice cropping systems, indicating that the models can also be applicable to predicting the response of CH4 and N2O fluxes to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and rising temperature. Microbial abundances could be included as indicators in the current carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical models. PMID:28373862

  4. Effect of bulking agents on maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guo Xue; Yang, Qing Yuan; Luo, Wen Hai

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of bulking agents on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Three different bulking agents (cornstalks, sawdust, and spent mushroom substrate) were used to compost kitchen waste under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for a 28-d period. A control treatment was also studied using kitchen waste without a bulking agent. During the experiment, maturity indexes such as temperature, pH value, C/N ratio, and germination index were determined, and continuous measurements of leachate and gaseous emissions (CH₄, N₂O, and NH₃) were taken. The results showed that all of the composts with bulking agents reached the required maturity standard, and the addition of spent mushroom substrate gave the highest maturity (C/N ratio decreased from 23 to 16 and germination index increased from 53% to 111%). The bulking agents also reduced leachate production and CH₄ and N₂O emissions, but had little impact on NH3 emissions. Composting with sawdust as a bulking agent was found to emit less total greenhouse gas (33 kg CO₂-eqt(-1) dry matter) than the other treatments.

  5. Straw Compost and Bioremediated Soil as Inocula for the Bioremediation of Chlorophenol-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Laine, M. M.; Jorgensen, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of straw compost and remediated soil as inocula for bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated soil. The in situ biotransformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and mineralization of radiolabeled [U-(sup14)C]PCP by straw compost and remediated soil were studied under field-simulating conditions before and after 3 months of adaptation with PCP in a percolator. After PCP adaptation, the straw compost mineralized up to 56% of the [(sup14)C]PCP. No partial dechlorination of PCP was found. The native straw compost did not mineralize PCP, but partial dechlorination of PCP occurred (i) at pH 8 under near-thermophilic conditions (45(deg)C) and (ii) at pH 7 under aerobic and mesophilic conditions. No biotransformation reactions occurred at room temperature (25(deg)C) at pH 8. Enrichment in the percolator enhanced the mineralization rate of remediated soil to 56% compared with that of the native remediated soil, which mineralized 24% of [(sup14)C]PCP added. Trace amounts of chloroanisoles as the only biotransformation products were detected in PCP-adapted remediated soil. Both inoculants studied here showed effective mineralization of PCP when they were adapted to PCP in the percolator. No harmful side reactions, such as extensive methylation, were observed. PMID:16535304

  6. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  7. Impact of activated carbon, biochar and compost on the desorption and mineralization of phenanthrene in soil.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E C; Rein, Arno; Winding, Anne; Wollensen de Jonge, Lis; Trapp, Stefan; Karlson, Ulrich G

    2013-10-01

    Sorption of PAHs to carbonaceous soil amendments reduces their dissolved concentrations, limiting toxicity but also potentially biodegradation. Therefore, the maximum abiotic desorption of freshly sorbed phenanthrene (≤5 mg kg(-1)) was measured in three soils amended with activated carbon (AC), biochar or compost. Total amounts of phenanthrene desorbed were similar between the different soils, but the amendment type had a large influence. Complete desorption was observed in the unamended and compost amended soils, but this reduced for biochar (41% desorbed) and AC (8% desorbed). Cumulative amounts mineralized were 28% for the unamended control, 19% for compost, 13% for biochar and 4% for AC. Therefore, the effects of the amendments in soil in reducing desorption were also reflected in the extents of mineralization. Modeling was used to analyze key processes, indicating that for the AC and charcoal treatments bacterial activity did not limit mineralization, but rather desorption into the dissolved phase.

  8. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  9. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  10. Current and future North American compost markets

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.

    1995-09-01

    As composting grows in popularity and research continues, the science of composting is becoming better understood. The successful marketing and distribution of composted products, however, is less than an exact science. In order to develop a successful compost marketing program, it is important to understand current and potential compost markets, their specific applications for compost products, their product quality requirements, and their current level of acceptance for specific products. It is also important to understand that specific barriers to market development exist, as do specific challenges. When preparing to approach specific compost markets, we must first consider the characteristics of our particular compost product. The specific chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of a product will affect our ability to market it within specific markets. Producing a product of consistent quality or possessing consistent characteristics will also influence its acceptability within specific markets. The ability to meet other end user requirements, such as providing technical assistance and service, are also factor not often considered. It is necessary to educate end users regarding proper compost use, as well as to address stigmas that may be attached to the product. False marketing barriers, based on regulatory issues, must be removed and market related research and planning must be approached with the same seriousness as design and operational considerations.

  11. Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Piyush; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7) was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %), anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a level of relatedness of 54.5 %. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) ( = MTCC 9831(T) = MCC 2100(T) = KCTC 13724(T) = CCM 7754(T)).

  12. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between -400 and +80mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37-1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  13. Meeting the MSW composting challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hiscock, E. )

    1994-01-01

    A co-composting facility in Sevier County, Tennessee is exceeding all expectations for MSW/sludge processing and for the quality of its product. It's also beating the odor problem that has afflicted other composting operations. In the first six months of 1993, almost 71% of the county's waste stream was recycled. When a planned aluminium/non-ferrous metals recovery system is added to the facility, the diversion due to recycling activities should hit 75%. This has been accomplished while controlling odors and heavy metal levels and elminating toxins, pathogens, leachates, and landfill vector problems. This article presents an overview of the technology selection, plant design, siting, economics, and environmental concerns of the project.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyperthermal composting microorganisms for feasible application in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2013-05-01

    The composting system is the most efficient method for processing organic waste in space; however, the composting activity of microorganisms can be altered by cosmic rays. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation on composting bacteria was investigated. Sequence analyses of amplified 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and amoA genes were used to identify hyperthermal composting microorganisms. The viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera were Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp., and the fungal genera were Metschnikowia bicuspidata and Pichia guilliermondii. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy did not significantly alter the microbial population. Furthermore, amylase and cellulase activities were maintained after high-dose gamma irradiation. Our results show that hyperthermal microorganisms can be used to recycle agricultural and fermented material in space stations and other human-inhabiting facilities on the Moon, Mars, and other planets.

  15. Isolation and characterization of cellulose-decomposing bacteria inhabiting sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    PubMed

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Clarifying the identity and enzymatic activities of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of organic materials is expected to contribute to the evaluation and improvement of composting processes. In this study, we examined the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from sawdust compost (SDC) and coffee residue compost (CRC). Cellulolytic bacteria were isolated using Dubos mineral salt agar containing azurine cross-linked (AZCL) HE-cellulose. Bacterial identification was performed based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, and cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, mannanase, and protease activities were characterized using insoluble AZCL-linked substrates. Eleven isolates were obtained from SDC and 10 isolates from CRC. DNA analysis indicated that the isolates from SDC and CRC belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Paenibacillus, and the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Cohnella, respectively. Microbispora was the most dominant genus in both compost types. All isolates, with the exception of two isolates lacking mannanase activity, showed cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, and mannanase activities. Based on enzyme activities expressed as the ratio of hydrolysis zone diameter to colony diameter, it was suggested that the species of Microbispora (SDCB8, SDCB9) and Paenibacillus (SDCB10, SDCB11) in SDC and Microbispora (CRCB2, CRCB6) and Cohnella (CRCB9, CRCB10) in CRC contribute to efficient cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic processes during composting.

  16. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  17. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    SciTech Connect

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D'haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  18. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    PubMed

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  19. Phytate Degradation by Fungi and Bacteria that Inhabit Sawdust and Coffee Residue Composts

    PubMed Central

    Eida, Mohamed Fathallh; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting. PMID:23100024

  20. Changes in microbial dynamics during vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Pérez-Díaz, Domingo; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-02-01

    Municipal sewage sludge is a waste with high organic load generated in large quantities that can be treated by biodegradation techniques to reduce its risk to the environment. This research studies vermicomposting and vermicomposting after composting of sewage sludge with the earthworm specie Eisenia andrei. In order to determine the effect that earthworms cause on the microbial dynamics depending on the treatment, the structure and activity of the microbial community was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis and enzyme activities, during 112days of vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge, with and without earthworms. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced microbial biomass and all microbial groups (Gram+ bacteria, Gram- bacteria and fungi), as well as cellulase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Combined composting-vermicomposting treatment showed a lesser development of earthworms, higher bacterial and fungal biomass than vermicomposting treatment and greater differences, compared with the control without earthworms, in cellulase, β-glucosidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. Both treatments were suitable for the stabilization of municipal sewage sludge and the combined composting-vermicomposting treatment can be a viable process for maturation of fresh compost.

  1. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobics can reach up to six times the force of gravity, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate ...

  2. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  3. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  4. The use of concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater as a conditioning agent for adjusting acidity and minimizing ammonia volatilization in livestock manure composting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Kong, Haimin; Lu, Beibei; Wang, Jibing; Xie, Yuan; Fang, Ping

    2015-09-15

    In this study, concentrated monosodium glutamate waste (CMGW) was proposed as a conditioning agent to adjust acidity and decrease ammonia (NH3) volatilization in thermophilic aerobic composting based on two incubation experiments. The results showed that with the addition of CMGW, NH3 volatilization of compost mixture under high temperature phase decreased significantly and pH met the current national standard within 5.5-8.5. When CMGW dosage increased to 2% (v/w), the decrease in NH3 volatilization was as high as 78.9%. This effect was enhanced by repeated application of CMGW. Furthermore, although the electrical conductivity increased with the application of CMGW, both the germination index and the microbial respiration of compost mixture implied that CMGW had no negative effects on the maturity of compost, instead, a comprehensive maturity might be accelerated. It was concluded that CMGW was an optional conditioning agent for thermophilic aerobic composting of livestock manure in regards to adjusting acidity and preventing nitrogen loss from NH3 volatilization.

