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Sample records for aerobic composting bacterial

  1. Variable effects of oxytetracycline on antibiotic resistance gene abundance and the bacterial community during aerobic composting of cow manure.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Jia-Jun; Yin, Ya-Nan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-09-01

    Livestock manure is often subjected to aerobic composting but little is known about the variation in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting process under different concentrations of antibiotics. This study compared the effects of three concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC; 10, 60, and 200mg/kg) on ARGs and the succession of the bacterial community during composting. Very similar trends were observed in the relative abundances (RAs) of each ARG among the OTC treatments and the control during composting. After composting, the RAs of tetC, tetX, sul1, sul2, and intI1 increased 2-43 times, whereas those of tetQ, tetM, and tetW declined by 44-99%. OTC addition significantly increased the absolute abundances and RAs of tetC and intI1, while 200mg/kg OTC also enhanced those of tetM, tetQ, and drfA7. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments. The highest concentration of OTC had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. In the present study, the succession of the bacterial community appeared to have a greater influence on the variation of ARGs during composting than the presence of antibiotics. Aerobic composting was not effective in reducing most of the ARGs, and thus the compost product should be considered as an important reservoir for ARGs. PMID:27179201

  2. Experimental determination of carbon dioxide evolution during aerobic composting of agro-wastes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shilpa; Srivastava, J K

    2012-10-01

    This work aims at optimal composting of agro-wastes like sugarcane bagasse, wood straw and soya husk. A mixture of these substances along with small quantity of food waste as the seed was composted aerobically and carbon dioxide evolved was determined experimentally using a composting system comprising aerobic digester, operating in near-optimal conditions with regard to adequacy of oxygen and temperature in the system. During aerobic composting of agro-waste carbon dioxide is produced due to degradation of different carbon fractions in the substrate. Carbon dioxide production rate, which is a measure of bacterial/fungal activity in composting systems, can be related to various process parameters like different carbon fractions present in the substrate and their reaction rates, progress and termination of compost phenomenon and stabilization of organic matter. This gives a balanced compromise between complexity of mathematical model and extensive experimentation, and can be used for determining optimum conditions for composting. PMID:25151714

  3. The emission of volatile compounds during the aerobic and the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting of biowaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Erik; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Bo, Inge

    Two different biowaste composting techniques were compared with regard to their overall emission of volatile compounds during the active composting period. In the aerobic composting process, the biowaste was aerated during a 12-week period, while the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process consisted of a sequence of a 3-week anaerobic digestion (phase I) and a 2-week aeration period (phase II). While the emission of volatiles during phase I of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was measured in a full-scale composting plant, the aerobic stages of both composting techniques were performed in pilot-scale composting bins. Similar groups of volatile compounds were analysed in the biogas and the aerobic composting waste gases, being alcohols, carbonyl compounds, terpenes, esters, sulphur compounds and ethers. Predominance of alcohols (38% wt/wt of the cumulative emission) was observed in the exhaust air of the aerobic composting process, while predominance of terpenes (87%) and ammonia (93%) was observed in phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process, respectively. In the aerobic composting process, 2-propanol, ethanol, acetone, limonene and ethyl acetate made up about 82% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOC)-emission. Next to this, the gas analysis during the aerobic composting process revealed a strong difference in emission profile as a function of time between different groups of volatiles. The total emission of VOC, NH 3 and H 2S during the aerobic composting process was 742 g ton -1 biowaste, while the total emission during phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was 236 and 44 g ton -1 biowaste, respectively. Taking into consideration the 99% removal efficiency of volatiles upon combustion of the biogas of phase I in the electricity generator, the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process can be considered as an attractive alternative for aerobic biowaste composting because of

  4. Manure source and age affect survival of zoonotic pathogens during aerobic composting at sublethal temperatures.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Heat is the primary mechanism by which aerobic composting inactivates zoonotic bacterial pathogens residing within animal manures, but at sublethal temperatures, the time necessary to hold the compost materials to ensure pathogen inactivation is uncertain. To determine the influence of the type of nitrogen amendment on inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures, specific variables investigated in these studies included the animal source of the manure, the initial carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the compost mixture, and the age of the manure. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were both inactivated more rapidly in chicken and swine compost mixtures stored at 20°C when formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 20:1 compared with 40:1, whereas a C:N ratio did not have an effect on inactivation of these pathogens in cow compost mixtures. Pathogen inactivation was related to the elevated pH of the samples that likely arises from ammonia produced by the indigenous microflora in the compost mixtures. Indigenous microbial activity was reduced when compost mixtures were stored at 30°C and drier conditions (<10% moisture level) were prevalent. Furthermore, under these drier conditions, Salmonella persisted to a greater extent than L. monocytogenes, and the desiccation resistance of Salmonella appeared to convey cross-protection to ammonia. Salmonella persisted longer in compost mixtures prepared with aged chicken litter compared with fresh chicken litter, whereas E. coli O157:H7 survived to similar extents in compost mixtures prepared with either fresh or aged cow manure. The different responses observed when different sources of manure were used in compost mixtures reveal that guidelines with times required for pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures stored at sublethal temperatures should be dependent on the source of nitrogen, i.e., type of animal manure, present. PMID:25710145

  5. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  6. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y. . E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

  7. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  8. Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  9. Assessment of bacterial diversity during composting of agricultural byproducts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Composting is microbial decomposition of biodegradable materials and it is governed by physicochemical, physiological and microbiological factors. The importance of microbial communities (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) during composting is well established. However, the microbial diversity during composting may vary with the variety of composting materials and nutrient supplements. Therefore, it is necessary to study the diversity of microorganisms during composting of different agricultural byproducts like wheat bran, rice bran, rice husk, along with grass clippings and bulking agents. Here it has been attempted to assess the diversity of culturable bacteria during composting of agricultural byproducts. Results The culturable bacterial diversity was assessed during the process by isolating the most prominent bacteria. Bacterial population was found to be maximum during the mesophilic phase, but decreased during the thermophilic phase and declined further in the cooling and maturation phase of composting. The bacterial population ranged from 105 to 109 cfu g-1 compost. The predominant bacteria were characterized biochemically, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative groups belonged to the order Burkholderiales, Enterobacteriales, Actinobacteriales and Bacillales, which includes genera e.g. Staphylococcus, Serratia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Terribacillus, Lysinibacillus Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas. Genera like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax, Comamonas and some new species of Bacillus were also identified for the first time from the compost made from agricultural byproducts. Conclusion The use of appropriate nitrogen amendments and bulking agents in composting resulted in good quality compost. The culture based strategy enabled us to isolate some novel bacterial isolates like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas first time from agro-byproducts compost

  10. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method. PMID:26409851

  11. Composting of bio-waste, aerobic and anaerobic sludges--effect of feedstock on the process and quality of compost.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Marina; Hänninen, Kari

    2011-02-01

    In-vessel composting of three stocks with originally different degree of organic matter degradation was conducted for: (1) kitchen source-separated bio-waste (BW), (2) aerobic (AS) as well as (3) anaerobic sludges (AnS) from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Composting experiment lasted over a year. The highest activity of the process was in the BW compost. It was implied by the highest temperature, CO(2) release, ammonification and nitrification, intensive accumulation and removal of low-weight carboxylic acids (water- and NaOH-extractable). Between the sludges higher mineralization and CO2 release was in AnS, while ammonification and nitrification were higher in AS compost; no significant difference between sludge composts was noticed for dynamics of pH, conductivity, concentrations of LWCA, and some nutrient compounds and heavy metals. Nitrogen content of the final compost increased in BW, but decreased in AS and AnS. Phytotoxicity of Lepidium sativum was eliminated faster in sludge composts compared to BW compost. PMID:21095117

  12. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

    Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and

  13. Comparison between aerobic and anaerobic co-composting of agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    El Sebaie, O D; Hussin, A H; Shalaby, E E; Mohamed, M G; Lbrahem, M T

    2000-01-01

    Fertile soil is the most important resource for food production. The agricultural area in Egypt is limited to 6 million faddans. This limited area has derived many farmers to use several types of chemical fertilizers, to enhance the fertility of the land and hence the productivity. Excessive application of chemical fertilizer lead to the build up of these residuals because they are superfluous. This will cause waste of money and also soil pollution. Ultimately, this would adversely affect the ecological system in the soil and surrounding environment, especially water bodies. Composting of organic solid wastes will address some of the problems of solid waste disposal and gives a beneficial product which may replace the expensive chemical fertilizers. Other organic compostable solid wastes could be utilized to produce this compost. Agricultural residues are cheap raw materials for such compost and are available in vast quantities as well. This compost can be used as a soil conditioner to improve soil characteristics and its productivity. Crop residues mixed with manure, may be co-composted to give a soil conditioner. Agricultural residues, about 106 million tons/year, may produce about 55 million tons/year of compost. Three co-composting were carried out at the experimental station of the Faculty of Agriculture in Abis. Two aerobic co-composting of winter and summer crop residues and one anaerobic co-composting inter rop esidue were produced. The development of the co-composting processes controlled by the temperature, moisture content, and chemical composition was studied. The aerobic co-composting of winter crop residues was found to be the best experiment as it complied with the standards of the Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 100/1967. This co-compost is expected to be free from pathogenic microorganisms as the dominant temperature was almost about 50 degrees C from the 42nd day till the 101st day of the experiment. PMID:17219853

  14. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting. PMID:25209736

  15. Bacterial composting of animal fleshing generated from tannery industries.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Sekaran, G

    2010-12-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) is the major proteinaceous solid waste generated during the manufacture of leather, which requires to be disposed of by environmentally sound manner. This study reports about the treatment of ANFL into an organic compost and its effects on physiological parameters of different crops in a laboratory study. The ANFL was hydrolysed using Selenomonas ruminantium HM000123 and then the hydrolysed ANFL was mixed with cow dung and leaf litter for producing composted organic fertilizer (COF). The COF was characterized for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), and total organic carbon (TOC). The composting resulted in a significant reduction in pH, TOC and C:N ratio and an increase in TKN after 49 days in a compost reactor. Scanning electron microscope and FT-IR were used to analyse the hydrolysis of intra structural ANFL matrix and changes in the functional groups, respectively, in initial and final day COF. Thermogravimetry (TG) analysis was carried out for the raw mixture and COF samples to identify the weight loss under the nitrogen environment. The relative seed germination was found to be 94% in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), 92% in green gram (Vigna radiata), 86% in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) and 84% in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using the extracts of COF. The results indicate that the combination of both hydrolysis and bacterial composting reduced the overall time required for composting and producing a nutrient-enriched compost product. PMID:20727727

  16. Turning refuse into resource: a study on aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, T; Sridevi, K

    2012-07-01

    The management of solid waste disposal had been a perennial problem every where in our country. In order to overcome this problem one possible solution is to compost the solid waste in the presence of air, so that it may be converted into an useful manure. With this intention, solid wastes like coir waste and water hyacinth had been collected and composted with the addition of cow dung. The composted material had been examined for the physical and chemical parameters. The content of macronutrients was found to be higher as the period of composting increased. There were gradual variations in the case of other parameters. A comparative account of the two types of solid waste is also given. PMID:24749205

  17. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    PubMed

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer. PMID:22608289

  18. Characteristics of nitrogen transformation and microbial community in an aerobic composting reactor under two typical temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Wang, X C; Zhang, H H; Shi, H L; Hu, T; Ngo, H H

    2013-06-01

    Batch experiments were conducted for feces composting using an aerobic composting reactor with sawdust as bulky matrix. In the 14-day composting processes at 35±2 and 55±2°C, compost samples were collected daily and chemical analyses and PCR-DGGE were carried out for investigating the influence of composting temperature on organic decomposition, nitrogen transformation, and microbial communities. At 55±2°C, in addition to a slightly higher COD removal, nitrogen loss was greatly restrained. As organic nitrogen took about 85% of the total nitrogen originated from human feces, the suppression of ammonification process under thermophilic environment might be the main reason for less nitrogen loss at 55±2°C. By PCR-DGGE analysis, the microbial community was found to undergo successions differently at 35±2 and 55±2°C. Certain sequences identified from the compost at 55±2°C represented the microbial species which could perform nitrogen-fixation or sustain a lower pH in the compost so that gaseous ammonia emission was suppressed. PMID:23587829

  19. Aerobic composting leachate treatment by the combination of membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Çakmakci, Mehmet; Özyaka, Vahide Seyda

    2013-02-01

    The main product of the conversion process of organic wastes to a useful organic fertilizer, known as compost, has gained an increasing interest in management of organic wastes recently. One of the main problems arising in the composting facilities is the high organic loaded leachate. In this study, a treatability experiment for composting leachate from a full-scale composting facility was carried out with the combination of membrane processes. The parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, Cl⁻ and NH₄⁺ were analysed to evaluate the membrane treatment performances of single and combined membrane systems consisting centrifuge, cartridge filter, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes. The removal efficiencies of all pollutants were observed between 4.4 and 98%. The highest removal efficiencies were observed with the nanofiltration membrane (NF90) having a lower molecular weight cut-off than the others used in this study. It was observed that the effluent of NF90 membrane did not exceed the allowed maximum COD value. PMID:23076267

  20. Particle-Scale Modeling of Methane Emission during Pig Manure/Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2016-04-19

    Inefficient aerobic composting techniques significantly contribute to the atmospheric methane (CH4) levels. Macro-scale models assuming completely aerobic conditions cannot be used to analyze CH4 generation in strictly anaerobic environments. This study presents a particle-scale model for aerobic pig manure/wheat straw composting that incorporates CH4 generation and oxidation kinetics. Parameter estimation revealed that pig manure is characterized by high CH4 yield coefficient (0.6414 mol CH4 mol(-1) Cman) and maximum CH4 oxidation rate (0.0205 mol CH4 kg(-1) VSaero h(-1)). The model accurately predicted CH4 emissions (R(2) = 0.94, RMSE = 2888 ppmv, peak time deviation = 0 h), particularly in the self-heating and cooling phases. During mesophilic and thermophilic stages, a rapid increase of CH4 generation (0.0130 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS h(-1)) and methanotroph inactivation were simulated, implying that additional measures should be performed during these phases to mitigate CH4 emissions. Furthermore, CH4 oxidation efficiency was related to oxygen permeation through the composting particles. Reducing the ambient temperature and extending the aeration duration can decrease CH4 emission, but the threshold temperature is required to trigger the self-heating phase. These findings provide insights into CH4 emission during composting and may inform responsible strategies to counteract climate change. PMID:27045933

  1. Degradation of typical antibiotics during human feces aerobic composting under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Honglei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Qian; Jiang, Shanqing

    2016-08-01

    Four typical antibiotics were added to human feces for aerobic composting using batch reactors with sawdust as the bulk matrix. Under three composting temperatures (room temperature, 35 ± 2 °C and 55 ± 2 °C), decreases in the extractable concentrations of antibiotics in the compost were monitored for 20 days. As a result, the removals of extractable tetracycline and chlortetracycline were found to be more temperature-dependent than the removals of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin. However, more than 90 % of all of the extractable antibiotics were removed at 55 ± 2 °C. Three specific experiments were further conducted to identify the possible actions for antibiotic removal, including self-degradation in aqueous solution, composting with a moist sterile sawdust matrix without adding feces and composting with human feces and moist sterile sawdust. As a result, it was found that the removal of tetracycline and chlortetracycline was mainly due to chemical degradation in water, whereas the removal of sulfadiazine was mainly attributed to adsorption onto sawdust particles. The microbial activity of compost varied with temperature to a certain extent, but the differences were insignificant among different antibiotics. Although microbial action is important for organic matter decomposition, its contribution to antibiotic degradation was small for the investigated antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin, which was degraded by up to 20 % due to microbial action. PMID:27083910

  2. In-vessel treatment of urban primary sludge by aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Rihani, Mohammed; Malamis, Dimitri; Bihaoui, Bouchra; Etahiri, Samira; Loizidou, Maria; Assobhei, Omar

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work is the study of recycling urban primary sludge by in-vessel aerobic composting way. Two series of composting trials were carried out in an automated accelerated bioreactor in mixture with agricultural wastes: sugar beet leaves (C1); straw, sheep manure and sugar beet leaves (C2). Treatments were monitored with regard to physicochemical characteristics, heavy metal amounts and microbiological parameters of the final compost product. The general pattern of the temperature curve was typical for composts of organic waste. The different physicochemical characteristics of the final composts after a retention time in the bioreactor of 30 and 23 days, respectively for C1 and C2 were: pH: 7.3-7.2; C/N: 10.2-12; organic matter: 49.7-58.3%; NH(4)(+)/NO(3)(-): 0.24-0.2. Final compost showed low amounts of heavy metals, relatively high contents of nutrients and significant reduction of pathogens, suggesting the agricultural purposes of urban primary sludge. PMID:20335022

  3. Effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus on cow manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenjie; Zhang, Fabao; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Xie, Kaizhi; Huang, Xu; Huang, Qiaoyi

    2011-06-01

    A simulated aerobic composting experiment was used to explore the effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus during six manure composting treatments. The addition of sulphur led to a decrease of the pH level within the range 6-6.3, which was lower than the control treatment (CK). The concentration of ammonium nitrogen in T1 (0.25% sulphur), T2 (0.5% sulphur), T3 (0.25% sulphur + T. thioparus) and T4 (0.5% sulphur + T. thioparus) were much higher than the ammonium N in CK. The results indicated that addition of sulphur could increase the concentration of ammonium N and reduce loss of nitrogen. However, excess sulphur had a negative effect on temperature and GI. Addition of T. thioparus could increase concentration of available S, alleviate these negative influences and reduce compost biological toxicity. PMID:21482106

  4. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens. PMID:25982987

  5. Composting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  7. Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Moriya, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashita, M.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    A material recycling is one of core issues in engineering for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies such as Mars A new composting system has been developed in Japan which utilizes some thermophilic bacteria to attain higher temperature than normally expected in the ordinary composting system Dead body of rat was found to be eaten up by the thermophilic bacteria under aerated condition and oxidized to carbon dioxide and few other inorganics within two hours Ecology of these composting bacteria is structured on the intensive symbiotic interactions among various species that participate in various reaction networks in a concert Complexity in the composting bacteria might be based on multiple interaction and interdependency among participating species and organisms Species identification and phylogeny of symbiotic bacteria and understanding of their ecology have been made Those bacterial systems are active and durable under temperature high in a range of 80 to 100 r C Biological combustion release heat and temperature goes up when air is fed through the reaction bed Since microbial activity decreases at exceeding temperature and release of heat decreases as well temperature in the reacting bed itself-regulated in the range Even though it should be verified composting bacteria themselves are presumed to be safe for human agricultural plant and animal species Their activity is restricted only to the condition under elevated temperature Their activities depend greatly on their symbiotic partners and extreme environment created by them The

  8. Changes in bacterial communities accompanied by aggregation in a fed-batch composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Keiko; Nagao, Norio; Toda, Tatsuki; Kurosawa, Norio

    2008-05-01

    The contents of fed-batch composting (FBC) reactors often aggregate after prolonged operation. This process leads to irreversible breakdown of the decomposition reaction and possible alteration of the bacterial communities. We compared the structures of bacterial communities in reactors under aggregate and optimal conditions. The results of 16S rRNA gene clone analysis showed that populations of the family Bacillaceae (such as Bacillus spp., Cerasibacillus spp., Gracilibacillus spp.), which dominate (98%) under optimal condition, were significantly decreased under aggregate condition. In contrast, populations of the family Staphylococcaceae considerably increased after aggregation and accounted for 53% of the total. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that anaerobes or facultative anaerobes related to Tetragenococcus halophilus, Atopostipes suicloacalis, Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis, and Staphylococcus spp. were dominant in the aggregates. These results suggested that aerobic Gram-positive bacteria mainly contributed to organic degradation and that aggregation created some anaerobic environment, which promoted the growth of bacterial communities usually not found in well-functioning FBC reactors. PMID:18231830

  9. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  10. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  11. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-11-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  12. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  13. Comparison of the bacterial composition of two commercial composts with different physicochemical, stability and maturity properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Elisabete F; Lopes, Ana R; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Nunes, Olga C

    2016-04-01

    Previously, two municipal solid waste commercial composts (MSW1 and MSW2) were characterized. Although sharing the same type of raw material, most of their physicochemical, stability and maturity properties differed. The present study aimed to characterize them at a microbiological level, and to infer on possible relationships between the composts properties and the structure of their bacterial communities. Both the 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE profiling and 454-pyrosequencing technology showed that the structure of the bacterial communities of these composts was distinct. The bacterial community of MSW1 was more diverse than that of MSW2. Multivariate analyses revealed that the high electrical conductivity, Cu content as well as the low phytotoxity of compost MSW1, when compared to MSW2, contributed most to shape its bacterial community structure. Indeed, high abundance of halophilic (Halomonadaceae and Brevibacteriaceae) and metal resistant organisms (Brevibacteriaceae and Bacillaceae) were found in MSW1. In addition, Pseudonocardiaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Bacillaceae, and Brevibacteriaceae may have contributed to the high humic-like acids content and low phytotoxicity of MSW1. In contrast, the high organic matter content and the high density of the cultivable fungi population were the parameters most correlated with the structure of the bacterial community of compost MSW2, dominated by Corynebacteriaceae and mainly Aerococcaceae, taxonomic groups not commonly found in composts. PMID:26948668

  14. Comparison of bacterial succession in green waste composts amended with inorganic fertiliser and wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Storey, Sean; Chualain, Dearbháil Ní; Doyle, Owen; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2015-03-01

    Replacing CAN with DWS resulted in a stable product capable of supporting similar levels of plant growth to conventional compost. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected in both CAN- and DWS-amended composts with Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi present also. Proteobacteria in both composts negatively correlated with pH, NO3 concentration and temperature, but were positively influenced by NH4 levels. Sphaerobacter was the most abundant genus in the mature phase of both CAN- and DWS-amended composts but bacterial community structure in mature DWS-amended compost appeared more diverse than that present in mature compost made using CAN. PMID:25528606

  15. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  16. Predominance of single bacterial cells in composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galès, Amandine; Bru-Adan, Valérie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delabre, Karine; Catala, Philippe; Ponthieux, Arnaud; Chevallier, Michel; Birot, Emmanuel; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants have become an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. Accurate knowledge of the particle-size distribution in bioaerosols emitted from open-air composting facilities during operational activity is a requirement for improved modeling of air dispersal. In order to investigate the aerodynamic diameter of bacteria in composting bioaerosols this study used an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor for sampling and quantitative real-time PCR for quantification. Quantitative PCR results show that the size of bacteria peaked between 0.95 μm and 2.4 μm and that the geometric mean diameter of the bacteria was 1.3 μm. In addition, total microbial cells were counted by flow cytometry and revealed that these qPCR results corresponded to single whole bacteria. Finally, the enumeration of cultivable thermophilic microorganisms allowed us to set the upper size limit for fragments at an aerodynamic diameter of ∼0.3 μm. Particle-size distributions of microbial groups previously used to monitor composting bioaerosols were also investigated. In collected the bioaerosols, the aerodynamic diameter of the actinomycetes Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula-and-relatives and also of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, appeared to be consistent with a majority of individual cells. Together, this study provides the first culture-independent data on particle-size distribution of composting bioaerosols and reveals that airborne single bacteria were emitted predominantly from open-air composting facilities.

  17. Determination of reaction rates and activation energy in aerobic composting processes for yard waste.

    PubMed

    Uma, R N; Manjula, G; Meenambal, T

    2007-04-01

    The reaction rates and activation energy in aerobic composting processes for yard waste were determined using specifically designed reactors. Different mixture ratios were fixed before the commencement of the process. The C/N ratio was found to be optimum for a mixture ratio of 1:6 containing one part of coir pith to six parts of other waste which included yard waste, yeast sludge, poultry yard waste and decomposing culture (Pleurotosis). The path of stabilization of the wastes was continuously monitored by observing various parameters such as temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, C.O.D, VS at regular time intervals. Kinetic analysis was done to determine the reaction rates and activation energy for the optimum mixture ratio under forced aeration condition. The results of the analysis clearly indicated that the temperature dependence of the reaction rates followed the Arrhenius equation. The temperature coefficients were also determined. The degradation of the organic fraction of the yard waste could be predicted using first order reaction model. PMID:18476403

  18. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  19. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S S; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md Ahsan; Goswami, L; Sahariah, B; Bhattacharyya, P; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition. PMID:26589098

  20. Physicochemical properties of biochar produced from aerobically composted swine manure and its potential use as an environmental amendment.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Wang, Lili; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2013-08-01

    Biochars derived from the pyrolysis, at 400 and 700°C, respectively, of fresh (T0), 21d (T1) and 84d (T2) aerobically composted swine manure, were characterized and investigated for their potential use as environmental amendments. The biochar yield significantly increased following composting, but decreased with increased temperature. The ash content, surface area (SA), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), mineral nutrients, total heavy metals (except Cd) and available As, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations of biochar produced at 700°C were higher than in biochar produced at 400°C, whereas the volatile matter, higher heating value (HHV) and elemental composition were decreased. The maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity was 20.11 mg g(-1) by biochar produced from T2 at 400°C. The pyrolysis of 84d aerobically composted swine manure to produce biochar at 400°C could be used as a soil amendment, or as an adsorbent for the removal heavy metal ions from wastewater. PMID:23774223

  1. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2015-07-15

    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified. PMID:25781372

  2. The effects of apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jishao; Huang, Yimei; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Hua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of additives such as apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure composting were investigated in a self-built aerated static box (90 L) by assessing their influences on the transformation of nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous and compost maturity. The results showed that additives all prolonged the thermophilic stage in composting compared to control. Nitrogen losses amounted to 34-58% of the initial nitrogen, in which ammonia volatilization accounted for 0.3-4.6%. Calcium superphosphate was helpful in facilitating composting process as it significantly reduced the ammonia volatilization during thermophilic stage and increased the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorous in compost, but bentonite increased the ammonia volatilization and reduced the total nitrogen concentration. It suggested that calcium superphosphate is an effective additive for keeping nitrogen during swine manure composting. PMID:24928053

  3. Inoculation with nitrogen turnover bacterial agent appropriately increasing nitrogen and promoting maturity in pig manure composting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jishao; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Yimei; Huang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    The nitrogen turnover bacterial (NTB) agent, which is closely related to nitrogen turnover, was comprised of a bacterial consortium of ammonifiers, nitrobacteria and Azotobacter in this study. The three constituents of the bacterial consortium were added to pig manure and wheat straw mixtures in different doses and at different times, and subsequently composted to investigate their effects on nitrogen transformation and maturity. Throughout the period, the total N loss was 35-56%, 10.7-22.7% of which consisted of NH3, and 18-35% of the initial organic carbon was degraded. Adding the NTB agent prolonged the thermophilic stage by one to six days compared to the control. The lowest N loss (35%), the highest degradation rate of organic carbon (35%) and the greatest increase in total nitrogen content (36.1%) occurred in the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting. However, adding 1% NTB agent after the thermophilic stage and 3% NTB agent at the beginning of composting had no positive effect with respect to retaining nitrogen or accelerating the maturation process. Therefore, the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting was effective for reducing N loss and promoting maturity. PMID:25769536

  4. Inactivation of pathogens during aerobic composting of fresh and aged dairy manure and different carbon amendments.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jean; Jiang, Xiuping; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    Two separate studies were conducted to address the condition and the type of feedstocks used during composting of dairy manure. In each study, physical (temperature), chemical (ammonia, volatile acids, and pH), and biological (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7) parameters were monitored during composting in bioreactors to assess the degree to which they were affected by the experimental variables and, ultimately, the ability of the chemical and physical parameters to predict the fate of pathogens during composting. Compost mixtures that contained either aged dairy manure or pine needles had reduced heat generation; therefore, pathogen reduction took longer than if fresh manure or carbon amendments of wheat straw or peanut hulls were used. Based on regression models derived from these results, ammonia concentration, in addition to heat, were the primary factors affecting the degree of pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures formulated to an initial carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 40:1, whereas, the pH of the compost mixture along with the amount of heat exposure were most influential in compost mixtures formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 30:1. Further studies are needed to validate these models so that additional criteria in addition to time and temperature can be used to evaluate the microbiological safety of composted manures. PMID:25364925

  5. Composting: Fast 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  6. Changes in bacterial community of anthracene bioremediation in municipal solid waste composting soil*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu-ying; Wang, Qing-feng; Wan, Rui; Xie, Shu-guang

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site. Knowledge of changes in microbial structure is useful to identify particular PAH degraders. However, the microbial community in the MSW composting soil and its change associated with prolonged exposure to PAHs and subsequent biodegradation remain largely unknown. In this study, anthracene was selected as a model compound. The bacterial community structure was investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The two bimolecular tools revealed a large shift of bacterial community structure after anthracene amendment and subsequent biodegradation. Genera Methylophilus, Mesorhizobium, and Terrimonas had potential links to anthracene biodegradation, suggesting a consortium playing an active role. PMID:21887852

  7. Changes in bacterial community of anthracene bioremediation in municipal solid waste composting soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-ying; Wang, Qing-feng; Wan, Rui; Xie, Shu-guang

    2011-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site. Knowledge of changes in microbial structure is useful to identify particular PAH degraders. However, the microbial community in the MSW composting soil and its change associated with prolonged exposure to PAHs and subsequent biodegradation remain largely unknown. In this study, anthracene was selected as a model compound. The bacterial community structure was investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The two bimolecular tools revealed a large shift of bacterial community structure after anthracene amendment and subsequent biodegradation. Genera Methylophilus, Mesorhizobium, and Terrimonas had potential links to anthracene biodegradation, suggesting a consortium playing an active role. PMID:21887852

  8. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API® strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  9. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API(®) strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  10. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  11. Comparison of effects of compost amendment and of single-strain inoculation on root bacterial communities of young cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2009-10-01

    Compost amendment and inoculations with specific microorganisms are fundamentally different soil treatment methods, commonly used in agriculture for the improvement of plant growth and health. Although distinct, both methods affect the rhizosphere and the plant roots. In the present study we used a 16S rRNA gene approach to achieve an overview of early consequences of these treatments on the assemblage of plant root bacterial communities. For this purpose, cucumber seedlings were grown, under controlled conditions, in perlite potting mix amended with biosolid compost or straw compost, or inoculated with Streptomyces spp. A uniform trend of response of root bacterial communities for all treatments was observed. Root bacterial density, measured as bacterial targets per plant tef gene by real-time PCR, was reduced in 31 to 67%. In addition, increased taxonomic diversity accompanied shifts in composition (alpha-diversity). The magnitude of change in these parameters relative to the perlite control varied between the different treatments but not in relation to the treatment method (compost amendments versus inoculations). Similarity between the compositions of root and of potting mix bacterial communities (beta-diversity) was relatively unchanged. The abundance of Oxalobacteraceae was >50% of the total root bacterial community in the untreated perlite. Root domination by this group subsided >10-fold (straw compost) to >600-fold (Streptomyces sp. strain S1) after treatment. Thus, loss of dominance appears to be the major phenomenon underlining the response trend of the root bacterial communities. PMID:19700550

  12. Population Changes in Enteric Bacteria and Other Microorganisms During Aerobic Thermophilic Windrow Composting1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jacob; Chase, Theodore; Macmillan, James D.

    1973-01-01

    Composting of wastes from swine feeding operations was studied. The effects of the frequency of turning the wastes and addition of straw to improve the physical structure were studied to determine the most effective technique to rapidly increase the temperature and, consequently, destroy coliforms and Salmonella. Four different treatments were studied; the results showed that, with addition of 5% (wt/wt) straw and mechanical turning of the compost 20 times per week, the temperature reached 60 C within 3 days and enteric bacteria were destroyed within 14 days. Images PMID:4203338

  13. Environmental factors shaping the abundance and distribution of laccase-encoding bacterial community with potential phenolic oxidase capacity during composting.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lunhui; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Guo, Jinsong; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; Yuan, Yujie; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Increasing molecular evidence points to a wide occurrence of laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO)-encoding genes in bacteria. Most researches mainly focused on the bacterial LMCO diversity, whereas the processes and the environmental factors responsible for structuring bacterial LMCO communities remain relatively unknown in a composting system. Six gene libraries were constructed from samples in representative stages during composting. A total of 185 sequences obtained from sample DNA extracts were classified to 59 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 10 % cutoff. The distribution profile of bacterial LMCO genes showed that proteobacterial- and actinobacterial-associated species were the dominant communities during composting. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the pile temperature and water-soluble carbon (WSC) content were significantly positively correlated with bacterial LMCO gene OTU numbers, Chao1 and Shannon index, whereas the humic acid (HA)-like carbon content had the most significant effect on the distribution of the bacterial LMCO genes during composting by redundancy analysis. These findings will improve the understanding of the mutual relationship between environmental factors and bacterial LMCO community compositions in composting. PMID:26104868

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial community differences in composting and vermicomposting on the stabilization of mixed sewage sludge and cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Liangbo

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the microbial community structures and compositions in composting and vermicomposting processes. We applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria obtained from bio-stabilization of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Results demonstrated that vermicomposting process presented higher operational taxonomic units and bacterial diversity than the composting. Analysis using weighted UniFrac indicated that composting exhibited higher effects on shaping microbial community structure than the vermicomposting. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting and shifted to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. By contrast, Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions in the whole process of the vermicomposting. Furthermore, vermicomposting contained more uncultured and unidentified bacteria at the taxonomy level of genus than the composting. In summary, the bacterial community during composting significantly differed from that during vermicomposting. These two techniques played different roles in changing the diversity and composition of microbial communities. PMID:26318447

  15. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens. PMID:24963997

  16. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens. PMID:24963997

  17. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  18. Molecular Phylogenetic Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Communities in Cooling Stage during Swine Manure Composting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Zhang, Jinliang; Yan, Yongfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Nengwu; Deng, Changyan

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and subsequent sub-cloning and sequencing were used in this study to analyze the molecular phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of bacterial communities in different spatial locations during the cooling stage of composted swine manure. Total microbial DNA was extracted, and bacterial near full-length 16S rRNA genes were subsequently amplified, cloned, RFLP-screened, and sequenced. A total of 420 positive clones were classified by RFLP and near-full-length 16S rDNA sequences. Approximately 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found among 139 positive clones from the superstratum sample; 26 among 149 were from the middle-level sample and 35 among 132 were from the substrate sample. Thermobifida fusca was common in the superstratum layer of the pile. Some Bacillus spp. were remarkable in the middle-level layer, and Clostridium sp. was dominant in the substrate layer. Among 109 OTUs, 99 displayed homology with those in the GenBank database. Ten OTUs were not closely related to any known species. The superstratum sample had the highest microbial diversity, and different and distinct bacterial communities were detected in the three different layers. This study demonstrated the spatial characteristics of the microbial community distribution in the cooling stage of swine manure compost. PMID:25925066

  19. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed. PMID:26851837

  20. Aerobic degradation of bisphenol A by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain B-16 isolated from compost leachate of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Yuan, Li; Yu, Jian; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Guohe; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2007-05-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain B-16 was isolated from the compost leachate of the municipal solid waste (MSW) in a laboratory reactor. This strain was identified as a gram-negative bacterium, Achromobacter xylosoxidans that could grow on bisphenol A (BPA, a representative endocrine disruptor) as a sole carbon source under aerobic condition. BPA-degrading characteristics of strain B-16 were investigated in liquid cultures. The results show that BPA degradation was influenced by several factors (e.g. inoculum size, substrate concentration, temperature and pH, etc). The half-lives, optimum temperature and pH were found to be 0.58-3.1d, 35 degrees C and 7.0, respectively. BPA-degrading activity and cell growth were inhibited at high substrate concentration. Metabolic intermediates detected during the degradation process were identified as p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-hydroquinone, respectively. Metabolic pathway of BPA degradation was proposed in this study. PMID:17291567

  1. A Combination of Biochar-Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar-mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming. PMID:27092104

  2. A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D.; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar–mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming. PMID:27092104

  3. Bacterial community profiles on feathers during composting as determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA genes.