  5. The evaluation of sewage sludge and compost toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens in relation to inorganic and organic contaminants content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2007-12-01

    Sewage sludges and the composts were evaluated chemically and ecotoxicologically to determine their suitability as fertilizers for land application. Four municipal sewage sludges with various properties and pollutant contents were composted in aerobic conditions for 76 days. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (14 from US EPA List) was analyzed in the sewage sludges and composts as well as together with their physico-chemical properties (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium, cations content, cation exchange capacity, total of exchangeable bases). To evaluate the toxicity of the materials, bioassays with crustacean Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracodtoxkit test) were performed. Neither physical-chemical properties nor heavy metal content underwent any significant changes during the composting process. However, composting significantly influenced the range of losses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The magnitude and the ranges of changes in the toxicity H. incongruens were found to be dependent on the tested parameter as well as on sewage sludge type and its dose. It was noted that composting could even increase the toxicity of sewage sludges. Sewage sludge toxicity was mainly determined by the presence of heavy metals, although for some sludges the contribution of organic pollutants as well as the synergistic activity of several factors could not be excluded. According to proposed classification (on the basis of Ostracodtoxkit test) only one sewage sludge/compost was suitable for land application. The studies conducted provide interesting information pointing to the necessity to supplement chemical studies with biological assays.

  6. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Plant diseases are one of the seriously limiting factors of agriculture efficiency around the world. Diseases caused by fungi are the major threat to plants. Crop protection in modern agriculture heavily depends on chemical fungicides. Disadvantages of chemical pesticides soon became apparent as damage to the environment and a hazard to human health. In this regard use of biopesticides becomes an attractive alternative method of plant protection. For biological control of fungal plant diseases, separate bacterial or fungal strains as well as their communities can be used. Biopreparations must consist of microbes that are typical for local climate and soil conditions and therefore are able to survive in environments for a long time. Another option of plant pests' biological control is implementation of suppressive composts made of agricultural or other organic wastes. These composts can not only prevent the development of plant diseases, but also improve the soil fertility. The objective of this work was estimation of potential of composts and strains isolated from these composts as means for biological control of fusariosis that is one of the most widespread plant soil born disease. The composts were made up of the commonly produced agricultural wastes produced in Tatarstan Republic (Russia). Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was used as a model phytopathogen. Ten types of organic waste (Goat manure (GM), Chicken dung (CD), Chicken dung with straw addition (CS), Rabbit dung (RD), Cow manure (CM), Rerotting pork manure (RPM), Fresh pork manure (FPM), Pork manure with sawdust and straw (PMS), the remains of plants and leaves (PL), the vegetable waste (VW) were sampled in the big farms situated in Tatarstan Republic which is one of the main agricultural regions of Russia. The initial wastes were composted for 150 days. Further, the following characteristics of the composts were assessed: pH, electro conductivity, TOC, DOC, Ntot. On petri dishes with meat

  7. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  8. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  9. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  10. Compost - Brown gold or toxic trouble ?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  11. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  14. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Na; Guo, Liyue; Meng, Jie; Ding, Na; Wu, Guanglei; Jiang, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01), whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01). However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure compost plus

  15. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  16. Behaviour of biodegradable plastics in composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Redemann, K; Stegmann, R

    2005-01-01

    Composting is a preferred treatment strategy for biodegradable plastics (BDPs). In this sense, the collection of BDPs together with organic household wastes is a highly discussed possibility. Under the aspect of the behaviour of BDPs in composting facilities, a telephone survey was carried out with selected composting facility operators. They were interviewed with respect to treated wastes, content of impurities, processes for impurity separation, experiences with biodegradable plastics and assumptions to the behaviour of biodegradable plastics in their facility. Forty percent of the facilities had some experiences with BDPs due to test runs, and also since the occurrence of BDPs in their waste was known. The majority of the operators expressed apprehension regarding an increase of impurities resulting from a combined collection of biowaste and BDPs. In the facilities, measures for the impurity separation from the biowaste were used in common practice - in 33% of the cases, separation of disturbing plastics was done before composting, in 33% after composting, and in 13% before and after composting. The most important separation processes for conventional plastics were sieving and manual sorting. In two cases air classification was also used. When asked about the separation possibility of the conventional but not of the biodegradable plastics in their facilities, the majority of operators were not in a position to comment or they replied that it was not an option. No problems were seen in most cases if the impurity separation follows composting. If impurity separation takes place before composting it was often assumed that the BDPs are mainly separated by sieving. In conclusion, in more than half of the cases, BDPs would not be composted if delivered to a composting facility. Under the actual conditions regarding the collection and the treatment/disposal possibilities, an application of BDPs seems to only be reasonable for clean (i.e., source separated on their own

  17. Seasonal microbial community dynamics in a flowerpot-using personal composting system for disposal of household biowaste.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Akira Hiraishi; Yamanaka, Yosuke Yamanaka; Narihiro, Takashi

    2000-06-01

    Microbial community dynamics in a flowerpot-using solid biowaste composting (FUSBIC) process were monitored seasonally by quinone profiling and conventional microbiological methods. The FUSBIC system, which consisted of three flowerpots (14 L or 20 L capacity) with 5-6 kg each of a soil-compost mixture (SCM) as the primary reactors, was loaded daily with household biowaste from November 1998 to October 1999. The monthly average waste reduction rate was 88.2% for the 14-L system and 92.5% for the 20-L system on a wet weight basis. The direct total microbial count detected in the 14-L primary reactors ranged from 4.5 to 9.6x10(11) cells.g(-1) of dry wt of SCM, and the viable count of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria recovered on agar plates at 28 degrees C varied from 1.9 to 5.7x10(11) CFU.g(-1) of dry wt. The quinone content of SCM samples from the 14-L and 20-L systems ranged from 160 to 353 nmol.g(-1) of dry SCM. Ubiquinones, unsaturated menaquinones, and partially saturated menaquinones constituted 15.0-36.4, 14.8-22.0, and 41.8-61.6 mol% of the total content, respectively. The major quinone types detected were usually MK-8(H(2)), MK-9(H(2)), and Q-10. Variations in quinone profiles were evaluated numerically by using two parameters, the dissimilarity index (D) and microbial divergence index (MD(q)). The upper limit of seasonal changes in the microbial community structure was about 30% as expressed by D values. The MD(q) values calculated ranged from 18 to 22. A significant positive correlation was found between seasonal temperature and bacterial populations containing partially saturated menaquinones. These results indicated that the FUSBIC system contained highly diverse microbial populations that fluctuated to some extent depending on seasonal temperature. Members of the Actinobacteria were suggested to be the major constituents of the total population present.

  18. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio < 15; (b) NH4+-N < 400 mg/kg; (c) CO2-C < 2000 mg CO2-C/kg; (d) dehydrogenase activity < 1 mg TPF/g dry matter; (e) germination index (GI) > 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes.

  19. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions.

  20. Relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of Trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by Phytophthora nicotianae

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Margarita; Raut, Iulia; Santisima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae. The results showed changes in the bacterial rhizosphere community not attributed to the Trichoderma strain, but to the pathogen infection, while, fungi were not affected by pathogen infection and depended on the type of substrate. The Trichoderma asperellum fortified compost was the most effective combination against the pathogen. This could indicate that the effect of fortified composts is greater than compost itself and the biocontrol effect should be attributed to the Trichoderma strains rather than the compost microbiota, although some microorganisms could help with the biocontrol effect. PMID:28346470

  1. Relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of Trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by Phytophthora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Ros, Margarita; Raut, Iulia; Santisima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae. The results showed changes in the bacterial rhizosphere community not attributed to the Trichoderma strain, but to the pathogen infection, while, fungi were not affected by pathogen infection and depended on the type of substrate. The Trichoderma asperellum fortified compost was the most effective combination against the pathogen. This could indicate that the effect of fortified composts is greater than compost itself and the biocontrol effect should be attributed to the Trichoderma strains rather than the compost microbiota, although some microorganisms could help with the biocontrol effect.

  2. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II.

  3. Phytostabilization of mine tailings using compost-assisted direct planting: Translating greenhouse results to the field.

    PubMed

    Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; White, Scott A; Root, Robert A; Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A; Hammond, Corin M; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-09-15

    Standard practice in reclamation of mine tailings is the emplacement of a 15 to 90cm soil/gravel/rock cap which is then hydro-seeded. In this study we investigate compost-assisted direct planting phytostabilization technology as an alternative to standard cap and plant practices. In phytostabilization the goal is to establish a vegetative cap using native plants that stabilize metals in the root zone with little to no shoot accumulation. The study site is a barren 62-hectare tailings pile characterized by extremely acidic pH as well as lead, arsenic, and zinc each exceeding 2000mgkg(-1). The study objective is to evaluate whether successful greenhouse phytostabilization results are scalable to the field. In May 2010, a 0.27ha study area was established on the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund (IKMHSS) site with six irrigated treatments; tailings amended with 10, 15, or 20% (w/w) compost seeded with a mix of native plants (buffalo grass, arizona fescue, quailbush, mountain mahogany, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) and controls including composted (15 and 20%) unseeded treatments and an uncomposted unseeded treatment. Canopy cover ranging from 21 to 61% developed after 41 months in the compost-amended planted treatments, a canopy cover similar to that found in the surrounding region. No plants grew on unamended tailings. Neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were 1.5 to 4 orders of magnitude higher after 41months in planted versus unamended control plots. Shoot tissue accumulation of various metal(loids) was at or below Domestic Animal Toxicity Limits, with some plant specific exceptions in treatments receiving less compost. Parameters including % canopy cover, neutrophilic heterotrophic bacteria counts, and shoot uptake of metal(loids) are promising criteria to use in evaluating reclamation success. In summary, compost amendment and seeding, guided by preliminary greenhouse studies, allowed plant establishment and sustained growth over 4years

  4. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  5. Changes of bacterial and fungal community compositions during vermicomposting of vegetable wastes by Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Chen, Xuemin; Fu, Xiaoyong

    2013-12-01

    Changes of bacterial and fungal community during vermicomposting of vegetable wastes by hatchling, juvenile and adult Eisenia foetida were investigated through analysis of the extracted bacterial 16S rDNA and fungal 18S rDNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. After 60days of composting, significantly lower values of microbial activity and bacterial and fungal densities were revealed in the products of composting with earthworms than in the control (without earthworms). PCR-DGGE images showed vermicomposting significantly enhanced the diversities of bacterial and fungal communities. However, for their structures, sequencing results revealed that, compared to the control where the bacterial Firmicutes were predominant, in the composts with earthworms, the bacterial Bacteroidetes and Actinomycetes, and the fungal Sordariomycetes were found dominant. In addition, some beneficial species of bacteria and fungi against pathogens were also isolated from the vermicomposting products.

  6. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  7. Thermophilic Transformation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Composting Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    labelled, was used to trace these transformations. Thermophilic fungi, actinomycetes ,and bacteria were isolated from both test (1.5% TNT) and control (no...nutrient agar, soy trypticase agar, actinomycete medium, or malt extract agar plates incubated at 550C. Bacterial identifications were accomplished...Co., San Francisco, London. 13 TNT or its metabolites in the test compost extracts indicate the necessity for using 14C-labelled TNT in laboratory

  8. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  9. Assessing risk of solid waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.M.; Razvi, A.S. )

    1987-03-01

    This paper addresses the movement of metals in soils and their accumulation in plants. Research with sewage sludge compost indicates that these risks can be minimized with proper handling and management. The objectives of this study were: (I) to evaluate potential groundwater contamination due to plant nutrients and heavy metals in the compost; and (II) to assess the accumulation of metals in plants grown on compost-amended soil. Data are presented for analyses of nickel, lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in snap beans.

  10. A comparative study of two composts as filter media for the removal of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) by biofiltration: application at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Hort, C; Gracy, S; Platel, V; Moynault, L

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the use of two composts as filter media for the treatment by biofiltration of odors emitted during the aerobic composting of a mixture containing sewage sludge and yard waste. The chemical analysis of the waste gas showed that the malodorous compounds at trace level were the reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) which were dimethyl sulfide (Me(2)S), methanethiol (MeSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Laboratory tests for biofiltration treatment of RSCs were performed in order to compare the properties of two filter media, consisted of a mature compost with yard waste (YW) and a mixture of mature compost with sewage sludge and yard waste (SS/YW). The maximum elimination capacity (EC) values obtained with the YW mature compost as packing material were 12.5 mg m(-3)h(-1) for H(2)S, 7.9 mg m(-3)h(-1) for MeSH and 34 mg m(-3)h(-1) for Me(2)S, and the removal efficiency decreased in the order of: H(2)S>MeSH>Me(2)S. Moreover, the YW compost filter medium had a better behavior than the filter medium based on SS/YW in terms of acclimation of the microbial communities and moisture content. According to these results, a YW mature compost as packing material for an industrial biofilter were designed and this industrial biofilter was found effective under specified conditions (without inoculation and addition of water). The results showed that the maximum EC value of RSCs was 935 mg m(-3)h(-1) (100% removal efficiency, RE) for an inlet loads (IL) between 0 and 1000 mg m(-3)h(-1). Thus, YW compost medium was proven efficient for biofiltration of RSCs both at laboratory and industrial scale.

  11. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M P; Alburquerque, J A; Moral, R

    2009-11-01

    New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.

  12. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation.

  13. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  14. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  15. Design and construction of a medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric system to assess aerobic biodegradation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Aguirre, Edgar

    A medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric (DMR) system was designed and built to assess the aerobic biodegradation of up to 30 materials in triplicate simultaneously. Likewise, a computer application was developed for rapid analysis of the data generated. The developed DMR system was able to simulate different testing conditions by varying temperature and relative humidity, which are the major exposure conditions affecting biodegradation. Two complete tests for determining the aerobic biodegradation of polymers under composting conditions were performed to show the efficacy and efficiency of both the DMR system and the DMR data analyzer. In both cases, cellulose reached 70% mineralization at 139 and 45 days. The difference in time for cellulose to reach 70% mineralization was attributed to the composition of the compost and water availability, which highly affect the biodegradation rate. Finally, among the tested materials, at least 60% of the organic carbon content of the biodegradable polymers was converted into carbon dioxide by the end of the test.

  16. Effects of oxytetracycline on the abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria during cattle manure composting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajun; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    The effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities were investigated during cattle manure composting. The abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were determined by qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The matrix was spiked with OTC at four levels: no OTC, 10mg/kg dry weight (DW) OTC (L), 60mg/kg DW OTC (M), and 200mg/kg DW OTC (H). The high temperature period of composting was shorter with M and H, and the decline in temperature during the cooling stage was accelerated by OTC. OTC had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the nitrogenase activity during early composting, and the nifH gene abundance declined significantly during the later composting stage. The DGGE profile and statistical analysis showed that OTC changed the nitrogen-fixing bacterial community succession and reduced the community richness and dominance. The nitrogen-fixing bacterial community structure was affected greatly by the high level of OTC.

  17. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  18. How composting affects heavy metal content

    SciTech Connect

    Canarutto, S.; Petruzzelli, G.; Lubrano, L.; Guidi, G.V.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes ways in which a properly conducted composting process can alter the chemical forms of heavy metals and consequently the quality of the compost. This process is of particular interest in the Italian policy of waste management due to the low level of organic matter in Italian agricultural soils. Results of the studies show that the proper process of compost maturation seems to increase the concentrations of humic acids with respect to those of fulvic acids. These variations in the quantity and quality of humic substances influence the speciation of heavy metals with a large part of the metals complexed and reaching the soil in a less mobile form. The distribution of copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead and chromium among humic fractions is compared in two composting procedures.

  19. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  20. Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2013-11-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified.

  1. Characterization of recycled mushroom compost leachate by chemical analysis and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gary; Kilpatrick, Mairead; Sharma, H S Shekhar; Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Hobbs, Phil; Andrews, Fiona; Carmichael, Eugene

    2008-08-13

    Recycled compost leachate (RCL or euphemistically named "goody water") can be a potent source of foul odor on mushroom substrate production sites and contributes to composting smells. A complex mixture of sulfur compounds, fatty acids, and nitrogen containing compounds is responsible for odor production. Fifty samples, collected from 14 compost production sites in Ireland and the U.K. over a 2 year period, were analyzed for chemical properties and by thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) for compositional differences. Results indicated that aerated samples had lower values of electrical conductivity, redox potential, and dry matter content than nonaerated samples and that the higher thermal stability of aerated samples measured by TGA could be attributed to greater mineralization of the substrate due to aerobic processes. The lower temperatures noted for peak evolution of methane, water, and carbon dioxide from TG-MS analysis suggested that a more energetic process had occurred in aerated RCL storage facilities, producing greater decomposition of macromolecules that volatilized at lower temperatures. Chemical composition, thermal stability of the freeze-dried leachate, pyrolysis profiles, and relative amounts of pyrolysis products were all markers of as to how effective control measures could influence RCL quality.

  2. Pressure drop and gas distribution in compost based biofilters: medium mixing and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Revah, S; Noyola, A

    2003-07-01

    The pressure drop and gas distribution in four different filter media for compost biofilters were studied as a function of three superficial loading rates of moist air and by carrying out the filter medium homogenization by mixing. The filter media used were compost, compost with cane bagasse, lava rock and aerobic sludge previously dried to 60% of water content. The pressure drop increased when lava rock and cane bagasse were used as bulking agents. The same trend was observed when water was added to the filter medium. Pressure drop tended to decrease with time as flow channels were formed inthe filter media. Tracer studies were carried out to quantify the gas distribution and the effect of channel formation. For the biofilters submitted to an airflow of 10, 40 and 70 l min(-1), an average normalized time of 0.96, 0.89 and 0.82, respectively were obtained. The results showed that channel formation was increased as the superficial loading rate was also increased. An operational practice that this work proposes and evaluates to improve gas distribution and medium moisture control is to carry out intermittent medium mixing. The medium moisture and void volume achieved under mixing condition were around 50% and 0.40, respectively with an average constant pressure drop of 11, 45 and 78 cm of water m(-1) for air velocities of 75, 300 and 525 m h(-1).

  3. The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-09-01

    Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended.

  4. Biodegradability of biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohee, R; Unmar, G D; Mudhoo, A; Khadoo, P

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive control for both mediums. The composting process was monitored in terms of temperature, moisture and volatile solids and the biodegradation of the samples were monitored in terms of mass loss. Monitoring results showed a biodegradation of 27.1% on a dry basis for MB plastic within a period of 72 days of composting. Biodegradability under an anaerobic environment was monitored in terms of biogas production. A cumulative methane gas production of 245 ml was obtained for MB, which showed good degradation as compared to CFP (246.8 ml). However, EPI plastic showed a cumulative methane value of 7.6 ml for a period of 32 days, which was close to the blank (4.0 ml). The EPI plastic did not biodegrade under either condition. The cumulative carbon dioxide evolution after 32 days was as follows: CFP 4.406 cm3, MB 2.198 cm3 and EPI 1.328 cm3. The cumulative level of CO2 varying with time fitted sigmoid type curves with R2 values of 0.996, 0.996 and 0.995 for CFP, MB and EPI, respectively.