    PubMed

    Tiquia, S M; Ichida, J M; Keener, H M; Elwell, D L; Burtt, E H; Michel, F C

    2005-05-01

    Composting is one of the more economical and environmentally safe methods of recycling feather waste generated by the poultry industry, since 90% of the feather weight consists of crude keratin protein, and feathers contain 15% N. However, the keratin in waste feathers is resistant to biodegradation and may require the addition of bacterial inocula to enhance the degradation process during composting. Two keratin-degrading bacteria isolated from plumage of wild songbirds and identified as Bacillus licheneformis (OWU 1411T) and Streptomyces sp. (OWU 1441) were inoculated into poultry feather composts (1.13 x 10(8) cfu g(-1) feathers) and co-composted with poultry litter and straw in 200-l compost vessels. Composting temperatures, as well as CO(2) and NH(3) evolution, were measured in these vessels to determine the effects of inoculation on the rate and extent of poultry feather decomposition during composting. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes were used to follow changes in microbial community structure during composting. The results indicated that extensive carbon conversion occurred in both treatments (55.5 and 56.1%). The addition of the bacterial inocula did not enhance the rate of waste feather composting. The microbial community structure over time was very similar in inoculated and uninoculated waste feather composts. PMID:15614566

  4. Emission of bacterial bioaerosols from a composting facility in Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Pahari, Arnab Kumar; Dasgupta, Debdeep; Patil, Rashmi S; Mukherji, Suparna

    2016-07-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify and characterize size-segregated bacterial bioaerosols both on-site and off-site of a waste treatment facility (WTF) in Maharashtra employing windrow composting. Viable bacterial bioaerosols on nutrient agar (NA) and actinomycetes isolation agar (AIA) were quantified after sampling using Anderson-six stage impactor. Viable bacterial bioaerosols were identified based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Approximately, 16-34% of the total viable bacteria collected at the WTF were in the size range 0.65-2.1μm that can penetrate deep into the respiratory tract and also represents bacteria present in free form. Thus, 66-84% of bacterial bioaerosols were associated with coarse airborne particles greater than 2.1μm. A total of 24 bacterial species were isolated and characterized through gram staining. Among these 25% were gram negative and 75% were gram positive. The predominant bacterial genera were Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter and Kocuria. The mean on-site concentration of total viable bacteria on NA and AIA and airborne particles (PM2.5 and PM10) were higher than the corresponding off-site values. The mean on-site concentration of viable bacteria on NA and AIA were in the range of 3.8×10(3) to 5.4×10(4)CFU/m(3) and 9.8×10(3) to 1.2×10(5)CFU/m(3), respectively, during activity period. Good correlation (R(2)=0.999) was observed between total bioaerosols and aerosols (PM10) collected using Anderson impactor and High volume sampler, respectively. Sampling size segregated aerosols using the Siotus personal cascade impactor indicated higher association of bacteria with the coarse fraction (greater than 2.5μm). PMID:27155946

  5. Evaluation of the use of PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR for detection of pathogenic bacteria in biosolids from anaerobic digestors and aerobic composters.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Carola; Wuertz, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    that tested positive when classical isolation procedures were followed. The study shows that selective two-step enrichment is useful when very low numbers of bacterial pathogens must be detected in organic waste materials, such as biosolids. There were no false-positive results derived from DNA of dead cells in the waste sample, suggesting that it is not necessary to perform RT-PCR analyses when PCR is combined with selective enrichment. Large numbers of added nontarget bacteria did not affect detection of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Y. enterocolitica but increased the detection limit of Staphylococcus aureus from <10 to 10(4) CFU/g of organic waste. Overall, the detection methods developed using seeded organic waste samples from one waste treatment facility (WTF) needed to be modified for satisfactory detection of pathogens in samples from other WTFs, emphasizing the need for extensive field testing of laboratory-derived PCR protocols. A survey of 13 WTFs in Germany revealed that all facilities complied with the German Biowaste Ordinance, which mandates that the end product after anaerobic digestion or aerobic composting be free of Salmonella In addition, all biosolids were free of L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Y. enterocolitica, as evidenced by both classical and PCR-based detection methods. PMID:12902250

  6. Bacterial population dynamics in diary waste during aerobic and anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to model a typical dairy waste stream and monitor the chemical and bacterial population dynamics that occur during aerobic or anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage in a simulated lagoon, and compare them to waste held without treatment in a simulated lagoon. Both...

  7. Evaluation of bacterial communities by bacteriome analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes and quantitative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase gene in different types of compost.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Rika; Ishii, Kazuo; Maeda, Isamu; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iwabuchi, Kazunori; Saito, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Biofiltration technology based on microbial degradation and assimilation is used for the removal of malodorous compounds, such as ammonia. Microbes that degrade malodorous and/or organic substances are involved in composting and are retained after composting; therefore, mature composts can serve as an ideal candidate for a biofilter medium. In this study, we focused on different types of raw compost materials, as these are important factors determining the bacterial community profile and the chemical component of the compost. Therefore, bacterial community profiles, the abundance of the bacterial ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA), and the quantities of chemical components were analyzed in composts produced from either food waste or cattle manure. The community profiles with the lowest beta diversity were obtained from single type of cattle manure compost. However, cattle manure composts showed greater alpha diversity, contained higher amounts of various rRNA gene fragments than those of food waste composts and contained the amoA gene by relative quantification, and Proteobacteria were abundantly found and nitrifying bacteria were detected in it. Nitrifying bacteria are responsible for ammonia oxidation and mainly belong to the Proteobacteria or Nitrospira phyla. The quantities of chemical components, such as salt, phosphorus, and nitrogen, differed between the cattle manure and food waste composts, indicating that the raw materials provided different fermentation environments that were crucial for the formation of different community profiles. The results also suggest that cattle manure might be a more suitable raw material for the production of composts to be used in the biofiltration of ammonia. PMID:26111599

  8. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  9. Dynamic changes of the dominant functioning microbial community in the compost of a 90-m(3) aerobic solid state fermentor revealed by integrated meta-omics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Wang, Zhiheng; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic changes in the composition and function of both bacterial and fungal communities over time and at various depths in the compost of a 90-m(3) industrial-scale fermentor were explored using integrated meta-omics. The microbial communities in the middle layer (1.2m) of the compost developed a stable and simple structure over time, which was mainly composed of Thermobifida, Bacillus, Thermomyces and Aspergillus. According to the metaproteomic results, the bacterial community was more focused on cellulose degradation, characterized by 44% of the cellulases that were secreted by Thermobifida, while the fungal community was more likely to degrade hemicellulose, mainly via Thermomyces and Aspergillus. The results revealed that, under artificial control of the temperature and oxygen concentration, the efficiency of organic waste degradation was greatly increased and the fermentation cycle was shortened to 11 days. PMID:26720133

  10. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradability potential of municipal waste activated sludge by ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; Jessin Brindha, G M; Sally Gloriana, A; Rajashankar, K; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2016-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the influence of ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration on the aerobic degradability of sludge. In first phase of the study, effective floc disruption was achieved at an ultrasonic specific energy input of 2.45kJ/kg TS with 44.5mg/L of Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) release including 0.035U/mL and 0.025U/mL protease and amylase activity respectively. In second phase, experimental outcomes revealed bacterial disintegration of floc disrupted-sludge showing a maximum solubilization of about 23% and was observed to be superior to bacterially disintegrated (11%) and control (6%), respectively. The result of aerobic biodegradability of ultrasonic aided bacterially pretreated sludge showed volatile solids (VS) degradation of about 40.2%. The kinetic study of aerobic biodegradability through non linear regression modelling reveals that floc disrupted sludge showed better biodegradability with decay constant of about 0.19d(-1) relatively higher than the control (0.14d(-1)) and bacterially disintegrated (0.17d(-1)) sludges. PMID:26479431

  11. Response of the jejunal mucosa of dogs with aerobic and anaerobic bacterial overgrowth to antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Batt, R M; McLean, L; Riley, J E

    1988-01-01

    Dogs with naturally occurring aerobic or anaerobic bacterial overgrowth have been examined before and after antibiotic therapy in order to assess reversibility of damage to the jejunal mucosa. Histological changes in peroral jejunal biopsies were relatively minor before and after treatment, but sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed specific biochemical abnormalities that responded to antibiotic therapy. Aerobic overgrowth was initially associated with a marked loss of the main brush border component of alkaline phosphatase activity; this recovered following treatment, suggesting that aerobic bacteria may cause reversible damage to the hydrophobic region of the brush border membrane. In contrast, anaerobic overgrowth was initially associated with a marked reduction in brush border density, indicative of a considerable fall in the glycoprotein-to-lipid ratio of the membrane. Density increased from 1.17 to 1.21 g/ml after antibiotic therapy, consistent with recovery from this relatively severe damage to the brush border caused by anaerobic bacteria. Reductions in soluble and peroxisomal catalase activities which could compromise mucosal protection against free radicals in dogs with aerobic overgrowth, and a loss of particulate malate dehydrogenase activity indicative of mitochondrial disruption in dogs with anaerobic overgrowth, were also reversed after treatment. These findings indicate that aerobic and anaerobic bacterial overgrowth can result in contrasting but potentially reversible damage to the jejunal mucosa which would not be detected by conventional investigative procedures. PMID:3371716

  12. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  13. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  14. Maturity and security assessment of pilot-scale aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Wang, Yao

    2016-03-01

    In this work, penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) and sewage sludge (SWS) were co-composted to analyze the possibility of recycling nutrients in PFDs. The temperature was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days, and the final electrical conductivity (EC), pH and C/N all met the national standards in maturity. A nearly 100% removal of the residual penicillin was achieved, and the seed germination index (GI) increased from 0.02% to 83.54±3.1% by the end of the composting process. However, monitoring the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed that the logarithm of the number of copies of blaTEM increased from 4.17±0.19 at the initial phase to 8.92±0.27 by the end of the composting process, which means that there is a high risk for land use when using PFD compost products. PMID:26799590

  15. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, P F

    1985-01-01

    Continuously thermophilic composting was examined with a 4.5-liter reactor placed in an incubator maintained at representative temperatures. Feed was a mixture of dried table scraps and shredded newspaper wetted to 55% moisture. One run at 49 degrees C (run A) employed a 1:4 feed-to-compost ratio, while the other runs used a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 50, 55, 60, or 65 degrees C. Due to self-heating, internal temperatures of the composting mass were 0 to 7 degrees C hotter than the incubator. Two full-scale composting plants (at Altoona, Pa., and Leicester, England) were also examined. Plate counts per gram (dry weight) on Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems) with 2% agar ranged from 0.7 X 10(9) to 5.3 X 10(9) for laboratory composting and 0.02 X 10(9) to 7.4 X 10(9) for field composting. Fifteen taxa were isolated, including 10 of genus Bacillus, which dominated all samples except that from run A. Species diversity decreased markedly in laboratory composting at 60 degrees C and above, but was similar for the three runs incubated at 49, 50, and 55 degrees C. The maximum desirable composting temperature based on species diversity is thus 60 degrees C, the same as that previously recommended based on measures of the rate of decomposition. PMID:4083885

  16. Succession of Bacterial Communities during Early Plant Development: Transition from Seed to Root and Effect of Compost Amendment

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan J.; Inbar, Ehud; Michel, Frederick C.; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2006-01-01

    Compost amendments to soils and potting mixes are routinely applied to improve soil fertility and plant growth and health. These amendments, which contain high levels of organic matter and microbial cells, can influence microbial communities associated with plants grown in such soils. The purpose of this study was to follow the bacterial community compositions of seed and subsequent root surfaces in the presence and absence of compost in the potting mix. The bacterial community compositions of potting mixes, seed, and root surfaces sampled at three stages of plant growth were analyzed via general and newly developed Bacteroidetes-specific, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methodologies. These analyses revealed that seed surfaces were colonized primarily by populations detected in the initial potting mixes, many of which were not detected in subsequent root analyses. The most persistent bacterial populations detected in this study belonged to the genus Chryseobacterium (Bacteroidetes) and the family Oxalobacteraceae (Betaproteobacteria). The patterns of colonization by populations within these taxa differed significantly and may reflect differences in the physiology of these organisms. Overall, analyses of bacterial community composition revealed a surprising prevalence and diversity of Bacteroidetes in all treatments. PMID:16751505

  17. [Study of the aerobic bacterial flora of onycolysis and paronychia caused by Candida].

    PubMed

    Robles, A M; Negroni, R; De Hardie, N

    1976-01-01

    The aerobic bacterial flora of 63 cases of onicolysis 78 of paronychis and 5 of onicomadesis produced by yeast-like fungus were studied. Bacterial isolation was carried out in nutrient agar with a concentration of 10 mug/ml of nystatin. These microorganisms were identified following the Otto Bier and Bailey & Scott's techniques (3, 1). Bacterial contamination was very frequent. One species or more were isolated from 93,6% of onicolysis and 97% of paronychis. The onicolysis presented the following flora: "Staphylococcus aureus" in 22 cases, "Staphylococcus epidermidis" in 21, Gram positive sporulated bacilli in 17, "Enterobacteriaceae" in 13, and "Pseudomona aeruginosa" in 6. The paronychial lesions showed the following flora: "Staphylococcus aureus" in 21 cases, "Staphylococcus epidermidis" in 26, Gram positive sporulated bacilli in 17, "Enterobacteriaceae" in 17 and "Pseudomona aeruginosa" in 3. It is important to emphasize that "Pseudomona aeruginosa" was isolated in a few cases of both types of candidal onixis, contrary to usual reports (2, 4, 9). No significant difference between the aerobic bacterial flora of the onicolysis and paronychia was found, that would give an explanation of the existence of these two clinical forms of candidal nails infection. PMID:1035392

  18. Variations of culturable thermophilic microbe numbers and bacterial communities during the thermophilic phase of composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Li, Linzhi; Huang, Rong; Sun, Yifei; Mei, Xinlan; Shen, Biao; Shen, Qirong

    2014-06-01

    Composting is a process of stabilizing organic wastes through the degradation of biodegradable components by microbial communities under controlled conditions. In the present study, genera and species diversities, amylohydrolysis, protein and cellulose degradation abilities of culturable bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting of cattle manure with plant ash and rice bran were investigated. The number of culturable thermophilic bacteria and actinomyces decreased with the increasing temperature. At the initiation and end of the thermophilic phase, genera and specie diversities and number of bacteria possessing degradation abilities were higher than during the middle phase. During the thermophilic composting phase, Bacillus, Geobacillus and Ureibacillus were the dominant genera, and Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was the dominant species. In later thermophilic phases, Geobacillus toebii and Ureibacillus terrenus were dominant. Bacillus, at the initiation, and Ureibacillus and Geobacillus, at the later phase, contributed the multiple degradation abilities. These data will facilitate the control of composting in the future. PMID:24415499

  19. Developmental hazard assessment with FETAX: Aerobic metabolites in bacterial transformation of naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Dawson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    The underlying principle of bioremediation is the capability of microorganisms to biodegrade pollutants. When a contaminated site is biotreated, it is usually assumed that the disappearance of the pollutant means a reduction in the toxic effects of the contaminants. However, pollutants can undergo partial biodegradation or biotransformation. Microbial-mediated transformations play a critical role in the toxic effects of pollutants, as any alteration in structure can result in a change in physicochemical properties which influence toxicity. Therefore, a relevant question is; what is the toxicity of accumulative metabolites relative to the parent chemical? One class of chemicals that consistently appears at Superfund hazard waste sites is aromatic hydrocarbons. Studies of the aerobic bacterial metabolism of representative compounds, including benzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene, have revealed similar oxidative pathways. Bacterial degradation of these aromatic hydrocarbons was initiated by the addition of two molecules of oxygen via a dioxygenase enzyme, with the resulting intermediate being converted to a catechol-like compound. From a biotransformation standpoint, one of the more thoroughly studied aromatic hydrocarbons has been naphthalene. Cerniglia (1984) has identified five major intermediates, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid, gentisic acid and catechol in the aerobic bacterial degradation of naphthalene. In vitro test systems such as the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay - Xenopus (FETAX) provide a time- and resource-effective means for assessing developmental toxicity on a preliminary basis. FETAX is a 96-hr static-renewal system that uses early embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the developmental hazard, using FETAX, of exposure to the model aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthalene, and it`s known major aerobic metabolites from bacterial transformation. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  1. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic

  2. Characterisation of the aerobic bacterial flora of boid snakes: application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Krüger, Monika; Pees, Michael

    2015-03-14

    The aim of this study was to identify aerobic bacterial isolates from the respiratory tract of boids with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). From 47 boid snakes, swabs from the oral cavity, tracheal wash samples and, in cases in which postmortem examination was performed, pulmonary tissue samples were taken. Each snake was classified as having inflammation of the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, or without evidence of inflammation based on combination of clinical, cytological and histopathological findings. Samples collected from the respiratory tract and oral cavity were inoculated onto routine media and bacteria were cultured aerobically. All morphologically distinct individual colonies obtained were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS. Unidentified isolates detected in more than three snakes were selected for further 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. Among all examined isolates (n=243), 49 per cent (n=119) could be sufficiently speciated using MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular biology revealed several bacterial species that have not been previously described in reptiles. With an average of 6.3 different isolates from the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, boids with inflammatory disease harboured significantly more bacterial species than boids without inflammatory disease (average 2.8 isolates). PMID:25487809

  3. Biodegradation of Free Phytol by Bacterial Communities Isolated from Marine Sediments under Aerobic and Denitrifying Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rontani, Jean-François; Bonin, Patricia C.; Volkman, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Biodegradation of (E)-phytol [3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2(E)-en-1-ol] by two bacterial communities isolated from recent marine sediments under aerobic and denitrifying conditions was studied at 20°C. This isoprenoid alcohol is metabolized efficiently by these two bacterial communities via 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and (E)-phytenic acid. The first step in both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation of (E)-phytol involves the transient production of (E)-phytenal, which in turn can be abiotically converted to 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one. Most of the isoprenoid metabolites identified in vitro could be detected in a fresh sediment core collected at the same site as the sediments used for the incubations. Since (E)-phytenal is less sensitive to abiotic degradation at the temperature of the sediments (15°C), the major part of (E)-phytol appeared to be biodegraded in situ via (E)-phytenic acid. (Z)- and (E)-phytenic acids are present in particularly large quantities in the upper section of the core, and their concentrations quickly decrease with depth in the core. This degradation (which takes place without significant production of phytanic acid) is attributed to the involvement of alternating β-decarboxymethylation and β-oxidation reaction sequences induced by denitrifiers. Despite the low nitrate concentration of marine sediments, denitrifying bacteria seem to play a significant role in the mineralization of (E)-phytol. PMID:10584007

  4. A fast molecular nondestructive protocol for evaluating aerobic bacterial load on fresh-cut lettuce.

    PubMed

    Gómez, P; Pagnon, M; Egea-Cortines, M; Artés, F; Weiss, J

    2010-10-01

    Elaboration of minimally processed or fresh-cut vegetables requires a quick and reliable method for detection of bacterial contamination over the recommended limits. PCR-based methods fulfil these requirements, but amplification from DNA preparations of the food product is often hampered due to inhibiting substances. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based method for aerobic bacterial enumeration in fresh-cut lettuce, using as reference the centrifugation water (CW) that comes up during processing instead of the food matrix itself. Comparisons between bacterial numbers on lettuce leaves before processing and bacterial numbers in the CW both for naturally occurring bacterial populations and for artificially inoculated lettuce were performed. On an average, 35% of the natural bacterial population and 64% of inoculated bacteria were recovered in the CW. Bacterial number in CW was proportional to initial lettuce contamination suggesting that measures on CW allow a narrow estimation of lettuce contamination. In qPCR, a 23S rDNA region was amplified from bacterial DNA present in the CW, followed by melting peak analyses and quantification. Enumeration of cell number by qPCR did not differ significantly from plate assay and might therefore replace it. The proposed protocol, which includes sample taking, DNA extraction and qPCR from the CW can be performed within less than 5 h. The resulting quantification might be used as a proxy of initial lettuce contamination, allowing direct intervention measures before fresh-cut commodity is shipped from the factory. PMID:21339159

  5. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200g/LPG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation. PMID:26855183

  6. Aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Hernández, Giovanna; Caballero, Magaly

    2006-12-01

    Bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera. Two hundred thirty-nine were Gram-negative and 86 were Gram-positive isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal samples. The Enterobacteriaceae family, including Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, was the largest Gram-negative group of bacteria recovered and comprised 127 of 239 (53.1%) of the Gram-negative isolates. Staphylococcus species was the largest Gram-positive bacteria group, including S. aureus, S. cromogenes, S. epidermis, and S. intermedius, and made up 63 of 86 (73.2%) of the Gram-positive isolates recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero National Park is composed of a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including several potential pathogens. PMID:17315444

  7. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  8. Pyrosequencing analysis of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterial community structure in the oligotrophic western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Liu, Yanting; Steindler, Laura; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) represent a widespread functional bacterial group defined by their obligate aerobic and facultative photoheterotrophic abilities. They are an active part of the marine microbial community as revealed by a large number of previous investigations. Here, we made an in-depth comparison of AAPB community structures in the subsurface water and the upper twilight zone of the western Pacific Ocean using high-throughput sequencing based on the pufM gene. Approximately, 100 000 sequences, grouped into 159 OTUs (94% cut-off value), included 44 and 24 OTUs unique to the subsurface and the upper twilight zone, respectively; 92 OTUs were common to both subsurface and twilight zone, and 3 OTUs were found in all samples. Consistent with previous studies, AAPB belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria were the dominant group in the whole water column, followed by the alphaproteobacterial AAPB. Comparing the relative abundance distribution patterns of different clades, an obvious community-structure separation according to deeper or shallower environment could be observed. Sulfitobacter-like, Loktanella-like, Erythrobacter-like, Dinoroseobacter-like and Gamma-HIMB55-like AAPB preferred the high-light subsurface water, while Methylobacterium-like, 'Citromicrobium'-like, Roseovarius-like and Bradyrhizobium-like AAPB, the dim light environment. PMID:25724533

  9. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by an aerobic bacterial consortium using a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, T Emilia; Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, Jegan J; Poulose, T P; Thomas, P P

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye mixture by an aerobic bacterial consortium was studied in a rotating biological reactor. Laterite pebbles of particle size 850 microm to 1.44 mm were fixed on gramophone records using an epoxy resin on which the developed consortium was immobilized. Rate of degradation, BOD, biomass determination, enzymes involved, and fish bioassay were studied. The RBC has a high efficiency for dye degradation even at high dye concentrations (100 microg/mL) and high flow rate (36 L/h) at alkaline pH and salinity conditions normally encountered in the textile effluents. Bioassays (LD-50) using Thilapia fish in treated effluent showed that the percentage mortality was zero over a period of 96 h, whereas the mortality was 100% in untreated dye water within 26 h. Fish bioassay confirms that the effluent from RBC can be discharged safely to the environment. PMID:12892505

  10. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  11. COMPOSTING: STABILIZATION, DEWATERING, VOLUME REDUCTION, AND PATHOGEN KILL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic composting is the biological oxidative decomposition of organic materials by successive communities of microorganisms under different temperature regimes which produces a humified end-product. Composting reduces moisture content of organic byproducts. Thermophilic temperatures attained dur...

  12. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation. PMID:26341336

  13. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  14. Comparison of the biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa of dogs with aerobic and anaerobic bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Batt, R M; McLean, L

    1987-11-01

    Subcellular biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa have been compared in dogs with either aerobic or anaerobic bacterial overgrowth to explore relationships between composition of the flora and mucosal damage. Affected animals comprised 17 German shepherd dogs with chronic diarrhea or weight loss, or both. Analysis of duodenal juice demonstrated aerobic overgrowth in 10 cases, most frequently comprising enterococci and Escherichia coli, and obligate anaerobic overgrowth in 7 cases, most frequently including Clostridia spp. Histologic changes were minimal; however, examination of peroral jejunal biopsy specimens by sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed specific biochemical abnormalities. In the dogs with aerobic overgrowth, there was a selective loss of brush border alkaline phosphatase activity, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity was increased, whereas activities of disaccharidases and aminopeptidase N were unaltered. In contrast, anaerobic overgrowth was associated with a reduction in brush border density, indicative of a considerable fall in the glycoprotein-to-lipid ratio of the brush border membrane, whereas brush border enzyme activities were unaltered. There was a loss of peroxisomal catalase activity in dogs with aerobic overgrowth, and an indication of mitochondrial disruption in dogs with anaerobic overgrowth, but little evidence for damage to other subcellular organelles. These findings demonstrate that aerobic and anaerobic overgrowth may be associated with distinct but different mucosal abnormalities particularly affecting the brush border membrane. PMID:2888701

  15. Pectinolytic systems of two aerobic sporogenous bacterial strains with high activity on pectin.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Margarita; Diaz, Pilar; Pastor, F I Javier

    2005-02-01

    Strains Paenibacillus sp. BP-23 and Bacillus sp. BP-7, previously isolated from soil from a rice field, secreted high levels of pectinase activity in media supplemented with pectin. Production of pectinases in strain Paenibacillus sp. BP-23 showed catabolite repression, while in Bacillus sp. BP-7 production of pectin degrading enzymes was not negatively affected by glucose. The two strains showed lyase activities as the predominant pectinases, while hydrolase activity was very low. Analysis of Paenibacillus sp. BP-23 in SDS-polyacrylamide gels and zymograms showed five pectinase activity bands. The strict requirement of Ca(2+) for lyase activity of the strain indicates that correspond to pectate lyases. For Bacillus sp. BP-7, zymograms showed four bands of different size. The strain showed a Ca(2+) requirement for lyase activity on pectate but not on pectin, indicating that the pectinolytic system of Bacillus sp. BP-7 is comprised of pectate lyases and pectin lyases. The results show differences in pectin degrading systems between the two aerobic sporogenous bacterial strains studied. PMID:15717229

  16. New evidence for Cu-decorated binary-oxides mediating bacterial inactivation/mineralization in aerobic media.

    PubMed

    Rtimi, S; Pulgarin, C; Bensimon, M; Kiwi, J

    2016-08-01

    Binary oxide semiconductors TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 (TiO2-ZrO2-Cu) uniform films were sputtered on polyester (PES). These films were irradiated under low intensity solar simulated light and led to bacterial inactivation in aerobic and anaerobic media as evaluated by CFU-plate counting. But bacterial mineralization was only induced by TiO2-ZrO2-Cu in aerobic media. The highly oxidative radicals generated on the films surface under light were identified by the use of appropriate scavengers. The hole generated on the TiO2-ZrO2 films is shown to be the main specie leading to bacterial inactivation. TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 films release Zr and Ti <1ppb and Cu 4.6ppb/cm(2) as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) This level is far below the citotoxicity permitted level allowed for mammalian cells suggesting that bacterial disinfection proceeds through an oligodynamic effect. By Fourier transform attenuated infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) the systematic shift of the predominating νs(CH2) vibrational-rotational peak making up most of the bacterial cell-wall content in C was monitored. Based on this evidence a mechanism suggested leading to CH bond stretching followed by cell lysis and cell death. Bacterial inactivation cycling was observed on TiO2-ZrO2-Cu showing the stability of these films leading to bacterial inactivation. PMID:27088192

  17. Spot test analysis of microbial contents during composting of kitchen- and garden biowaste: sampling procedures, bacterial reductions, time-temperature relationships, and their relevance for EU-regulations concerning animal by-products.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, P B; de Wit, D H; Duindam, J W; Elsinga, G J; Elsinga, W

    2013-01-30

    This study was aimed to collect data and develop methodologies to determine if and how Dutch biowaste composting plants can meet the microbiological requirements set out in EU-Regulations (EC) 1774/2002 and (EC) 1069/2009, and to provide the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) with data and analysis for evaluation of these regulations. We examined twenty plant locations and four types of composting technologies, all with forced aeration and without an anaerobic digestion phase. Raw biowaste, material after sanitation and compost were sampled by spot test analysis according to a standard protocol, and according to an additional protocol with enhanced hygienic precautions. Samples were analyzed for Escherichia coli, Enterococcaceae and Salmonella content. The latter protocol resulted in improved bacterial reductions after sanitation, whereas in compost Enterococcus levels but not E. coli levels increased substantially with both protocols, due to more thermo-resistant regrowth. Salmonella presence in compost coincided with low temperatures and increased levels of E. coli and Enterococcus, absence of Salmonella was associated with absence of E. coli (74%), but not with absence of Enterococcus (17%). In compost, E. coli and Salmonella showed a comparable time-temperature inactivation pattern. A pilot study with co-composting of biowaste and poultry manure indicated a similar inactivation pattern for ESBL-containing bacteria. We conclude that the abundance of Enterococcus in compost is caused by regrowth and not by (re)contamination, and that E. coli is a more reliable indicator species for the absence/presence of Salmonella in compost. Compliance with current EU-regulations concerning biowaste composting can be shown by spot test analysis at all examined plants, provided that adequate hygienic precautions are taken during sampling. PMID:23262408

  18. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Faron, Matthew L.; Buchan, Blake W.; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L.; Granato, Paul A.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Procop, Gary W.; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26529504

  19. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  20. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  1. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  2. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-09-30

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  3. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  4. Assessing carbon and nitrogen removal in a novel anoxic-aerobic cyanobacterial-bacterial photobioreactor configuration with enhanced biomass sedimentation.

    PubMed

    de Godos, I; Vargas, V A; Guzmán, H O; Soto, R; García, B; García, P A; Muñoz, R

    2014-09-15

    The carbon and nitrogen removal potential of an innovative anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor configuration operated with both internal and external recyclings was evaluated under different cyanobacterial-bacterial sludge residence times (9-31 days) during the treatment of wastewaters with low C/N ratios. Under optimal operating conditions, the two-stage photobioreactor was capable of providing organic carbon and nitrogen removals over 95% and 90%, respectively. The continuous biomass recycling from the settler resulted in the enrichment and predominance of rapidly-settling cyanobacterial-bacterial flocs and effluent suspended solid concentrations lower than 35 mg VSS L(-1). These flocs exhibited sedimentation rates of 0.28-0.42 m h(-1) but sludge volumetric indexes of 333-430 ml/g. The decoupling between the hydraulic retention time and sludge retention time mediated by the external recycling also avoided the washout of nitrifying bacteria and supported process operation at biomass concentrations of 1000-1500 mg VSS L(-1). The addition of additional NaHCO3 to the process overcame the CO2 limitation resulting from the intense competition for inorganic carbon between cyanobacteria and nitrifying bacteria in the photobioreactor, which supported the successful implementation of a nitrification-denitrification process. Unexpectedly, this nitrification-denitrification process occurred both simultaneously in the photobioreactor alone (as a result of the negligible dissolved oxygen concentrations) and sequentially in the two-stage anoxic-aerobic configuration with internal NO3(-)/NO2(-) recycling. PMID:24880959

  5. Assessment of bacterial diversity in agricultural by-product compost by sequencing of cultivated isolates and amplified rDNA restriction analysis.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Piyush; Mallik, Sarita; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-08-01

    An investigation of bacterial diversity in compost was performed using molecular chronometer in order to reveal its phylogeny. Thirty-three bacterial isolates isolated from compost were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing which revealed phylogenetic lineage of class Bacilli, γ, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Among these lineages, isolates belonging to class Bacilli consisted of species from genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Terribacillus, and Lysinibacillus. From phylum Actinobacteria: Microbacterium barkeri and Kocuria sp. were identified. Other bacterial groups had phylogenetic linkage with genera Comamonas and Acidovorax (class β-Proteobacteria); Serratia, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter (class γ-Proteobacteria). Similar isolates were analyzed through ARDRA. Amplified product of 16S rRNA gene from each isolates was subjected to cleavage by enzymes HpaII, HinfI, and MspI in separate reaction tubes. HpaII generated 2-6 bands ranging from 90-688 bp, HinfI generated 2-5 bands of 71-1,038 bp, and MspI 2-7 bands of 69-793 bp. The restriction patterns from HpaII, HinfI, and MspI were normalized separately and combined by means of pattern recognition software "Diversity Database." HpaII had highest discrimination index (0.72) than HinfI (0.68) and MspI (0.65), and the combination of all three showed discrimination index (0.69). Numerical analysis of ARDRA patterns demonstrated sufficient phylogenetic information for characterizing bacterial diversity. Phylogenetic relationship obtained among isolates through ARDRA was compared with 16S rRNA gene sequence and ARDRA results showed sufficiently similar 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, but not an overlapping. It has been observed that ARDRA technique facilitates the identification of bacteria in less than 36 h as compared to traditional 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:23053087

  6. A novel denitrifying bacterial isolate that degrades trimethylamine both aerobically and anaerobically via two different pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, S G; Bae, H S; Lee, S T

    2001-10-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic degradation of trimethylamine by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium from an enrichment culture with trimethylamine inoculated with activated sludge was studied. Based on 16S rDNA analysis, this strain was identified as a Paracoccus sp. The isolate, strain T231, aerobically degraded trimethylamine, dimethylamine and methylamine and released a stoichiometric amount of ammonium ion into the culture fluid as a metabolic product, indicating that these methylated amines were completely degraded to formaldehyde and ammonia. The strain degraded trimethylamine also under denitrifying conditions and consumed a stoichiometric amount of nitrate, demonstrating that complete degradation of trimethylamine was coupled with nitrate reduction. Cell-free extract prepared from cells grown aerobically on trimethylamine exhibited activities of trimethylamine mono-oxygenase, trimethylamine N-oxide demethylase, dimethylamine mono-oxygenase, and methylamine mono-oxygenase. Cell-free extract from cells grown anaerobically on trimethylamine and nitrate exhibited activities of trimethylamine dehydrogenase and dimethylamine dehydrogenase. These results indicate that strain T231 had two different pathways for aerobic and anaerobic degradation of trimethylamine. This is a new feature for trimethylamine metabolism in denitrifying bacteria. PMID:11685371

  7. Colorado composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.

  8. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. PMID:26445365

  9. Incomplete aerobic degradation of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and identification of the bacterial dead-end transformation product Guanylurea.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as personal care products are detected in increasing prevalence in different environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater and soil. Still little is known about the environmental fate of these substances. The type II antidiabetic drug Metformin has already been detected in different surface waters worldwide, but concentrations were significantly lower than the corresponding predicted environmental concentration (PEC). In human and mammal metabolism so far no metabolites of Metformin have been identified, so the expected environmental concentrations should be very high. To assess the aerobic biodegradability of Metformin and the possible formation of degradation products, three Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test series were performed in the present study. In the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), a screening test that simulates the conditions of an environmental surface water compartment, Metformin was classified as not readily biodegradable (no biodegradation). In the Manometric Respiratory test (OEDC 301 F) working with high bacterial density, Metformin was biodegraded in one of three test bottles to 48.7% and in the toxicity control bottle to 57.5%. In the Zahn-Wellens test (OECD 302 B) using activated sludge, Metformin was biodegraded in both test vessels to an extent of 51.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) showed in the tests vessels were biodegradation was observed full elimination of Metformin and revealed Guanylurea (Amidinourea, Dicyandiamidine) as single and stable aerobic bacterial degradation product. In another Manometric Respiratory test Guanylurea showed no more transformation. Photodegradation of Guanylurea was also negative. A first screening in one of the greatest sewage treatment plant in southern Germany found Metformin with high concentrations

  10. Supramolecular organization of bacterial aerobic respiratory chains: From cells and back.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana M P; Teixeira, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic respiratory chains from all life kingdoms are composed by several complexes that have been deeply characterized in their isolated form. These membranous complexes link the oxidation of reducing substrates to the reduction of molecular oxygen, in a process that conserves energy by ion translocation between both sides of the mitochondrial or prokaryotic cytoplasmatic membranes. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that those complexes are organized as supramolecular structures, the so-called supercomplexes and respirasomes, being available for eukaryotes strong data namely obtained by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. A parallel study has been developed for prokaryotes, based on blue native gels and mass spectrometry analysis, showing that in these more simple unicellular organisms such supercomplexes also exist, involving not only typical aerobic-respiration associated complexes, but also anaerobic-linked enzymes. After a short overview of the data on eukaryotic supercomplexes, we will analyse comprehensively the different types of prokaryotic aerobic respiratory supercomplexes that have been thus far suggested, in both bacteria and archaea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Prof Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26546715

  11. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  12. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost. PMID:23947069

  13. Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Lalonde, Stefan V; Planavsky, Noah J; Pecoits, Ernesto; Lyons, Timothy W; Mojzsis, Stephen J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Barley, Mark E; Rosìere, Carlos; Fralick, Phillip W; Kump, Lee R; Bekker, Andrey

    2011-10-20

    The enrichment of redox-sensitive trace metals in ancient marine sedimentary rocks has been used to determine the timing of the oxidation of the Earth's land surface. Chromium (Cr) is among the emerging proxies for tracking the effects of atmospheric oxygenation on continental weathering; this is because its supply to the oceans is dominated by terrestrial processes that can be recorded in the Cr isotope composition of Precambrian iron formations. However, the factors controlling past and present seawater Cr isotope composition are poorly understood. Here we provide an independent and complementary record of marine Cr supply, in the form of Cr concentrations and authigenic enrichment in iron-rich sedimentary rocks. Our data suggest that Cr was largely immobile on land until around 2.48 Gyr ago, but within the 160 Myr that followed--and synchronous with independent evidence for oxygenation associated with the Great Oxidation Event (see, for example, refs 4-6)--marked excursions in Cr content and Cr/Ti ratios indicate that Cr was solubilized at a scale unrivalled in history. As Cr isotope fractionations at that time were muted, Cr must have been mobilized predominantly in reduced, Cr(III), form. We demonstrate that only the oxidation of an abundant and previously stable crustal pyrite reservoir by aerobic-respiring, chemolithoautotrophic bacteria could have generated the degree of acidity required to solubilize Cr(III) from ultramafic source rocks and residual soils. This profound shift in weathering regimes beginning at 2.48 Gyr ago constitutes the earliest known geochemical evidence for acidophilic aerobes and the resulting acid rock drainage, and accounts for independent evidence of an increased supply of dissolved sulphate and sulphide-hosted trace elements to the oceans around that time. Our model adds to amassing evidence that the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary was marked by a substantial shift in terrestrial geochemistry and biology. PMID:22012395

  14. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  15. Biosorption behavior and mechanism of lead (II) from aqueous solution by aerobic granules (AG) and bacterial alginate (BA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Yu

    2012-12-01

    Lead (Pb) and its compounds are common pollutants in industrial wastewaters. To develop appropriate Pb2+ treatment technologies, aerobic granules (AG) and bacterial alginates (BA) were studied as alternative biosorbents to remove Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. The biosorption mechanism of AG and BA were further analyzed to determine which functional groups in AG and BA are active in Pb2+ biosorption. In this paper, the Pb2+ biosorption behavior of AG and BA was respectively investigated in batch experiments from the perspectives of the initial pH, contact time, and initial Pb2+ concentration. The results showed that biosorption of Pb2+ by AG and BA occurred within 60min at the initial Pb2+ concentrations (0-150 mg L-1). The actual saturated Pb2+ biosorption capability of AG was 101.97 mg g-1 (dry weight of aerobic granular biomass). When the initial pH was 5, the biosorption capability of AG and BA was highest at the initial Pb2+ concentrations (0-20mg L-1). During the process of Pb2+ biosorption, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were released. The Ion Chromatography (IC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) further highlighted the main role of ion exchange between Ca2+ and Pb2+ and sequestration of Pb2+ with carboxyl (-COO-) of AG and BA. This analogical analysis verifies that BA is responsible for biosorption of Pb2+ by AG. At the same optimal pH, AG cultivated with different carbon source has different Pb2+ biosorption capacity. The Pb2+ biosorption by AG with sodium acetate as the sole carbon source is higher than AG with glucose as carbon source.