  5. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    PubMed Central

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  6. Presence and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves and in soil treated with contaminated compost and irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Anguera, M; Abadias, M

    2012-05-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with produce consumption have brought attention to contaminated compost manure, and polluted irrigation water as potential sources of pathogens for the contamination of these crops. The aim of this study was to determine the potential transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil fertilized with contaminated compost or irrigated with contaminated water to edible parts of lettuce together with its persistence in soil under field conditions in two different seasons (fall and spring). Moreover, its survival on lettuce sprinkled with contaminated irrigation water was evaluated, as well as the prevalence of aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae in control lettuce samples. Four treatments, contaminated compost, surface and sprinkle irrigation with contaminated water and uninoculated pots, were used in this work. Contaminated compost was applied to soil in the pots before lettuce was transplanted and contaminated irrigation water was applied twice and three times on the plants after the seedlings were transplanted, for sprinkle and surface irrigation, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 survived in soil samples for 9 weeks at levels, 4.50 log cfu gdw(-1) (dw, dry weight) in fall and 1.50 log cfu gdw(-1) in spring. The pathogen survives better in fall, indicating an important influence of environmental factors. E. coli O157:H7 population in lettuce leaves after sprinkle irrigation was very high (between 10(3) and 10(6) cfu g(-1)), but decreased to undetectable levels at field conditions. There was also transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil contaminated with compost or irrigated with contaminated water to lettuce leaves, mainly to the outer ones. The mean counts for aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae populations were also influenced by environmental conditions; higher levels were observed under fall conditions than in spring conditions. Contamination of lettuce plants in the field can occur

  7. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting.

  8. Pathogen re-colonization of in-house composted and non-composted broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “In-house” litter composting has been reintroduced to the industry and shown to reduce bacteria by as much as two orders of magnitude. Other industries have demonstrated that pathogens can recolonize a waste-residual when microbial competition has been reduced or inhibited following composting. Po...

  9. Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Hobbs, P J; Mead, A; Dobrovin-Pennington, A

    2002-09-01

    The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H(2)S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples taken from different composting ingredients (r=0.83 and 0.76-0.87, P<0.01, for log(e)-transformed data). Differences in N availability, in terms of NH(3) and N losses during composting, were found between different N sources. Materials in which the N was less available (chipboard and digester wastes, cocoa shells, ammonium sulfate) produced lower mushroom yields than materials in which the N was more readily available (poultry manure, urea, brewers' grains, hop and molasses wastes, cocoa meal). Replacement of poultry manure with the other N sources at 50-100% or wheat straw with rape, bean, or linseed straw in aerated tunnel or windrow composts reduced the OC and emissions of odorous sulfur-containing compounds, but also reduced yield. Urea and cocoa meal may be suitable for "low odor" prewetting of straw, with addition of poultry manure immediately before aerated tunnel composting. Rape straw in compost reduces the formation of anaerobic zones and resulting odorous emissions, since it maintains its structure and porosity better than wheat straw.

  10. Physical Covering for Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in Static and Windrow Composting Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yossa, Irene; Macarisin, Dumitru; Millner, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 30-cm covering of finished compost (FC) on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in active static and windrow composting systems. Feedstocks inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7.41 log CFU/g) and Salmonella (6.46 log CFU/g) were placed in biosentry tubes (7.5-cm diameter, 30-cm height) at three locations: (i and ii) two opposing sides at the interface between the FC cover layer (where present) and the feedstock material (each positioned approximately 10 cm below the pile's surface) and (iii) an internal location (top) (approximately 30 cm below the surface). On specific sampling days, surviving populations of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, generic E. coli, and coliforms in compost samples were determined. Salmonella spp. were reduced significantly within 24 h in windrow piles and were below the detection limit after 3 and 7 days at internal locations of windrow and static piles containing FC covering, respectively. Likewise, E. coli O157:H7 was undetectable after 1 day in windrow piles covered with finished compost. Use of FC as a covering layer significantly increased the number of days that temperatures in the windrows remained ≥55°C at all locations and in static piles at internal locations. These time-temperature exposures resulted in rapid reduction of inoculated pathogens, and the rate of bacterial reduction was rapid in windrow piles. The sample location significantly influenced the survival of these pathogens at internal locations compared to that at interface locations of piles. Finished compost covering of compost piles aids in the reduction of pathogens during the composting process. PMID:25576620

  11. Physical covering for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in static and windrow composting processes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jitendra R; Yossa, Irene; Macarisin, Dumitru; Millner, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 30-cm covering of finished compost (FC) on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in active static and windrow composting systems. Feedstocks inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7.41 log CFU/g) and Salmonella (6.46 log CFU/g) were placed in biosentry tubes (7.5-cm diameter, 30-cm height) at three locations: (i and ii) two opposing sides at the interface between the FC cover layer (where present) and the feedstock material (each positioned approximately 10 cm below the pile's surface) and (iii) an internal location (top) (approximately 30 cm below the surface). On specific sampling days, surviving populations of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, generic E. coli, and coliforms in compost samples were determined. Salmonella spp. were reduced significantly within 24 h in windrow piles and were below the detection limit after 3 and 7 days at internal locations of windrow and static piles containing FC covering, respectively. Likewise, E. coli O157:H7 was undetectable after 1 day in windrow piles covered with finished compost. Use of FC as a covering layer significantly increased the number of days that temperatures in the windrows remained ≥55°C at all locations and in static piles at internal locations. These time-temperature exposures resulted in rapid reduction of inoculated pathogens, and the rate of bacterial reduction was rapid in windrow piles. The sample location significantly influenced the survival of these pathogens at internal locations compared to that at interface locations of piles. Finished compost covering of compost piles aids in the reduction of pathogens during the composting process.

  12. Effects of compost addition and simulated solarisation on the fate of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 and indigenous bacteria in soil.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, J; Gelsomino, A; Overbeek, L S; Gorissen, A; Smalla, K; Elsas, J D

    2003-02-01

    Abstract The effects of compost addition and simulated solarisation of soil on the survival of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 strain 1609, as well as on the structure of indigenous soil bacterial communities, were analysed. In addition, effects on the invasion of susceptible test plants by strain 1609 were assessed. In untreated soil in microcosms and the field, strain 1609 showed slow progressive declines, from 10(6)-10(7) to roughly 10(4)-10(5) CFU per g dry soil in around 60 days. When these soils were used in suppressiveness tests, a majority of plants developed symptoms of wilting and revealed the presence of the pathogen in their lower stem parts, as evidenced by immunofluorescence colony staining (IFC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Solarisation of unamended soil did not drastically affect R. solanacearum survival or plant invasiveness. However, the addition of household compost resulted in enhanced R. solanacearum population decline rates, as well as reduced numbers of diseased plants in suppressiveness tests. Combined solarisation and compost addition yielded differential results between microcosms and the field. Some healthy-looking plants, primarily from soils treated with compost, revealed the latent presence of strain 1609 in the lower stem parts. The eubacterial and beta-subgroup proteobacterial communities in the differentially treated soil microcosms were rather stable, as evidenced by analysis of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) generated molecular profiles. However, compost amendment clearly induced changes in these communities, which were detectable until the end of the experiment; two major bands, affiliated with Variovorax paradoxus and Aquaspirillum psychrophylum, were associated with the compost amendment. The decrease in abundance of R. solanacearum in the compost-amended soils was confirmed by the DGGE profiles.

  13. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  14. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  15. Composting of spent mushroom compost, carnation wastes, chicken and cattle manures.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Sönmez, Ilker; Yaldiz, Osman; Kaplan, Mustafa

    2008-11-01

    This study has purposed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of used mushroom compost, chicken manure, cattle manure and carnation waste for composting. For this purpose, these materials have been mixed in seven various ratios (R1-R7) and composted in the experimental composting reactors. The highest dry material losses and temperature values have been obtained by the R4 which contains 50% carnation waste, 25% chicken manure and 25% spent mushroom compost. Beside R4, mixtures of R2, R5 and R6 have also provided high process temperature and dry material loss values. The lowest dry material loss and temperature values have been obtained in the R7 which contains only carnation wastes. In the study, it has also seen that FAS (free air space) parameter is effective on the process and must be in the interval of 24-32%.

  16. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  17. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  18. Changes in enzymatic activity in composts containing chicken feathers.

    PubMed

    Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa

    2009-07-01

    Enzymatic activity, i.e. respiratory activity, dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, caseinian protease activity, BAA protease activity and urease activity, was determined to investigate the process of biochemical transformations and to select enzymatic indices of maturity of composts prepared from feathers and lignocellulose wastes (bark, straw). Composting was conducted for 7 months, with periodic determinations of activity of the enzymes. The study revealed significant differences in the enzymatic activity, related with the duration of composting and with the substrate composition of the composts. Generally, composts enriched with straw were characterised by higher enzymatic activity than composts without any addition of straw. It was found that the activity of such enzymes as cellulase and protease, towards the end of the period of composting decreased and stabilised. The enzymes enumerated can be taken into consideration in estimation of the maturity of composts prepared from feathers and lignocellulose wastes.

  19. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  20. A kinetic analysis of solid waste composting at optimal conditions.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitris P

    2006-01-01

    Six municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste components (food waste, mixed paper, yard waste, leaves, branches, grass clippings) were aerobically decomposed to measure the extent of decomposition under near optimal conditions. Decomposition was characterized by at least two principal stages, for most components, as was indicated by the carbon dioxide production rates. An aerobic biodegradation conceptual model is presented here based on the principle that solids hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step during solid waste composting. The mineralizable solid carbon of each solid waste component was assumed to comprise the readily, the moderately and the slowly (or refractory) hydrolysable carbons, each hydrolyzing at different rates to aqueous (water soluble) carbon. Aqueous carbon mineralizes to CO2 at rapid rates that are not rate-limiting to the process. Solids hydrolysis rate constants were calculated after fitting the experimentally determined carbon dioxide production rate data to model results. Hydrolysis rates for the readily hydrolysable carbon in all components ranged from approximately 0.06 to 0.1 d(-1); hydrolysis rates for the moderately hydrolysable carbon ranged from 0.005 to 0.06 d(-1). Leaves, branches and grass clippings did not have a readily hydrolysable carbon fraction, whilst the leaves and branches had the largest slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions (70%, 82%, respectively, of the total solid organic carbon). Grass and yard waste did not contain slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions. Food waste had the largest readily hydrolysable carbon fraction and produced the highest amount of CO2 among all substrates. Moderately hydrolysable solid carbon fractions ranged from 16% to 90% of the total solid organic carbon for all substrates used.

  1. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  2. Evaluation of sewage sludge, septic waste and sludge compost applications to corn and forage: yields and N, P and K content of crops and soils.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Termeer, W C

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the data from two years of experiments concerned with the application of aerobically-digested sewage sludge, anaerobic lagoon septic sludge, sewage sludge compost or fertilizer to soils for grass forage and feed corn (Zea mays L.) production at two different sites 45 km from Truro, Nova Scotia. Crop yields, plant tissue and Mehlich-1 extractable soil nutrients were evaluated; 15 elements were analyzed in the plant tissue and nine elements in the soil extracts. This paper describes the results of crop yields, plant N, P and K content and Mehlich-1 extractable P and K. The research demonstrated the fertilizer produced higher yields of grass forage than the sludge and the compost but equivalent to the sludge in corn yields. Forage and corn N, P and K contents, however, varied with treatment, crop and year, while the compost-amended soils were highest in extractable nutrients. Both sludges and the compost, therefore, could be effective sources of N, P and K for crop production. Compared to the conventional fertilizer, the nutrient availability from the organic amendments (especially N and P) was considerably lower than the 50% assumed at the start of the experiment; the sludges however, provided higher nutrient availability than the compost.

  3. Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria: Evidence from Hot Composts by Culture-independent Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Zhang, Jinliang; Deng, Changyan; Zhu, Nengwu

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the bacteria in hot composting samples collected from three spatial locations was investigated by molecular tools in order to determine the influence of gradient effect on bacterial communities during the thermophilic phase of composting swine manure with rice straw. Total microbial DNA was extracted and bacterial near full-length 16S rRNA genes were subsequently amplified, cloned, restriction fragment length polymorphism-screened and sequenced. The superstratum sample had the highest microbial diversity among the three samples which was possibly related to the surrounding conditions of the sample resulting from the location. The results showed that the sequences related to Bacillus sp. were most common in the composts. In superstratum sample, 45 clones (33%) and 36 clones (27%) were affiliated with the Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp., respectively; 74 clones (58%) were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. in the middle-level sample; 52 clones (40%) and 29 clones (23%) were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. in substrate sample, respectively. It indicated that the microbial diversity and community in the samples were different for each sampling site, and different locations of the same pile often contained distinct and different microbial communities. PMID:25049662

  4. Two-stage process combines anaerobic and aerobic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kayhanian, M.; Lindenauer, K.; Hardy, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1991-03-01

    The organic fraction of the material diverted from landfills has potential to be utilized as a raw material to be recycled, used for the production of compost, converted to energy in waste-to-energy facilities, or used for the production of other end products. Given the uncertainties concerning the future availability, production costs, and market prices for conventional fuels, any potential source of alternate energy and alternative energy technologies deserve serious consideration. Faced with an uncertain energy future, several European countries have already started using biomass and MSW as a source of energy. An innovative high-solids anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process currently under investigation at the University of California, Davis is as an ideal candidate for processing a large fraction of the organic matter in MSW. The principal advantages of this innovative process which is described and discussed in this paper are: (1) the recovery of biogas that can be used as a fuel for the production of energy, and (2) the production of humus-like material that can be used as a high-quality soil amendment or as boiler fuel. The fact that a liquid waste stream that needs further treatment is not generated in this process is another significant advantage.

  5. Composting and vermicomposting experiences in the treatment and bioconversion of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luís Manuel; Gómez-Sobrino, Ernesto; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, María

    2008-04-01

    This work illustrates the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting in degrading fuel-in-water emulsions from oil spills (chapapote), and the isolation of potentially useful microorganisms for its biodegradation. Firstly, an alternative to the biodegradation of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill (still present in some chapapote rafts in the Cantabrian coast) by means of the application of composting techniques to a microbial partnership acclimated to fuel-oil is offered. Our aim is that, after a relatively short period of time, the microorganisms can obtain its source of carbon and energy from asphaltens. The addition of metabolic co-substrates, like cow bed and potato peelings, allows the fragmentation of complex compounds into smaller structures, susceptible to further degradation. Afterwards, a maturation of the compost by means of a treatment with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) is necessary. Thus, through the vermicomposting it will be possible to obtain a valued product, useful in the processes of ground amendment, with little presence of asphaltens and occluded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rich in humus, and with an important bacterial flora of Bacillus genera, so that it can be typical of co-activators and accelerating products in composting processes. Along with this article, we show some parameters that control the evolution of the compost products (evolved gases, acidity, temperature and humidity); the chemical and microbiological analytical results; and the germination assays of vermicomposting. Results reveal that by using microorganisms living in either earthworm intestines (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) or vermiculture substrates (Scedosporium apiospermium), it is possible to degrade and to eliminate the polycyclic asphaltens into CO(2) and H(2)O, helped by evaporation, dissolution and/or photo-oxidation processes. The obtained end product has contents of interesting vegetal nutrients and, mainly, it displays very high germination indices.

  6. Effect of bio-surfactant on municipal solid waste composting process.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bei-Dou; Liu, Hong-Liang; Huang, G H; Zhang, Bai-Yu; Qin, Xiao-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Bio-surfactant is a new type of surfactant that is produced in microbial metabolism. Adding bio-surfactant during composting process, especially to those contain some toxic substances, has been proved to be a promising way. In this study, Strains III (2), a bacterial with high activity to produce bio-surfactant, were isolated firstly. Following comparison experiments with and without adding Strains III (2), namely Run 1 and Run R, were conducted, respectively. The experimental results showed that, by adding Strains III (2), the surface tension could reduce from 46.5 mN/m to 39.8 mN/m and the corresponding time to maintain the surface tension under 50 mN/ m could prolong from 60 h to 90 h. The oxygen uptake rate and total accumulated oxygen consumption with Stains III (2) were both higher than those without Strains III (2), while the accumulation of H2S in outlet gas was reduced to around 50% of Run R. Moreover, two additional experiments were also carried out to examine the effects of strains coming from different systems. One is adding Strains III (2) with a dose of 0.4% (Run 2), and the other is seedling commercial Strains at the same conditions, the composting experiments showed that: Run 2 was more effective than Run 3, because the commercial Strains can be suppressed significantly in a complex composting system with different pH, high temperature and some of metals. The bio-surfactant was also added into the solid waste, which contained some toxic substances, the corresponding results showed that the remove rate of Hg and sodium pentachlorophenolate (PCP-Na) could be improved highly. Thus, the microenvironment, reactionrate and composting quality could be enhanced effectively by adding bio-surfactant to the composting process.

  7. Evaluation of the slurry management strategy and the integration of the composting technology in a pig farm - Agronomical and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Sáez, José A; Clemente, Rafael; Bustamante, M Ángeles; Yañez, David; Bernal, M Pilar

    2017-05-01

    The changes in livestock production systems towards intensification frequently lead to an excess of manure generation with respect to the agricultural land available for its soil application. However, treatment technologies can help in the management of manures, especially in N-surplus areas. An integrated slurry treatment system based on solid-liquid separation, aerobic treatment of the liquid and composting the solid fraction was evaluated in a pig farm (sows and piglets) in the South of Spain. Solid fraction separation using a filter band connected to a screw press had low efficiency (38%), which was greatly improved incorporating a rotatory sieve (61%). The depuration system was very efficient for the liquid, with total removal of 84% total solids, 87% volatile solids, and 98% phosphorus. Two composting systems were tested through mechanical turning of: 1- a mixture of solid fraction stored for 1 month after solid-liquid separation and cereal straw; 2- recently-separated solid fraction mixed with cotton gin waste. System 2 was recommended for the farm, as it exhibited a fast temperature rise and a long thermophilic phase to ensure compost sanitisation, and high recovery of nutrients (TN 77%, P and K > 85%) and organic matter (45%). The composts obtained were mature, stable and showed a high degree of humification of their organic matter, absence of phytotoxicity and concentrations of nutrients similar to other composts from pig manure or separated slurry solids. However, the introduction of slurry from piglets into the solid-liquid separation system should be avoided in order to reduce the content of Zn in the compost, which lowers its quality. The slurry separation followed by composting of the solid fraction using a passive windrow system, and aeration of the liquid phase, was the most recommendable procedure for the reduction of GHG emissions on the farm.

  8. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  9. 7 CFR 2902.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 2902.56 Section 2902.56... Items § 2902.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a protective... procurement preference for qualifying biobased mulch and compost materials. By that date, Federal...