  16. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  17. Robustness of an aerobic metabolically vinyl chloride degrading bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, He-Ping; Schmidt, Kathrin R; Lohner, Svenja; Tiehm, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of the lower chlorinated ethenes is crucial to the application of natural attenuation or in situ bioremediation on chlorinated ethene contaminated sites. Recently, within mixtures of several chloroethenes as they can occur in contaminated groundwater inhibiting effects on aerobic chloroethene degradation have been shown. The current study demonstrated that metabolic vinyl chloride (VC) degradation by an enrichment culture originating from groundwater was not affected by an equimolar concentration (50 μM) of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE). Only cDCE concentrations at a ratio of 2.4:1 (initial cDCE to VC concentration) caused minor inhibition of VC degradation. Furthermore, the degradation of VC was not affected by the presence of trans-1,2-dichloroethene (tDCE), 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene (PCE) in equimolar concentrations (50 μM). Only cDCE and tDCE were cometabolically degraded in small amounts. The VC-degrading culture demonstrated a broad pH tolerance from 5 to 9 with an optimum between 6 and 7. Results also showed that the culture could degrade VC concentrations up to 1,800 μM (110 mg/L). PMID:22020471

  18. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. Results: The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively. PMID:26114142

  19. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. PMID:25203237

  20. Aerobic degradation of ibuprofen in batch and continuous reactors by an indigenous bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, María Susana; Fuentes Abril, Nancy Piedad; Martinefski, Manuela; Trípodi, Valeria; Papalia, Mariana; Rádice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith

    2016-10-01

    Water from six points from the Riachuelo-Matanza basin was analyzed in order to assess ibuprofen biodegradability. In four of them biodegradation of ibuprofen was proved and degrading bacterial communities were isolated. Biodegradation in each point could not be correlated with sewage pollution. The indigenous bacterial community isolated from the point localized in the La Noria Bridge showed the highest degradative capacity and was selected to perform batch and continuous degradation assays. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the community consisted of Comamonas aquatica and Bacillus sp. In batch assays the community was capable of degrading 100 mg L(-1) of ibuprofen in 33 h, with a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.21 h(-1). The removal of the compound, as determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exceeded 99% of the initial concentration, with a 92.3% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In a down-flow fixed-bed continuous reactor, the community shows a removal efficiency of 95.9% of ibuprofen and 92.3% of COD for an average inlet concentration of 110.4 mg. The reactor was kept in operation for 70 days. The maximal removal rate for the compound was 17.4 g m(-3) d(-1). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe biofilm development in the reactor. The ability of the isolated indigenous community can be exploited to improve the treatment of wastewaters containing ibuprofen. PMID:26905769

  1. Effects of topical erythromycin on ecology of aerobic cutaneous bacterial flora.

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, B R; Feingold, D S; Sloughfy, C; Foglia, A N; Konnikov, N; Ordoukhanian, E; Starkey, P; Leyden, J J

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that application of topical erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of acne, results in an increased density of cutaneous erythromycin-resistant (Emr) coagulase-negative staphylococci; however, it is unknown if this increase results in an overall higher density of total cutaneous staphylococci or if upon cessation of erythromycin use, Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci remain at an increased density compared with the pretreatment density. To investigate this, 2% erythromycin or vehicle was applied to each subject's forehead (n = 225) twice a day by laboratory personnel for a period of 6 weeks. Samples were obtained for culture from the forehead, anterior nares, and back of the subjects at baseline and at weeks 6, 9, and 12 of the study. Cultures were performed on differential media. Plates into which erythromycin was incorporated (8 micrograms/ml) were used to identify Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci. The species of all Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci were determined, and an antibiogram for 16 antibiotics was obtained. The baseline prevalence of Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci on the forehead and nose was about 80% at the two study sites, whereas that on the back was 50%. The baseline density of Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci on the forehead, nose, and back was approximately 20% of the total flora. Following 6 weeks of erythromycin treatment, the prevalence of Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci on the forehead and nose was nearly 100% and the densities were 73 and 62%, respectively; the prevalence and density for the back were 78 and 42%, respectively. The most prevalent erythromycin resistance gene expressed by the Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci was ermC. There was no increase in the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative rods, or yeasts, nor was there increased resistance to any other antibiotic except clindamycin. The density of total aerobic organisms also remained

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Aerobic Vaginitis and Its Association to Vaginal Candidiasis, Trichomonas Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of the work: Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. Examination consisted of: anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. Results: The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. Conclusion: AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from

  3. Chemical and toxicological testing of composted explosives-contaminating soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Steward, A.J.; Tyndall, R.L.; Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E. )

    1993-06-01

    Static-pile and mechanically stirred composts of explosives-contaminated soil at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA, Umatilla, OR) in a field composting optimization study were characterized chemically and toxicologically. The concentrations of extractable explosives (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in the composts and their aqueous leachates, the mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from the composts, and the toxicity of compost aqueous leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia all decreased considerably with 20 d of composting. After 44 d or 90 d of composting, the toxicity, mutagenicity, and concentrations of extractable explosives decreased more than 90% in some cases. The composting efficiency was generally inversely proportional to the percentage (v/v) of contaminated soil. Composting in static piles was efficient up to about 20% (v/v) of contaminated soil; composting in the mechanically stirred composters was efficient up to about 25% soil. Mechanical composting was more efficient than composting in static piles. The main conclusion of this study is that composting can effectively remediate explosives contaminated soil and sediment. However, low levels of explosives and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable toxicity to Ceriodaphnia may remain after composting. The sources of residual toxicity and mutagenicity and the ultimate fate of the explosives are unknown.

  4. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... programs. The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.15. ... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... programs. The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.15. ... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.15. .... Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening and agriculture as...

  7. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... programs. The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.15. ... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  8. Bacterially Induced Dolomite Formation in the Presence of Sulfate Ions under Aerobic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Roman, M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Vasconcelos, C.; Rivadeneyra, M.

    2005-12-01

    The origin of dolomite remains a long-standing enigma in sedimentary geology because, although thermodynamically favorable, precipitation of dolomite from modern seawater does not occur. Experiments conducted at elevated temperatures (200 oC) indicated that the presence of small concentrations of sulfate ions inhibits the transformation of calcite to dolomite [1]. Indeed, sulfate ions appeared to inhibit dolomite formation above 2 mM concentration (versus 28 mM in modern seawater). Recently, culture experiments have demonstrated that sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate the precipitation of dolomite at Earth surface conditions in the presence of sustained sulfate ion concentrations [2,3]. Additionally, in a number of modern hypersaline environments, dolomite forms from solutions with high sulfate ion concentrations (2 to 70 times seawater). These observations suggest that the experimentally observed sulfate-ion inhibition [1] may not apply to all ancient dolomite formation. Here, we report aerobic culture experiments conducted at low temperatures (25 and 35 oC) and variable sulfate ion concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 x seawater values) using moderately halophilic bacteria, Halomonas meridiana. After an incubation period of 15 days, experiments at 35 oC with variable sulfate ion concentrations (0, 0.5 x and seawater values) contained crystals of Ca-dolomite and stochiometric dolomite. The experiment at 35 oC with 2 x seawater sulfate ion concentration produced dolomite crystals after 20 days of incubation. In a parallel set of experiments at 25 oC, precipitation of dolomite was observed after 25 days of incubation in cultures with variable sulfate ion concentrations (0, 0.5 x and seawater values). In the culture with 2 x seawater sulfate ion concentration, dolomite crystals were observed after 30 days. Our study demonstrates that halophilic bacteria (or heterotrophic microorganisms), which do not require sulfate ions for metabolism, can mediate dolomite precipitation

  9. Aerobic degradation of dinitrotoluenes and pathway for bacterial degradation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, S.F.; Paoli, G.C.; Spain, J.C.

    2000-05-01

    An oxidative pathway for the mineralization of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT has been reported previously. The authors report here the isolation of additional strains with the ability to mineralize 2,4-DNT by the same pathway and the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that mineralize 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by a different pathway. Burkholderia cepacia strain JS850 and Hydrogenophaga palleronii strain JS863 grew on 2,6-DNT as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The initial steps in the pathway for degradation of 2,6-DNT were determined by simultaneous induction, enzyme assays, and identification of metabolites through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. 2,6-DNT was converted to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol by a dioxygenation reaction accompanied by the release of nitrite. 3-Methyl-4-nitrocatechol was the substrate for extradiol ring cleavage yielding 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoic acid. 2,4-DNT-degrading strains also converted 2,6-DNT to 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol but did not metabolize the 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol. Although 2,6-DNT prevented the degradation of 2,4-DNT by 2,4-DNT-degrading strains, the effect was not the result of inhibition of 2,4-DNT dioxygenase by 2,6-DNT or of 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol monooxygenase by 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol.

  10. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  11. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages

  12. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages

  13. Effects of different compost amendments on the abundance and composition of alkB harboring bacterial communities in a soil under industrial use contaminated with hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Wallisch, Stefanie; Gril, Tjasa; Dong, Xia; Welzl, Gerd; Bruns, Christian; Heath, Ester; Engel, Marion; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alkane degrading microorganisms play an important role for the bioremediation of petrogenic contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of compost addition on the abundance and diversity of bacteria harboring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in an oil-contaminated soil originated from an industrial zone in Celje, Slovenia (Technosol). Soil without any amendments (control soil) and soil amended with two composts differing in their maturation stage and nutrient availability, were incubated under controlled conditions in a microcosm experiment and sampled after 0, 6, 12, and 36 weeks of incubation. As expected the addition of compost stimulated the degradation of alkanes in the investigated soil shortly after the addition. By using quantitative real-time PCR higher number of alkB genes were detected in soil samples amended with compost compared to the control soils. To get an insight into the composition of alkB harboring microbial communities, we performed next generation sequencing of amplicons of alkB gene fragment. Richness and diversity of alkB gene harboring prokaryotes was higher in soil mixed with compost compared to control soils with stronger effects of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost. The phylogenetic analysis of communities suggested that the addition of compost stimulated the abundance of alkB harboring Actinobacteria during the experiment independent from the maturation stage of the compost. AlkB harboring γ-proteobacteria like Shewanella or Hydrocarboniphaga as well as α-proteobacteria of the genus Agrobacterium responded also positively to the addition of compost to soil. The amendment of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost resulted in addition in a large increase of alkB harboring bacteria of the Cytophaga group (Microscilla) mainly at the early sampling time points. Our data indicates that compost amendments significantly change abundance and diversity pattern of alkB harboring microbes in Technosol and

  14. Cloacal aerobic bacterial flora and absence of viruses in free-living slow worms (Anguis fragilis), grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and European Adders (Vipera berus) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Mock, Ronja; Burgkhardt, Eileen; Junghanns, Anja; Ortlieb, Falk; Szabo, Istvan; Marschang, Rachel; Blindow, Irmgard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Disease problems caused by viral or bacterial pathogens are common in reptiles kept in captivity. There is no information available on the incidence of viral pathogens or the physiological cloacal bacterial flora of common free-living reptiles in Germany. Therefore, 56 free-living reptiles including 23 European adders (Vipera berus), 12 grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and 21 slow worms (Anguis fragilis) were investigated on the island Hiddensee in northeastern Germany. Pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken immediately after capture. Bacteriological examination was performed from the cloacal swabs to study the aerobic cloacal flora. Molecular biological examination included amplification of DNA or RNA from adeno-, rana- and ferlaviruses as well as culturing on Russell's viper heart cells for virus isolation. Salmonella spp. were isolated from European adders but not from the other reptiles examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined from the isolated Salmonella spp. However, some potentially human pathogenic bacteria, such as Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were isolated. Viruses were not detected in any of the examined reptiles. To the authors' best knowledge, the present study is the first survey of viral pathogens in free-living snakes and slow worms in Germany and the first survey of cloacal aerobic bacterial flora of slow worms. PMID:24866333

  15. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-06-15

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  16. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  17. Exploiting composting biodiversity: study of the persistent and biotechnologically relevant microorganisms from lignocellulose-based composting.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Macarena; López, María J; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Vargas-García, María C; López-González, Juan A; Moreno, Joaquín

    2014-06-01

    The composting ecosystem is a suitable source for the discovery of novel microorganisms and secondary metabolites. This work analyzes the identity of microbial community that persists throughout lignocellulose-based composting, evaluates their metabolic activities and studies the capability of selected isolates for composting bioaugmentation. Bacterial species of the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and fungi of the phylum Ascomycota were ubiquitous throughout the composting. The species Arthrobacter russicus, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Ochrocladosporium frigidarii and Cladosporium lignicola are detected for the first time in this ecosystem. In addition, several bacterial and fungal isolates exhibited a wide range of metabolic capabilities such as polymers (lignocellulose, protein, lipids, pectin and starch) breakdown and phosphate-solubilization that may find many biotechnological applications. In particular, Streptomyces albus BM292, Gibellulopsis nigrescens FM1397 and FM1411, Bacillus licheniformis BT575, Bacillus smithii AT907 and Alternaria tenuissima FM1385 exhibited a great potential as inoculants for composting bioaugmentation. PMID:24759645

  18. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. PMID:21051843

  19. Variations of both bacterial community and extracellular polymers: the inducements of increase of cell hydrophobicity from biofloc to aerobic granule sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Sheng-Hua; Yu, Xin; Wei, Bo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the inducements of increase of cell hydrophobicity from aerobic biofloc (ABF) and granular sludge (AGS), in this study, as the first time the hydrophilic and hydrophobic bacterial communities were analyzed independently. Meanwhile, the effect of extracellular polymers (EPS) on the cell hydrophobicity is also studied. Few Bacteroidetes were detected (1.35% in ABF and 3.84% in AGS) in hydrophilic bacteria, whereas they are abundant in the hydrophobic cells (47.8% and 43% for ABF and AGS, respectively). The main species of Bacteroidetes changed from class Sphingobacteria to Flavobacteria in AGS. On the other hand, EPS is directly responsible to cell hydrophobicity. For AGS, cell hydrophobicity was sharply decreased after EPS extraction. Both quantity and property of the extracellular protein are related to hydrophobicity. Our results showed the variation of cell hydrophobicity was resulted from variations of both bacterial population and EPS. PMID:21482465

  20. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Srinath R. . E-mail: srinathrangamani@yahoo.com; Bhave, Prashant P. . E-mail: drppbhave@vsnl.net

    2006-07-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  1. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  2. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on aerobic granulation of algal-bacterial symbiosis system and nutrients removal from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Huang, Wenli; Zhang, Chao; Feng, Sisi; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Sugiura, Norio

    2015-01-01

    The influence of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) (10-50mg/L) on aerobic granulation of algal-bacterial symbiosis system was investigated by using two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Although little adverse effect was observed on their nitritation efficiency (98-100% in both reactors), algal-bacterial granules in the control SBR (Rc) gradually lost stability mainly brought about by algae growth. TiO2-NPs addition to RT was found to enhance the granulation process achieving stable and compact algal-bacterial granules with remarkably improved nitratation thus little nitrite accumulation in RT when influent TiO2-NPs⩾30mg/L. Despite almost similar organics and phosphorus removals obtained in both reactors, the stably high nitratation efficiency in addition to much stable granular structure in RT suggests that TiO2-NPs addition might be a promising remedy for the long-term operation of algal-bacterial granular system, most probably attributable to the stimulated excretion of extracellular polymeric substances and less filamentous TM7. PMID:25855527

  3. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council... Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composting management or conditions that result in inadequate exposure of the compostable materials to destructive time-temperature regimens can result in survival of enteric human pathogens. Bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., can regrow in finished compost. ...

  4. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  5. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw. PMID:26980627

  6. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems. PMID:26432056

  7. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  8. The effect of anaerobic-aerobic and feast-famine cultivation pattern on bacterial diversity during poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production from domestic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changli; Liu, Di; Qi, Yingjie; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xi; Zhao, Min

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different oxygen supply patterns on poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) yield and bacterial community diversity. The anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBR1) and feast-famine (F/F) SBR2 were used to cultivate activated sludge to produce PHB. The mixed microbial communities were collected and analyzed after 3 months cultivation. The PHB maximum yield was 64 wt% in SBR1 and 53 wt% in SBR2. Pyrosequencing analysis 16S rRNA gene of two microbial communities indicated there were nine and four bacterial phyla in SBR1 and SBR2, respectively. Specifically, Proteobacteria (36.4 % of the total bacterial community), Actinobacteria (19.7 %), Acidobacteria (14.1 %), Firmicutes (4.4 %), Bacteroidetes (1.7 %), Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast (1.5 %), TM7 (0.8 %), Gemmatimonadetes (0.2 %), and Nitrospirae (0.1 %) were present in SBR1. Proteobacteria (94.2 %), Bacteroidetes (2.9 %), Firmicutes (1.9 %), and Actinobacteria (0.7 %) were present in SBR2. Our results indicated the SBR1 fermentation system was more stable than that of SBR2 for PHB accumulation. PMID:26996908

  9. Co-composting of gelatin industry sludge combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste and poultry waste employing zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    This work illustrates the co-composting of gelatin industry sludge (GIS) combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and poultry waste (PW) employing 10% zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacteria consortium (ENBC). Five piles of GIS were prepared mixed with OFMSW and PW at 2:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5, 6:1:0.5 and 8:1:0.5 and without GIS 0:1:0.5 (dry weight basis) served as control, while 10% zeolite mixed with ENBC was inoculated in all piles and composted for 42days. The Pile-4 with GIS, OFMSW and PW ratio 6:1:0.5 and 10% zeolite+ENBC were drastically reduced the nitrogen loss and enhance the mineralization rate as compare to other piles. The co-amendment of 6% GIS effectively buffered the pH between ∼7.5 to 8.0 and shortened the compost maturity period, while lower concentration of GIS was comparatively delayed the early decomposition. Therefore, our results suggested that suitability of 10% zeolite+ENBC with initial feedstock ratio 6:1:0.5 as the best formulation for the composting of GIS into value-added stable product. PMID:26897474

  10. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  11. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobic cultivation.

    PubMed

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M; Weightman, Andrew J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by "JW") was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  12. [Effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Wan; Xu, Xiu-Hong; Li, Hong-Tao

    2011-10-01

    Taking the cow dung and straw as composting raw materials, effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost was investigated with the traditional culture method and PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the microbiological inocula showed a more rapid rate of temperature elevation at the start of composting and prolonged the time of high-temperature process and increased the number of microbial. The DGGE map of cellulose-decomposing strain compost was different from natural compost, the succession of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain was faster than natural compost. Sequence comparison revealed that the Pseudomonas sp. of bacterial appeared at the initial stage and Acinetobacter sp., Flavobacteria were existed at the high-temperature process in natural compost; while Arthrobacter sp. was appeared at the high-temperature process in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Bacillus sp. was dominant species at middle and later stage in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Eimeriidae of fungal appeared in compost materials, Aspergillus and thermophilic fungi were dominant species at the high-temperature process in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Ascomycota appeared at middle and later stage in natural compost; while Basidiomycetes in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Aspergillus was found throughout the process. This result suggested that the microbiological inocula were able to facilitate the bacterial microbial diversity of the compost; reduced the fungal microbial diversity of the compost. The aims of this study were to provide a scientific basis to the diversity of microbial community by monitoring the dynamics of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain compost and represent an important step towards the understanding of microbiological inocula and its function in the degradation process of compost. PMID:22279926

  13. Vertical and Horizontal Variations in the Physiological Diversity of the Aerobic Chemoheterotrophic Bacterial Microflora in Deep Southeast Coastal Plain Subsurface Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, D. L.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Thomas, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria were isolated from surface soils and coastal plain subsurface (including deep aquifer) sediments (depths to 265 m) at a study site near Aiken, S.C., by plating on concentrated and dilute media. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. These isolates were quite diverse; 626 physiologically distinct types (i.e., types with a unique pattern of responses to the 21 tests) were detected among the 1,112 isolates obtained. Physiologically distinct types were isolated on concentrated and dilute media (only 11% overlap between the groups); isolates from surface soils and subsurface sediments were also quite different (only 3% overlap). The surface soil isolates more readily utilized all but 1 of 12 carbon sources offered, and a significantly larger proportion of them hydrolyzed esculin and gelatin. Only 4% of the subsurface isolates fermented glucose, even though 82% of them could use it aerobically. l-Malate and d-gluconate were utilized by at least 75% of the subsurface isolates, and seven other carbon sources were used by at least 40% of them. Subsurface isolates from different geological formations (depths) and, to a lesser extent, from the same geological formation at different boreholes differed distinctly in their group responses to certain physiological tests. Moreover, sediments from different depths and boreholes contained physiologically distinct types of bacteria. Thus, considerable bacterial diversity was observed in coastal plain subsurface sediments, even within defined geological formations. PMID:16347902

  14. Evaluation of wastewater treatment in a novel anoxic-aerobic algal-bacterial photobioreactor with biomass recycling through carbon and nitrogen mass balances.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cynthia; Domínguez, Jesús M; García, Dimas; Blanco, Saúl; Pérez, Rebeca; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-09-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiosis, implemented in an innovative anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor configuration with biomass recycling, supported an efficient removal of total organic carbon (86-90%), inorganic carbon (57-98%) and total nitrogen (68-79%) during synthetic wastewater treatment at a hydraulic and sludge retention times of 2 days and 20 days, respectively. The availability of inorganic carbon in the photobioreactor, determined by its supply in the wastewater and microalgae activity, governed the extent of nitrogen removal by assimilation or nitrification-denitrification. Unexpectedly, nitrate production was negligible despite the high dissolved oxygen concentrations, denitrification being only based on nitrite reduction. Biomass recycling resulted in the enrichment of rapidly settling algal flocs, which supported effluent total suspended solid concentrations below the European Union maximum discharge limits. Finally, the maximum nitrous oxide emissions recorded were far below the emission factors reported for wastewater treatment plants, confirming the environmental sustainability of this innovative photobioreactor in terms of global warming impact. PMID:25989093

  15. Composting barrel for sustainable organic waste management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, Md Azizul; Bushra, Quazi Sifat; Rahman, M H

    2011-12-01

    To ensure quick and uniform aerobic stabilization of biowaste through domestic composting and to prevent malodorous emissions, two modifications were made to a conventional steel barrel composter by: (1) providing 0.0125 m diameter openings throughout the sides and (2) placing a 0.0254 m diameter perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in the middle portion of the barrel. The volume of composting waste before modification of the composting barrel was 40% of the original volume and it was 70%, 4 weeks following the modifications. In addition, the nutrients in the compost were found to be in a more suitable range after modification of the composting barrel. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the compost was in the ideal range of 11-15 in the modified composting reactor but it was quite high (24-25) in the conventional barrel. This modified barrel composting plant proved to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective solution for the management of organic solid waste materials in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries such as Bangladesh. PMID:20870692

  16. Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy waste solids intended for freestall bedding.

    PubMed

    Mote, C R; Emerton, B L; Allison, J S; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    1988-06-01

    Dairy waste solids separated from a slurry by a centrifugal separator were composted in 12 static piles. Seven of the compost piles were naturally aerated, and five were aerated by a fan that forced air through the piles of solids. The natural aeration process aged the manure solids in an unconfined pile. The fan in the forced aeration process forced air into a perforated plenum beneath the compost piles. Dairy waste solids in each compost pile were heated into the thermophilic temperature range and generally composted well. At most sampling points, coliform bacteria declined to low or undetectable numbers early in the composting period. However, as the composting process proceeded, bacterial numbers increased to approximately those present in raw dairy waste solids. Findings of this study suggest that composting offers little benefit toward net reduction in coliform bacterial numbers in dairy waste solids. PMID:3403762

  17. The Campylobacter jejuni MarR-like transcriptional regulators RrpA and RrpB both influence bacterial responses to oxidative and aerobic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Gundogdu, Ozan; da Silva, Daiani T.; Mohammad, Banaz; Elmi, Abdi; Mills, Dominic C.; Wren, Brendan W.; Dorrell, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the human intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to respond to oxidative stress is central to bacterial survival both in vivo during infection and in the environment. Re-annotation of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome revealed the presence of two MarR-type transcriptional regulators Cj1546 and Cj1556, originally annotated as hypothetical proteins, which we have designated RrpA and RrpB (regulator of response to peroxide) respectively. Previously we demonstrated a role for RrpB in both oxidative and aerobic (O2) stress and that RrpB was a DNA binding protein with auto-regulatory activity, typical of MarR-type transcriptional regulators. In this study, we show that RrpA is also a DNA binding protein and that a rrpA mutant in strain 11168H exhibits increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress. Mutation of either rrpA or rrpB reduces catalase (KatA) expression. However, a rrpAB double mutant exhibits higher levels of resistance to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress, with levels of KatA expression similar to the wild-type strain. Mutation of either rrpA or rrpB also results in a reduction in the level of katA expression, but this reduction was not observed in the rrpAB double mutant. Neither the rrpA nor rrpB mutant exhibits any significant difference in sensitivity to either cumene hydroperoxide or menadione oxidative stresses, but both mutants exhibit a reduced ability to survive aerobic (O2) stress, enhanced biofilm formation and reduced virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The rrpAB double mutant exhibits wild-type levels of biofilm formation and wild-type levels of virulence in the G mellonella infection model. Together these data indicate a role for both RrpA and RrpB in the C. jejuni peroxide oxidative and aerobic (O2) stress responses, enhancing bacterial survival in vivo and in the environment. PMID:26257713

  18. Microbial enhancement of compost extracts based on cattle rumen content compost - characterisation of a system.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Midmore, David J

    2011-09-01

    Microbially enhanced compost extracts ('compost tea') are being used in commercial agriculture as a source of nutrients and for their perceived benefit to soil microbiology, including plant disease suppression. Rumen content material is a waste of cattle abattoirs, which can be value-added by conversion to compost and 'compost tea'. A system for compost extraction and microbial enhancement was characterised. Molasses amendment increased bacterial count 10-fold, while amendment based on molasses and 'fish and kelp hydrolysate' increased fungal count 10-fold. Compost extract incubated at 1:10 (w/v) dilution showed the highest microbial load, activity and humic/fulvic acid content compared to other dilutions. Aeration increased the extraction efficiency of soluble metabolites, and microbial growth rate, as did extraction of compost without the use of a constraining bag. A protocol of 1:10 dilution and aerated incubation with kelp and molasses amendments is recommended to optimise microbial load and fungal-to-bacterial ratio for this inoculum source. PMID:21752637

  19. Cultivation of a bacterial consortium with the potential to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon using waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Song, Y C; Kim, S H; Jang, S H

    2015-11-01

    Waste activated sludge was aerobically treated to demonstrate multiple uses such as cultivating an oil degrading bacterial consortium; studying the influence of a bulking agent (peat moss) and total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration on bacterial growth and producing a soil conditioner using waste activated sludge. After 30 days of incubation, the concentration of oil-degrading bacteria was 4.3 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) and 4.5 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) for 5 and 10 g of total petroleum hydrocarbon, respectively, in a mixture of waste activated sludge (1 kg) and peat moss (0.1 kg). This accounts for approximately 88.4 and 91.1%, respectively, of the total heterotrophic bacteria (total-HB). The addition of bulking agent enhanced total-HB population and total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. Over 90% of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was achieved by the mixture of waste activated sludge, bulking agent and total petroleum hydrocarbon. The results of physico-chemical parameters of the compost (waste activated sludge with and without added peat moss compost) and a substantial reduction in E. coli showed that the use of this final product did not exhibit risk when used as soil conditioner. Finally, the present study demonstrated that cultivation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium and production of compost from waste activated sludge by aerobic treatment was feasible. PMID:26688976

  20. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  1. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  2. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH. PMID:27148718

  3. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    PubMed Central

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  4. Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

    1981-01-01

    Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners. PMID:7240404

  5. Enzymes Involved in the Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of N-Heteroaromatic Compounds: Molybdenum Hydroxylases and Ring-Opening 2,4-Dioxygenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzner, S.

    Many N-heteroaromatic compounds are utilized by micro-organisms as a source of carbon (and nitrogen) and energy. The aerobic bacterial degradation of these growth substrates frequently involves several hydroxylation steps and subsequent dioxygenolytic cleavage of (di)hydroxy-substituted heteroaromatic intermediates to aliphatic metabolites which finally are channeled into central metabolic pathways. As a rule, the initial bacterial hydroxylation of a N-heteroaromatic compound is catalyzed by a molybdenum hydroxylase, which uses a water molecule as source of the incorporated oxygen. The enzyme's redox-active centers - the active site molybdenum ion coordinated to a distinct pyranopterin cofactor, two different [2Fe2S] centers, and in most cases, flavin adenine dinucleotide - transfer electrons from the N-heterocyclic substrate to an electron acceptor, which for many molybdenum hydroxylases is still unknown. Ring-opening 2,4-dioxygenases involved in the bacterial degradation of quinaldine and 1H-4-oxoquinoline catalyze the cleavage of two carbon-carbon bonds with concomitant formation of carbon monoxide. Since they contain neither a metal center nor an organic cofactor, and since they do not show any sequence similarity to known oxygenases, these unique dioxygenases form a separate enzyme family. Quite surprisingly, however, they appear to be structurally and mechanistically related to enzymes of the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily. Microbial enzymes are a great resource for biotechnological applications. Microbial strains or their enzymes may be used for degradative (bioremediation) or synthetic (biotransformation) purposes. Modern bioremediation or biotransformation strategies may even involve microbial catalysts or strains designed by protein engineering or pathway engineering. Prerequisite for developing such modern tools of biotechnology is a comprehensive understanding of microbial metabolic pathways, of the structure and function of enzymes, and of the

  6. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L; Heimlich, Derek R; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E; Justice, Sheryl S; Thompson, J Will; Mason, Kevin M

    2016-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  7. Farmers enter compost business

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    One sixth of Massachusett's six million tons of solid waste can be composted economically. The Department of Food and Agriculture intends to survey and identify the existing and potential markets for compost and their demand characteristics and to promote the use of compost as an environmentally sound alternative to existing uses of synthetic fertilizers and conditioners. Various pilot projects have been set up composting poultry manures, horse manures, fish wastes, shredded newspaper, cheese whey, wood ash, etc.

  8. Chemical characterization and toxicological testing of windrow composts from explosives-contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Caton, J.E.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.; Caldwell, W.M. )

    1995-01-01

    Aerated and nonaerated windrow composts of explosives-contaminated sediments at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA, Hermiston, OR) were characterized chemically and toxicologically as a function of composting time. The concentrations of explosives in organic solvent extracts of the composts and in the aqueous leachates of the composts, the bacterial mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from the composts, and the toxicity of aqueous leachates from the composts to Ceriodaphnia dubia all declined rapidly with composting. The nonaerated windrow method of composting was slightly more efficient than was the aerated windrow method for reducing explosives concentrations in the composts and in their leachates. Extractable mutagenicity declined 99.7 and 97.9%, respectively, for strains TA-98 and TA-100 (without S-9 metabolic activation) in the nonaerated compost. The two types (aerated and nonaerated) of windrow composts had about the same level of efficiency in lowering leachable toxicity based on reductions in C. dubia survival and fecundity, respectively. Thus, windrow composting appeared to be at least as effective as static-pile and mechanically stirred composting evaluated previously. Windrow composting also appeared to be somewhat more effective for HMX transformation.