  10. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  11. Effects of basaltic mineral fines on composting.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Lawrence J

    2004-01-01

    A by-product of the construction aggregate industry is fines or dust that contain trace elements such as zinc and copper and significant amounts of iron, aluminum, silica and potassium. Beneficial uses for these materials have been proposed such as replenishing depleted soils and amendment in mixtures of organic byproducts prior to composting. To evaluate the beneficial uses in composting, outdoor bin studies were conducted using a beef cattle manure, straw and wood chip mixture amended with and without basaltic mineral fines. Temperature differences in composting mixtures of equal volumes, equal moisture and relatively equal material content are considered an indication of differing biological activities [Haug, Compost Engineering Principles and Practice. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI. (1980)]. Temperatures were lower in the mineral fine-treated manure mixture initially. After turning the piles at six weeks, temperatures tended to be higher in the mineral fine amended mixture. Overall, temperatures were not significantly different suggesting that mineral fines amendment does not significantly increase temperature and activity in composting mixtures.

  12. Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.; Gukert, D. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

  13. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  14. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  15. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  16. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  18. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  19. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  20. Cultural, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Analyses of Water-Stressed Cells of Actinobacterial Strains Isolated from Compost: Ecological Implications in the Fed-Batch Composting Process

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kanosue, Yuji; Hiraishi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of water activity (aw) on the viability of actinobacterial isolates from a fed-batch composting (FBC) process by comparing culturability and stainability with 5-cyano-2,3-ditoryl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). The FBC reactor as the source of these bacteria was operated with the daily loading of household biowaste for 70 d. During this period of composting, aw in the reactor decreased linearly with time and reached approximately 0.95 at the end of operation. The plate counts of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria were 3.2-fold higher than CTC-positive (CTC+) counts on average at the fully acclimated stage (after 7 weeks of operation), in which Actinobacteria predominated, as shown by lipoquinone profiling and cultivation methods. When the actinobacterial isolates from the FBC process were grown under aw stress, no significant differences were observed in culturability among the cultures, whereas CTC stainability decreased with reductions in aw levels. A cDNA microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of a representative isolate showed that many of the genes involved in cellular metabolism and genetic information processing were down-regulated by aw stress. This result was fully supported by a proteomic analysis. The results of the present study suggest that, in low aw mature compost, the metabolic activity of the community with Actinobacteria predominating is temporarily reduced to a level that hardly reacts with CTC; however, these bacteria are easily recoverable by exposure to a high aw culture medium. This may be a plausible reason why acclimated FBC reactors in which Actinobacteria predominate yields higher plate counts than CTC+ counts. PMID:27246805

  1. Composting of MSW: Needs, problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is constructed of three complementary sections. The first section discusses the need for composting municipal solid waste (MSW). Too often as scientists and engineers the focus narrows to solve a specific problem within a system or to find the most cost effective solution. One habitually fails to examine concepts holistically due to tight schedules or work backlogs. One understands how things work and gets renumerated by the ability to scale up from the bench or pilot, keep costs down and to troubleshoot cranky processes. Sitting back to understand the reason why something like composting makes sense is a luxury one usually cannot afford. Section two discusses problems specific to MSW composting such as product quality, production stabilization, nuisance odors, and vector attraction. The final segment deals with some solutions to these difficulties.

  2. Energetics of compost production and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F.; Golueke, C.G.; Savage, G.M.

    1986-09-01

    Developments during the past decade have led to a fairly clear delineation of the role of composting in municipal solid waste (MSW) management. However, before that role can be accepted and implemented on a practical scale, certain important environmental and economic factors must be resolved. Of the economic factors, the energetics of composting in waste management is in urgent need of further elaboration and exploration. This need prompted an attempt on the part of the authors of this paper to resolve basic questions regarding the energetics involved in the production and utilization of compost from urban solid waste and municipal sludges, and peripherally, the applicability of these findings to the management of other wastes (e.g., agricultural). Progress made in pursuing this attempt is described in the present paper.

  3. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Lewis; Pankhurst, Louise; Liu, Jian; Drew, Gillian H; Hayes, Enda T; Jackson, Simon; Longhurst, James; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin.

  4. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  5. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  6. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents.

  7. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. A major limitation of land application of poultry litter compost is the loss of nitrogen via NH3 volatilization. The present work was conducted to monitor nitrogen availability during composting of poultry litter with natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite. Poultry litter was composted for 100 days using five in-vessel composting simulators with a volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. It was found that natural materials significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. At the end of the process, the control treatment without any natural materials had the lowest rate of total N: 72% of the initial total N was lost from the compost made with no amendment, while 53, 42, 26 and 16% of initial total N was lost from compost containing expandable perlite, expandable vermiculite, pumice and natural zeolite, respectively.

  8. Response of compost maturity and microbial community composition to pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soil during composting.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangming; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Li, Hui; Yu, Man; Zhao, Mingjie

    2011-05-01

    Two composting piles were prepared by adding to a mixture of rice straw, vegetables and bran: (i) raw soil free from pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination (pile A) and (ii) PCP-contaminated soil (pile B). It was shown by the results that compost maturity characterized by water soluble carbon (WSC), TOC/TN ratio, germination index (GI) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) was significantly affected by PCP exposure, which resulted in an inferior degree of maturity for pile B. DGGE analysis revealed an inhibited effect of PCP on compost microbial abundance. The bacteria community shifts were mainly consistent with composting factors such as temperature, pH, moisture content and substrates. By contrast, the fungal communities were more sensitive to PCP contamination due to the significant correlation between fungal community shifts and PCP removal. Therefore, the different microbial community compositions for properly evaluating the degree of maturity and PCP contamination were suggested.

  9. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  10. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to a group IIk-2 strain.

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, V K; Rajashekaraiah, K R; Metzger, W I; Rice, T W; Kallick, C A

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by a group IIk-2 strain. No other organism was isolated from the peritoneal fluid cultured aerobically and anaerobically. PMID:7381015

  11. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  12. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  13. Aerobic biotransformation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, B.H.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Respirometric mineralization studies of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted with microorganisms isolated from a site contaminated with munitions waste in Illinois. Nine aerobic bacterial species were isolated under a carbon- and nitrogen-limited condition and tentatively identified as: one Pseudomonas species; one Enterobacter species; and seven Alcaligenes species. Experiments were performed using each of the nine organisms individually and with a consortium of all nine bacterial species. The aerobic microorganisms were cultured in a sterile nutrient solution with glucose and 20 mg/L TNT. Mineralization was determined using uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C-TNT in a respirometer that trapped the evolved CO{sub 2}. Biodegradation behavior was characterized based on oxygen consumption, distribution of {sup 14}C activity, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of TNT and its transformation products.

  14. Composting of Sewage Sludge Using Recycled Matured Compost as a Single Bulking Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Jian; Niu, Huasi; Wu, Xingwu

    2010-11-01

    Pretreatment (bulking agent choice and mixing) is an essential phase of dewatered raw sludge (RS) composting affecting its industrialization significantly. In this paper recycled compost (RC) was chosen as a single bulking agent in the composting experiment instead of other agents such as sawdust, rice straw, MSW, and the mixing machine was developed for mixing of SS and RC. According to the mixing experiment, SS and RC can be mixed uniformly and formed into small particles of 10˜15 mm in diameter, which improved the availability of oxygen during composting. The effect of different volumetric ratios of RS to RC, 1:1 (Exp.1), 1:2 (Exp.2) and 1:4 (Exp.3), on the performance of composting was investigated in detail. Temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matter, C/N ratio and moisture content were monitored in each experiment. In despite of low initial C/N of the mixture, intensive fermentation happened in all the experiments. Exp.1 and Exp.2 achieved stability and sanitization, but Exp 1 took more days to accomplish the fermentation. Exp 3 maintained thermophilic temperatures for a shortest time and did not satisfy the necessary sanitation requirements because more RC was recycled. In all experiments, the moisture content of their final composts were too high to be used as bulking agents before extra moisture was reduced. RS: RC = 1:2 (v/v) was the optimum and advisable proportion for the industrialization of sewage sludge composting of, the composting period was about 10 days, and the aeration rate 0.05 m3/(m3ṡmin) was appropriate in this study.

  15. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation.

  16. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth.

  17. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  18. Changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during composting of sewage sludges with chosen physico-chemical properties and PAHs content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine changes in the PAH content during sewage sludge composting. The extent was evaluated to which sewage sludge properties influences on PAHs losses during composting. Five municipal sewage sludges were studied from sewage treatment plants located in the south-east of Poland, i.e. in Stalowa Wola, Kraśnik, Lublin, Zamość and Biłgoraj. The treatment plants selected were characterised by their differentiation with catchments area as well as the industrial character of the areas. Sludge composting was carried out in aerobic conditions in plastic containers for a period of 76 days. The content of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some physical-chemical (TOC, Nt, TOC/Nt, CEC, BS, TEB, pH, available potassium and phosphorus, total forms of cations) sewage sludge properties were monitored. In the present study correlations between PAHs losses (during various phases of composting) and physical-chemical properties of sewage sludges and composts were also evaluated. The sewage sludges were characterised both by differentiated properties and by PAH content. The total PAH content (the sum of 14 PAHs from the EPA List with exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene) in the sludges ranged from 3674 to 11236 microg kg(-1). Four- and three-ring compounds were predominant in the sewage sludges. Almost all of the sludges were characterised by differentiated content levels of both individual PAHs groups and PAHs sum. After 76 days of composting, a significant lowering of the PAH content was observed in all sludges as compared to the beginning of the experiment. The range of total observed PAH losses was from 15.8% to 48.6%, depending on the sewage sludge. The largest lowering of the PAH content was observed in the sludge with the lowest concentration of the xenobiotics studied. The largest losses in individual PAHs were observed in the case of five- and six-rings compounds, and were probably related to strong pollutant binding by

  19. [Evaluation of normal aerobic skin flora (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Crémieux, A; Cazac, J L

    1980-01-01

    This work attempts the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the bacterial population from two different areas: elbow and groin. Bacteria are recovered using the method of Williamson and Kligman modified by Fleurette and Transy. Aerobic flora is determined from bacterial counts on various media. Results show a density of 475 to 630 bacteria/cm2 for elbow, and 1.9 to 2.4 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 for groin (geometric and arithmetic mean, respectively). Percentages of different species and types are calculated, and skin population is represented by a circular diagram.

  20. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  1. Converting Alaska Fish Byproducts into Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska’s commercial fishing industry, sportfishing and subsistence fisheries generate over one million metric tons of processing waste each year. Composting is a practical alternative for salvaging some of these discarded materials. Rural and remote coastal communities can benefit from these sources...

  2. Lightweight and Compostable Fiberboard for the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    performance under adverse environmental conditions to the existing containers. Compression studies were performed on prototypes after exposing the...Results of Cold Weather Study ......................................................................................................... 80  5.2.4 Air...Compost Studies of Fiberboard ........................................................................................... 87  6.1 Materials and Methods

  3. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  4. Compost: The Rot Thing for Our Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Fred; Fucigna, Carolee

    2013-01-01

    Fred Estes is a science teacher and lower school science coordinator at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Carolee Fucigna is a prekindergarten teacher at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Their year in the classroom regularly begins with starting a compost pile that serves as a focus for classroom research and science…

  5. Determinative factors of competitive advantage between aerobic bacteria for niches at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Haruta, Shin; Kato, Souichiro; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    We focused on bacterial interspecies relationships at the air-liquid interface where the formation of pellicles by aerobes was observed. Although an obligate aerobe (Brevibacillus sp. M1-5) was initially dominant in the pellicle population, a facultative aerobe (Pseudoxanthomonas sp. M1-3) emerged and the viability of M1-5 rapidly decreased due to severe competition for oxygen. Supplementation of the medium with carbohydrates allowed the two species to coexist at the air-liquid interface. These results indicate that the population dynamics within pellicles are primarily governed by oxygen utilization which was affected by a combination of carbon sources.

  6. Characterization of dairy cattle manure/wallboard paper compost mixture.

    PubMed

    Saludes, Ronaldo B; Iwabuchi, Kazunori; Miyatake, Fumihito; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Yoshifumi

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of manufacturing wallboard paper scraps as an alternative bulking agent for dairy cattle manure composting. The characteristics of the composting process were studied based on the changes in physico-chemical parameters and final compost quality. Composting of dairy cattle manure with wallboard paper was performed in a 481-L cylindrical reactor with vacuum-type aeration. Rapid degradation of organic matter was observed during the thermophilic stage of composting due to high microbial activity. High temperature and alkaline pH conditions promoted intense ammonia emission during the early stage of composting. The number of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms were found to be affected by changes in temperature at different composting stages. The total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) concentrations of the mixture did not change significantly after 28days of composting. However, the presence of gypsum in the paper scraps increased the calcium content of the final compost. The wallboard paper had no phyto-inhibitory effects as shown by high germination index of final compost (GI=99%).

  7. Heavy metals in composts of separated municipal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.P.; Huang, W.C.; Fan, W.H.; Hsu, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study is to examine the influence of the metal components on the contents of heavy metals in composts of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). Fresh MSW used in composting was obtained from the city landfill of Taichung in Taiwan. Compost 1 was from as-collected MSW; Compost 2 was from degradable fraction in MSW; Compost 3 was from MSW without metal. The results show that the total concentration of zinc is the highest among the five heavy metals examined. Paper wastes are main sources of lead and copper with average concentrations of 18.53 mg/kg and 26.92 mg/kg of compost on dry weight. The contents of nickel and cadmium are relatively low. The total concentrations of the five heavy metals in composts increase by typical ratios between 1.72 and 2.58 for Composts 2 and 3, but 3.16 to 4.69 for Compost 1. The increase of concentration around a ratio of 2.0 is due to the loss of degraded organic matter. For the ratios above 2.0, fractions of some heavy metals have corroded from the surfaces of metal components into the Compost 1 in the early phase of acidic fermentation.

  8. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-03-15

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  9. [Composting facilities. 1. Microbiological quality of compost with special regard to disposable diapers].

    PubMed

    Jager, E; Rüden, H; Zeschmar-Lahl, B

    1994-10-01

    At three different composting facilities, co-composting of used panty diapers with an addition of 10% (weight) to the usual plant input was investigated for various hygienic and microbiological parameters. In nearly any case, a sufficient degree of germ reduction above 99.9% could be observed by determination of reduction rates of B. subtilis spores. The concentrations of "total microorganisms" ranged from 3.9 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(11) colony forming units per gram compost (CFU/g) in composts without and from 3.3 x 10(5) to 4.7 x 10(9) CFU/g in composts with panty diapers in the input. The concentrations of "gram-negative bacteria" ranged from 3.3 x 10(4) to 1.3 x 10(9) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 3.3 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers), the concentrations of "fecal streptococci" from 1.7 x 10(3) to 7.7 x 10(7) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 1.4 x 10(4) to 1.4 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers). Facultatively pathogenic microorganisms showed a broad variety, but no common trend in composts with and without panty diapers in the input. Statistical validity of the determination of contents of microorganisms in compost samples was guaranteed by the collection and analysis of 20 parallel samples with an average sample mass of 10 to 15 kg. From the analyzed quantitative and qualitative hygienic-microbiological parameters, it can be concluded that no negative hygienic-microbiological effects, caused by the addition of 10% (weight) of used panty diapers in the input, have to be expected. Under the aspects of epidemiologic hygiene, composting of used panty diapers together with usual input materials seems to cause no increased risks under the tested conditions. Under the aspect of consumer protection, there is no increase in the risk of infection when using compost produced with addition of panty diapers, compared to compost produced without panty diaper addition to the input.

  10. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  11. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Beníšek, Martin; Kukučka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Luděk

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22μg (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts.

  12. Treatment of coal mine drainage with a compost-limestone reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tarutis, W.J. Jr.; Walski, T.M.; Klemow, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    A bench-scale system containing spent mushroom compost (SMC) and limestone (in series) was used to evaluate reactor efficiency in treating synthetic coal mine drainages of varying quality over a 234-day period. Pore water samples taken along the direction of flow revealed an acidic oxidation front which progressively penetrated the SMC, resulting in reduced treatment performance, decreased iron and manganese retention, and a shortened reactor life expectancy. It is thought that acidification depressed pH and leached sufficient organic carbon to permanently inhibit bacterial sulfate reduction and the consequent formation of iron sulfides.

  13. Compost maturity and nitrogen availability by co-composting of paddy husk and chicken manure amended with clinoptilolite zeolite.

    PubMed

    Latifah, Omar; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Susilawati, Kassim; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-04-01

    The availability of paddy husk from rice processing plants remains high owing to increase in the worldwide rice consumption. Increasing demand for chicken products leads to poultry wastes production. Co-composting of the aforementioned wastes could solve the indiscriminate disposal of these wastes. Thus, co-composting of paddy husk and chicken slurry with clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additive was carried out. Clinoptilolite zeolite was used to enhance ammonium and nitrate retention in the compost. Temperature of the compost was monitored three times daily for 55 days. Cation exchange capacity, organic matter, ash, humic acids, pH, total C, N, C/N ratio; total P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, NH4+, NO3-, and heavy metals contents were determined using standard procedures. pH, total N, humic acids, ash, NH4+, NO3-, P, Ca, Mg, and K contents increased but the salinity, heavy metals contents, and microbial population were low after the co-composting process. Zea mays L. (test crop) seed germination rate in distilled water and the compost were not significantly different. Growth of Spinach oleracea (test crop) on a peat-based growing medium and the compost was also not significantly different. These findings were possible because the clinoptilolite zeolite used in co-composting reduced accumulation of heavy metals that may have damage effects on the test crops. Mature compost with good agronomic properties can be produced by co-composting chicken slurry and paddy husk using clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additives.

  14. White spruce response to co-composted hydrocarbon-contaminated drilling waste: effects of compost age and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jung; Chang, Scott X; Hao, Xiying

    2005-01-01

    There are growing interests to use co-composted drilling wastes contaminated with hydrocarbons as growth media for planting in land reclamation. However, such use of the compost may have potential problems such as inherent toxicity of residual hydrocarbon and microbial N immobilization due to high compost C to N ratios. We investigated the growth, biomass production, N uptake, and foliar delta13C of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings in a pot experiment using 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old composts (with different hydrocarbon concentrations and C to N ratios) and a local noncontaminated soil with (200 kg N ha(-1)) or without N fertilization. Growth and N content of seedlings (particularly N content in roots) were lower when grown in the compost media as compared with those grown in the soil. Within the compost treatments seedling growth was affected by compost age, but the magnitude of growth reduction was not linearly proportional to hydrocarbon concentrations. Plant N uptake increased with compost age, which corresponds with an increase in indigenous mineral N concentration. Effects of N fertilization on N uptake were curtailed by the presence of indigenous mineral N (e.g., in the 4-yr-old compost) and by fertilization-induced stimulation of microbial activities (e.g., in the 1-yr-old compost). The differences in foliar delta13C values between seedlings grown in compost and soil (P < 0.05) suggest that limitations on water uptake caused by the residual hydrocarbon might have been the predominant factor limiting seedling growth in the compost media. This study suggests that water stress caused by residual hydrocarbons may be a critical factor for the successful use of co-composted drilling wastes as a growth medium.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naser; Clark, Ian; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Shea, Syd; Meier, Sebastian; Qi, Fangjie; Kookana, Rai S; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation.