  9. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5). PMID:21880418

  10. Successful School Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  11. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater. PMID:25693403

  12. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Chemical Spoilage Indexes Associated with Bacterial Growth Dynamics in Aerobically Stored Chicken.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) of raw chicken breast stored aerobically at 4, 10, and 21 °C were identified and quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth dynamics of total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta and H2 S producing bacteria were characterized based on maximum growth rates (μmax ), maximal microbial concentration (Nmax ) and at the moment of microbial shelf life (Svalues ), calculated from Gompertz-fitted growth curves. Pseudomonas spp. was predominant species, while B. thermosphacta was characterized by the highest μmax . The microbiological and sensory shelf lives were estimated based on TVC, Pseudomonas spp., and B. thermosphacta counts and sensory evaluation, respectively. Among 27 VOCs identified by GC-MS in spoiled chicken samples, ethanol (EtOH), 1-butanol-3-methyl (1But-3M), and acetic acid (C2 ) achieved the highest Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.66, 0.61, and 0.59, respectively, with TVC, regardless of storage temperature. Partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed that the synthesis of 1But-3M and C2 was most likely induced by the metabolic activity of B. thermosphacta and LAB, while EtOH was attributed to Pseudomonas spp. The increase in concentration of selected volatile spoilage markers (EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 ) in the headspace over spoiled chicken breast was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) with TVC growth. These findings highlight the possibility of analyzing the combination of 3 selected spoilage markers: EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 as rapid evaluation for poultry quality testing using SPME-GC-MS. PMID:27332555

  13. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost. PMID:27337959

  14. Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, M.E.; McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S.

    1997-10-01

    The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

  15. Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle. PMID:26520491

  16. Composting moves west

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.

    1996-05-01

    The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

  17. Long-term exposure of bacterial and protozoan communities to TiO2 nanoparticles in an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supha, Chitpisud; Boonto, Yuphada; Jindakaraked, Manee; Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowders at different concentrations (0-50 mg L-1) were injected into an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to nanoparticles on bacterial and protozoan communities. The detection of nanoparticles in the bioflocs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The SBR wastewater experiments were conducted under the influence of ultraviolet light with photocatalytic TiO2. The intrusion of TiO2 nanoparticles was found both on the surface and inside of the bioflocs. The change of microbial population in terms of mixed liquor-suspended solids and the sludge volume index was monitored. The TiO2 nanoparticles tentatively exerted an adverse effect on the microbial population, causing the reduction of microorganisms (both bacteria and protozoa) in the SBR. The respiration inhibition rate of the bacteria was increased, and the viability of the microbial population was reduced at the high concentration (50 mg L-1) of TiO2. The decreasing number of protozoa in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles during 20 days of treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 TiO2 is clearly demonstrated. The measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent tends to increase with a long-term operation. The increase of COD in the system suggests a decrease in the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. However, the SBR can effectively remove the TiO2 nanoparticles (up to 50 mg L-1) from the effluent.

  18. Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and assessment of compost maturity.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sneh; Dhull, S K; Kapoor, K K

    2005-09-01

    Changes in organic C, total N, C:N ratio, activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease, and microbial population were determined during composting of different organic wastes such as mixture of sugarcane trash and cattle dung, press mud, poultry waste and water hyacinth biomass. There were losses of N in poultry waste and water hyacinth with the effect an initial increase in C:N ratio was observed which decreased later on due to decomposition. The activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease were maximum between 30 and 60 days of composting in various wastes. Similar trend was observed with respect to mesophilic bacterial and fungal population. Various quality parameters like C:N ratio, water soluble C (WSC), CO(2) evolution and level of humic substances were compared after 90 day composting. There was statistically significant correlation between C:N ratio and CO(2) evolution, WSC and humic substances. Significant correlation between CO(2) evolved and level of humic substances was also observed. The study shows that no single parameter can be taken as an index of compost maturity. However, C:N ratio and CO(2) evolved from finished compost can be taken as the most reliable indices of compost maturity. PMID:15978991

  19. A new combination of microbial indicators for monitoring composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Olivier; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Milferstedt, Kim; Bacheley, Hélène; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2012-12-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on occupational health and neighboring residential areas. The aim of this study was to identify microbial indicators that are most useful for monitoring bioaerosol emittance and dispersal by industrial composting plants. Seven microbial indicators were measured in air collected outdoors in natural environments and at eleven composting plants. The indicators were: cultivable bacteria and fungi, total bacteria (epifluorescent microscopy), viable bacteria (solid-phase cytometry) and quantification by qPCR of three microbial indicators which had been previously shown as strongly associated with composting. For each indicator, the increase in concentrations due to the turning of composting piles as compared to the background concentration obtained in natural environments and upwind of composting plants was determined. Based on these results, the most effective combination of three indicators was selected for monitoring composting bioaerosol emissions: viable bacteria as one general indicator of bioaerosol emission and two bacterial phylotypes specific to composting bioaerosol: NA07, affiliated to Saccharopolyspora sp. and NC38, affiliated to the Thermoactinomycetaceae. This set of indicator was then quantified on-site and at increasing distances downwind during the turning of compost windrows in thermophilic phase. Composting activity was considered to affect bioaerosol emission when the concentrations of the three indicators were higher than their respective background levels. For all the composting sites studied, an impact was measureable up to distances of 100 m. Further away, the impact was not systematically observed as it depended on meteorological conditions (wind speed) and on levels of bioaerosol emissions.

  20. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil. PMID:25940492

  1. Prolonged Survival of Campylobacter Species in Bovine Manure Compost

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; McAllister, Tim A.; Larney, Francis J.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of naturally occurring campylobacteria in aerobic compost constructed of manure from beef cattle that were administered chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (AS700) or from cattle not administered antibiotics (control) was examined. Although there were no differences in population sizes of heterotrophic bacteria, the temperature of AS700 compost was more variable and did not become as high as that of control compost. There were significant differences in water content, total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and electrical conductivity but not in the C/N ratio or pH between the two compost treatments. Campylobacteria were readily isolated from pen manure, for up to day 15 from control compost, and throughout the active phase of AS700 compost. Campylobacter DNA (including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and Campylobacter jejuni) was detected over the ca. 10-month composting period, and no reductions in quantities of C. jejuni DNA were observed over the duration of the active phase. The utilization of centrifugation in combination with ethidium monoazide (EMA) significantly reduced (>90%) the amplification of C. jejuni DNA that did not originate from cells with intact cell membranes. No differences were observed in the frequency of Campylobacter DNA detection between EMA- and non-EMA-treated samples, suggesting that Campylobacter DNA amplified from compost was extracted from cells with intact cell membranes (i.e., from viable cells). The findings of this study indicate that campylobacteria excreted in cattle feces persist for long periods in compost and call into question the common belief that these bacteria do not persist in manure. PMID:20023098

  2. Composting Begins at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  3. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  4. Characterization of MSW and related waste-derived compost in Zanzibar municipality.

    PubMed

    Vuai, Said Ali Hamad

    2010-02-01

    The spread of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Zanzibar municipality has been associated with environmental pollution, unpleasant city conditions, contamination of water sources and coastal areas together with harbouring of malaria vectors. The contamination has a close relationship with eruption of diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid which claim the lives of the residents. Most of the wastes are of domestic and market origin and have the potential for compost production. This study examined the possibility of composting MSW from Zanzibar municipality as an alternative way of SW management and assessed the nutrient contents of the compost for application in agricultural production. Two major classes of SW were selected for the study: municipal solid waste and rice milling by-products. The samples were composted aerobically and anaerobically. The results showed that aerobic composting reduced about 60% of the waste volume. This volume reduction suggests that composting can be a promising SW management technique by reducing the large demand of space for landfilling. Municipal solid waste composted under anaerobic conditions produced compost with relatively higher concentrations of dissolved species than that produced under aerobic conditions. The trace metal contents were higher in MSW than in rice milling by-products. It was found that the unmanaged compost collected from the dumping site had low nutrient contents and was enriched with trace metals. Generally, physico-chemical characteristics, nutrients and trace metal levels suggest that Zanzibar municipal solid waste can produce high-quality compost for application to a wide range of soil types to improve their fertility, under proper management. PMID:19748949

  5. Evaluation of respiration in compost landfill biocovers intended for methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedicone, Alessio; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-05-01

    A low-cost alternative approach to reduce landfill gas (LFG) emissions is to integrate compost into the landfill cover design in order to establish a biocover that is optimized for biological oxidation of methane (CH(4)). A laboratory and field investigation was performed to quantify respiration in an experimental compost biocover in terms of oxygen (O(2)) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) production and emission rates. O(2) consumption and CO(2) production rates were measured in batch and column experiments containing compost sampled from a landfill biowindow at Fakse landfill in Denmark. Column gas concentration profiles were compared to field measurements. Column studies simulating compost respiration in the biowindow showed average CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates of 107 ± 14 gm(-2)d(-1) and 63 ± 12 gm(-2)d(-1), respectively. Gas profiles from the columns showed elevated CO(2) concentrations throughout the compost layer, and CO(2) concentrations exceeded 20% at a depth of 40 cm below the surface of the biowindow. Overall, the results showed that respiration of compost material placed in biowindows might generate significant CO(2) emissions. In landfill compost covers, methanotrophs carrying out CH(4) oxidation will compete for O(2) with other aerobic microorganisms. If the compost is not mature, a significant portion of the O(2) diffusing into the compost layer will be consumed by non-methanotrophs, thereby limiting CH(4) oxidation. The results of this study however also suggest that the consumption of O(2) in the compost due to aerobic respiration might increase over time as a result of the accumulation of biomass in the compost after prolonged exposure to CH(4). PMID:21292472

  6. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  7. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively. PMID:25481697

  8. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. PMID:20435457

  9. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ogbonna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. POME was initially centrifuged at 4,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was enriched with (NH4)2SO4 (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.25%) to boost its nitrogen content. At optimum pH (pH 4) and temperature (40°C) conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 10,350 to 1,000 mg/L (90.3%) after 7 days. The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2.4 × 106 CFU/mL, while the fungal count was 1.8 × 103 colonies/mL. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged. However, at 75 and 50% POME dilutions, the COD dropped by 52 and 44%, respectively, while the pH increased from 4 to 7.53. POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. PMID:27433536

  10. The Science of Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  11. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  12. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  13. Characterisation of source-separated household waste intended for composting.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Cecilia; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Kauppi, Sari; Yu, Dan; Romantschuk, Martin; Insam, Heribert; Jönsson, Håkan

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale composting of source-separated household waste has expanded in recent years in the Nordic countries. One problem can be low pH at the start of the process. Incoming biowaste at four composting plants was characterised chemically, physically and microbiologically. The pH of food waste ranged from 4.7 to 6.1 and organic acid concentration from 24 to 81 mmol kg(-1). The bacterial diversity in the waste samples was high, with all samples dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter). Lactic acid bacteria were also numerically important and are known to negatively affect the composting process because the lactic acid they produce lowers the pH, inhibiting other bacteria. The bacterial groups needed for efficient composting, i.e. Bacillales and Actinobacteria, were present in appreciable amounts. The results indicated that start-up problems in the composting process can be prevented by recycling bulk material and compost. PMID:21075618

  14. Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants

    PubMed Central

    García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

  15. Composting: The next step?

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Composting is a natural process, and is, therefore, as old as the earth. And yet, while composting is growing as a method of solid waste management--for municipal solid waste (MSW), yard waste, sludge, food waste, etc.--in many ways, it is still in its infancy. Like recycling, municipal composting (as opposed to agricultural) existed in various sporadic or fledgling enterprises in years past. But unlike recycling, which can point to a past history of scrap and steel recycling and a nationwide effort during World War II, municipal composting programs of the 1950s and 1960s are either looked on as failures or rural experiments whose example did not transfer well when carried out on a larger scale in metropolitan areas. Today, however, there are an estimated 4,000 + municipal composting facilities in the US, according to various sources, the vast majority of which are dedicated to yard waste. One reason for this is that the concept of composting is easy to understand--reusing of waste in another form rather than discarding it.

  16. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  17. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  18. Screening of bacterial biocontrols against sapstain fungus (Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat.) of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.).

    PubMed

    Sajitha, K L; Maria Florence, E J; Dev, Suma Arun

    2014-09-01

    Diverse bacterial biocontrol agents from various sources of aerobic composts against the sapstain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were isolated, screened and identified by various morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. The inhibitory effect of seventeen bacterial isolates was examined and seven exhibited inhibition towards the sapstain fungus. Among the seven antagonists, six were conclusively identified as Bacillus subtilis and one as Paenibacillus polymyxa using 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing. This is the first report on the occurrence of P. polymyxa, a potent biofertilizer and antagonist in vermicompost. HiCrome Bacillus agar was identified as an effective medium for differentiation of B. subtilis from other Bacillus species. The present work demonstrates the efficacy of the antagonistic property of B. subtilis strains against rubberwood sapstain fungus. Culture-based antagonistic inhibition displayed by B. subtilis can be extended to cater to the biocontrol requirements of wood-based industries against the stain fungus. The study showed the utility of an integrated approach, employing morphological, biochemical and molecular tools for conclusive identification of several bacterial isolates present in aerobic composts from diverse sources. PMID:25049165

  19. Effects of supplementary composts on microbial communities and rice productivity in cold water paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kaizhi; Xu, Peizhi; Yang, Shaohai; Lu, Yusheng; Jiang, Ruiping; Gu, Wenjie; Li, Wenying; Sun, Lili

    2015-05-01

    Cold water paddy field soils are relatively unproductive, but can be ameliorated by supplementing with inorganic fertilizer from animal waste-based composts. The yield of two rice cultivars was significantly raised by providing either chicken manure or cow dung-based compost. The application of these composts raised the soil pH as well as both the total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content, which improved the soil's fertility and raised its nitrification potential. The composts had a measurable effect on the abundance of nitrogencycling- related soil microbes, as measured by estimating the copy number of various bacterial and archaeal genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea and bacteria was markedly encouraged by the application of chicken manure-based compost. Supplementation with the composts helped promote the availability of soil nitrogen in the cold water paddy field, thereby improving the soil's productivity and increasing the yield of the rice crop. PMID:25406532

  20. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67–75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  1. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  2. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high. PMID:26828961

  3. Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities. PMID:23315361

  4. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  5. In Vitro Activities of Doripenem and Six Comparator Drugs against 423 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates from Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds▿

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2008-01-01

    Against 182 anaerobe and 241 aerobe strains obtained from diabetic foot infections, doripenem was the most active carbapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 2 μg/ml), more active than imipenem against Proteus mirabilis, and ertapenem was more active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. The MIC50 and MIC90 values were ≤0.125 μg/ml for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and all streptococci and 0.25/1 for Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:18070958

  6. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure. PMID:27189139

  7. Chemical, physical and microbial properties and microbial diversity in manufactured soils produced from co-composting green waste and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J; Sturm, E C

    2012-12-01

    The effects of adding biosolids to a green waste feedstock (100% green waste, 25% v/v biosolids or 50% biosolids) on the properties of composted products were investigated. Following initial composting, 20% soil or 20% fly ash/river sand mix was added to the composts as would be carried out commercially to produce manufactured soil. Temperatures during composting reached 50 °C, or above, for 23 days when biosolids were included as a composting feedstock but temperatures barely reached 40 °C when green waste alone was composted. Addition of biosolids to the feedstock increased total N, EC, extractable NH(4), NO(3) and P but lowered pH, macroporosity, water holding capacity, microbial biomass C and basal respiration in composts. Additions of soil or ash/sand to the composts greatly increased the available water holding capacity of the materials. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA amplicons separated bacterial communities according to addition of soil to the compost. For fungal ITS-RNA amplicons, PCA separated communities based on the addition of biosolids. Bacterial species richness and Shannon's diversity index were greatest for composts where soil had been added but for fungal communities these parameters were greatest in the treatments where 50% biosolids had been included. These results were interpreted in relation to soil having an inoculation effect and biosolids having an acidifying effect thereby favouring a fungal community. PMID:22770779

  8. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians. PMID:24031343

  9. [Effect of adding amendments on preserving nitrogen during chicken manure and saw composting].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yimei; Qu, Dong; Li, Guoxue

    2003-03-01

    In the automatic aerobic compost device, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of four amendments on inhibition of nitrogen losses during the chicken manure and saw composting. The changes of chemical parameters, temperature, pH, water soluble ammonium and organic nitrogen, total nitrogen and organic carbon with time during the aerobic composting process were investigated. The results suggested that adding four amendments have certain effect on preserve nitrogen and chemical parameters. Treatments added different amendments all decreased the nitrogen losses and increased the decomposition of organic carbon for 40 days-composting. The effect extent of four amendments was adding peat and superphosphate together > adding peat > adding superphosphate > adding zeolite. Especially adding peat and superphosphate together prolonged the high temperature stage 5 days, decreased the pH 0.89 pH unit in the initial stage and 0.44 pH unit in the high temperature stage during composting, and it decreased the nitrogen losses about 65.1% during the composting. PMID:12800680

  10. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation-reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward "aerobic" composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology. PMID:26442637

  11. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) in an appropriate composting facility, or in a home compost pile or device. (c) A marketer should... composting facilities, a marketer should clearly and prominently qualify compostable claims if such... municipal or institutional composting facilities is irrelevant. Example 2: A garden center sells...

  12. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) in an appropriate composting facility, or in a home compost pile or device. (c) A marketer should... composting facilities, a marketer should clearly and prominently qualify compostable claims if such... municipal or institutional composting facilities is irrelevant. Example 2: A garden center sells...

  13. Effects of different bulking agents on the maturity, enzymatic activity, and microbial community functional diversity of kitchen waste compost.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenwei; Gu, Jie; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-10-01

    Aerobic composting is an effective method for the disposal and utilization of kitchen waste. However, the addition of a bulking agent is necessary during kitchen waste composting because of its high moisture content and low C/N ratio. In order to select a suitable bulking agent, we investigated the influence of leaf litter (LL), sawdust (SD), and wheat straw (WS) on the enzymatic activity, microbial community functional diversity, and maturity indices during the kitchen waste composting process. The results showed that the addition of WS yielded the highest maturity (the C/N ratio decreased from 25 to 13, T value = 0.5, and germination index (GI) = 114.7%), whereas the compost containing SD as a bulking agent had the lowest maturity (GI = 32.4%). The maximum cellulase and urease activities were observed with the WS treatment on day 8, whereas the SD treatment had the lowest cellulase activity and the LL treatment had the lowest urease activity. The compost temperature and microbial activity (as the average well color development) showed that bulking the composts with SD prolonged the composting process. The diversity index based on the community-level physiological profile showed that the composts bulked with LL and WS had greater microbial community functional diversity compared with those bulked with SD. Thus, the maturity indexes and enzymatic activities suggest that WS is a suitable bulking agent for use in kitchen waste composting systems. PMID:26895274

  14. Genotoxicity of the extracts from the compost of the organic and the total municipal garbage using three plant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G L; Rodriguez, D M; Maruri, A B

    1999-05-19

    The production of compost is one of the alternatives for the disposal of non-hazardous solid wastes. Compost is used in agriculture and gardening as fertilizer. In the State of Queretaro, Mexico, there is a project to produce compost from the municipal garbage which could be used as a fertilizer. The presence of mutagenic compounds in the compost could be a major disadvantage for the selection of this alternative. For the above reason, this study was initiated as a pilot project to determine the potential mutagenic activity in the compost using three plant bioassays: Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN), Tradescantia stamen hair mutations (Trad-SHM) and Allium root anaphase aberrations (AL-RAA). Compost was produced using both aerobic and anaerobic processes from either organic waste (from the residential area) or from the total components of the municipal garbage. Extractions from the compost were done using distilled water and organic solvents and shaking the sample for about 12 h under relatively low temperatures (15-20 degrees C). Plant cuttings of Tradescantia or the roots of Allium were treated by submerging them in the extracts. Three replicates of each sample were analyzed in each one of the three bioassays. As expected the samples of compost from the total garbage showed a higher genetoxicity than those from organic waste. In conclusion, there are some substances present in the compost capable of inducing genotoxicity in the plant assays and therefore there must be some restrictions for its use as a fertilizer. PMID:10350598

  15. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shanwei; Reuter, Tim; Gilroyed, Brandon H.; Tymensen, Lisa; Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying; Belosevic, Miodrag; Leonard, Jerry J.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  16. Microbial Properties of Composts That Suppress Damping-Off and Root Rot of Creeping Bentgrass Caused by Pythium graminicola

    PubMed Central

    Craft, C. M.; Nelson, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Composts prepared from a variety of feedstocks were tested for their ability to suppress seedling and root diseases of creeping bentgrass caused by Pythium graminicola. Among the most suppressive materials in laboratory experiments were different batches of a brewery sludge compost and a biosolids compost from Endicott, N.Y. Batches of these composts that were initially not suppressive to Pythium damping-off became more suppressive with increasing compost age. Leaf, yard waste, food, and spent mushroom composts as well as certain biosolids, cow manure, chicken-cow manure, and leaf-chicken manure composts were not suppressive to Pythium damping-off. In some cases, turkey litter, chicken manure, chicken-leaf, and food waste composts were inhibitory to creeping bentgrass seed germination in laboratory experiments. Microbial populations varied among all of the composts tested. Bacterial populations were high in all composts except the turkey litter compost, in which populations were 1,000- to 10,000-fold lower than in the other composts tested. Among the highest populations of heterotrophic fungi and antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were those found in all batches of the brewery sludge compost, whereas the lowest populations were found in turkey litter, chicken manure, and food waste composts. Heat treatment of suppressive composts reduced populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in all composts tested. Disease suppressiveness was also reduced or eliminated in heated composts. Amending heated composts with small amounts of nonheated compost restored suppressive properties and partially restored microbial populations to wild-type levels. A strong negative relationship between compost microbial activity (as measured by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) and Pythium damping-off severity was observed. When composts were applied to creeping bentgrass in field experiments, a significant level of suppressiveness was evident with some composts when disease

  17. Microbial Properties of Composts That Suppress Damping-Off and Root Rot of Creeping Bentgrass Caused by Pythium graminicola.

    PubMed

    Craft, C M; Nelson, E B

    1996-05-01

    Composts prepared from a variety of feedstocks were tested for their ability to suppress seedling and root diseases of creeping bentgrass caused by Pythium graminicola. Among the most suppressive materials in laboratory experiments were different batches of a brewery sludge compost and a biosolids compost from Endicott, N.Y. Batches of these composts that were initially not suppressive to Pythium damping-off became more suppressive with increasing compost age. Leaf, yard waste, food, and spent mushroom composts as well as certain biosolids, cow manure, chicken-cow manure, and leaf-chicken manure composts were not suppressive to Pythium damping-off. In some cases, turkey litter, chicken manure, chicken-leaf, and food waste composts were inhibitory to creeping bentgrass seed germination in laboratory experiments. Microbial populations varied among all of the composts tested. Bacterial populations were high in all composts except the turkey litter compost, in which populations were 1,000- to 10,000-fold lower than in the other composts tested. Among the highest populations of heterotrophic fungi and antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were those found in all batches of the brewery sludge compost, whereas the lowest populations were found in turkey litter, chicken manure, and food waste composts. Heat treatment of suppressive composts reduced populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in all composts tested. Disease suppressiveness was also reduced or eliminated in heated composts. Amending heated composts with small amounts of nonheated compost restored suppressive properties and partially restored microbial populations to wild-type levels. A strong negative relationship between compost microbial activity (as measured by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) and Pythium damping-off severity was observed. When composts were applied to creeping bentgrass in field experiments, a significant level of suppressiveness was evident with some composts when disease

  18. Composting oily sludges: Characterizing microflora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, A.; Quednau, M.; Ahrne, S.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory-scale composts in which oily sludge was composted under mesophilic conditions with amendments such as peat, bark, and fresh or decomposed horse manure, were studied with respect to basic parameters such as oil degradation, respirometry, and bacterial numbers. Further, an attempt was made to characterize a part of the bacterial flora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The compost based on decomposed horse manure showed the greatest reduction of oil (85%). Comparison with a killed control indicated that microbial degradation actually had occurred. However, a substantial part of the oil was stabilized rather than totally broken down. Volatiles, on the contrary, accounted for a rather small percentage (5%) of the observed reduction. RAPD indicated that a selection had taken place and that the dominating microbial flora during the active degradation of oil were not the same as the ones dominating the different basic materials. The stabilized compost, on the other hand, had bacterial flora with similarities to the ones found in peat and bark.

  19. USER ACCEPTANCE OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMPOST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study involved visits to several composting and composting distribution operations, extensive literature review, and interviews with users in several metropolitan areas. Existing and past compost and sludge product distribution operations were analyzed to determine the chara...

  20. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  1. Involvement of microbial populations during the composting of olive mill wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Abid, N; Chamkha, M; Godon, J J; Sayadi, S

    2007-07-01

    Olive mill waste water sludge obtained by the electro-Fenton oxidation of olive mill waste water was composted in a bench scale reactor. The evolution of microbial species within the composter was investigated using a respirometric test and by means of both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism, PCR SSCP). During the period of high respiration rate (7-24 days), cultivation method showed that thermophilic bacteria as well as actinomycetes dominated over eumycetes. During the composting process, the PCR-SSCP method showed a higher diversity of the bacterial community than the eukaryotic one. After 60 days of composting, the compost exhibited a microbial stability and a clear absence of phytotoxicity. PMID:17674648

  2. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    PubMed

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50 mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6 wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding. PMID:26709164

  3. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  4. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented. PMID:20854128

  5. Getting the most from compost

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaie, M.

    1994-11-01

    Composting, throughout history, has been one of the oldest, cheapest, and most environmentally friendly waste management tools. Yet, in the modern era, composting on a large scale has run into many economic and operational snags--especially in municipal programs--despite the rosy predictions of the compost industry's waste diversion potential. What has kept this natural, seemingly foolproof municipal waste management method from wholesale success According to many, it is a combination of poor planning, anemic budgets, and a general lack of understanding of the science of composting--understanding that can usually be found in the private sector. ''In my experience, there's a hell of a lot of municipalities doing small operations, but most of the large operations are private,'' says Steve Jones, vice president of DK Recycling Systems, Inc. (Lake Bluff, Ill.), which operates 12 composting facilities in northern Illinois. According to Robert Gillespie, DK's president, the composting success hinges not only on the source of funds, but on the people involved as well. For a composting system to be successful, the designer--either privately or publicly funded--must be sensitive to the biology of composting and how field applications differ from laboratory settings. Some companies compost only leaves, brush and wood, while others also take grass clipping and food wastes.

  6. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production. PMID:22805840

  7. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  8. Biochar as a novel niche for culturing microbial communities in composting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daquan; Lan, Yu; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Meng, Jun; Chen, Wenfu

    2016-08-01

    Biochar has been applied as a bulk agent or an additive to compost. The mixture of biochar and compost has been considered to exert synergistic effect as a soil amendment. In a composting system, the macro-porous sites of biochar may act as a novel niche that selects and cultures the microorganisms from the bulk compost. A variety of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) such as aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatics were detected in biochar pellets (BC) pyrolyzed at 100°C. In the mesosphilic phase, the water-soluble carbon (WSC) and water-soluble phenols (WSP) in biochar increased from 2.1 to 26mgkg(-1) and 5.9 to 101μgkg(-1), respectively. These labile carbons however, were subjected to a rapid metabolism over the composting course. We further compared the responses of microbial community in BC to those in the bulk organic matter. Both Shannon-Wiener and Richness indexes of bacterial communities were higher in BC than in the adjacent compost (ADJ) and the bulk organic matter (control). As for fungal communities, the two indexes were higher in BC than ADJ and control only in the mature phase. During the composting course, the bacterial activity was higher than the fungal counterpart in terms of the changes of corresponding biomarkers, glucosamine and muramic acids. The results suggested that the diversified labile carbons sources including VOCs and WSC in BC could influence the structure of microbial community and resulted in an enhanced carbon catabolic capacity. PMID:27184446

  9. Denitrification in soil amended with thermophile-fermented compost suppresses nitrate accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ohmori, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshifumi; Sonoda, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Jirou; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    NO (3) (-) is a major nitrogen source for plant nutrition, and plant cells store NO (3) (-) in their vacuoles. Here, we report that a unique compost made from marine animal resources by thermophiles represses NO (3) (-) accumulation in plants. A decrease in the leaf NO (3) (-) content occurred in parallel with a decrease in the soil NO (3) (-) level, and the degree of the soil NO (3) (-) decrease was proportional to the compost concentration in the soil. The compost-induced reduction of the soil NO (3) (-) level was blocked by incubation with chloramphenicol, indicating that the soil NO (3) (-) was reduced by chloramphenicol-sensitive microbes. The compost-induced denitrification activity was assessed by the acetylene block method. To eliminate denitrification by the soil bacterial habitants, soil was sterilized with γ irradiation and then compost was amended. After the 24-h incubation, the N(2)O level in the compost soil with presence of acetylene was approximately fourfold higher than that in the compost soil with absence of acetylene. These results indicate that the low NO (3) (-) levels that are often found in the leaves of organic vegetables can be explained by compost-mediated denitrification in the soil. PMID:22434570

  10. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  11. Cellulomonas composti sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from cattle farm compost.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Suk; Im, Wan-Taek; Jung, Hae-Min; Kim, Myung Kyum; Goodfellow, Michael; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Yang, Hee-Chan; An, Dong-Shan; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2007-06-01

    A bacterial strain, TR7-06(T), which has cellulase and beta-glucosidase activities, was isolated from compost at a cattle farm near Daejeon, Republic of Korea. It was a Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belongs to the genus Cellulomonas, with highest sequence similarity to Cellulomonas uda DSM 20107(T) (98.5 %). Cell wall analysis revealed the presence of type A4beta, L-orn-D-Glu peptidoglycan. The cell-wall sugars detected were mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)); MK-8(H(4)) was detected in smaller quantities. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(14 : 0) and C(18 : 0). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that TR7-06(T) represents a novel species. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain TR7-06(T) (=KCTC 19030(T)=NBRC 100758(T)) merits description as the type strain of a novel Cellulomonas species, Cellulomonas composti sp. nov. PMID:17551039

  12. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    PubMed

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis. PMID:23571124

  13. Bio-active composts from rice straw enriched with rock phosphate and their effect on the phosphorous nutrition and microbial community in rhizosphere of cowpea.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Gaber; Abdel-Motaal, Heba

    2005-05-01

    Composts were produced from rice straw enriched with rock phosphate and inoculated with Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and/or farmyard manure (FYM). The resulting composts were evaluated as organic phosphate fertilizers for cowpea plants in pot experiments. The results showed that the maximum amount of soluble phosphorous (1000 ppm) was produced in composts inoculated with A. niger+T. viride with or without FYM. Any of the produced composts was much better than superphosphate fertilizer in providing the growing cowpea plants with phosphorous. Fertilization of the cowpea plants with the compost inoculated with FYM+A. niger+T. viride resulted in maximum amount of phosphorous uptake (295 ppm). The highest phosphate dissolving fungi numbers in rhizosphere soils of cowpea plants were obtained after fertilization with composts which received A. niger and T. viride treatments, while the highest phosphate dissolving bacterial numbers were found after fertilization with composts which received FYM treatments. PMID:15627564

  14. Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: process dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cofie, Olufunke; Kone, Doulaye; Rothenberger, Silke; Moser, Daya; Zubruegg, Chris

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the potentials and performance of combined treatment of faecal sludge (FS) and municipal solid waste (SW) through co-composting. The objectives were to investigate the appropriate SW type, SW/FS mixing ratio and the effect of turning frequency on compost maturity and quality. Solid waste (SW, as market waste, MW, or household waste, HW) was combined with dewatered FS in mixing ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 by volume and aerobically composted for 90 days. Four composting cycles were monitored and characterised to establish appropriate SW type and mixing ratio. Another set of five composting cycles were monitored to test two different turning frequencies: (i) once in 3-4 days during the thermophilic phase and 10 days during maturation phase and (ii) once in every 10 days throughout the composting period. Samples were taken at every turning and analysed for total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Temperature, C/N ratio, NO(3)-N/NH(4)-N ratio and cress planting trials were chosen as maturity indicators. Result showed a preference of MW over HW and mixing ratio of 2:1 over 3:1. There was no significant effect of different turning frequencies on the temperature changes and the quality of mature compost. The final product contained C/N ratio of 13 and NO(3)/NH(4)-ratio of about 7.8, while TVS was about 21% TS and the NH(4)-N content was reduced to 0.01%. A co-composting duration of 12 weeks was indicated by the cress test to achieve a mature and stable product. The turning frequency of 10 days is recommended as it saves labour and still reaches safe compost with fairly high nutrient content. PMID:19660779

  15. Composting in Prince William County

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.

    1995-10-01

    Hidden in a small industrial corner of Prince Williams County, in Northern Virginia, a composting facility, after its first flourishing year in business, has found itself part of a symbiotic triangle. Along with a landfill and a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant, the composting facility is one of three programs that make up a joint public-private venture and form a interjurisdictional solid waste/refuse exchange agreement. Faced with the prospects of having to close a landfill at the end of the year, a mandate on yard waste collection that was increasing collection tonnage, and no room for further landfill development, Fairfax County, with approximately 900,000 residents, needed help. In a turn-around situation, Prince William County--with approximately 240,000 residents, a low budget, and much space available for development--responded. Together the counties created a solid waste exchange. The basis for the program is a unity between the local governments on some solid waste issues and a composting facility. Composting, specifically yard waste composting, has been among the fastest-growing aspects of waste management. In 1990, the nation was composting 2% of its solid waste. By the end of 1995, according to the US EPA, between 4% and 7% of solid waste will be recovered through composting. The number of yard waste composting facilities operating has increased from 651 in 1988 to more than 3,000 in 1994.

  16. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  17. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  18. Water-quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and Vibrionaceae loads in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster-gardening sites.

    PubMed

    Fay, Johnna P; Richards, Gary P; Ozbay, Gulnihal

    2012-05-01

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water-quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae concentrations in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). One site was located at the end of a man-made canal, whereas the other was located in an open bay. Measured water parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The highest Vibrionaceae levels, as determined by the colony overlay procedure for peptidases, were at the canal site in September (3.5 × 10(5) g(-1)) and at the bay site in August (1.9 × 10(5) g(-1)). Vibrionaceae levels were significantly greater during the duration of the study at the canal site (P = 0.01). This study provides the first baseline levels for total Vibrionaceae in the Delaware Inland Bays. Minimum DO readings at the bay and canal sites were 3.0 and 2.3 mg l(-1), respectively, far less than the state-targeted minimum threshold of 5.0 mg l(-1). Total phosphorus levels exceeded recommendations of ≤0.1 mg l(-1) at the bay and canal sites for all monthly samplings, with mean monthly highs at both sites ≥0.68 mg l(-1) in August. Nitrogen occasionally exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 mg l(-1) at both sites. Overall, waters were highly degraded from high phosphates, nitrogen, and total suspended solids as well as low DO. PMID:22183874

  19. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation–reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward “aerobic” composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology. PMID:26442637

  20. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-10-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation-reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward “aerobic” composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology.