  16. Efficacy of bioconversion of paper mill bamboo sludge and lime waste by composting and vermiconversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, B; Sinha, I; Sharma, P; Goswami, L; Bhattacharyya, P; Gogoi, N; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Paper mill bamboo sludge (PMBS) and Paper mill lime waste (PMLW) are extensively produced as solid wastes in paper mills. Untreated PMBS and PMLW contain substantial amount of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr) in soluble forms. Efficiency of vermiconversion and aerobic composting with these wastes is reported here. Adopted bioconversion systems enhanced the availability of some essential nutrients (N, P, K and Zn) in various combinations of cow dung (CD) with PMBS and PMLW. Colonization of nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria considerably intensified under the vermiconversion system. Moreover, significant metal detoxification occurred due to vermiconversion. Various combinations of bioconverted PMBS and PMLW were applied to tissue cultured bamboo (Bambusa tulda) and chilli (Capsicum annum). Accelerated nutrient uptake coupled with improved soil quality resulted in significant production of chilli. Furthermore, vermiconverted PMBS+CD (1:1) and PMLW+CD (1:3) confirmed as potential enriching substrate for tissue cultured bamboo.

  17. Growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in cattle manure compost under various temperatures and ammonia concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Ryu; Tada, Chika; Asano, Ryoki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    A recent study showed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) coexist in the process of cattle manure composting. To investigate their physiological characteristics, liquid cultures seeded with fermenting cattle manure compost were incubated at various temperatures (37°C, 46°C, or 60°C) and ammonium concentrations (0.5, 1, 4, or 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N). The growth rates of the AOB and AOA were monitored using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A genes. AOB grew at 37°C and 4 or 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N, whereas AOA grew at 46°C and 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N. Incubation with allylthiourea indicated that the AOB and AOA grew by oxidizing ammonia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent sequencing analyses revealed that a bacterium related to Nitrosomonas halophila and an archaeon related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis were the predominant AOB and AOA, respectively, in the seed compost and in cultures after incubation. This is the first report to demonstrate that the predominant AOA in cattle manure compost can grow and can probably oxidize ammonia under moderately thermophilic conditions.

  18. Monitoring of changes in substrate characteristics during mushroom compost production.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gary A; Sharma, H S Shekhar; Kilpatrick, Mairead; Cheung, Linda; Moore, Solveig

    2006-06-28

    Substrates from three mushroom compost facilities in Northern Ireland, employing similar production technologies, were examined to assess the quality of the compost produced. Biochemical investigation highlighted changes in substrates through each step of the production cycle. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provided useful information on fiber fraction content and extent of substrate breakdown. A comparison of productivity, chemical, and thermal data permitted assessment of the degree of bioconversion that had occurred in the decomposition from raw materials to finished substrate for each composter. One of the composters consistently produced substrate of inferior quality compared to the other two, indicating production inefficiencies during composting. Results demonstrated that allied to chemical analyses, TGA is a useful tool, providing valuable information on substrate quality and, in particular, for studying the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials in mushroom compost.

  19. Variations of metal distribution in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Nomeda, Sabiene; Valdas, Paulauskas; Chen, Shen-Yi; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2008-01-01

    In the study, the variations of heavy metal distributions (of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) during the sewage sludge composting process were investigated by sequential extraction procedures. The total content of Cu and Zn in the composted mixture increased after the composting process. Mn and Zn were mainly found in mobile fractions (exchangeable fraction (F1), carbonate fraction (F2), and Fe/Mn oxide fraction (F3)). Cu and Pb were strongly associated with the stable fractions (organic matter/sulfides fraction (F4) and residual fraction (F5)). These five metal fractions were used to calculate the metal mobility (bioavailability) in the sewage sludge and composted mixture. The mobility (bioavailability) of Mn, Pb, and Zn (but not Cu) increased during the composting process. The metal mobility in the composted mixture ranked in the following order: Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu.

  20. Composting-vermicomposting of leaf litter ensuing from the trees of mango (Mangifera indica).

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2005-06-01

    Litter of the mango (Mangifera indica) tree leaves was composted and then converted into vermicast by the action of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg. After over nine months of continuous operation the vermireactors with 62.5 animals l(-1) generated approximately 13.6g vermicast per litre of reactor volume (l) per day (d) whereas the reactors with 75 animals l(-1) produced approximately 14.9 g vermicast l(-1) d(-1). This difference in performance of the reactors operating in duplicate at the two different earthworm densities was statistically significant (> or = 90% confidence level) for most of the nine-month span. The animals grew well in all reactors, increasing their zoomass by approximately 103% and producing approximately 157 offspring. Not a single of the 1100 animals died during the first four months. In the subsequent five months a total of 122 worms died, representing a loss of approximately 2% per month. We attribute this to the normal process of ageing. The ability of the earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermireactors fed with composted mango tree leaves, and a rising trend in vermicast output inspite of the death of a few worms after four months of reactor operation, indicate the sustainability of this type of vermireactors. The studies also indicate that even better vermireactor efficiency may be possible by modifying the reactor geometry. Studies on changes in C:N ratio during composting and vermicomposting revealed that whereas composting helped in lowering the ratio due to loss of carbon in bacterial metabolism, vermicomposting had no such effect on the ratio.

  1. Bioremediation using composting or anaerobic treatment for ordnance-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomi, E.; Coover, M.P.; Stroo, H.F.

    1996-12-01

    Government installations nationwide are faced with the problem of cleaning up soils contaminated with ordnance compounds. The materials have been introduced into the environment through the manufacture, use, storage, and disposal of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1-3-5-7-tetraazocine (HMX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The effectiveness of aerobic biological treatment (composting) for the remediation of nitroaromatics-impacted soils has been confirmed in several laboratory and field studies. Composting involves the incubation of contaminated soils with organic amendments under thermophilic conditions (40 to 70 C). Over the last several years, the remediation of nitroaromatics-contaminated soils has been demonstrated using the Simplot Anaerobic Bioremediation (SABRE{trademark}) process developed by the University of Idaho and the J.R. Simplot Company. Both process were proven effective at the bench-scale for the remediation of two ordnance-contaminated soils from a local Naval Installation. This paper presents the results of the pilot-scale testing of these technologies conducted from December 1994 through March 1995 at the Bangor Naval Submarine Base (Silverdale, Washington). Goals of the pilot study were to provide cost and design information for the implementation of the full-scale remediation scheduled for mid 1996.

  2. Influence of control parameters in VOCs evolution during MSW trimming residues composting.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Rodríguez, Margarita; Ruiz-Montoya, Mercedes; Giraldez, Inmaculada; López, Rafael; Madejón, Engracia; Díaz, Manuel Jesús

    2011-12-28

    The influence of control parameters (aeration, moisture, and C/N ratio) during composting of a municipal solid waste (MSW)-legume-trimming residue (LTR) mixture was studied at a pilot plant scale. Factors measured included the composition of the main volatile organic carbons (VOCs) emitted including limonene, β-pinene, 2-butanone, undecane, phenol, toluene, and dimethyl disulfide. Polynomial models were found to reproduce the experimental results with errors at less than 10%. The relative influence of the independent variables on temperature and selected VOCs followed the order: aeration > moisture > C/N. A high aeration rate results in higher (strong negative effect) values on selected VOCs emissions (41-71% on emitted VOCs variation). Moisture had a positive and negative effect depending on the selected VOCs. A high C/N ratio caused lower production of VOCs except for undecane and 2-butanone. Providing an aerobic environment (0.05 Lair kg(-1) min(-1)), high C/N ratios (>50), and medium moisture (55%) minimize emitted VOCs during MSW composting, ultimately resulting in less odors in the surrounding environment.

  3. Composting in small laboratory pilots: performance and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, G; Barriuso, E; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M; Houot, S

    2012-02-01

    Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O(2) consumption and CO(2) emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures.

  4. Inactivation mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in several matrixes during the composting process in a composting toilet.

    PubMed

    Sossou, S K; Hijikata, N; Sou, M; Tezuka, R; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the inactivation rate and the mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in three matrixes (sawdust, rice husk and charcoal) during the composting process. The inactivation rate was evaluated with Escherichia coli strain and the damaged parts and/or functions were evaluated with three different media. Normalized inactivation rate constant in three media and from three matrixes had no significant difference in each process (pure, 1 month and 2 months). The value in rice husk was relatively increased during 2 months but there was no significant difference. The inactivation rate constants of Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) and Compact Dry E. coli/Coliform in pure sawdust and rice husk were relatively lower than that of Desoxycholate Agar, but increased in 2 months. This indicated that damaging part was changed from outer membrane to enzymes and metabolisms during the 2-month composting process. In the case of charcoal, only the TSA value in apure matrix was relatively lower than that of others, but it increased in 2 months. This indicated that damaging part was changed from outer membrane and enzyme to metabolisms during the composting process. Composting matrix and composting process did not significantly affect inactivation rate of pathogenic bacteria during the process but affected the damaging part of the bacteria.

  5. Small-scale home composting of biodegradable household waste: overview of key results from a 3-year research programme in West London.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen R; Jasim, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    Home composting (HC) is recognized by both local and national Governments for its contribution to reducing household waste disposal in landfill. However, the quantitative impact of HC on the diversion of household waste from landfill is uncertain. An overview of key results is presented from a 3-year research programme on HC in the West London area of Runnymede Borough Council (RBC), Surrey, UK. The amount of biodegradable household waste diverted from landfill disposal by HC was measured in a 2-year monitoring study involving 64 homeowners. The total average annual waste input to a standard 290 L HC bin was approximately 370 kg per household. The average relative mass inputs of kitchen, paper and garden waste were 29, 2 and 69%, respectively. A survey of the study area indicated that approximately 20% of households were engaged in HC and, based on inputs to HC bins, this corresponded to an overall recycling/diversion rate equivalent to 20% of household biodegradable waste. Temperature and gas composition measurements indicated organic matter decomposition by HC was aerobic and only traces of CH(4) were occasionally detected. A field trial examined the end-use of composted products for the growth of Petunia grandiflora