  1. Pathogen destruction and solids decomposition in composting latrines: study of fundamental mechanisms and user operation in rural Panama.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Jessica; Kaiser, Josephine; Hurtado, Daniel; Gibson, Daragh A; Izurieta, Ricardo; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between temperature, high pH, desiccation, decomposition, pathogen destruction, and user operation in active double vault urine diverting (DVUD) composting latrines located in the Bocas del Toro region of Panama was assessed. Latrine samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, % moisture, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and presence of specific pathogens. Surveys and visual inspections were used to verify use and type of dry material desiccant added. Measurements supported findings that compost latrines do not reach temperatures sufficient to destroy all pathogens. pH measurements showed that many latrines were operating within the range for ideal aerobic decomposition, a pH of 7.5-8.5, but only 17% of latrines measured pH 9 or above. Almost 100% of composting latrine users added sawdust and wood ash, to lower moisture level and provide carbon for decomposition. However, the recommended amount of desiccant added was insufficient to reduce moisture to the suggested 25% for pathogen destruction and C/N ratios remained in the range of raw human faeces. Importantly, pathogens, mainly helminths, were still present in compost stored for the 6-month contact time. The latrines have conflicting goals of pathogen destruction and aerobic decomposition. Recommendations are made regarding operation of composting latrines and disposal of composted material. PMID:21301126

  2. Crop dusting or composting?

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patricia B

    2013-09-01

    In the education and training realm of psychiatric rehabilitation, this article uses a composting/crop-dusting metaphor to describe a competency-based framework of staff development. The crop-dusting, or "fly over," approach to training is likened to an aerial dump of information that may have some positive effect on growth if it's done at the right time and in the right place. The composting approach to training makes use of assessment, preparation, delivery, and follow-up. These four phases are linked to the specific training content and individualized to both the organization and the learners. A thorough training assessment examines existing competencies, how the content will be applied on the job, and whether current job expectations and responsibilities will support the use of the new knowledge and skill. Preparation is important in designing the training activities that are so critical to meeting the needs of adult learners and to ensuring their ability to understand and apply the training content. Delivery of the training must include practice opportunities with feedback and opportunities for trainees to work with the new knowledge or skills in a way that will preview, enhance, and clarify using them on the job. Follow-up should be designed from the beginning and is determined by the purpose of the training. Finally, observation and evaluation bring the process full circle by beginning the assessment for the next round of training. PMID:24059634

  3. Optimizing composting parameters for nitrogen conservation in composting.

    PubMed

    Bueno, P; Tapias, R; López, F; Díaz, M J

    2008-07-01

    A central composite experimental design was used to investigate the influence of environmental composting parameters (moisture, aeration, particle size and time) for legume trimming residues, used on soil restoration, on the properties of products obtained (organic matter, Kjeldahl-N, C/N ratio and nitrogen losses (N-losses)) in order to determine the best composting conditions. A second-order polynomial model consisting of four independent process variables was found to accurately describe (the differences between the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former) the composting process. Results of the experiment showed that compost with acceptably chemical properties (OM, 85%; Kjeldahl-N, 3.2%), high degradation and minimum N-losses entails operating at high operation time (78 days), low particle size (1cm), medium moisture content (40%) and medium to low aeration level (0.2-0.4 l air/min kg). PMID:18023339

  4. NASA tests composters for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C.

    1997-01-01

    For long term missions, composters may be an integral part of a life support system that provides edible food crops, extracts nutrients from plant biomass and removes contaminants from the recycling stream.

  5. European activities on composting of disposable products

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    Review of information reveals that composting has become a very important way of controlling organic wastes in Europe. In particular, source separated organic composting is becoming standard practice in many countries, such as Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland. This high quality compost is generally required in these countries with implementation of stringent regulations on heavy metal levels of the compost. Other countries such as France, Greece, Spain and Italy are currently composting unseparated municipal solid waste to produce low quality, low value compost. 61 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Coffee husk composting: An investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. PMID:24369846

  7. Coffee husk composting: an investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-03-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. PMID:24369846

  8. Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from spent mushroom compost.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, ABC02-12(T), was isolated from spent mushroom compost, a waste product of button mushroom cultivation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic flagellated rods. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ABC02-12(T) shared the highest sequence similarities with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) (96.0 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis G(T) (95.7 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis IAM 12369(T) (95.4 %) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (95.3 %). According to the phylogenetic tree, strain ABC02-12(T) formed a robust cluster with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) and Paenalcaligenes hermetiae KBL009(T). The quinone system was ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-7. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C17 : 0 cyclo, and iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and/or an unknown fatty acid (summed feature 2). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminolipid. Putrescine was the principal polyamine, with small amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine and cadaverine. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain ABC02-12(T) is a representative of a novel species within the genus Paenalcaligenes, for which the name Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ABC02-12(T) ( = KACC 16537(T) = NBRC 108927(T)). PMID:24271214

  9. Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.

    PubMed

    St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

    2014-01-01

    High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices. PMID:24645438

  10. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  11. Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

    2011-10-01

    An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, i17 : 0 and ai17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2 % (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) ( = DSM 23976(T) = ICMP 18418(T)). PMID:21097641

  12. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. PMID:24656467

  13. Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimpinski, J.; Gallant, C. E.; Henry, R.; Macleod, J. A.; Sanderson, J. B.; Sturz, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels. PMID:19262763

  14. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  15. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  16. Whole Animal Composting of Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composting is the natural decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms that require oxygen. Although many aspects of composting are not exact, there are several factors that affect the success of the composting process which are 1) carbon and nitrogen ratios (C:N ratio), 2) moisture content...

  17. Biosolids composting in Davenport, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, R.A.; Williams, T.; Plett, S.

    1996-09-01

    The City of Davenport, Iowa constructed an aerated static pile composting facility to process 28 dry tons per day of dewatered biosolids and 25,000 cubic yards per year of yard wastes. This is the first large totally enclosed aerated static pile biosolids composting facility to be built in several years in the US. Design of the facility was completed in March 1994, construction began in July 1994, with substantial completion of the facility in August 1995. This paper outlines the major operating systems and describes the major components of the facility. The facility processes all of the City`s anaerobically digested biosolids which is currently dewatered by belt filter presses to 20% solids. Yard wastes are used as the primary bulking agent supplemented by wood chips and shredded rubber tires to minimize O and M costs. A mechanized continuous feed mixing system consisting of hoppers, conveyors, and pugmill mixers is used to combine bulk agents with the dewatered biosolids to the desired ratio for composting. Composting and drying of these materials occurs in a totally enclosed pre-fabricated metal building for maximum environmental control and odor control. Multiple aeration stations provide both positive and negative aeration through pre-cast aeration trenches beneath compost piles.

  18. Sewage sludge composting maintains momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    The number of facilities composting municipal sludge is rising gradually in the U.S. after a dramatic surge between 1983 and 1985. Results of BioCycle's 1986 survey show a total of 178 municipalities and counties that are either operating or constructing plants, or that are in the bid, design, planning, or consideration stages. The total number in 1985 was 173, with four facilities shut down. In 1983, the first year a nationwide survey was conducted, there were 90. The aerated static pile method continues to lead the composting pack, with 53 operating facilities. Windrow composting comes in second, with 21 operating facilities. Five more in-vessel systems went into operation this year, bringing the total to eight. When it comes to facilities on the horizon, however, in-vessel is the category leader: there are 11 in-vessel projects under construction, 11 in the planning, design or bid stages, and 14 under consideration. Conversely, there are eight aerated static pile facilities under construction, 10 in the planning, design and bid stages, and 5.5 under consideration. Windrow composting operations comprise the third largest category, followed by aerated windrow composting.

  19. Monitoring of pile composting process of OFMSW at full scale and evaluation of odour emission impact.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M C; Martín, M A; Serrano, A; Chica, A F

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the evolution of odour concentration (ouE/m(3)STP) emitted during the pile composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was monitored by dynamic olfactometry. Physical-chemical variables as well as the respirometric variables were also analysed. The aim of this work was twofold. The first was to determine the relationship between odour and traditional variables to determine if dynamic olfactometry is a feasible and adequate technique for monitoring an aerobic stabilisation process (composting). Second, the composting process odour impact on surrounding areas was simulated by a dispersion model. The results showed that the decrease of odour concentration, total organic carbon and respirometric variables was similar (around 96, 96 y 98% respectively). The highest odour emission (5224 ouE/m(3)) was reached in parallel with the highest microbiological activity (SOUR and OD20 values of 25 mgO2/gVS · h and 70 mgO2/gVS, respectively). The validity of monitoring odour emissions during composting in combination with traditional and respirometric variables was demonstrated by the adequate correlation obtained between the variables. Moreover, the quantification of odour emissions by dynamic olfactometry and the subsequent application of the dispersion model permitted making an initial prediction of the impact of odorous emissions on the population. Finally, the determination of CO2 and CH4 emissions allowed the influence of composting process on carbon reservoirs and global warming to be evaluated. PMID:25572673

  20. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel. PMID:23722176

  1. Biochar composts and composites.

    PubMed

    Ekebafe, Marian Osazoduwa; Ekebafe, Lawrence Olu; Ugbesia, Stella Omozee

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the carbon content of wastes decreases during composting with an increase in the nitrogen content. This indicates that the increased microbial activity in the process results in an increased mineralisation rate of organic nitrogen. A formula containing biochar in the form of terra preta, biochar bokashi, biochar glomalin, biochar hydrogel and biochar mokusaku-eki could further enhance the stability of the system and its effectiveness as a soil ameliorant. It could increase the cation exchange capacity, reuse crop residue, reduce runoff, reduce watering, reduce the quantity of fertiliser increase crop yield, build and multiply soil biodiversity, strengthen and rebuild our soil food web, sequester atmospheric carbon in a carbon negative process, increase soil pH, restructure poor soils, and reduce carbon dioxide/methane/ nitrous oxide/ammonia emissions from gardens and fields. This paper considers these claims and also the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processes. The intention of this overview is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research. PMID:26288918

  2. Composting in tandem

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-03-01

    A composting company, a county, and a waste company have formed a symbiotic public/private relationship that is helping to extend the life of the area's landfills, as well as produce a needed product. California state assembly bill 939, passed in 1989, directed local governments to reduce the amount of garbage being landfilled in order to curtail the need for new landfills. Cities and counties in California are now mandated to reduce the volume of their waste stream by 25% by 1995. By the year 2000, the waste stream must be reduced by 50%. And the law has teeth -- to ensure these percentages are met, a $10,000 fine can be imposed for each day a deadline is missed. According to 1990 figures, Sonoma County's well-established recycling programs have been successful at diverting 15% of the county's waste stream from the landfill. Paula Magyari, a waste management specialist with the county Public Works Department, says yard wastes account for 13% of the waste stream in Sonoma County; wood wastes for at least 15%. At 13% and 15%, they are two of the largest components of the waste stream, and, equally important, they represent the portion of the waste stream that is most readily reusable to meet the 25% goal.

  3. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  4. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  5. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications. PMID:23369502

  6. Comparison of static, in-vessel composting of MSW with thermophilic anaerobic digestion and combinations of the two processes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lee; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    The biological stabilisation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into a form stable enough for land application can be achieved via aerobic or anaerobic treatments. To investigate the rates of degradation (e.g. via electron equivalents removed, or via carbon emitted) of aerobic and anaerobic treatment, OFMSW samples were exposed to computer controlled laboratory-scale aerobic (static in-vessel composting), and anaerobic (thermophilic anaerobic digestion with liquor recycle) treatment individually and in combination. A comparison of the degradation rates, based on electron flow revealed that provided a suitable inoculum was used, anaerobic digestion was the faster of the two waste conversion process. In addition to faster maximum substrate oxidation rates, anaerobic digestion (followed by post-treatment aerobic maturation), when compared to static composting alone, converted a larger fraction of the organics to gaseous end-products (CO2 and CH4), leading to improved end-product stability and maturity, as measured by compost self-heating and root elongation tests, respectively. While not comparable to windrow and other mixed, highly aerated compost systems, our results show that in the thermophilic, in-vessel treatment investigated here, the inclusion of a anaerobic phase, rather than using composting alone, improved hydrolysis rates as well as oxidation rates and product stability. The combination of the two methods, as used in the DiCOM process, was also tested allowing heat generation to thermophilic operating temperature, biogas recovery and a low odour stable end-product within 19 days of operation. PMID:19345576

  7. Composting of food waste subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment and inoculated with Paecilomyces sp. FA13.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Mimoto, Hiroshi; Tran, Quyen Ngoc Minh; Oinuma, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Food waste collected from restaurants, convenience stores, and food-processing factories was mixed with sawdust and subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 30min to prepare compost raw material. Furan compounds such as 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural were produced at concentration levels of approximately 8 and 0.5mg/g-ds, respectively, through hydrothermal pretreatment. The furan compounds inhibited the activity of composting microorganisms, thus delaying the start of organic matter degradation during composting. A newly identified fungus, Paecilomyces sp. FA13, which possesses the ability to degrade furan compounds, was isolated and used as an inoculum for the composting of the raw material prepared by hydrothermal pretreatment. By inoculating the FA13 into the compost raw material at 10(5)CFU/g-ds, the degradation of furan compounds was accelerated. As a result, bacterial activity, which contributed to composting, was enhanced, significantly promoting the start of vigorous degradation of organic materials. PMID:25585259

  8. Changes induced by Trichoderma harzianum in suppressive compost controlling Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Josefa; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Lloret, Eva; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Ros, Margarita

    2013-09-01

    The addition of species of Trichoderma to compost is a widespread technique used to control different plant diseases. The biological control activity of these species is mainly attributable to a combination of several mechanisms of action, which may affect the microbiota involved in the suppressiveness of compost. This study was therefore performed to determine the effect of inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) on compost, focusing on bacterial community structure (16S rRNA) and chitinase gene diversity. In addition, the ability of vineyard pruning waste compost, amended (GCTh) or not (GC) with T. harzianum, to suppress Fusarium wilt was evaluated. The addition of T. harzianum resulted in a high relative abundance of certain chitinolytic bacteria as well as in remarkable protection against Fusarium oxysporum comparable to that induced by compost GC. Moreover, variations in the abiotic characteristics of the media, such as pH, C, N and iron levels, were observed. Despite the lower diversity of chitinolytic bacteria found in GCTh, the high relative abundance of Streptomyces spp. may be involved in the suppressiveness of this growing media. The higher degree of compost suppressiveness achieved after the addition of T. harzianum may be due not only to its biocontrol ability, but also to changes promoted in both abiotic and biotic characteristics of the growing media. PMID:25149244

  9. Basic vaginal pH, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis: prevalence in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, a prospective study in a low socioeconomic and multiethnic South American population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases the risk of spontaneous preterm deliveries (PD) in developed countries. Its prevalence varies with ethnicity, socioeconomic conditions and gestational age. Aerobic vaginitis (AV) has also been implicated with spontaneous PD. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic BV, the accuracy of vaginal pH level to predict BV and to estimate the risk of spontaneous PD <34 and <37 weeks’ gestation of BV and AV. Methods Women attending prenatal public services in Rio de Janeiro were screened to select asymptomatic pregnant women, < 20 weeks’ gestation, with no indication for elective PD and without risk factors of spontaneous PD. Vaginal smears of women with vaginal pH > = 4.5 were collected to determine the Nugent score; a sample of those smears was also classified according to a modified Donders’ score. Primary outcomes were spontaneous PD < 34 and <37 weeks’ gestation and abortion. Results Prevalence of asymptomatic BV was estimated in 28.1% (n = 1699); 42.4% of the smears were collected before 14 weeks’ gestation. After an 8-week follow up, nearly 40% of the initially BV positive women became BV negative. The prevalence of BV among white and black women was 28.1% (95% CI: 24.6%-32.0%) and 32.5% (95% CI: 28.2%-37.2%), respectively. The sensitivity of vaginal pH= > 4.5 and = > 5.0 to predict BV status was 100% and 82%, correspondingly; the 5.0 cutoff value doubled the specificity, from 41% to 84%. The incidence of < 37 weeks’ spontaneous PDs among BV pregnant women with a pH= > 4.5 was 3.8%. The RR of spontaneous PD < 34 and <37 weeks among BV women with pH > =4.5, as compared with those with intermediate state, were 1.24 and 1.86, respectively (Fisher’s exact test, p value = 1; 0.52, respectively, both ns). No spontaneous case of PD or abortion was associated with severe or moderate AV. Conclusions A high prevalence of asymptomatic BV was

  10. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. PMID:24602833

  11. Effects of Cu exposure on enzyme activities and selection for microbial tolerances during swine-manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xuelian; Gao, Min; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A simulated experiment of aerobic composting was conducted on swine manure to evaluate the effects of Cu at two exposure levels (200 and 2000 mg kg(-1), corresponding to low-Cu and high-Cu treatments, respectively) on the activity of microorganisms. In addition, the microbial pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu and co-tolerance to selected antibiotics (tylosin and vancomycin) in the composted products were also investigated using the Biolog Ecoplates™ method. It was demonstrated that the enzymatic activities were significantly inhibited by the high-Cu treatment, with maximal inhibition rates of 56.8% and 65.1% for urease and dehydrogenase, respectively. In response to the PICT test, the IC50 (half-maximal inhibition concentrations) values on the microorganisms in the high-Cu-treated composts were clearly higher than those in the low-Cu-treated and control composts, for the toxicity tests on both Cu and antibiotics, including tylosin and vancomycin. The data demonstrated that high-Cu exposure to the microbial community during the composting not only selected for Cu resistance but also co-selected for antibiotic resistance, which was of significance because the tolerance might be transferred to the soil after the land application of composted manure. PMID:25464290

  12. Odors and volatile organics emissions from a commercial composting operation

    SciTech Connect

    Krzymien, M.E.; Day, M.

    1997-12-31

    Working in cooperation with a commercial operator of a composting facility, both compost gas and the solid composting material were sampled at regular time intervals during composting operations. The composting material was transferred to laboratory composters where the composting process continued under laboratory controlled conditions. The gases collected at the composting facility as well as the gases exiting the laboratory composters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor of these gases, based upon detection thresholds, was also evaluated by a panel of volunteers.

  13. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO(-) 3-N than NH(+) 4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition. PMID:26361474

  14. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO−3-N than NH+4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition. PMID:26361474

  15. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene without auxiliary substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin R; Gaza, Sarah; Voropaev, Andrey; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) represents a priority pollutant and is among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater. The current bioremediation measures have certain drawbacks like e.g. the need for auxiliary substrates. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TCE as the sole growth substrate is demonstrated. This new process of metabolic TCE degradation was first detected in groundwater samples. TCE degradation was stable in an enriched mixed bacterial culture in mineral salts medium for over five years and repeated transfers of the culture resulting in a 10(10) times dilution of the original groundwater. Aerobic TCE degradation resulted in stoichiometric chloride formation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation was observed providing a reliable analytical tool to assess this new biodegradation process at field sites. The results suggest that aerobic biodegradation of TCE without auxiliary substrate could be considered as an option for natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:24793109

  16. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  17. Two-phase olive mill waste composting: enhancement of the composting rate and compost quality by grape stalks addition.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Roig, Asunción

    2010-06-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated by the olive oil industry. Its recycling as a soil amendment, either unprocessed or composted, is being promoted as a beneficial agricultural practice in the Mediterranean area. One of the major difficulties when composting TPOMW is the compaction of the material due to its dough-like texture, which leads to an inadequate aeration. For this reason, the addition of bulking agents is particularly important to attain a proper composting process. In this study we followed the evolution of two composting mixtures (A and B) prepared by mixing equal amounts of TPOMW and sheep litter (SL) (in a dry weight basis). In pile B grape stalks (GS) were added (10% dry weight) as bulking agent to study their effect on the development of the composting process and the final compost quality. The incorporation of grape stalks to the composting mixture changed the organic matter (OM) degradation dynamics and notably reduced the total amount of lixiviates. The evolution of several maturation indices (C/N, germination index, water soluble carbon, humification indices, C/N in the leachates) showed a faster and improved composting process when GS were added. Moreover, chemical (NH4+, NO3(-), cation exchange capacity, macro and micronutrients, heavy metals) and physical properties (bulk and real densities, air content, total water holding capacity, porosity) of the final composts were analysed and confirmed the superior quality of the compost where GS were added. PMID:19946735

  18. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  19. Compost improves compacted urban soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban construction sites usually result in compacted soils that limit infiltration and root growth. The purpose of this study was to determine if compost, aeration, and/or prairie grasses can remediate a site setup as a simulated post-construction site (compacted). Five years after establishing the ...

  20. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Gillian M; Song, Qi Jun

    2002-04-01

    Composting is one of the more efficient and environment friendly methods of solid waste disposal and has many advantages when compared with landfill disposal on which the UK and Ireland are currently heavily dependent. Composting is a very complicated process involving intensive microbial activity and the detailed mechanisms of the process have yet to be fully understood. Metal speciation information can provide an insight into the metal-microbial interaction and would help in the evaluation of the quality of compost. This would facilitate the exploitation of composts in remediation of heavy metal contaminated land. In this work a systematic approach to metal speciation in compost has been taken by applying the three-step method for operationally defined metal speciation of soils and sediments, developed by the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme to monitor the change in metal speciation with time (up to 106 days) for four different waste composting processes. The results have shown that in general metals become less available for the first extraction step as the composting process proceeds. This implies that composting tends to redistribute the metals from more labile forms to more fixed forms which may explain why the application of composts could be useful for with heavy metal contaminated land. There are exceptions to this trend and in some cases, certain metals appear to behave differently depending on the source of the compost. PMID:11993774

  1. Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, T; Utkhede, R S; Paul, J W; Punja, Z K

    2000-11-01

    Three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (FORC) on cucumber. Two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (WDS) or vermicomposting (VMC) while the third, obtained from International Bio-Recovery (IBR), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. Three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at varying ratios, and seeded with cucumber cv. Corona. After 14 days of growth in the greenhouse, inoculum of FORC (20 mL of 5 x 10(6) micro-conidia per mL) was applied to each pot at three different times (14, 21, and 35 days). In unamended inoculated pots, the pathogen caused stunted growth and reduced flowers. Amendment of WDS in the potting mix suppressed these symptoms, while VMC and IBR had no effect. All three composts reduced the FORC colony forming units (cfu) at the end of the experiment (10 weeks). There was a large increase of fluorescent bacteria near the vicinity of roots particularly in WDS amended potting mixes. When water extracts of the composts were plated onto acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), only IBR contained a potent thermostable inhibitor to FORC. This inhibitor was removed by activated charcoal but was not partitioned into petroleum ether at acid, basic, or neutral pH. Inhibition of FORC by IBR was not due to electrical conductivity or trace elements in the compost. Contrasting effectiveness of the WDS and VMC made from the same waste suggests that composting method can influence the disease suppression properties of the finished compost. PMID:11109490

  2. Effects of bedding type on compost quality of equine stall waste: implications for small horse farms.

    PubMed

    Komar, S; Miskewitz, R; Westendorf, M; Williams, C A

    2012-03-01

    Our objective in this study is to compare 4 of the most common bedding materials used by equine operations on the chemical and physical characteristics of composted equine stall waste. Twelve Standardbred horses were adapted to the barn and surrounding environment for 2 wk before the start of the study. Groups of 3 horses were bedded on 1 of 4 different bedding types (wood shavings, pelletized wood materials, long straw, and pelletized straw) for 16 h per day for 18 d. Stalls were cleaned by trained staff daily, and all contents removed were weighed and stored separately by bedding material on a level covered concrete pad for the duration of the study. Compost piles were constructed using 3 replicate piles of each bedding type in a randomized complete block design. Each pile was equipped with a temperature sensor and data logger. Water was added and piles were turned weekly throughout the 100-d compost process. Initial and final samples were taken, dried, and analyzed for DM mass, OM, inorganic nitrogen (nitrate-N and ammonium-N), electrical conductivity, and soluble (plant-available) nutrients. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure, and means were separated using Fischer's protected LSD test (P < 0.05). No significant temperature differences were observed among the bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in DM mass for each of the 4 bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in OM and C:N ratio for all 4 bedding materials. The composted long straw material had greater concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (P < 0.05), nitrate-N (P < 0.05), and ammonium-N (P < 0.05) than the composted wood shavings. This study demonstrated that incorporating a simple aerobic composting system may greatly reduce the overall volume of manure and yield a material that is beneficial for land application in pasture-based systems. The straw-based materials may be better suited for

  3. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  4. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well-determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  5. Microbial, chemical and physical aspects of citrus waste composting.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, I; Cronjé, C; Swart, S H; Kotzé, J M

    2002-01-01

    Citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a C/N ratio of 24:1, pH of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. With regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. Compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 mS m(-1). Phosphorus content (in mg l(-1)) was 15, potassium 1,170, calcium 362, magnesium 121, sodium 32, chloride 143, boron 0.31, and water-soluble nitrogen and organic matter 126 and 4788, respectively. Total carbon amounted to 8.85% and total nitrogen to 1.26% of the dry weight, giving a C/N ratio of 7. Mature compost showed some, but acceptable, levels of phytotoxicity. Raw citrus waste was predominantly colonised by mesophilic yeasts. Thermophilous microorganisms present during the thermic phase mainly comprised the bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus and, to a lesser extent, fungi such as Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, Penicillium diversum, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor pusillus, Talaromyces thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Bacteria prevalent in the final product included B. licheniformis, B. macerans, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. luteola and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungi isolated most frequently comprised Aspergillus puniceus, A. ustus, E. nidulans. Paecilomyces lilacinus, T lanuginosus, yeasts and a basidiomycetous species, probably Coprinus lagopus. PMID:11708757

  6. SALMONELLA REGROWTH IN COMPOST AS INFLUENCED BY SUBSTRATE (SALMONELLA REGROWTH IN COMPOST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composting can eliminate pathogenic organisms, including salmonellae, from sewage sludge. However, if salmonellae are present in the compost at undetectable levels or are inoculated into the compost by infected animals or from other sources, they may regrow presenting a health ha...

  7. A novel challenge test incorporating irradiation (60Co) of compost sub-samples to validate thermal lethality towards pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Moore, John E; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, Andrew; Cherie Millar, B; Rao, Juluri R

    2009-01-01

    Maturing compost heaps normally attaining temperatures ranging from 55 to 65 degrees C is generally regarded to conform to recommended biological risks and sanitation standards for composts stipulated by either EU or US-EPA. Composted products derived from animal sources are further required by EU biohazard safety regulatory legislation that such composts either attain 70 degrees C for over 3h during maturation or via treatment at 70 degrees C for 1h before being considered for dispensation on land. The setting of the upper limit of thermal lethality at 70 degrees C/1h for achieving biosecurity of the animal waste composted products (e.g. pelleted fertilizer formulations) is not properly substantiated by specific validation tests, comprising a 'wipe-out' step (usually via autoclaving) followed by inoculation of a prescribed bacterium, exposure to 70 degrees C/1h and the lethality determined. Pelleted formulations of composts are not amenable for wet methods (autoclaving) for wipe-out sterilization step as this is detrimental to the pellet and compromises sample integrity. This study describes a laboratory method involving the employment of ((60)Co) irradiation 'wipe-out' step to: (a) compost sub-samples drawn from compost formulation heaps and (b) pelleted products derived from composted animal products while determining the thermal lethality of a given time/temperature (70 degrees C/1h) treatment process and by challenging the irradiated sample (not just with one bacterium but), out with 10 potential food-poisoning organisms from the bacterial genera (Campylobacter, Escherichia, Listeria, Salmonella, Yersinia) frequently detected in pig and poultry farm wastes. This challenge test on compost sub-samples can be a useful intervention ploy for 'inspection and validation' technique for composters during the compost maturity process, whose attainment of temperatures of 55-65 degrees C is presumed sufficient for attainment of sanitation. Stringent measures are further

  8. Impact of activated carbon, biochar and compost on the desorption and mineralization of phenanthrene in soil.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E C; Rein, Arno; Winding, Anne; Wollensen de Jonge, Lis; Trapp, Stefan; Karlson, Ulrich G

    2013-10-01

    Sorption of PAHs to carbonaceous soil amendments reduces their dissolved concentrations, limiting toxicity but also potentially biodegradation. Therefore, the maximum abiotic desorption of freshly sorbed phenanthrene (≤5 mg kg(-1)) was measured in three soils amended with activated carbon (AC), biochar or compost. Total amounts of phenanthrene desorbed were similar between the different soils, but the amendment type had a large influence. Complete desorption was observed in the unamended and compost amended soils, but this reduced for biochar (41% desorbed) and AC (8% desorbed). Cumulative amounts mineralized were 28% for the unamended control, 19% for compost, 13% for biochar and 4% for AC. Therefore, the effects of the amendments in soil in reducing desorption were also reflected in the extents of mineralization. Modeling was used to analyze key processes, indicating that for the AC and charcoal treatments bacterial activity did not limit mineralization, but rather desorption into the dissolved phase. PMID:23871817

  9. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  10. Current and future North American compost markets

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.

    1995-09-01

    As composting grows in popularity and research continues, the science of composting is becoming better understood. The successful marketing and distribution of composted products, however, is less than an exact science. In order to develop a successful compost marketing program, it is important to understand current and potential compost markets, their specific applications for compost products, their product quality requirements, and their current level of acceptance for specific products. It is also important to understand that specific barriers to market development exist, as do specific challenges. When preparing to approach specific compost markets, we must first consider the characteristics of our particular compost product. The specific chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of a product will affect our ability to market it within specific markets. Producing a product of consistent quality or possessing consistent characteristics will also influence its acceptability within specific markets. The ability to meet other end user requirements, such as providing technical assistance and service, are also factor not often considered. It is necessary to educate end users regarding proper compost use, as well as to address stigmas that may be attached to the product. False marketing barriers, based on regulatory issues, must be removed and market related research and planning must be approached with the same seriousness as design and operational considerations.

  11. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  12. Straw Compost and Bioremediated Soil as Inocula for the Bioremediation of Chlorophenol-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Laine, M. M.; Jorgensen, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of straw compost and remediated soil as inocula for bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated soil. The in situ biotransformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and mineralization of radiolabeled [U-(sup14)C]PCP by straw compost and remediated soil were studied under field-simulating conditions before and after 3 months of adaptation with PCP in a percolator. After PCP adaptation, the straw compost mineralized up to 56% of the [(sup14)C]PCP. No partial dechlorination of PCP was found. The native straw compost did not mineralize PCP, but partial dechlorination of PCP occurred (i) at pH 8 under near-thermophilic conditions (45(deg)C) and (ii) at pH 7 under aerobic and mesophilic conditions. No biotransformation reactions occurred at room temperature (25(deg)C) at pH 8. Enrichment in the percolator enhanced the mineralization rate of remediated soil to 56% compared with that of the native remediated soil, which mineralized 24% of [(sup14)C]PCP added. Trace amounts of chloroanisoles as the only biotransformation products were detected in PCP-adapted remediated soil. Both inoculants studied here showed effective mineralization of PCP when they were adapted to PCP in the percolator. No harmful side reactions, such as extensive methylation, were observed. PMID:16535304

  13. Gross and net rates of nitrogen mineralisation in soil amended with composted olive mill pomace.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Hatch, D J; Bol, R; Dixon, E R; García-Ruiz, R

    2011-06-15

    Olive mill pomace is the major waste product in the olive oil industry and composting these by-products for the purpose of recycling nutrients and organic matter is a sound environmental strategy. Yet little is known about the quantity and timing of nitrogen (N) release from composted olive mill pomace. This paper assesses both gross (using the (15)N dilution technique) and net (aerobic incubation) nitrogen (N) mineralisation and N(2)O emissions of soil amended with seven commercially available composts of olive mill pomace (COMP). All are currently produced in Andalusia and differ in the proportions of raw materials co-composted with the pomace. The absence of significant differences in net N or gross mineralisation and nitrification in COMP-amended soil compared with a control, except for COMP combined with poultry manure, highlighted the recalcitrant nature of the COMP-N. Applications of COMP are hence unlikely to supply available N in available forms, at least in the short-term. Furthermore, N(2)O emissions from COMP-amended soil were negligible and, therefore, applications in the field should not result in increased N loss through denitrification. PMID:21594919

  14. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between -400 and +80mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37-1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable. PMID:27037469

  15. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    PubMed

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. PMID:26299932

  16. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  17. Microbial diversity and activity are increased by compost amendment of metal-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Mark; Griffith, Gareth W; Hobbs, Phil J; Perkins, William T; Jones, Davey L

    2010-01-01

    Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals cannot be degraded and can constitute a persistent environmental hazard. Here, we investigated the success of different remediation strategies in promoting microbial diversity and function with depth in an acidic soil heavily contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn. Remediation involved the incorporation of either a high- or a low-quality compost or inorganic fertilizer into the topsoil and monitoring of microbial activity and diversity with soil depth over a 4-month period. While changes in topsoil microbial activity were expected, the possible effects on the subsurface microbial community due to the downward movement of metals, nutrients and/or soluble organic matter have not been examined previously. The results showed that both compost additions, especially the low-quality compost, resulted in significantly increased bacterial and fungal diversity (as assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and activity compared with the inorganic and control treatments in the topsoil. Although phospholipid fatty acid profiling indicated that compost addition had promoted enhanced microbial diversity in the subsoil, no concomitant increase in subsoil microbial activity was observed, suggesting that amelioration of the heavy metals remained localized in the topsoil. We conclude that although composts can successfully immobilize heavy metals and promote ecosystem diversity/function, surface incorporation had little remedial effect below the surface layer over the course of our short-term trial. PMID:19845764

  18. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    PubMed

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting. PMID:23100024

  19. Changes in microbial dynamics during vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Pérez-Díaz, Domingo; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-02-01

    Municipal sewage sludge is a waste with high organic load generated in large quantities that can be treated by biodegradation techniques to reduce its risk to the environment. This research studies vermicomposting and vermicomposting after composting of sewage sludge with the earthworm specie Eisenia andrei. In order to determine the effect that earthworms cause on the microbial dynamics depending on the treatment, the structure and activity of the microbial community was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis and enzyme activities, during 112days of vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge, with and without earthworms. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced microbial biomass and all microbial groups (Gram+ bacteria, Gram- bacteria and fungi), as well as cellulase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Combined composting-vermicomposting treatment showed a lesser development of earthworms, higher bacterial and fungal biomass than vermicomposting treatment and greater differences, compared with the control without earthworms, in cellulase, β-glucosidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. Both treatments were suitable for the stabilization of municipal sewage sludge and the combined composting-vermicomposting treatment can be a viable process for maturation of fresh compost. PMID:26489796

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose-decomposing Bacteria Inhabiting Sawdust and Coffee Residue Composts

    PubMed Central

    Eida, Mohamed Fathallh; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Clarifying the identity and enzymatic activities of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of organic materials is expected to contribute to the evaluation and improvement of composting processes. In this study, we examined the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from sawdust compost (SDC) and coffee residue compost (CRC). Cellulolytic bacteria were isolated using Dubos mineral salt agar containing azurine cross-linked (AZCL) HE-cellulose. Bacterial identification was performed based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, and cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, mannanase, and protease activities were characterized using insoluble AZCL-linked substrates. Eleven isolates were obtained from SDC and 10 isolates from CRC. DNA analysis indicated that the isolates from SDC and CRC belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Paenibacillus, and the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Cohnella, respectively. Microbispora was the most dominant genus in both compost types. All isolates, with the exception of two isolates lacking mannanase activity, showed cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, and mannanase activities. Based on enzyme activities expressed as the ratio of hydrolysis zone diameter to colony diameter, it was suggested that the species of Microbispora (SDCB8, SDCB9) and Paenibacillus (SDCB10, SDCB11) in SDC and Microbispora (CRCB2, CRCB6) and Cohnella (CRCB9, CRCB10) in CRC contribute to efficient cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic processes during composting. PMID:22353767

  1. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, Martin; Reddy, Amitha; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanova, Natalia; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ∼10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50°C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme. PMID:20098679

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyperthermal composting microorganisms for feasible application in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2013-05-01

    The composting system is the most efficient method for processing organic waste in space; however, the composting activity of microorganisms can be altered by cosmic rays. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation on composting bacteria was investigated. Sequence analyses of amplified 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and amoA genes were used to identify hyperthermal composting microorganisms. The viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera were Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp., and the fungal genera were Metschnikowia bicuspidata and Pichia guilliermondii. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy did not significantly alter the microbial population. Furthermore, amylase and cellulase activities were maintained after high-dose gamma irradiation. Our results show that hyperthermal microorganisms can be used to recycle agricultural and fermented material in space stations and other human-inhabiting facilities on the Moon, Mars, and other planets.

  3. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    SciTech Connect

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D'haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  4. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  5. Phytate Degradation by Fungi and Bacteria that Inhabit Sawdust and Coffee Residue Composts

    PubMed Central

    Eida, Mohamed Fathallh; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting. PMID:23100024

  6. Isolation and characterization of cellulose-decomposing bacteria inhabiting sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    PubMed

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Clarifying the identity and enzymatic activities of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of organic materials is expected to contribute to the evaluation and improvement of composting processes. In this study, we examined the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from sawdust compost (SDC) and coffee residue compost (CRC). Cellulolytic bacteria were isolated using Dubos mineral salt agar containing azurine cross-linked (AZCL) HE-cellulose. Bacterial identification was performed based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, and cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, mannanase, and protease activities were characterized using insoluble AZCL-linked substrates. Eleven isolates were obtained from SDC and 10 isolates from CRC. DNA analysis indicated that the isolates from SDC and CRC belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Paenibacillus, and the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Cohnella, respectively. Microbispora was the most dominant genus in both compost types. All isolates, with the exception of two isolates lacking mannanase activity, showed cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, and mannanase activities. Based on enzyme activities expressed as the ratio of hydrolysis zone diameter to colony diameter, it was suggested that the species of Microbispora (SDCB8, SDCB9) and Paenibacillus (SDCB10, SDCB11) in SDC and Microbispora (CRCB2, CRCB6) and Cohnella (CRCB9, CRCB10) in CRC contribute to efficient cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic processes during composting. PMID:22353767

  7. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  8. [Research advances in aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhong, Wen-hui; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2007-11-01

    This paper reviewed the varieties and characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers, their action mechanisms, and the factors affecting aerobic denitrification. Aerobic denitrifiers mainly include Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus and Bacillus, which are either aerobic or facultative aerobic, and heterotrophic. They can denitrify under aerobic conditions, with the main product being N2O. They can also convert NH4+ -N to gas product. The nitrate reductase which catalyzes the denitrification is periplasmic nitrate reductase rather than membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio are the main factors affecting aerobic denitrification. The main methods for screening aerobic denitrifiers, such as intermittent aeration and selected culture, were also introduced. The research advances in the application of aerobic denitrifiers in aquaculture, waste water processing, and bio-degradation of organic pollutants, as well as the contributions of aerobic denitrifiers to soil nitrogen emission were summarized. PMID:18260473

  9. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  10. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  11. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Plant diseases are one of the seriously limiting factors of agriculture efficiency around the world. Diseases caused by fungi are the major threat to plants. Crop protection in modern agriculture heavily depends on chemical fungicides. Disadvantages of chemical pesticides soon became apparent as damage to the environment and a hazard to human health. In this regard use of biopesticides becomes an attractive alternative method of plant protection. For biological control of fungal plant diseases, separate bacterial or fungal strains as well as their communities can be used. Biopreparations must consist of microbes that are typical for local climate and soil conditions and therefore are able to survive in environments for a long time. Another option of plant pests' biological control is implementation of suppressive composts made of agricultural or other organic wastes. These composts can not only prevent the development of plant diseases, but also improve the soil fertility. The objective of this work was estimation of potential of composts and strains isolated from these composts as means for biological control of fusariosis that is one of the most widespread plant soil born disease. The composts were made up of the commonly produced agricultural wastes produced in Tatarstan Republic (Russia). Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was used as a model phytopathogen. Ten types of organic waste (Goat manure (GM), Chicken dung (CD), Chicken dung with straw addition (CS), Rabbit dung (RD), Cow manure (CM), Rerotting pork manure (RPM), Fresh pork manure (FPM), Pork manure with sawdust and straw (PMS), the remains of plants and leaves (PL), the vegetable waste (VW) were sampled in the big farms situated in Tatarstan Republic which is one of the main agricultural regions of Russia. The initial wastes were composted for 150 days. Further, the following characteristics of the composts were assessed: pH, electro conductivity, TOC, DOC, Ntot. On petri dishes with meat

  12. The use of concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater as a conditioning agent for adjusting acidity and minimizing ammonia volatilization in livestock manure composting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Kong, Haimin; Lu, Beibei; Wang, Jibing; Xie, Yuan; Fang, Ping

    2015-09-15

    In this study, concentrated monosodium glutamate waste (CMGW) was proposed as a conditioning agent to adjust acidity and decrease ammonia (NH3) volatilization in thermophilic aerobic composting based on two incubation experiments. The results showed that with the addition of CMGW, NH3 volatilization of compost mixture under high temperature phase decreased significantly and pH met the current national standard within 5.5-8.5. When CMGW dosage increased to 2% (v/w), the decrease in NH3 volatilization was as high as 78.9%. This effect was enhanced by repeated application of CMGW. Furthermore, although the electrical conductivity increased with the application of CMGW, both the germination index and the microbial respiration of compost mixture implied that CMGW had no negative effects on the maturity of compost, instead, a comprehensive maturity might be accelerated. It was concluded that CMGW was an optional conditioning agent for thermophilic aerobic composting of livestock manure in regards to adjusting acidity and preventing nitrogen loss from NH3 volatilization. PMID:26164271

  13. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea Resistance of Arabidopsis Plants Grown in Compost May Be Explained by Increased Expression of Defense-Related Genes, as Revealed by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses. PMID:23405252

  14. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses. PMID:23405252

  15. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  16. REGROWTH OF SALMONELLAE IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the regrowth of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge. Though composting effectively stabilizes and disinfects sewage sludges, the decrease in salmonellae may be only temporary, since this pathogen can survive and grow without a human or ani...

  17. Compost - Brown gold or toxic trouble ?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  18. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AERATED SLUDGE COMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes development of a time-dependent computerized model for composting of wastewater treatment plant sludge with forced aeration of the pile. The work was undertaken because, in the past, development of the composting process for wastewater sludge has been almost...

  20. Community dynamics of cellulose-adapted thermophilic bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Varanasi, Patanjali; Stavila, Vatalie; Zemla, Marcin; Auer, Manfred; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2013-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a key process in the global carbon cycle and the industrial conversion of biomass to biofuels. In natural environments, cellulose hydrolysis is predominately performed by microbial communities. However, detailed understanding of bacterial cellulose hydrolysis is primarily confined to a few model isolates. Developing models for cellulose hydrolysis by mixed microbial consortia will complement these isolate studies and may reveal new mechanisms for cellulose deconstruction. Microbial communities were adapted to microcrystalline cellulose under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study cellulose hydrolysis in a microbial consortium. This adaptation selected for three dominant taxa--the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Thermus. A high-resolution profile of community development during the enrichment demonstrated a community transition from Firmicutes to a novel Bacteroidetes population that clusters in the Chitinophagaceae family. A representative strain of this population, strain NYFB, was successfully isolated, and sequencing of a nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that it was only 86% identical compared with other validated strains in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain NYFB grew well on soluble polysaccharide substrates, but grew poorly on insoluble polysaccharide substrates. Similar communities were observed in companion thermophilic enrichments on insoluble wheat arabinoxylan, a hemicellulosic substrate, suggesting a common model for deconstruction of plant polysaccharides. Combining observations of community dynamics and the physiology of strain NYFB, a cooperative successional model for polysaccharide hydrolysis by the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the thermophilic cellulolytic consortia is proposed. PMID:23763762

  1. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  4. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  5. Cutinolytic esterase activity of bacteria isolated from mixed-plant compost and characterization of a cutinase gene from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Selinger, L B

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine cutinolytic esterase (i.e., cutinase) activity by pseudomonads and bacteria isolated from mixed-plant compost. Approximately 400 isolates representing 52 taxa recovered from mixed-plant compost using cuticle baits, along with 117 pseudomonad isolates obtained from a culture collection (i.e., non-compost habitats), were evaluated. The ability of isolates to degrade the synthetic cutin polycaprolactone (PCL) was initially measured. Isolates from 23 taxa recovered from the compost degraded PCL. As well, isolates from 13 taxa of pseudomonads cleared PCL. Secondary screening measured esterase activity induced by the presence of apple cuticle using the chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Eighteen isolates representing four taxa (Alcaligenes faecalis , Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus pumilus , and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes) recovered from compost exhibited substantial esterase activity when grown with cuticle. In contrast, none of the pseudomonad isolates from the culture collection produced appreciable esterase activity. Although degradation of PCL was not correlated with esterase activity, isolates that were unable to degrade PCL failed to produce measureable esterase activities. Zymogram analysis indicated that the esterases produced by bacteria from compost ranged in size from 29 to 47 kDa. A gene from P. pseudoalcaligenes (cutA) was found to code for a cutin-induced esterase consisting of 302 amino acids and a theoretical protein size of 32 kDa. The enzyme was unique and was most closely related to other bacterial lipases (≤48% similarity). PMID:22029433

  6. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio < 15; (b) NH4+-N < 400 mg/kg; (c) CO2-C < 2000 mg CO2-C/kg; (d) dehydrogenase activity < 1 mg TPF/g dry matter; (e) germination index (GI) > 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes. PMID:20000002

  7. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  8. Phytostabilization of mine tailings using compost-assisted direct planting: Translating greenhouse results to the field.

    PubMed

    Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; White, Scott A; Root, Robert A; Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A; Hammond, Corin M; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-09-15

    Standard practice in reclamation of mine tailings is the emplacement of a 15 to 90cm soil/gravel/rock cap which is then hydro-seeded. In this study we investigate compost-assisted direct planting phytostabilization technology as an alternative to standard cap and plant practices. In phytostabilization the goal is to establish a vegetative cap using native plants that stabilize metals in the root zone with little to no shoot accumulation. The study site is a barren 62-hectare tailings pile characterized by extremely acidic pH as well as lead, arsenic, and zinc each exceeding 2000mgkg(-1). The study objective is to evaluate whether successful greenhouse phytostabilization results are scalable to the field. In May 2010, a 0.27ha study area was established on the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund (IKMHSS) site with six irrigated treatments; tailings amended with 10, 15, or 20% (w/w) compost seeded with a mix of native plants (buffalo grass, arizona fescue, quailbush, mountain mahogany, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) and controls including composted (15 and 20%) unseeded treatments and an uncomposted unseeded treatment. Canopy cover ranging from 21 to 61% developed after 41 months in the compost-amended planted treatments, a canopy cover similar to that found in the surrounding region. No plants grew on unamended tailings. Neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were 1.5 to 4 orders of magnitude higher after 41months in planted versus unamended control plots. Shoot tissue accumulation of various metal(loids) was at or below Domestic Animal Toxicity Limits, with some plant specific exceptions in treatments receiving less compost. Parameters including % canopy cover, neutrophilic heterotrophic bacteria counts, and shoot uptake of metal(loids) are promising criteria to use in evaluating reclamation success. In summary, compost amendment and seeding, guided by preliminary greenhouse studies, allowed plant establishment and sustained growth over 4years

  9. Decline in extractable antibiotics in manure-based composts during composting.

    PubMed

    Kim, K-R; Owens, G; Ok, Y S; Park, W-K; Lee, D B; Kwon, S-I

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of antibiotics have been detected in natural water samples and this is of potential concern because of the adverse environmental effects of such antibiotic residues. One of the main sources of antibiotics effluence to the surrounding environment is livestock manures which often contain elevated concentrations of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) which survive digestion in the animal stomach following application in animal husbandry practices. In Korea, livestock manures are normally used for compost production indicating that there is potential for antibiotic release to the environment through compost application to agricultural lands. Therefore, reduction of the amount of VAs in composts is crucial. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence of the composting process and the components of the compost on the levels of three common classes of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and macrolides). Composted materials at different stages of composting were collected from compost manufacturing plants and the variation in antibiotic concentrations was determined. Three different antibiotics, chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), and tylosin (TYL) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 20mgkg(-1)) were also applied to a mixture of pig manure and sawdust and the mixtures incubated using a laboratory scale composting apparatus to monitor the changes in antibiotic concentrations during composting together with the physicochemical properties of the composts. During composting, in both field and lab-scale investigations, the concentrations of all three different antibiotics declined below the relevant Korean guideline values (0.8mgkg(-1) for tetracyclines, 0.2mgkg(-1) for sulfonamides and 1.0mgkg(-1) for macrolides). The decline of tetracycline and sulfonamide concentrations was highly dependent on the presence of sawdust while there was no influence of sawdust on TYL decline. PMID:21865024

  10. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  11. Assessing risk of solid waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.M.; Razvi, A.S. )

    1987-03-01

    This paper addresses the movement of metals in soils and their accumulation in plants. Research with sewage sludge compost indicates that these risks can be minimized with proper handling and management. The objectives of this study were: (I) to evaluate potential groundwater contamination due to plant nutrients and heavy metals in the compost; and (II) to assess the accumulation of metals in plants grown on compost-amended soil. Data are presented for analyses of nickel, lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in snap beans.

  12. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation. PMID:26115526

  13. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    PubMed

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. PMID:27422047

  14. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  15. Managing for Improved Aerobic Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic deterioration or spoilage of silage is the result of aerobic microorganisms metabolizing components of the silage using oxygen. In the almost 40 years over which these silage conferences have been held, we have come to recognize the typical pattern of aerobic microbial development by which s...

  16. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  17. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  18. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production. PMID:11541773

  19. Composting: Taking the road less traveled

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, K.A.

    1997-02-01

    Last November, the Composting Council (Alexandria, Va.) brought together companies, federal agencies, universities, recycling and composting organizations, and individuals for its seventh annual conference, entitled Mapping the Future. For communities across the nation wondering how they are going to meet waste diversion goals by the year 2000, the conference focused on new products, innovations, and technology designed to help people have greater success in composting whether in their places of business or in their back yards. Of the many presenters at the conference, this article highlights three: Robert Dow, Mitch Kessler, and Nancy Allen. Although the systems they have developed do not appear, at first glance, to have much in common besides the conference presentations, they all represent how composting in unlikely locations--with unlikely materials or limited resources--can still work.

  20. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  1. Effects of oxytetracycline on the abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria during cattle manure composting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajun; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    The effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities were investigated during cattle manure composting. The abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were determined by qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The matrix was spiked with OTC at four levels: no OTC, 10mg/kg dry weight (DW) OTC (L), 60mg/kg DW OTC (M), and 200mg/kg DW OTC (H). The high temperature period of composting was shorter with M and H, and the decline in temperature during the cooling stage was accelerated by OTC. OTC had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the nitrogenase activity during early composting, and the nifH gene abundance declined significantly during the later composting stage. The DGGE profile and statistical analysis showed that OTC changed the nitrogen-fixing bacterial community succession and reduced the community richness and dominance. The nitrogen-fixing bacterial community structure was affected greatly by the high level of OTC. PMID:27318157

  2. Compost-induced suppression of Pythium damping-off is mediated by fatty-acid-metabolizing seed-colonizing microbial communities.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Mary E; Nelson, Eric B

    2003-01-01

    Leaf composts were studied for their suppressive effects on Pythium ultimum sporangium germination, cottonseed colonization, and the severity of Pythium damping-off of cotton. A focus of the work was to assess the role of fatty-acid-metabolizing microbial communities in disease suppression. Suppressiveness was expressed within the first few hours of seed germination as revealed by reduced P. ultimum sporangium germination, reduced seed colonization, and reduced damping-off in transplant experiments. These reductions were not observed when cottonseeds were sown in a conducive leaf compost. Microbial consortia recovered from the surface of cottonseeds during the first few hours of germination in suppressive compost (suppressive consortia) induced significant levels of damping-off suppression, whereas no suppression was induced by microbial consortia recovered from cottonseeds germinated in conducive compost (conducive consortia). Suppressive consortia rapidly metabolized linoleic acid, whereas conducive consortia did not. Furthermore, populations of fatty-acid-metabolizing bacteria and actinobacteria were higher in suppressive consortia than in conducive consortia. Individual bacterial isolates varied in their ability to metabolize linoleic acid and protect seedlings from damping-off. Results indicate that communities of compost-inhabiting microorganisms colonizing cottonseeds within the first few hours after sowing in a Pythium-suppressive compost play a major role in the suppression of P. ultimum sporangium germination, seed colonization, and damping-off. Results further indicate that fatty acid metabolism by these seed-colonizing bacterial consortia can explain the Pythium suppression observed. PMID:12514027

  3. Real-time quantification of mcrA, pmoA for methanogen, methanotroph estimations during composting.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Ryan, Kelly; Hao, Xiying; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Composting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms during predominantly aerobic conditions. It is being increasingly adopted due to its benefits in nutrient recycling, soil reclamation, and urban land use. However, it poses an environmental concern related to its contribution to greenhouse gas production. During composting, activities of methanogenic and methanotrophic communities influence the net methane (CH4) release into the atmosphere. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), this study was aimed at assessing the changes in the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) copy numbers for estimation of methanogenic and methanotrophic communities, respectively. Open-windrow composting of beef cattle (Bos Taurus L.) manure with temperatures reaching > 55 degrees C was effective indegrading commensal Escherichia coli within the first week. Quantification of community DNA revealed significant differences in mcrA and pmoA copy numbers between top and middle sections. Consistent mcrA copy numbers (7.07 to 8.69 log copy number g(-1)) were detected throughout the 15-wk composting period. However, pmoA copy number varied significantly over time, with higher values during Week 0 and 1 (6.31 and 5.41 log copy number g(-1), respectively) and the lowest at Week 11 (1.6 log copy number g(-1)). Net surface CH4 emissions over the 15-wk period were correlated with higher mcrA copy number. Higher net ratio of mrA: pmoA copy numbers was observed when surface CH4 flux was high. Our results indicate that mcrA and pmoA copy numbers vary during composting and that methanogen and methanotroph populations need to be examined in conjunction with net CH4 emissions from open-windrow composting of cattle feedlot manure. PMID:21488508

  4. Use of wastewater and compost extracts as nutrient sources for growing nursery and turfgrass species.

    PubMed

    Michitsch, Robert C; Chong, Calvin; Holbein, Bruce E; Voroney, R Paul; Liu, Hua-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient salts present in liquid by-products following waste treatment are lost resources if not effectively recycled, and can cause environmental problems if improperly disposed. This research compared the growth response and mineral nutrient status of two nursery and two turfgrass species, hydroponically supplied with nutritive by-product extracts derived from anaerobically digested municipal solid waste (MSW) and aerobically composted organic wastes from the mushroom and MSW industries. Forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia 'Lynwood') and weigela (Weigela florida 'Red Prince'), and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), were grown in nutrient solutions/extracts prepared from: (i) half-strength Hoagland's #2 solution (HH; control), (ii) Plant Products liquid fertilizer (PP; g kg(-1): 180 N; 39 P; 224 K), (iii) spent mushroom compost (SMC), (iv) MSW compost (GMC), and (v) intra-process wastewater from the anaerobic digestion of MSW (ADW). Additional nutrient solutions (SMC-A, GMC-A, and ADW-A) were prepared by amending the original solutions with N, P, and/or K to concentrations in HH (mg L(-1): 105 N; 15 P; 118 K). Plants receiving the SMC-A extract grew best or at least as well as those in HH, PP, and the amended GMC-A and ADW-A solutions. This study indicated that, with proper amendments of N, P, K and other nutrients, water-soluble constituents derived from organic waste treatment have potential for use as supplemental nutrient sources for plant production. PMID:17526882

  5. The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-09-01

    Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended. PMID:24656550

  6. Characterization of recycled mushroom compost leachate by chemical analysis and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gary; Kilpatrick, Mairead; Sharma, H S Shekhar; Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Hobbs, Phil; Andrews, Fiona; Carmichael, Eugene

    2008-08-13

    Recycled compost leachate (RCL or euphemistically named "goody water") can be a potent source of foul odor on mushroom substrate production sites and contributes to composting smells. A complex mixture of sulfur compounds, fatty acids, and nitrogen containing compounds is responsible for odor production. Fifty samples, collected from 14 compost production sites in Ireland and the U.K. over a 2 year period, were analyzed for chemical properties and by thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) for compositional differences. Results indicated that aerated samples had lower values of electrical conductivity, redox potential, and dry matter content than nonaerated samples and that the higher thermal stability of aerated samples measured by TGA could be attributed to greater mineralization of the substrate due to aerobic processes. The lower temperatures noted for peak evolution of methane, water, and carbon dioxide from TG-MS analysis suggested that a more energetic process had occurred in aerated RCL storage facilities, producing greater decomposition of macromolecules that volatilized at lower temperatures. Chemical composition, thermal stability of the freeze-dried leachate, pyrolysis profiles, and relative amounts of pyrolysis products were all markers of as to how effective control measures could influence RCL quality. PMID:18593181

  7. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    PubMed Central

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  8. Acceleration of Biochar Surface Oxidation during Composting?

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Katja; Fischer, Daniel; Walther, Sabine; Criscuoli, Irene; Favilli, Filippo; Nelle, Oliver; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-22

    Biochar composting experiments were performed to determine whether composting is a suitable method to accelerate biochar surface oxidation for increasing its reactivity. To assess the results, surface properties of Terra Preta (Brazil) and ancient charcoal pit (Northern Italy) biochars were additionally investigated. Calculation of O/C ratios by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated the anticipated increasing values from fresh biochars (0.13) to composted biochars (0.40), and finally charcoal pit biochars (0.54) and ancient Terra Preta biochars (0.64). By means of Fourier transformation infrared microscopy, formation of carboxylic and phenolic groups on biochars surface could be detected. Carboxylic acids of three composted biochars increased up to 14%, whereas one composted biochar showed a 21% lower proportion of carboxylic acids compared to the corresponding fresh biochar. Phenolic groups increased by 23% for the last mentioned biochar, and on all other biochars phenolic groups decreased up to 22%. Results showed that biochar surface oxidation can be accelerated through composting but still far away from ancient biochars. PMID:25802948

  9. Cow Manure Composting by Microbial Treatment for Using as Potting Material: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Alwaneen, Waleed S

    2016-01-01

    Dairy industry is flourishing in Saudi Arabia for the last two decades producing milk and milk products to meet the population needs. Simultaneously, it is also producing large amount of dairy waste (animal manure) posing a serious environmental issues. Vermicomposting (conversion of animal manure into compost by bacterial treatments) is considered as one of the safest means for efficient management and to mitigate environmental pollution issues resulting from land disposal of raw dairy wastes. The main objective of this studywas to summarize different processes of vermicomposting and identified the most important bacteria species suitable for vermicomposting using animal manure especially the cowdung. The review showed that among the different bacteria species, Eisenia fetida is the most efficient and commonly used bacteria for vermicomposting to develop compost using cow dung (dairy manure). Overall,this review has highlighted the various vermicomposting technologies, various bacteria species involved in vermicomposting, effect on soil and plant growth as well as the benefits of using compost prepared by way of vermicomposting. The study showed a lot of potential for the production of compost by vermicomposting technology using appropriate bacteria species which is safe, friendly and is associated with minimum environmental issues for safe land disposal of dairy waste (animal manure) with minimum possible environmental issues for the adjacent population. PMID:26930795

  10. Effect of Chinese medicinal herbal residues on microbial community succession and anti-pathogenic properties during co-composting with food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) during its co-composting with food waste (FW) in two different ratios along with a control. Inhibition on total microbial population were assessed while the numerically dominant microbes were isolated and their antagonistic effects were assessed. Results indicate that the active ingredients persist in the composting mass did not affect the microbes unspecifically as revealed from almost similar bacterial and fungal populations. Rather specific inhibitory activities against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum were observed. Apart from the CMHR-born active compounds, CMHR-induced changes in the antagonistic and mycoparasitic abilities of the bacteria and fungi also contribute to the specific inhibition against the tested pathogens. Therefore use of CMHRs during the composting of CMHRs enhances its antipathogenic property resulting in an anti-pathogenic compost. PMID:27039351

  11. Design and construction of a medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric system to assess aerobic biodegradation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Aguirre, Edgar

    A medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric (DMR) system was designed and built to assess the aerobic biodegradation of up to 30 materials in triplicate simultaneously. Likewise, a computer application was developed for rapid analysis of the data generated. The developed DMR system was able to simulate different testing conditions by varying temperature and relative humidity, which are the major exposure conditions affecting biodegradation. Two complete tests for determining the aerobic biodegradation of polymers under composting conditions were performed to show the efficacy and efficiency of both the DMR system and the DMR data analyzer. In both cases, cellulose reached 70% mineralization at 139 and 45 days. The difference in time for cellulose to reach 70% mineralization was attributed to the composition of the compost and water availability, which highly affect the biodegradation rate. Finally, among the tested materials, at least 60% of the organic carbon content of the biodegradable polymers was converted into carbon dioxide by the end of the test.

  12. Pathogen re-colonization of in-house composted and non-composted broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “In-house” litter composting has been reintroduced to the industry and shown to reduce bacteria by as much as two orders of magnitude. Other industries have demonstrated that pathogens can recolonize a waste-residual when microbial competition has been reduced or inhibited following composting. Po...

  13. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  14. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting. PMID:27526207

  15. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility. PMID:24299775

  16. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2016-09-01

    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting. PMID:27367291

  17. Physical Covering for Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in Static and Windrow Composting Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yossa, Irene; Macarisin, Dumitru; Millner, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 30-cm covering of finished compost (FC) on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in active static and windrow composting systems. Feedstocks inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7.41 log CFU/g) and Salmonella (6.46 log CFU/g) were placed in biosentry tubes (7.5-cm diameter, 30-cm height) at three locations: (i and ii) two opposing sides at the interface between the FC cover layer (where present) and the feedstock material (each positioned approximately 10 cm below the pile's surface) and (iii) an internal location (top) (approximately 30 cm below the surface). On specific sampling days, surviving populations of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, generic E. coli, and coliforms in compost samples were determined. Salmonella spp. were reduced significantly within 24 h in windrow piles and were below the detection limit after 3 and 7 days at internal locations of windrow and static piles containing FC covering, respectively. Likewise, E. coli O157:H7 was undetectable after 1 day in windrow piles covered with finished compost. Use of FC as a covering layer significantly increased the number of days that temperatures in the windrows remained ≥55°C at all locations and in static piles at internal locations. These time-temperature exposures resulted in rapid reduction of inoculated pathogens, and the rate of bacterial reduction was rapid in windrow piles. The sample location significantly influenced the survival of these pathogens at internal locations compared to that at interface locations of piles. Finished compost covering of compost piles aids in the reduction of pathogens during the composting process. PMID:25576620

  18. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  19. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  20. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  1. Economics and feasibility of co-composting solid waste in McHenry County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, J.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of composting various segments of the waste stream produced in McHenry County, IL. In particular, the study emphasized co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) with septage, co-composting of MSW with septage and sludge, leaf- and yard-waste composting, and composting various animal wastes. In addition to specific analysis of co-composting in McHenry, the report includes chapters on the technical description and implementation of composting, environmental considerations of co-composting, comparisons of different proprietary systems, the economics of composting, and an analysis of compost markets.

  2. Composting and vermicomposting experiences in the treatment and bioconversion of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luís Manuel; Gómez-Sobrino, Ernesto; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, María

    2008-04-01

    This work illustrates the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting in degrading fuel-in-water emulsions from oil spills (chapapote), and the isolation of potentially useful microorganisms for its biodegradation. Firstly, an alternative to the biodegradation of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill (still present in some chapapote rafts in the Cantabrian coast) by means of the application of composting techniques to a microbial partnership acclimated to fuel-oil is offered. Our aim is that, after a relatively short period of time, the microorganisms can obtain its source of carbon and energy from asphaltens. The addition of metabolic co-substrates, like cow bed and potato peelings, allows the fragmentation of complex compounds into smaller structures, susceptible to further degradation. Afterwards, a maturation of the compost by means of a treatment with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) is necessary. Thus, through the vermicomposting it will be possible to obtain a valued product, useful in the processes of ground amendment, with little presence of asphaltens and occluded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rich in humus, and with an important bacterial flora of Bacillus genera, so that it can be typical of co-activators and accelerating products in composting processes. Along with this article, we show some parameters that control the evolution of the compost products (evolved gases, acidity, temperature and humidity); the chemical and microbiological analytical results; and the germination assays of vermicomposting. Results reveal that by using microorganisms living in either earthworm intestines (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) or vermiculture substrates (Scedosporium apiospermium), it is possible to degrade and to eliminate the polycyclic asphaltens into CO(2) and H(2)O, helped by evaporation, dissolution and/or photo-oxidation processes. The obtained end product has contents of interesting vegetal nutrients and, mainly, it displays very high germination indices

  3. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  4. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  5. Performance of five Montreal West Island home composters.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    Even if home composting can eliminate municipal organic waste collection, handling and treatment costs, its compost quality requires investigation outside the laboratory. A study was thus conducted to evaluate the influence of the following management practices on the compost quality produced by five backyards home composters in Montreal West Island from June to October 2010: the type and backyard location of the home composter (HC), and the rate and type of organic waste (OW) fed into the home composter. The parameters monitored were compost temperature and final characteristics including trace elements and pathogens. For all HC compost, maximum but not necessarily thermophilic temperatures were highly probable within one week of adding more than 10 kg of OW composed of equal volumes of food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT). Top and bottom HC perforations enhanced convective aeration but concentrated OW decomposition within the bottom layer. Fed an equal volume of FW and YT, the final HC compost had a dry and organic matter content exceeding 30%, and 50%, respectively, and a total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium level of 2, 1 and 3% on a dry matter basis, representing a good quality soil amendment. Clean OW feeding resulted in compost respecting Canadian and European regulations for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, irrespective of the temperature regime. For trace elements, regulatory limits may be exceeded when the home composter is fed ashes and soil. Homeowners must also be careful when applying pesticides to their lawns and gardens and then feeding the residues to the home composter. PMID:23393981

  6. Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.; Gukert, D. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

  7. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of < 30 can be applied as a nitrogen source in EFB co-composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process. PMID:24527651

  8. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). PMID:25458767

  9. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  10. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  11. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  12. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  13. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  14. First Comprehensive Evaluation of the M.I.C. Evaluator Device Compared to Etest and CLSI Broth Microdilution for MIC Testing of Aerobic Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, L.; Brosnikoff, C.; Cloke, J.

    2012-01-01

    The M.I.C. Evaluator strip (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Basingstoke, United Kingdom) uses a methodology similar to that of Etest. In this first assessment of the M.I.C. Evaluator device, 409 strains of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci) and 325 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas species, and Acinetobacter species were tested by M.I.C. Evaluator strip, Etest, and broth microdilution as a reference standard. The Gram-positive bacteria included staphylococci (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci), Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci and viridians group strains, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and other enterococci. The Gram-negative bacteria included 250 strains of 60 Enterobacteriaceae species plus 50 Pseudomonas and 25 Acinetobacter species. A total of 14 antimicrobial agents (depending on the species) were included. The same methodology and reading format were used for M.I.C. Evaluator strips and Etest. Broth microdilution methodology was performed according to CLSI document M07-A8. For the clinical strains, >95% of results were plus or minus one doubling dilution for all species. There were fewer than 5% minor errors, fewer than 3% major errors, and fewer than 1% very major errors. M.I.C. Evaluator strips and Etest often reported higher MICs than the reference broth microdilution method. The M.I.C. Evaluator strips provided results comparable to those of the predicate Etest device and are of value for the accurate testing of MICs for these important pathogens. PMID:22238441

  15. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value. PMID:26708650

  16. Composting of MSW: Needs, problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is constructed of three complementary sections. The first section discusses the need for composting municipal solid waste (MSW). Too often as scientists and engineers the focus narrows to solve a specific problem within a system or to find the most cost effective solution. One habitually fails to examine concepts holistically due to tight schedules or work backlogs. One understands how things work and gets renumerated by the ability to scale up from the bench or pilot, keep costs down and to troubleshoot cranky processes. Sitting back to understand the reason why something like composting makes sense is a luxury one usually cannot afford. Section two discusses problems specific to MSW composting such as product quality, production stabilization, nuisance odors, and vector attraction. The final segment deals with some solutions to these difficulties.

  17. Cultural, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Analyses of Water-Stressed Cells of Actinobacterial Strains Isolated from Compost: Ecological Implications in the Fed-Batch Composting Process

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kanosue, Yuji; Hiraishi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of water activity (aw) on the viability of actinobacterial isolates from a fed-batch composting (FBC) process by comparing culturability and stainability with 5-cyano-2,3-ditoryl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). The FBC reactor as the source of these bacteria was operated with the daily loading of household biowaste for 70 d. During this period of composting, aw in the reactor decreased linearly with time and reached approximately 0.95 at the end of operation. The plate counts of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria were 3.2-fold higher than CTC-positive (CTC+) counts on average at the fully acclimated stage (after 7 weeks of operation), in which Actinobacteria predominated, as shown by lipoquinone profiling and cultivation methods. When the actinobacterial isolates from the FBC process were grown under aw stress, no significant differences were observed in culturability among the cultures, whereas CTC stainability decreased with reductions in aw levels. A cDNA microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of a representative isolate showed that many of the genes involved in cellular metabolism and genetic information processing were down-regulated by aw stress. This result was fully supported by a proteomic analysis. The results of the present study suggest that, in low aw mature compost, the metabolic activity of the community with Actinobacteria predominating is temporarily reduced to a level that hardly reacts with CTC; however, these bacteria are easily recoverable by exposure to a high aw culture medium. This may be a plausible reason why acclimated FBC reactors in which Actinobacteria predominate yields higher plate counts than CTC+ counts. PMID:27246805

  18. Influence of Initial C/N Ratio on Chemical and Microbial Composition during Long Term Composting of Straw.

    PubMed

    Eiland, F.; Klamer, M.; Lind, A.-M.; Leth, M.; Bååth, E.

    2001-04-01

    Shredded straw of Miscanthus was composted in 800-L boxes with different amounts of pig slurry added as nitrogen source. The impact of the different initial C/N ratios (11, 35, 47, 50, and 54) on the composting process and the end product was evaluated by examining chemical and microbiological parameters during 12 months of composting. Low initial C/N ratios caused a fast degradation of fibers during the first three months of composting (hemicellulose: 50-80%, cellulose: 40-60%), while high initial C/N ratios resulted in 10-20% degradation of both hemicellulose and cellulose. These differences were reflected in the microbial biomass and respiration, which initially were higher in low C/N treatments than in high C/N treatments. After 12 months of composting, this situation was reversed. Composts with high initial C/N ratios had high microbial biomass (15-20 mg ATP g-1 OM) and respiration rates (200 mg CO2 h-1 g-1 OM) compared to treatments with low initial C/N ratios (less than 10 mg ATP g-1 OM and 25 mg CO2 h-1 g-1 OM). This could be explained by the microorganisms being nitrogen limited in the high C/N ratio treatments. In the low C/N ratio treatments, without nitrogen limitation, the high activity in the beginning decreased with time because of exhaustion of easily available carbon. Different nitrogen availability was also seen in the nitrification patterns, since nitrate was only measured in significant amounts in the treatments with initial C/N ratios of 11 and 35. The microbial community structure (measured as phospholipid fatty acid, PLFA, profile) was also affected by the initial C/N ratios, with lower fungal/bacterial ratios in the low compared to the high C/N treatments after 12 months of composting. However, in the low C/N treatments higher levels of PLFAs indicative of thermophilic gram-positive bacteria were found compared to the high C/N treatments. This was caused by the initial heating phase being longer in the low than in the high C/N treatments

  19. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  20. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  1. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  2. Food waste composting: its use as a peat replacement.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M; Jones, D L

    2010-01-01

    We successfully co-composted catering waste with green waste and shredded paper to yield two high-nitrogen composts for use in horticulture. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in various mixtures of the compost and a commercially available peat-based compost to assess the efficacy of catering waste-based composts for peat replacement. Height, head diameter, seed mass and above-ground biomass were measured, with all mixtures giving a significant increase in yield or size over the commercially available peat-free control compost. We conclude that differences in physical structure governed sunflower growth over substrate chemistry, and none of the compost mixtures were nutrient deficient. We recommend that catering waste co-compost can be substituted to at least 75% within Sphagnum-based traditional growing media, providing a viable replacement for a large proportion of peat used as a growth medium in the horticulture industry. Our catering waste compost yielded similar seed head, seed mass and above-ground biomass values to 100% peat-based compost in all food waste compost blends tested in this study. PMID:20185289

  3. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  4. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from infections after trauma in children over a 20 year period. METHODS: Only specimens that were studied for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were included in the analysis. They were collected from seven separate centres in which the microbiology laboratories only accepted specimens that were properly collected without contamination and were submitted in appropriate transport media. Anaerobes and aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using standard techniques. Clinical records were reviewed to identify post-trauma patients. RESULTS: From 1974 to 1994, 175 specimens obtained from 166 children with trauma showed bacterial growth. The trauma included blunt trauma (71), lacerations (48), bites (42), and open fractures (5). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 38 specimens (22%), aerobic bacteria only in 51 (29%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 86 (49%); 363 anaerobic (2.1/specimen) and 158 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.9/specimen) were recovered. The predominant anaerobic bacteria included Peptostreptococcus spp (115 isolates), Prevotella spp (68), Fusobacterium spp (52), B fragilis group (42), and Clostridium spp (21). The predominant aerobic bacteria included Staph aureus (51), E coli (13), Ps aeruginosa (12), Str pyogenes (11) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9). Principal infections were: abscesses (52), bacteraemia (3), pulmonary infections (30, including aspiration pneumonia, tracheostomy associated pneumonia, empyema, and ventilator associated pneumonia), wounds (36, including cellulitis, post-traumatic wounds, decubitus ulcers, myositis, gastrostomy and tracheostomy site wounds, and fasciitis), bites (42, including 23 animal and 19 human), peritonitis (4), osteomyelitis (5), and sinusitis (3). Staph aureus and Str pyogenes were isolated at all sites. However, organisms of the oropharyngeal flora predominated in infections that originated from head and neck wounds and

  6. Microbiological assessments of compost toilets: in situ measurements and laboratory studies on the survival of fecal microbial indicators using sentinel chambers.

    PubMed

    Tønner-Klank, L; Møller, J; Forslund, A; Dalsgaard, A

    2007-01-01

    Compost toilet systems were assessed for their ability to reduce microbial indicators and pathogens. Bacterial pathogens were not detected in any samples indicating a low survival rate in composting feces and/or an initial low occurrence. Indicator bacteria showed large variations with no clear trend of lower bacterial numbers after longer storage. In controlled composting experiments, thermophilic conditions were only reached when amendments were made (grass and a sugar solution). Even then it was impossible to ensure a homogenous temperature in the composting fecal material and therefore difficult to achieve a uniform reduction and killing of indicator organisms. Presumptive thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella typhimurium Phage 28 B and eggs of Ascaridia galli, proved useful as indicators. However, regrowth was detected for enterococci and total numbers of bacteria grown at 36 degrees C. These indicator parameters may therefore overestimate the level of other (pathogenic) bacteria present in the material and can not be recommended for use as reliable indicator organisms in composting toilet systems. The addition of indicator bacteria to fecal material contained in semi-permeable capsules proved to be a useful technique to ensure that microorganisms were contained in a small test volume. PMID:16908129

  7. Effects of Compost on Colonization of Roots of Plants Grown in Metalliferous Mine Tailings, as Examined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Sadie L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between compost amendment, plant biomass produced, and bacterial root colonization as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization was examined following plant growth in mine tailings. Mine tailings can remain devoid of vegetation for decades after deposition due to a combination of factors that include heavy metal toxicity, low pH, poor substrate structure and water-holding capacity, and a severely impacted heterotrophic microbial community. Research has shown that plant establishment, a desired remedial objective to reduce eolian and water erosion of such tailings, is enhanced by organic matter amendment and is correlated with significant increases in rhizosphere populations of neutrophilic heterotrophic bacteria. Results show that for the acidic metalliferous tailings tested in this study, compost amendment was associated with significantly increased bacterial colonization of roots and increased production of plant biomass. In contrast, for a Vinton control soil, increased compost had no effect on root colonization and resulted only in increased plant biomass at high levels of compost amendment. These data suggest that the positive association between compost amendment and root colonization is important in the stressed mine tailings environment where root colonization may enhance both microbial and plant survival and growth. PMID:19047384

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of a Tropical Composting Operation at the São Paulo Zoo Park Reveals Diversity of Biomass Degradation Functions and Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pascon, Renata C.; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Digiampietri, Luciano A.; Barbosa, Deibs; Peixoto, Bruno Malveira; Vallim, Marcelo A.; Viana-Niero, Cristina; Ostroski, Eric H.; Telles, Guilherme P.; Dias, Zanoni; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; da Silva, Aline Maria; Setubal, João Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Composting operations are a rich source for prospection of biomass degradation enzymes. We have analyzed the microbiomes of two composting samples collected in a facility inside the São Paulo Zoo Park, in Brazil. All organic waste produced in the park is processed in this facility, at a rate of four tons/day. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced with Roche/454 technology, generating about 3 million reads per sample. To our knowledge this work is the first report of a composting whole-microbial community using high-throughput sequencing and analysis. The phylogenetic profiles of the two microbiomes analyzed are quite different, with a clear dominance of members of the Lactobacillus genus in one of them. We found a general agreement of the distribution of functional categories in the Zoo compost metagenomes compared with seven selected public metagenomes of biomass deconstruction environments, indicating the potential for different bacterial communities to provide alternative mechanisms for the same functional purposes. Our results indicate that biomass degradation in this composting process, including deconstruction of recalcitrant lignocellulose, is fully performed by bacterial enzymes, most likely by members of the Clostridiales and Actinomycetales orders. PMID:23637931

  9. Evaluation of microbial population dynamics in the co-composting of cow manure and rice straw using high throughput sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangming; Xu, Xiuhong; Qu, Juanjuan; Zhu, Liping; Wang, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    Microbial population dynamics in co-composting of cow manure and rice straw were evaluated using 16S high throughput sequencing technology. Physicochemical factors, including temperature, pH, nitrogen contents, the ratio of carbon and nitrogen, and germination index, were also determined in this study. 16S high throughput sequencing results showed that bacterial community structure and composition significantly varied in each phase of composting. The major phyla included Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes, respectively. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in all phases, and Actinobacteria was just dominant in the mesophilic phase, while Firmicutes and Planctomycetes were ubiquitous. At the genus level, Simiduia, Flavobacterium, unclassified Chitinophagaceae and Flexibacter notably changed in each phase of composting. Bacterial community diversity in the mesophilic phase was higher than that in others based on the Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson diversity index. The ratio of carbon and nitrogen and germination index indicated that the co-composting of cow manure and rice straw reached maturation. The result of nitrogen contents showed that nitrogen loss mainly occurred in the thermophilic phase. In addition, the differences in the distributions of key OTUs between in the late thermophilic phase and the cooling and maturation phase were unobvious compared with other phase's base on the principal component analysis. Redundancy analysis revealed that the changes of nitrogen played a predominant role in the distributions of OTUs during the composting process. PMID:27116967

  10. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  11. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  12. Composting of Sewage Sludge Using Recycled Matured Compost as a Single Bulking Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Jian; Niu, Huasi; Wu, Xingwu

    2010-11-01

    Pretreatment (bulking agent choice and mixing) is an essential phase of dewatered raw sludge (RS) composting affecting its industrialization significantly. In this paper recycled compost (RC) was chosen as a single bulking agent in the composting experiment instead of other agents such as sawdust, rice straw, MSW, and the mixing machine was developed for mixing of SS and RC. According to the mixing experiment, SS and RC can be mixed uniformly and formed into small particles of 10˜15 mm in diameter, which improved the availability of oxygen during composting. The effect of different volumetric ratios of RS to RC, 1:1 (Exp.1), 1:2 (Exp.2) and 1:4 (Exp.3), on the performance of composting was investigated in detail. Temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matter, C/N ratio and moisture content were monitored in each experiment. In despite of low initial C/N of the mixture, intensive fermentation happened in all the experiments. Exp.1 and Exp.2 achieved stability and sanitization, but Exp 1 took more days to accomplish the fermentation. Exp 3 maintained thermophilic temperatures for a shortest time and did not satisfy the necessary sanitation requirements because more RC was recycled. In all experiments, the moisture content of their final composts were too high to be used as bulking agents before extra moisture was reduced. RS: RC = 1:2 (v/v) was the optimum and advisable proportion for the industrialization of sewage sludge composting of, the composting period was about 10 days, and the aeration rate 0.05 m3/(m3ṡmin) was appropriate in this study.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  14. Highbush blueberry response to compost and sulfur

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highbush blueberry is adapted to soils with high organic matter and acidic pH and is often grown in Oregon with coniferous sawdust as a soil amendment or mulch. Composts could provide an alternative to sawdust, but acidification is needed to overcome high pH. Our objectives were to (i) predict the q...

  15. Converting Alaska Fish Byproducts into Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska’s commercial fishing industry, sportfishing and subsistence fisheries generate over one million metric tons of processing waste each year. Composting is a practical alternative for salvaging some of these discarded materials. Rural and remote coastal communities can benefit from these sources...

  16. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  17. Nitrogen availability from compost dairy barn manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new dairy cow housing with deep bedding, commonly called compost dairy barns (CDB), is being adopted by small- to medium-sized farms. There have been no reports of nitrogen (N) availability from this manure. In laboratory and field trials, we characterized the nutrient content and N ava...

  18. Chemical characterization and analysis of TNT composts

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.G.; Leggett, D.C.; Jenkins, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    The US Army has considerable interest in restoring land previously contaminated with the explosive, TNT. One method of remediation that is economically attractive is composting. Previous work on TNT/soil composts indicates that TNT was initially converted to solvent-extractable reduction products. These compounds were subsequently bound in a non-solvent-extractable form. There was no evidence that mineralization occurred. Similar observations have been made with respect to TNT amended soils, activated sludge and tissues of plants grown hydroponically in TNT solutions. Last year the authors reported on a method that used acid hydrolysis after solvent extraction to release covalently-bound amino and diamino TNT-reduction products from a compost time-series. This year the authors have added a base hydrolysis step preceding the acid hydrolysis. About 25% of the original TNT can now be accounted for as covalently-bound reduction products in a 15-day compost. Furthermore, recovery experiments have revealed that the method is not yet very efficient with regard to recovery of spiked aminos and diaminos. Work is continuing on improving the method and/or developing a rigorous recovery correction factor so that a mass balance for TNT can be obtained.

  19. Compost: The Rot Thing for Our Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Fred; Fucigna, Carolee

    2013-01-01

    Fred Estes is a science teacher and lower school science coordinator at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Carolee Fucigna is a prekindergarten teacher at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Their year in the classroom regularly begins with starting a compost pile that serves as a focus for classroom research and science…

  20. ANIMAL WASTE COMPOSTING WITH CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    High rate thermophilic composting of animal wastes with added carbonaceous waste materials followed by land application has considerable potential as a means of treatment and useful final disposal of these wastes. The process described in this report utilizes a mechanically mixed...

  1. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth. PMID:15751394

  2. Physical Modeling of the Composting Ecosystem †

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, J. A.; Miller, F. C.; Finstein, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A composting physical model with an experimental chamber with a working volume of 14 × 103 cm3 (0.5 ft3) was designed to avoid exaggerated conductive heat loss resulting from, relative to field-scale piles, a disproportionately large outer surface-area-to-volume ratio. In the physical model, conductive flux (rate of heat flow through chamber surfaces) was made constant and slight through a combination of insulation and temperature control of the surrounding air. This control was based on the instantaneous conductive flux, as calculated from temperature differentials via a conductive heat flow model. An experiment was performed over a 10-day period in which control of the composting process was based on ventilative heat removal in reference to a microbially favorable temperature ceiling (temperature feedback). By using the conduction control system (surrounding air temperature controlled), 2.4% of the total heat evolved from the chamber was through conduction, whereas the remainder was through the ventilative mechanisms of the latent heat of vaporization and the sensible temperature increase of air. By comparison, with insulation alone (the conduction control system was not used) conduction accounted for 33.5% of the total heat evolved. This difference in conduction resulted in substantial behavioral differences with respect to the temperature of the composting matrix and the amount of water removed. By emphasizing the slight conduction system (2.4% of total heat flow) as being a better representative of field conditions, a comparison was made between composting system behavior in the laboratory physical model and field-scale piles described in earlier reports. Numerous behavioral patterns were qualitatively similar in the laboratory and field (e.g., temperature gradient, O2 content, and water removal). It was concluded that field-scale composting system behavior can be simulated reasonably faithfully in the physical model. Images PMID:16347903

  3. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  4. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-03-15

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  5. Laboratory composting of extruded poly(lactic acid) sheets.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, V M; Gennadios, A; Hanna, M A

    2001-01-01

    Composting of extruded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in combination with pre-composted yard waste in a laboratory composting system was studied. Yard waste and PLA mixtures containing 0%, 10%, or 30% PLA (dry weight basis) were placed in composting vessels for four weeks. Exhaust gases were analyzed for carbon dioxide concentration twice per week. After the first week, significantly greater (P < 0.05) amounts of carbon dioxide were generated in vessels with 10% or 30% PLA than in control (0% PLA) vessels. Data indicated that microbial degradation of PLA occurred. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in carbon dioxide emission between 10% and 30% PLA mixtures. Compost pH dropped (from 6.0 to 4.0) after 4 weeks of composting for 30% PLA, but remained unchanged (6.3) for 0% or 10% PLA. Most likely, in the case of 30% PLA, substantial chemical hydrolysis and lactic acid generation lowered the compost pH. The lowered pH likely suppressed microbial activity, thus explaining the lack of difference in carbon dioxide emissions between 10% and 30% PLA mixtures. Gel permeation chromatography showed a notable decrease in PLA molecular weight as a result of composting. It was demonstrated that PLA can be efficiently composted when added in small amounts (<30% by weight) to pre-composted yard waste. PMID:11315811

  6. Heavy metals in composts of separated municipal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.P.; Huang, W.C.; Fan, W.H.; Hsu, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study is to examine the influence of the metal components on the contents of heavy metals in composts of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). Fresh MSW used in composting was obtained from the city landfill of Taichung in Taiwan. Compost 1 was from as-collected MSW; Compost 2 was from degradable fraction in MSW; Compost 3 was from MSW without metal. The results show that the total concentration of zinc is the highest among the five heavy metals examined. Paper wastes are main sources of lead and copper with average concentrations of 18.53 mg/kg and 26.92 mg/kg of compost on dry weight. The contents of nickel and cadmium are relatively low. The total concentrations of the five heavy metals in composts increase by typical ratios between 1.72 and 2.58 for Composts 2 and 3, but 3.16 to 4.69 for Compost 1. The increase of concentration around a ratio of 2.0 is due to the loss of degraded organic matter. For the ratios above 2.0, fractions of some heavy metals have corroded from the surfaces of metal components into the Compost 1 in the early phase of acidic fermentation.

  7. Treatment of coal mine drainage with a compost-limestone reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tarutis, W.J. Jr.; Walski, T.M.; Klemow, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    A bench-scale system containing spent mushroom compost (SMC) and limestone (in series) was used to evaluate reactor efficiency in treating synthetic coal mine drainages of varying quality over a 234-day period. Pore water samples taken along the direction of flow revealed an acidic oxidation front which progressively penetrated the SMC, resulting in reduced treatment performance, decreased iron and manganese retention, and a shortened reactor life expectancy. It is thought that acidification depressed pH and leached sufficient organic carbon to permanently inhibit bacterial sulfate reduction and the consequent formation of iron sulfides.

  8. Compost maturity and nitrogen availability by co-composting of paddy husk and chicken manure amended with clinoptilolite zeolite.

    PubMed

    Latifah, Omar; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Susilawati, Kassim; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-04-01

    The availability of paddy husk from rice processing plants remains high owing to increase in the worldwide rice consumption. Increasing demand for chicken products leads to poultry wastes production. Co-composting of the aforementioned wastes could solve the indiscriminate disposal of these wastes. Thus, co-composting of paddy husk and chicken slurry with clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additive was carried out. Clinoptilolite zeolite was used to enhance ammonium and nitrate retention in the compost. Temperature of the compost was monitored three times daily for 55 days. Cation exchange capacity, organic matter, ash, humic acids, pH, total C, N, C/N ratio; total P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, NH4+, NO3-, and heavy metals contents were determined using standard procedures. pH, total N, humic acids, ash, NH4+, NO3-, P, Ca, Mg, and K contents increased but the salinity, heavy metals contents, and microbial population were low after the co-composting process. Zea mays L. (test crop) seed germination rate in distilled water and the compost were not significantly different. Growth of Spinach oleracea (test crop) on a peat-based growing medium and the compost was also not significantly different. These findings were possible because the clinoptilolite zeolite used in co-composting reduced accumulation of heavy metals that may have damage effects on the test crops. Mature compost with good agronomic properties can be produced by co-composting chicken slurry and paddy husk using clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additives. PMID:25819928

  9. Effect of matured compost as an inoculating agent on odour removal and maturation of vegetable and fruit waste compost.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Kuo, Jong-Tar; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2013-01-01

    The use of matured compost as an inoculation agent to improve the composting of vegetable and fruit wastes in a laboratory-scale composter was evaluated, and the commercial feasibility of this approach in a pilot-scale (1.8 x 10(4) L) composter was subsequently confirmed. The effect of aeration rate on the physico-chemical and biological properties of compost was also studied. Aeration rate affected the fermentation temperature, moisture content, pH, O2 consumption rate, CO2 production rate and the formation of odour. The optimal aeration rate was 2.5 L air/kg dry solid/min. The CO2 production rate approached the theoretical value during composting and was linearly dependent on temperature, indicating that the compost system had good operating characteristics. The inoculation of cellulolytic bacteria and deodorizing bacteria to compost in the pilot-scale composter led to an 18.2% volatile solids loss and a 64.3% volume reduction ratio in 52 h; only 1.5 ppm(v) odour was detected. This is the first study to focus on both operating performance and odour removal in a pilot-scale composter. PMID:23530345

  10. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Beníšek, Martin; Kukučka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Luděk

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22μg (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. PMID:25522853

  11. Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naser; Clark, Ian; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Shea, Syd; Meier, Sebastian; Qi, Fangjie; Kookana, Rai S; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation. PMID:26044389

  12. Efficacy of bioconversion of paper mill bamboo sludge and lime waste by composting and vermiconversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, B; Sinha, I; Sharma, P; Goswami, L; Bhattacharyya, P; Gogoi, N; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Paper mill bamboo sludge (PMBS) and Paper mill lime waste (PMLW) are extensively produced as solid wastes in paper mills. Untreated PMBS and PMLW contain substantial amount of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr) in soluble forms. Efficiency of vermiconversion and aerobic composting with these wastes is reported here. Adopted bioconversion systems enhanced the availability of some essential nutrients (N, P, K and Zn) in various combinations of cow dung (CD) with PMBS and PMLW. Colonization of nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria considerably intensified under the vermiconversion system. Moreover, significant metal detoxification occurred due to vermiconversion. Various combinations of bioconverted PMBS and PMLW were applied to tissue cultured bamboo (Bambusa tulda) and chilli (Capsicum annum). Accelerated nutrient uptake coupled with improved soil quality resulted in significant production of chilli. Furthermore, vermiconverted PMBS+CD (1:1) and PMLW+CD (1:3) confirmed as potential enriching substrate for tissue cultured bamboo. PMID:24873710

  13. Recovery of humic-like susbtances from low quality composts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Elisabete F; Lemos, Luís T; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Nunes, Olga C; Cunha-Queda, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    The quality of four commercial composts produced from poultry litter and municipal solid wastes was assessed based on their physic-chemical, stability and maturity parameters. These properties varied among the analysed composts; it was found that electric conductivity, heavy metals content and maturity were the parameters that limited the composts quality. Therefore, the feasibility of using them to obtain liquid fertilisers rich in humic-like substances (HS) was assessed. The HS yield, phytotoxicity, heavy metals co-extraction and chemical characterization were carried out. The linkage of the HS chemical composition with the compost properties was assessed by multivariate analysis. Among the compost properties, germination indices, Cr and Cu contents were the parameters that correlated most with the HS chemical composition. The low levels of metals and absence of phytotoxicity in all the analysed HS extracts indicate that composts with low quality may be used to produce liquid organic fertilisers, substituting those from natural resources. PMID:23211490

  14. Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

  15. Influence of the composition and removal characteristics of organic matter on heavy metal distribution in compost leachates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Dan; Guo, Xu-Jing; Cui, Dong-Yu; Pan, Hong-Wei; Ma, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Compost leachates were collected to investigate the influence of the composition and removal of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), humic-like substances (HSs), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) on heavy metal distribution during the leachate treatment process. The results showed that acetic and propionic acids accounted for 81.3 to 93.84% of VFAs, and that these acids were removed by the anaerobic-aerobic process. Humic- and fulvic-like substances were detected by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis, and their content significantly decreased after the anaerobic and membrane treatments. DON in compost leachates ranged from 26.53 mg L(-1) to 919.46 mg L(-1), comprised of dissolved free amino acids and the protein-like matter bound to humic- and fulvic-like substances, and was removed by the aerobic process. Correlation analysis showed that Mn, Ni, and Pb were bound to VFAs and protein-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances in the leachates. Co was primarily bound to fulvic- and humic-like matter and inorganic sulfurs, whereas Cu, Zn, and Cd interacted with inorganic sulfur. PMID:24595753

  16. Investigating the effects of anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment on quality and stability of organic fraction of municipal solid waste as soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Y A; Akunna, J C; White, N A; Hallett, P D; Wheatley, R

    2008-12-01

    The use of OFMSW for biogas and compost production is considered as a sustainable strategy in saving valuable landfill space while producing valuable product for soil application. This study examines the effects of anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment of OFMSW on the stability of anaerobic digestate and compost and soil quality using seed germination tests. Anaerobic digestion of OFMSW was carried out for fifteen days after which the residual anaerobic digestate was subjected to aerobic post-treatment for seventy days. Seed germination tests showed that fresh feedstock and digestates collected during anaerobic digestion and during the early stages of aerobic post-treatment were phytotoxic. However, phytotoxic effects were not observed in soils amended with the fully stabilised anaerobic digestate compost, ADC. It was also found that seed germination increases with dilution and incubation time, suggesting that lower soil application rates and longer lag periods between soil application of ADC and planting can reduce the amount of biodegradable organics in the ADC, thus enhancing the benefits of ADC as soil amendment. PMID:18511266

  17. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  18. Changes in cadmium mobility during composting and after soil application

    SciTech Connect

    Hanc, Ales Tlustos, Pavel; Szakova, Jirina; Habart, Jan

    2009-08-15

    The effect of twelve weeks of composting on the mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in six composts containing sewage sludge, wood chips and grass was studied, along with the cadmium immobilization capacity of compost. Two different soils were used and Cd accumulation measured in above-ground oat biomass (Avena sativa L.). Increasing pH appears to be an important cause of the observed decreases in available cadmium through the composting process. A pot experiment was performed with two different amounts of compost (9.6 and 28.8 g per kg of soil) added into Fluvisol with total Cd 0.255 mg kg{sup -1}, and contaminated Cambisol with total Cd 6.16 mg kg{sup -1}. Decrease of extractable Cd (0.01 mol l{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}) was found in both soils after compost application. The higher amount of compost immobilized an exchangeable portion of Cd (0.11 mol l{sup -1} CH{sub 3}COOH extractable) in contaminated Cambisol unlike in light Fluvisol. The addition of a low amount of compost decreased the content of Cd in associated above-ground oat biomass grown in both soils, while a high amount of compost decreased the Cd content in oats only in the Cambisol.

  19. Effect of initial physical characteristics on sludge compost performance.

    PubMed

    Trémier, Anne; Teglia, Cécile; Barrington, Suzelle

    2009-08-01

    To develop an active microbial activity quickly developing stabilizing thermophilic temperatures during the composting of wastewater sludge, the bulking agent (BA) plays a major role in establishing the recipe structure, exposed particle surface area and porosity. To optimize the biodegradation of a sludge compost recipe, the objective of this paper was to study the effect and interaction of initial moisture content (MC) and BA particle size distribution. Three 300 L insulated laboratory composters were used to treat two series of ten (10) recipes with different combinations of MC and BA particle size distribution. Using a to wastewater sludge to BA dry mass ratio of 1/6, the ten (10) recipes were repeated using two BA, residues recycled from a commercial sludge composting plant and crushed wood pallets. Each four week trial monitored O(2) uptake, temperature, compost consolidation and airflow distribution. The Central Composite Factor Design method produced a model from the results estimating the impact of a wider range of MC and BA particles size distribution. The MC directly affected the total O(2) uptake and therefore, organic matter biodegradation. The BA particle size distribution influenced compost consolidation with a MC crossed effect. Both BA particle size distribution and MC influenced compost airflow dispersion. Composting was optimized using the BA consisting of recycled green waste residues with particle size of 20-30 mm and a 55% MC. The predictive models suggested the need for further optimization of sludge and wood residue composting recipe. PMID:19231167

  20. Co-composting of palm oil mill sludge-sawdust.

    PubMed

    Yaser, Abu Zahrim; Abd Rahman, Rakmi; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2007-12-15

    Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40 degrees C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7). The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components. PMID:19093514

  1. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation. PMID:25443096

  2. Sewage sludge composting: quality assessment for agricultural application.

    PubMed

    Nafez, Amir Hossein; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Kadkhodaie, Safora; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Moghim, Sharareh

    2015-11-01

    In order to use sewage sludge (SS) composts in agriculture, it is extremely important to estimate the quality of compost products. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of composted SS as a fertilizer and soil amendment especially in semi-arid areas. To determine the quality and agronomic value of the SS compost products, analyses on pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity, microbial load, and heavy metal content of composted anaerobically digested SS, with different proportions (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v) of green and dry plant waste, as bulking agents, were performed. The 1:2 and 1:3 mixtures of SS and green/dry plant waste were the most beneficial for composting, with final composts attaining high organic matter degradation and exhibiting low amounts of heavy metals, a relatively high germination index, and significant reduction of pathogens, suggesting the agricultural relevance of composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 (v/v) proportions. pH and electrical conductivity were also within the permissible limits. With respect to international standards, it appears that composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 proportions pose no threat to soil or plant quality if used in agriculture or land restoration. PMID:26508019

  3. Agricultural potential of anaerobically digested industrial orange waste with and without aerobic post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka; Oikari, Aimo

    2012-01-01

    The potential of anaerobically digested orange waste with (AAD) and without (AD) aerobic post-treatment for use in agriculture was evaluated through chemical analyses, short-term phytotoxicity and long-term plant assays. Chemical analyses showed that AD contained ammonia and organic acids, and aerobic post-treatment did not significantly remove these phytotoxins. The N:P2O5:K2O ratio in AD was 1:0.26:0.96 and aerobic post-treatment did not change the composition in AAD except for K2O (1:0.26:1.24). Heavy metal contents in AD and AAD were more or less the same and were below the upper limit recommended for non-sewage sludge application on agricultural soils. Short-term phytotoxicity tests showed that seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbage and ryegrass were severely inhibited at digestate concentrations of 60-100%. Germination index values were well below the score of 50% required to indicate the phytotoxic-free nature of compost. Long-term plant assays showed that AD and AAD, when supplemented with a base fertilizer, resulted in higher plant growth, and fresh weight and dry matter production than AD without base fertilizer. The results thus indicate that aerobic post-treatment did not have any significant beneficial effect on reducing phytotoxicity, and AD could be used as such on agricultural soils, especially with high P. PMID:22519091

  4. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  5. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program. PMID:22648349

  6. COP-compost: a software to study the degradation of organic pollutants in composts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Zhu, Y-G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2014-02-01

    Composting has been demonstrated to be effective in degrading organic pollutants (OP) whose behaviour depends on the composting conditions, the microbial populations activated and interactions with organic matters. The fate of OP during composting involves complex mechanisms and models can be helpful tools for educational and scientific purposes, as well as for industrialists who want to optimise the composting process for OP elimination. A COP-Compost model, which couples an organic carbon (OC) module and an organic pollutant (OP) module and which simulates the changes of organic matter, organic pollutants and the microbial activities during the composting process, has been proposed and calibrated for a first set of OP in a previous study. The objectives of the present work were (1) to introduce the COP-Compost model from its convenient interface to a potential panel of users, (2) to show the variety of OP that could be simulated, including the possibility of choosing between degradation through co-metabolism or specific metabolism and (3) to show the effect of the initial characteristics of organic matter quality and its microbial biomass on the simulated results of the OP dynamic. In the model, we assumed that the pollutants can be adsorbed on organic matter according to the biochemical quality of the OC and that the microorganisms can degrade the pollutants at the same time as they degrade OC (by co-metabolism). A composting experiment describing two different (14)C-labelled organic pollutants, simazine and pyrene, were chosen from the literature because the four OP fractions simulated in the model were measured during the study (the mineralised, soluble, sorbed and non-extractable fractions). Except for the mineralised fraction of simazine, a good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of the different organic fractions. For simazine, a specific biomass had to be added. To assess the relative importance

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of the biodegradation of PLA/clay nanocomposites during thermophilic phase of composting process.

    PubMed

    Stloukal, Petr; Pekařová, Silvie; Kalendova, Alena; Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Holzer, Clemens; Chitu, Livia; Bodner, Sabine; Maier, Guenther; Slouf, Miroslav; Koutny, Marek

    2015-08-01

    The degradation mechanism and kinetics of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite films, containing various commercially available native or organo-modified montmorillonites (MMT) prepared by melt blending, were studied under composting conditions in thermophilic phase of process and during abiotic hydrolysis and compared to the pure polymer. Described first order kinetic models were applied on the data from individual experiments by using non-linear regression procedures to calculate parameters characterizing aerobic composting and abiotic hydrolysis, such as carbon mineralization, hydrolysis rate constants and the length of lag phase. The study showed that the addition of nanoclay enhanced the biodegradation of PLA nanocomposites under composting conditions, when compared with pure PLA, particularly by shortening the lag phase at the beginning of the process. Whereas the lag phase of pure PLA was observed within 27days, the onset of CO2 evolution for PLA with native MMT was detected after just 20days, and from 13 to 16days for PLA with organo-modified MMT. Similarly, the hydrolysis rate constants determined tended to be higher for PLA with organo-modified MMT, particularly for the sample PLA-10A with fastest degradation, in comparison with pure PLA. The acceleration of chain scission in PLA with nanoclays was confirmed by determining the resultant rate constants for the hydrolytical chain scission. The critical molecular weight for the hydrolysis of PLA was observed to be higher than the critical molecular weight for onset of PLA mineralization, suggesting that PLA chains must be further shortened so as to be assimilated by microorganisms. In conclusion, MMT fillers do not represent an obstacle to acceptance of the investigated materials in composting facilities. PMID:25981155

  8. Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Christian, David; Wong, Edmund; Crawford, Ronald L; Cheng, I Francis; Hess, Thomas F

    2010-12-14

    Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters. We examined the operation of a field-scale bioreactor (containing mixed compost, straw and gravel) for treatment of runoff from the Mother Load (ML) mine in northern Idaho, U.S. and compared it to an experimental laboratory-scale reactor, containing a similar matrix and treating similar mine runoff water. In general both reactors were efficient in removing most of the metals assayed, Al, As, Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, with the exception of Mn. Both systems showed evidence of bacterial-mediated sulphate reduction and concomitant metal sulphide complexes. However, the experimental laboratory bioreactor showed greater proportions of immobile metals reductions than did the ML bioreactor, presumably due to the greater action of sulphate-reducing bacteria. The major metal removal mechanism in the ML bioreactor was surmised to be adsorption. Differences in metal removal mechanisms between the reactors were hypothesized to be due to fluctuating hydraulic residence times at the ML site, in turn, due to unregulated runoff flow. PMID:21275250

  9. Harvesting Electricity with Geobacter bremensis Isolated from Compost

    PubMed Central

    Nercessian, Olivier; Parot, Sandrine; Délia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain; Achouak, Wafa

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemically active (EA) biofilms were formed on metallic dimensionally stable anode-type electrode (DSA), embedded in garden compost and polarized at +0.50 V/SCE. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that biofilms were heavily enriched in Deltaproteobacteria in comparison to control biofilms formed on non-polarized electrodes, which were preferentially composed of Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among Deltaproteobacteria, sequences affiliated with Pelobacter and Geobacter genera were identified. A bacterial consortium was cultivated, in which 25 isolates were identified as Geobacter bremensis. Pure cultures of 4 different G. bremensis isolates gave higher current densities (1400 mA/m2 on DSA, 2490 mA/m2 on graphite) than the original multi-species biofilms (in average 300 mA/m2 on DSA) and the G. bremensis DSM type strain (100–300 A/m2 on DSA; 2485 mA/m2 on graphite). FISH analysis confirmed that G. bremensis represented a minor fraction in the original EA biofilm, in which species related to Pelobacter genus were predominant. The Pelobacter type strain did not show EA capacity, which can explain the lower performance of the multi-species biofilms. These results stressed the great interest of extracting and culturing pure EA strains from wild EA biofilms to improve the current density provided by microbial anodes. PMID:22470538

  10. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  11. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    SciTech Connect

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  12. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    PubMed

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (<4.2 or <3.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), respectively). No hygiene indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment. PMID:20392787

  13. RUTGERS STRATEGY FOR COMPOSTING: PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strategy for sludge composting was developed to counter the tendency of other composting systems to operate at high temperatures that inhibit and slow decomposition. This method, known as the Rutgers strategy, can be implemented in a static pile configuration to retain structur...

  14. Compost: a potential value-added product for dairy operations?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the composting potential of various bedding materials that were previously used in experimental compost-bedded packs for dairy cows. Each material was placed in windrows (1.8 m high, 9.1 m long, and 2.3 m wide) from April 2007 to September 2007 and managed...

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE IN A BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was initiated to determine the feasibility of composting municipal sludge in an aerated tank bioreactor system and to develop baseline data for the rational operation and design of enclosed reactor composting systems. A variety of conditions was tested and various mi...

  16. "ComPost": A Writing Program Newsletter and Its Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development and rationale of "ComPost," a weekly newsletter of the Composition Program at the University of Louisville. Suggests that a vehicle like ComPost can promote the communications that contribute to accomplishing collegiality and genuine program consensus. (RS)

  17. Trained Home Composters Reduce Solid Waste by 18%.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vossen, Paul; Rilla, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    In the University of California Cooperative Extension's Master Gardener Program, a partnership with the Sonoma County Waste Management Agency, volunteers teach approximately 1000 people annually how to compost in their backyards to help reduce landfill waste. Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1996 showed that home composters reduced their input into…

  18. SOIL PROPERTIES OF SITES USED FOR COMPOSTING ANIMAL MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term animal manure composting creates zones of high soil nutrient and salinity. Once the composting operation is terminated, there is a need to reclaim the sites for agricultural crops. The objective of this study is to evaluate soil properties and performance of corn (Zea mays), sorghum (Sor...

  19. CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL ASPECTS OF SLUDGE COMPOSTING AND LAND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of six studies was conducted to evaluate selected microbial and chemical aspects of composting and sludge spreading. Ammonia (NH3 was shown to be viricidal at pH 7 to 9). Enzymatic activity was not inhibited when well stabilized or composted sludge containing high concen...

  20. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  1. Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

  2. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiquia, Sonia M.

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

  3. Linking N2O emission from biochar-amended composting process to the abundance of denitrify (nirK and nosZ) bacteria community.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuqing; Song, Lina; Jin, Yaguo; Liu, Shuwei; Shen, Qirong; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-12-01

    Manure composting has been recognized as an important anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributing to global warming. However, biochar effect on N2O emissions from manure composting is rarely evaluated, especially by linking it to abundance of denitrifying bacteria community. Results of this study indicated that biochar amendment significantly reduced N2O emissions from manure composting, primarily due to suppression of the nirK gene abundance of denitrifying bacteria. Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between nirK abundance and N2O fluxes, while a negative correlation between nosZ density and N2O fluxes. Simultaneously, a linear correlation between nirK gene abundance minus nosZ gene abundance with N2O fluxes was also observed. In addition, a statistical model for estimating N2O emissions based on the bacterial denitrifying functional genes was developed and verified to adequately fit the observed emissions. Our results highlighted that biochar amendment would be an alternative strategy for mitigating N2O emissions during manure composting, and the information of related functional bacterial communities could be helpful for understanding the mechanism of N2O emissions. PMID:27207069

  4. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E.; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M.; Houot, S.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We design an innovative small-scale composting device including six 4-l reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the performance and reproducibility of composting on a small scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic conditions are established by self-heating in all replicates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical transformations, organic matter losses and stabilisation are realistic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic matter evolution exhibits good reproducibility for all six replicates. - Abstract: Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final

  5. Effects of Compost Tea and Compost Socks on Microbiological and Harvest Quality of Strawberry Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost tea (CT) is considered by some organic and conventional growers as a cost-effective, biologically-based control for several foliar and root diseases when used as a spray or soil drench. CT has been shown to enhance strawberry fruit yields as well as reduce disease severity of Botrytis cinere...

  6. Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium by Cultures of Cecal Bacteria during Aerobic Incubation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to examine the ability of cecal bacterial cultures from broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium during aerobic incubation. Cecal broth media was inoculated with 10 µl of cecal contents from 6 week old broilers taken from 2 separate flocks. Cultures were incubat...

  7. Experimental and modeling approaches for food waste composting: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhentong; Lu, Hongwei; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2013-10-01

    Composting has been used as a method to dispose food waste (FW) and recycle organic matter to improve soil structure and fertility. Considering the significance of composting in FW treatment, many researchers have paid their attention on how to improve FW composting efficiency, reduce operating cost, and mitigate the associated environmental damage. This review focuses on the overall studies of FW composting, not only various parameters significantly affecting the processes and final results, but also a number of simulation approaches that are greatly instrumental in well understanding the process mechanism and/or results prediction. Implications of many key ingredients on FW composting performance are also discussed. Perspects of effective laboratory experiments and computer-based simulation are finally investigated, demonstrating many demanding areas for enhanced research efforts, which include the screening of multi-functional additives, volatile organiccompound emission control, necessity of modeling and post-modeling analysis, and usefulness of developing more conjunctive AI-based process control techniques. PMID:23876506

  8. Microbiology of nitrogen cycle in animal manure compost

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Hanajima, Dai; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Morioka, Riki; Osada, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Composting is the major technology in the treatment of animal manure and is a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Although the microbiological processes of both nitrification and denitrification are involved in composting, the key players in these pathways have not been well identified. Recent molecular microbiological methodologies have revealed the presence of dominant Bacillus species in the degradation of organic material or betaproteobacterial ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria on nitrification on the surface, and have also revealed the mechanism of nitrous oxide emission in this complicated process to some extent. Some bacteria, archaea or fungi still would be considered potential key players, and the contribution of some pathways, such as nitrifier denitrification or heterotrophic nitrification, might be involved in composting. This review article discusses these potential microbial players in nitrification–denitrification within the composting pile and highlights the relevant unknowns through recent activities that focus on the nitrogen cycle within the animal manure composting process. PMID:21375720

  9. Does municipal solid waste composting make economic sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Renkow, M.; Rubin, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Currently there is a widespread interest on the part of local governments in incorporating municipal solid waste (MSW) composting into their integrated solid waste management systems. However, there is little information on the costs of MSW composting and how those costs compare with the costs of alternative forms of waste disposal (especially traditional land disposal). This article begins to fill this information gap by reporting the results of a survey of 19 MSW compositing facilities around the US. Results indicate that MSW composting generally costs around $50 per ton, and that very few facilities receive any revenues from the sale of compost to offset operating costs. Additional economic analysis indicates that, at present, MSW composting cannot be justified on financial grounds in most parts of the US, but may be competitive with land disposal where the cost of landfilling is high (such as the north-east).

  10. Depletion of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Vasskog, Terje; Bergersen, Ove; Anderssen, Trude; Jensen, Einar; Eggen, Trine

    2009-11-01

    Sewage and sewage sludge is known to contain pharmaceuticals, and since sewage sludge is often used as fertilizer within agriculture, the reduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Citalopram, Sertraline, Paroxetine, Fluvoxamine and Fluoxetine during composting has been investigated. Sewage sludge was spiked with the SSRIs before the composting experiment started, and the concentration of the SSRIs in the sludge during a 21 day composting period was measured by liquid phase microextraction (LPME) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the SSRIs had a significant decrease in concentration during the composting process. The highest reduction rates were measured for Fluoxetine and Paroxetine and the lowest for Citalopram. In addition three out of four known SSRI metabolites were found in all the samples, and two of them showed a significant increase in concentration during the composting period. PMID:19595585

  11. Effect of long-term different fertilization on bacterial community structures and diversity in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Joa, Jae Ho; Weon, Hang Yeon; Hyun, Hae Nam; Jeun, Young Chull; Koh, Sang Wook

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess bacterial species richness, diversity and community distribution according to different fertilization regimes for 16 years in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash. Soil samples were collected and analyzed from Compost (cattle manure, 2,000 kg/10a), 1/2 NPK+compost (14-20-14+2,000 kg/10a), NPK+compost (28-40-28+2,000 kg/10a), NPK (28-40-28 kg/10a), 3 NPK (84-120-84 kg/10a), and Control (no fertilization) plot which have been managed in the same manners with compost and different amount of chemical fertilization. The range of pyrosequencing reads and OTUs were 4,687-7,330 and 1,790-3,695, respectively. Species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1, and Shannon index were higher in 1/2 NPK+compost than other treatments, which were 15,202, 9,112, 7.7, respectively. Dominant bacterial groups at level of phylum were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Those were occupied at 70.9% in 1/2 NPK+compost. Dominant bacterial groups at level of genus were Pseudolabrys, Bradyrhizobium, and Acidobacteria. Those were distributed at 14.4% of a total of bacteria in Compost. Soil pH displayed significantly closely related to bacterial species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1 (p<0.05) and Shannon index (p<0.01). However, it showed the negative correlation with exchangeable aluminum contents (p<0.05). In conclusion, diversity of bacterial community in citrus orchard soil was affected by fertilization management, soil pH changes and characteristics of volcanic ash. PMID:25467117

  12. Bacterial Diversity in a Nonsaline Alkaline Environment: Heterotrophic Aerobic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tiago, Igor; Chung, Ana Paula; Veríssimo, António

    2004-01-01

    Heterotrophic populations were isolated and characterized from an alkaline groundwater environment generated by active serpentinization, which results in a Ca(OH)2-enriched, extremely diluted groundwater with pH 11.4. One hundred eighty-five strains were isolated in different media at different pH values during two sampling periods. To assess the degree of diversity present in the environment and to select representative strains for further characterization of the populations, we screened the isolates by using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles and grouped them based on similarities determined by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Phenotypic characterization, determinations of G+C content, phylogenetic analyses by direct sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and determinations of pH tolerance were performed with the selected isolates. Although 38 different populations were identified and characterized, the vast majority of the isolates were gram positive with high G+C contents and were affiliated with three distinct groups, namely, strains closely related to the species Dietzia natrolimnae (32% of the isolates), to Frigoribacterium/Clavibacter lineages (29% of the isolates), and to the type strain of Microbacterium kitamiense (20% of the isolates). Other isolates were phylogenetically related to strains of the genera Agrococcus, Leifsonia, Kytococcus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Rothia, Nesterenkonia, Citrococcus, Micrococcus, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. Only five isolates were gram negative: one was related to the Sphingobacteria lineage and the other four were related to the α-Proteobacteria lineage. Despite the pH of the environment, the vast majority of the populations were alkali tolerant, and only two strains were able to grow at pH 11. PMID:15574939

  13. Bacterial population dynamics of aerobic and anaerobic dairy waste treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Modern high intensity dairy farms generate large amounts of waste (manure and urine) that is stored in lagoons until it is disposed of by land application on crop fields. This practice has resulted in nutrients leaching into ground and surface waters, poor air quality from volat...

  14. Antibacterial Action of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Chitosan Oligosaccharides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Reighard, Katelyn P.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides were modified with N-diazeniumdiolates to yield biocompatible nitric oxide (NO) donor scaffolds. The minimum bactericidal concentrations and MICs of the NO donors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were compared under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Differential antibacterial activities were primarily the result of NO scavenging by oxygen under aerobic environments and not changes in bacterial physiology. Bacterial killing was also tested against nonmucoid and mucoid biofilms and compared to that of tobramycin. Smaller NO payloads were required to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Under oxygen-free environments, the NO treatment was 10-fold more effective at killing biofilms than tobramycin. These results demonstrate the potential utility of NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. PMID:26239983

  15. Characterization of a marine origin aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Yan; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial strain F6 was isolated from a biological aerated filter that is used for purifying recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system and was identified as Marinobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain F6 showed efficient aerobic denitrifying ability. One hundred percent of nitrates and 73.10% of nitrites were removed, and the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates reached 50.08% and 33.03% under a high nitrate and nitrite concentration in the medium, respectively. N(2)O and (15)N(2), as revealed by GC-MS and GC-IRMS, were the products of aerobic denitrification. Factors affecting the growth and aerobic denitrifying performance of strain F6 were investigated. The results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain F6 were the presence of sodium succinate as a carbon source, a C/N ratio of 15, salinity ranging from 32-35 g/L of NaCl, incubation temperature of 30°C, an initial pH of 7.5, and rotation speed of 150 rpm [dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.75 mg/L]. In addition, strain F6 was confirmed to be a heterotrophic nitrifier through its NO(2)(-) generation and 25.96% TN removal when NH(4)(+) was used as the sole N source. Therefore, strain F6, the first reported member of genus Marinobacter with aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying ability, is an excellent candidate for facilitating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in industry and aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22578593

  16. Impacts of addition of natural zeolite or a nitrification inhibitor on antibiotic resistance genes during sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Sui, Qianwen; Tong, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Lu, Xueting; Zhang, Yuxiu; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-15

    Composting is commonly used for the treatment and resource utilization of sewage sludge, and natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitors can be used for nitrogen conservation during sludge composting, while their impacts on ARGs control are still unclear. Therefore, three lab-scale composting reactors, A (the control), B (natural zeolite addition) and C (nitrification inhibitor addition of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate, DMPP), were established. The impacts of natural zeolite and DMPP on the levels of ARGs were investigated, as were the roles that heavy metals, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the bacterial community play in ARGs evolution. The results showed that total ARGs copies were enriched 2.04 and 1.95 times in reactors A and C, respectively, but were reduced by 1.5% in reactor B due to the reduction of conjugation and co-selection of heavy metals caused by natural zeolite. Although some ARGs (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, ermB, ereA and tetW) were reduced by 0.3-2 logs, others (ermF, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetX, mefA and aac(6')-Ib-cr) increased by 0.3-1.3 logs after sludge composting. Although the contributors for the ARGs profiles in different stages were quite different, the results of a partial redundancy analysis, Mantel test and Procrustes analysis showed that the bacterial community was the main contributor to the changes in ARGs compared to MGEs and heavy metals. Network analysis determined the potential host bacteria for various ARGs and further confirmed our results. PMID:26808292

  17. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  18. Suitability of composts for an acid-loving plant: highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to estimate elemental S rate needed to acidify compost to target pH for highbush blueberry and to evaluate diverse composts as soil amendments. The compost feedstocks were animal manures (horse or dairy) or plant materials (yard debris, leaves, mint, or bark). Finished compost p...

  19. Kibdelomycin Is a Bactericidal Broad-Spectrum Aerobic Antibacterial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Dayananth, Priya; Balibar, Carl J.; Garlisi, Charles G.; Lu, Jun; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Fukuda, Yasumichi; Ha, Sookhee; Young, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to grow and pose serious challenges, while the discovery rate for new antibiotics declines. Kibdelomycin is a recently discovered natural-product antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the bacterial DNA replication enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. It was reported to be a broad-spectrum aerobic Gram-positive agent with selective inhibition of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile. We have extended the profiling of kibdelomycin by using over 196 strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic pathogens recovered from worldwide patient populations. We report the MIC50s, MIC90s, and bactericidal activities of kibdelomycin. We confirm the Gram-positive spectrum and report for the first time that kibdelomycin shows strong activity (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) against clinical strains of the Gram-negative nonfermenter Acinetobacter baumannii but only weak activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We confirm that well-characterized resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae show no cross-resistance to kibdelomycin and quinolones and coumarin antibiotics. We also show that kibdelomycin is not subject to efflux in Pseudomonas, though it is in Escherichia coli, and it is generally affected by the outer membrane permeability entry barrier in the nonfermenters P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, which may be addressable by structure-based chemical modification. PMID:25845866

  20. Characterization of the biosolids composting process by hyperspectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Ilani, Talli; Herrmann, Ittai; Karnieli, Arnon; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-02-01

    Composted biosolids are widely used as a soil supplement to improve soil quality. However, the application of immature or unstable compost can cause the opposite effect. To date, compost maturation determination is time consuming and cannot be done at the composting site. Hyperspectral spectroscopy was suggested as a simple tool for assessing compost maturity and quality. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in knowledge regarding several compost maturation characteristics, such as dissolved organic carbon, NO3, and NH4 contents. In addition, this approach has not yet been tested on a sample at its natural water content. Therefore, in the current study, hyperspectral analysis was employed in order to characterize the biosolids composting process as a function of composting time. This goal was achieved by correlating the reflectance spectra in the range of 400-2400nm, using the partial least squares-regression (PLS-R) model, with the chemical properties of wet and oven-dried biosolid samples. The results showed that the proposed method can be used as a reliable means to evaluate compost maturity and stability. Specifically, the PLS-R model was found to be an adequate tool to evaluate the biosolids' total carbon and dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen, and nitrate content, as well as the absorbance ratio of 254/365nm (E2/E3) and C/N ratios in the dry and wet samples. It failed, however, to predict the ammonium content in the dry samples since the ammonium evaporated during the drying process. It was found that in contrast to what is commonly assumed, the spectral analysis of the wet samples can also be successfully used to build a model for predicting the biosolids' compost maturity. PMID:26680688

  1. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days. PMID:27067429

  2. Effects of rhamnolipid and initial compost particle size on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a potential alternative to green waste incineration or deposition in landfills. The effects of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) (at 0.0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) and initial compost particle size (IPS) (10, 15, and 25 mm) on a new, two-stage method for composting green waste was investigated. A combination of RL addition and IPS adjustment improved the quality of the finished compost in terms of its physical characteristics, pH, C/N ratio, nutrient content, cellulose and hemicellulose contents, water-soluble carbon (WSC) content, xylanase and CMCase activities, numbers of culturable microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and toxicity to germinating seeds. The production of a stable and mature compost required only 24 days with the optimized two-stage composting method described here rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. The best quality compost was obtained with 0.15% RL and an IPS of 15 mm. PMID:24793401

  3. Sewage sludge composting: influence of initial mixtures on organic matter evolution and N availability in the final composts.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Jérémy; Francou, Cédric; Poitrenaud, Maelenn; Houot, Sabine

    2010-10-01

    The influence of bulking agents on organic matter (OM) stability and nitrogen (N) availability in sewage sludge composts was investigated. The same sludge was composted on an industrial plant with different mixtures of bulking agents. The composting process included an active phase and a curing phase, both lasting 6 weeks, separated by the screening of composts. The OM evolution was characterised by carbon (C) and N mass balances in biochemical fractions. The OM stability and N potential availability of final composts were measured during soil incubations. During composting, the C and N losses reached more than 62% of the initial C and more than 45% of the initial N, respectively, due to C mineralisation or N volatilization and screening. The bulking materials mostly influenced OM evolution during the active phase. They contributed to the mitigation of N losses during the active phase where N immobilisation through active microbial activity was favoured by bulking agents increasing the C:N ratio of the initial mixtures. However, the influence of bulking agents on OM evolution was removed by the screening; this induced the homogenisation of compost characteristics and led to the production of sludge composts with similar organic matter characteristics, C degradability and N availability. PMID:20627507

  4. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  5. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  6. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL. PMID:25792439

  7. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition.

    PubMed

    Onursal, Emrah; Ekinci, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    Rose oil is a specific essential oil that is produced mainly for the cosmetics industry in a few selected locations around the world. Rose oil production is a water distillation process from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Since the oil content of the rose petals of this variety is between 0.3-0.4% (w/w), almost 4000 to 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. Rose oil production is a seasonal activity and takes place during the relatively short period where the roses are blooming. As a result, large quantities of solid waste are produced over a limited time interval. This research aims: (i) to determine the possibilities of aerobic co-composting as a waste management option for rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure; (ii) to identify effects of different carbon sources - straw or sawdust on co-composting of rose oil processing waste and caged layer manure, which are both readily available in Isparta, where significant rose oil production also takes place; (iii) to determine the effects of different C/N ratios on co-composting by the means of organic matter decomposition and dry matter loss. Composting experiments were carried out by 12 identical laboratory-scale composting reactors (60 L) simultaneously. The results of the study showed that the best results were obtained with a mixture consisting of 50% rose oil processing waste, 64% caged layer manure and 15% straw wet weight in terms of organic matter loss (66%) and dry matter loss (38%). PMID:25784689

  8. "Aerobic" Writing: A Writing Practice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Sally Chandler

    "Aerobic writing" is a writing center strategy designed to keep students in writing "shape." Like aerobic exercise, aerobic writing is sustained for a certain length of time and done on a regular basis at prescribed time intervals. The program requires students to write at least two times a week for approximately an hour each time. Students write,…

  9. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  10. Production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Ohtaki, Akihito; Takemoto, Minoru; Fujiwara, Shunrokuro

    2011-03-01

    The effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. The optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°C and an initial pH value of 8. Rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (E(C)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomposition, was less than 40%, indicating that the sludge contained only a small amount of easily degradable organic material. A plant growth assay using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L. var. rapiferafroug) in a 1/5000a standard cultivation pot was then conducted for the compost at various degrees of organic matter decomposition: the raw composting material, the final compost obtained on day 6, and the 2 intermediate compost products (i.e., E(C)=10% and 20%). It was found that the larger the E(C), the greater the yield of Komatsuna growth. It was also found that 6 days of composting is sufficient to promote Komatsuna growth at the standard loading level, which is equivalent to a 1.5 g N/pot, since the promotion effect was as high as that obtained using chemical fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that well-matured compost could be obtained in a short period of time (i.e., as early as 6 days), when night-soil sludge is composted under optimum conditions. PMID:21134735

  11. Dissolved organic matter dynamic and resident microbiota evolution in soil amended with fresh and composted olive mill wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotti, Giovanni; Massaccesi, Luisa; Federici, Ermanno; Fidati, Laura; Nasini, Luigi; Proietti, Primo

    2013-04-01

    the composted husk. FT-IR spectra and SUVA254 data confirmed the changes in DOM composition caused by the amendments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of 16S and 18S rRNA genes was used to characterize the microbiota in both amendments and soils. Interestingly, the DGGE profiles changed after composting the humid husk, indicating how the organic matter transformations occurring during this process profoundly altered the microbial communities of the OMW. Soil bacterial communities were very complex and presented a high species richness throughout the entire trial. In particular, the fresh and the composted husk appeared to have only a slight effect on the bacterial community structure. This effect was observed only during the first 60 days, while after 90 days no differences with the control plot were present. On the contrary, the fungal communities presented a lower biodiversity and more variable DGGE profiles than the bacterial communities. Both treatments clearly altered the structure of the soil fungal community throughout the entire trial. Interestingly, the fungal communities profiles were different when the fresh or the composted husk was used, with the former showing more profound and stable effects.

  12. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost. PMID:24613672

  13. Composting of swine manure spiked with sulfadiazine, chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Zhao, Zhenyong; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2012-12-01

    The fate of chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfadiazine (SDZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) during composting of swine manure and their effect on composting process were investigated. Swine manure was spiked with antibiotics, mixed with saw dust (1:1 on DW basis) and composted for 56 d. Antibiotics were spiked to a final concentration of 50 mg/kg CTC+10 mg/kg SDZ+10 mg/kg CIP (High-level) or 5 mg/kg CTC+1 mg/kg SDZ+1 mg/kg CIP (Low-level), and a control without antibiotics. Antibiotics at high concentrations delayed the initial decomposition that also affected the nitrogen mineralization. CTC and SDZ were completely removed from the composting mass within 21 and 3d, respectively; whereas, 17-31% of the spiked CIP remained in the composting mass. Therefore, composting could effectively remove the CTC and SDZ spiked even at high concentrations, but the removal of ciprofloxacin (belonging to fluoroquinolone) needs to be improved, indicating this antibiotic may get into the ecosystem through land application of livestock compost. PMID:22261658

  14. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3. PMID:22546797

  15. The maturation of Cedar Grove Composting

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    Cedar Grove Composting in Seattle, Washington, which is part of Northwest Waste Industries, a family-owned commercial waste hauling, recycling, and hazardous materials mitigation company, opened its composting facility in 1989. The company began operations there by processing yard wastes from a number of residential and commercial sites throughout the Seattle area. The plant was configured to handle a total of approximately 12,000 tons per year of materials. Almost immediately, however, the facility was faced with a massive influx of material. Indeed, during the company's first year of operation, the facility actually processed nearly four times their intended amount--approximately 45,000 tons. In order to deal with the unexpected additional volume of wastes, Cedar Grove began shredding incoming materials as soon as they entered the facility, which is a practice the company still carries over to its operations today. A general rule of thumb for facility operators has been to shred yard wastes within one hour of arriving at the facility. Since this initial year of operation, incoming tonnage amounts at the facility have increased ever since.

  16. Compost suppressiveness against Phytophthora capsicion pepper in potting trials.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Marenco, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts has been widely studied. Composts suppressive to soil-borne pathogens have been detected in various cropping systems. Vegetable plants are generally propagated in pots, allowing the use of suppressive substrates to control zoospore-producing pathogens, like Phytophthora sp. The objective of the present work was to assess compost suppressiveness against Phytophthora capsici on pepper (cv. Corno di Toro). A municipal compost showing a good suppressive activity in previous trials on vegetable crops was used. Compost was mixed at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% (v/v) with a commercial peat substrate, used as control. Substrates have been inoculated at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/l with wheat and hemp kernels infested with P. capsici and after one week 10 plants were transplanted for each treatment in 4 trays of 10 liters volume capacity and placed in greenhouse at 20 degrees C. Diseased plants were assessed weekly after transplanting and above-ground biomass of plants was assessed at the end of the trials. Compost applied at 80% significantly controlled the disease at high inoculum density (1 g/l), while at lower inoculums density, 0.25 and 0.5 g/l, reduced compost applications, 40% and 60% respectively, were sufficient to significantly control the disease. The application of compost at 20%, in absence of the pathogen, increased the biomass of pepper plants compared to control. The use of compost based substrates can be a suitable strategy for controlling soil-borne diseases on pepper, but results depends on application rates. PMID:25151829

  17. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  18. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells.

    PubMed

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the "soil benefit" category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  19. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells

    PubMed Central

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the “soil benefit” category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  20. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  1. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P.

    1995-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  3. Characteristics of a Novel Aerobic Denitrifying Bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae Strain HNR.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long-Jie; Zhao, Bin; An, Qiang; Tian, Meng

    2016-03-01

    A novel aerobic denitrifier strain HNR, isolated from activated sludge, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae by16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Glucose was considered as the most favorable C-source for strain HNR. The logistic equation well described the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.283 h(-1) with an initial NO3 (-)-N concentration of 110 mg/L. Almost all NO3 (-)-N was removed aerobically within 30 h with an average removal rate of 4.58 mg N L(-1) h(-1). Nitrogen balance analysis revealed that proximately 70.8 % of NO3 (-)-N was removed as gas products and only 20.7 % was transformed into biomass. GC-MS result indicates that N2 was the end product of aerobic denitrification. The enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which are related to the process of aerobic denitrification, were 0.0688 and 0.0054 U/mg protein, respectively. Thus, the aerobic denitrification of reducing NO3 (-) to N2 by strain HNR was demonstrated. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were C/N ratio 13, pH value 8, shaking speed 127 rpm and temperature 30 °C. These findings show that E. cloacae strain HNR has a potential application on wastewater treatment to achieve nitrate removal under aerobic conditions. PMID:26573667

  4. Use of aerobic spores as a surrogate for cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Headd, Brendan; Bradford, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Waterborne illnesses are a growing concern among health and regulatory agencies worldwide. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established several rules to combat the contamination of water supplies by cryptosporidium oocysts, however, the detection and study of cryptosporidium oocysts is hampered by methodological and financial constraints. As a result, numerous surrogates for cryptosporidium oocysts have been proposed by the scientific community and efforts are underway to evaluate many of the proposed surrogates. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the suitability of aerobic bacterial spores to serve as a surrogate for cryptosporidium oocysts in identifying contaminated drinking waters. To accomplish this we present a comparison of the biology and life cycles of aerobic spores and oocysts and compare their physical properties. An analysis of their surface properties is presented along with a review of the literature in regards to the transport, survival, and prevalence of aerobic spores and oocysts in the saturated subsurface environment. Aerobic spores and oocysts share many commonalities with regard to biology and survivability, and the environmental prevalence and ease of detection make aerobic spores a promising surrogate for cryptosporidium oocysts in surface and groundwater. However, the long-term transport and release of aerobic spores still needs to be further studied, and compared with available oocyst information. In addition, the surface properties and environmental interactions of spores are known to be highly dependent on the spore taxa and purification procedures, and additional research is needed to address these issues in the context of transport. PMID:26734779

  5. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure.

    PubMed

    Millner, Patricia; Ingram, David; Mulbry, Walter; Arikan, Osman A

    2014-11-01

    Spread of manure pathogens is of considerable concern due to use of manure for land application. In this study, the effects of four static pile treatment options for bovine manure on die-off of a generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 surrogate, Salmonella Senftenberg, Salm. Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated. Bovine manure spiked with these bacteria were placed in cassettes at the top, middle, and bottom sections of four static pile treatments that reflect minimal changes in pile construction with and without straw. Temperatures were monitored continuously during the 28 day self-heating period. E. coli and salmonellae were reduced from 8 to 9 log10 CFU g(-1) to undetectable levels (<1.77 log10 MPN g(-1)) at 25-30 cm depths within 7 days in all pile sections except for the manure-only pile in which 3-4 logs of reduction were obtained. No L. monocytogenes initially present at 6.62 log10 CFU g(-1) were recovered from straw-amended piles after 14 days, in contrast with manure-only treatment in which this pathogen was recovered even at 28 days. Decline of target bacterial populations corresponded to exposure to temperatures above 45°C for more than 3 days and amendments of manure with straw to increase thermophilic zones. Use of straw to increase aeration, self-heating capacity, and heat retention in manure piles provides producers a minimal management option for composting that enhances pathogen die-off and thereby reduces risk of environmental spread when manure is applied to land. PMID:25151442

  6. Short-term dynamics of carbon and nitrogen using compost, compost-biochar mixture and organo-mineral biochar.

    PubMed

    Darby, Ian; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Wallace, Helen M; Joseph, Stephen; Pace, Ben; Bai, Shahla Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of different organic treatments including compost (generated from cattle hide waste and plant material), compost mixed with biochar (compost + biochar) and a new formulation of organo-mineral biochar (produced by mixing biochar with clay, minerals and chicken manure) on carbon (C) nitrogen (N) cycling. We used compost at the rate of 20 t ha(-1), compost 20 t ha(-1) mixed with 10 t ha(-1) biochar (compost + biochar) and organo-mineral biochar which also contained 10 t ha(-1) biochar. Control samples received neither of the treatments. Compost and compost + biochar increased NH4 (+) -N concentrations for a short time, mainly due to the release of their NH4 (+) -N content. Compost + biochar did not alter N cycling of the compost significantly but did significantly increase CO2 emission compared to control. Compost significantly increased N2O emission compared to control. Compost + biochar did not significantly change N supply and also did not decrease CO2 and N2O emissions compared to compost, suggesting probably higher rates of biochar may be required to be added to the compost to significantly affect compost-induced C and N alteration. The organo-mineral biochar had no effect on N cycling and did not stimulate CO2 and N2O emission compared to the control. However, organo-mineral biochar maintained significantly higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than compost and compost + biochar from after day 14 to the end of the incubation. Biochar used in organo-mineral biochar had increased organic C adsorption which may become available eventually. However, increased DOC in organo-mineral biochar probably originated from both biochar and chicken manure which was not differentiated in this experiment. Hence, in our experiment, compost, compost + biochar and organo-mineral biochar affected C and N cycling differently mainly due to their different content. PMID:26924699

  7. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  8. Effect of composting and vermicomposting on properties of particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Dreslova, Marketa

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of the composting and the vermicomposting processes on the distribution of particles into three size fractions, and to assess the agrochemical properties of the size fractions of the composts and the vermicomposts. Three different mixtures of biowaste were subjected to two thermophilic pre-composting, and then the mixtures were subsequently subjected to 5months composting and vermicomposting under laboratory conditions. Vermicomposting was able to achieve the finer and more homogeneous final product compared to composting. For compost, the highest portion of the finest fraction was achieved from products which originated from kitchen waste containing used paper, followed by digestate with straw, and finally sewage sludge with garden biowaste. In most cases, compost particles which were less than 5mm exhibited the better agricultural potential than coarser compost. However, agrochemical properties of the finest vermicompost exceeded classical compost. PMID:26920625

  9. Effect of biomass concentration on methane oxidation activity using mature compost and graphite granules as substrata.

    PubMed

    Xie, S; O'Dwyer, T; Freguia, S; Pikaar, I; Clarke, W P

    2016-10-01

    Reported methane oxidation activity (MOA) varies widely for common landfill cover materials. Variation is expected due to differences in surface area, the composition of the substratum and culturing conditions. MOA per methanotrophic cell has been calculated in the study of natural systems such as lake sediments to examine the inherent conditions for methanotrophic activity. In this study, biomass normalised MOA (i.e., MOA per methanotophic cell) was measured on stabilised compost, a commonly used cover in landfills, and on graphite granules, an inert substratum widely used in microbial electrosynthesis studies. After initially enriching methanotrophs on both substrata, biomass normalised MOA was quantified under excess oxygen and limiting methane conditions in 160ml serum vials on both substrata and blends of the substrata. Biomass concentration was measured using the bicinchoninic acid assay for microbial protein. The biomass normalised MOA was consistent across all compost-to-graphite granules blends, but varied with time, reflecting the growth phase of the microorganisms. The biomass normalised MOA ranged from 0.069±0.006μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h during active growth, to 0.024±0.001μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h for established biofilms regardless of the substrata employed, indicating the substrata were equally effective in terms of inherent composition. The correlation of MOA with biomass is consistent with studies on methanotrophic activity in natural systems, but biomass normalised MOA varies by over 5 orders of magnitude between studies. This is partially due to different methods being used to quantify biomass, such as pmoA gene quantification and the culture dependent Most Probable Number method, but also indicates that long term exposure of materials to a supply of methane in an aerobic environment, as can occur in natural systems, leads to the enrichment and adaptation of types suitable for those conditions. PMID:27515185

  10. Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly MS; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes. PMID:18351724

  11. Effects of sucrose amendment on ammonia assimilation during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Meng, Liqiang; Li, Weiguang; Zhang, Shumei; Wu, Chuandong; Wang, Ke

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the laboratory-scale composting of sewage sludge and pumice mixtures that were amended with sucrose. The variation in temperature, pH, NH4(+)-N, ammonia emission, bacterial community, ammonia assimilating bacteria (AAB) populations and enzymatic activity related to ammonia assimilation were detected. The addition of sucrose increased the AAB population by 2.5-3.5 times, reduced ammonia emission by 24.7-31.1% compared with the control treatment, and promoted the growth of Bacillus and Wautersiella. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GS) and glutamine synthetase (GOGAT), were enhanced by the addition of sucrose. GDH made a substantial contribution to ammonia assimilation when the ammonia concentration was high (⩾1.5g/kg) in the thermophilic phase. The GS/GOGAT cycle played an important role at low ammonia concentrations (⩽1.1g/kg) in the cooling phase. These results suggested that adding sucrose to sludge compost could promote ammonia assimilation and reduce ammonia emission. PMID:26852272

  12. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    PubMed

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (<10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. PMID:27177134

  13. Concentration and speciation of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2012-11-01

    The Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the changes in heavy metals speciation (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr) during water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) composting. Results showed that, the contents of total metals concentration were increased during the composting process. The largest proportion of metals was found in the residual fraction which was in more stable form and is consequently considered unavailable for plant uptake. Reducible and oxidizable fractions of Ni, Pb and Cd were not found in all trials during water hyacinth composting. The concentrations of Cu and Cd were very low comparative to the other metals, but the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions were similar as other metals. From this study it can be concluded that the appropriate proportion of cattle manure addition (Trial 4) significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during the composting process. PMID:22989643

  14. Occurrence and detection of viable Listeria in food scrap compost.

    PubMed

    Droffner, M L; Brinton, W F

    1996-11-01

    Listeria species (L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, and L. grayi) were readily detected in food scraps by Nucleic Acid Hybridization (NAH) probes using a standard Listeria selective medium (UVM-1) at ambient temperature. Various food scrap compost recipes artificially contaminated with Listeria at 10(7) cells per gram wet weight were composted in thermally insulated bench scale reactor vessels. These Listeria were not detected when the compost temperature became elevated. Different isolation methods for the Listeria showed this result to be a false negative o