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Sample records for aerobic composting system

  1. Application of aerobic composting system for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Yoshii, Takahiro; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Composting is a classical technique to decompose organic wastes such as animal bodies, straw, paper, raw sludge, and so on. Compared with burning of wastes, the composting method has many advantages. It is an inexpensive and safer method because of its self-heating without spending extra energy resources. It does not emit toxic pollutants such as dioxin, NOx , and SOx . The composting products can be used as organic fertilizers for agricultural production. Composting is a promising way for digesting organic wastes safely on spaceships or manned exploration on extraterrestrial planets. We have developed a small scale high-temperature composter in order to examine its feasobility to operate food waste disposing facility and fertilizer production in space. This composter has a heated reaction vessel containing compost soil (seed bacteria) provided by a compost factory. To determine the optimal condition for its operation, we analyzed the effect of temperature on metabolic activity (CO2 production rate), and water content. The dynamics of microbial community was studied by polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Water content was maintained to a range between 27% and 40% by continuously adding water. The highest CO2 emission was observed at around 70° C. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that the bacterial community of the compost soil is dramatically changed by changing reaction temperature. We will discuss the application of the composter in space in order to establish the closed recycling loop of bio-elements in space agriculture.

  2. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  3. Evolution of heavy metal speciation during the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Ma, Lanlan; Li, Yaqiong; Zheng, Liting

    2007-03-01

    The contents of heavy metals and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system were the major limitation to the application of sewage sludge compost in soil. This study was conducted to determine the evolution of heavy metal speciation in the course of an aerobic composting, and investigate the influence of changes of composting process parameters including pH, temperature and organic matter (OM) content on distribution of heavy metal speciation in composted sludge. The sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier et al. was used in sludge compost to determine the heavy metal speciation. Results showed that, during composting, (1) the contents of the residue fraction for Pb, Zn and Cd were decreased but those for Ni and Cr were increased; the Cu residue fraction was almost constant; (2) the contents of the total mobile fractions (including fractions 1-4) for Zn and Pb were significantly increased, but the increase of those for Cu and Ni were not so remarkable; (3) there were significant degrees of correlation between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected parameters (for example, pH, composting temperature, and OM content). Only the content of the total mobile fractions for Cu could be predictable from its total content. For the prediction of the total mobile fractions of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr, the R(2) value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as pH, temperature and OM content.

  4. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y. . E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

  5. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste.

  6. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method.

  7. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  8. [Degradation of oxytetracycline in chicken feces aerobic-composting and its effects on their related parameters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Li, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2013-02-01

    In order to illustrate the degradation of tetracyclines (TCs) and their influences on process parameters during the period of chicken feces aerobic-composting, the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), a kind of TCs and its effects on parameters during the period of chick feces aerobic-composting including temperature, pH, and germination index were investigated using the method of aerobic-composting. The contents of OTC decreased gradually with composting time. The degradation rate was high before 10 d, and then decreased gradually. The differences in OTC degradation among the OTC treatments were also found. The degradation rate of OTC was higher at the level of 25 mg.kg-1, than that of other levels. The degradation curve of OTC could be described by the first-order kinetic model, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0. 911 1 to 0. 9913. The impacts of OTC on chick feces composting were found. OTC could decrease the rising rate of composting temperature and make the high temperature (> or =50 degrees C) period shorter than that of the control. The values of pH, TN, WSC, and the content of NH: -N of composting were 4.58%, 12.62%, 49.06%, and 35.30% higher than those of the control. The impacts of OTC on maturity of chicken feces composting was not found when the OTC addition contents were lower than 50 mg.kg-1. However, the strong impacts of OTC on maturity of chicken feces composting were found when the OTC addition contents were higher than 50 mg.kg-1. The rates of NH+4 -N to NO-3 -N, and GI were much higher than 0. 5 and lower than 80% , respectively. Theses results suggest that OTC have strong impacts on chicken feces composting when the contents of TOC was higher than 50 mg.kg-1, although OTC have the short half-life period ranged from 1.79-4.88 d.

  9. Emission of greenhouse gases from home aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion and vermicomposting of household wastes in Brisbane (Australia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Yiu C; Sinha, Rajiv K; Weijin Wang

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three different home waste treatment methods in Brisbane, Australia. Gas samples were taken monthly from 34 backyard composting bins from January to April 2009. Averaged over the study period, the aerobic composting bins released lower amounts of CH(4) (2.2 mg m(- 2) h(-1)) than the anaerobic digestion bins (9.5 mg m(-2) h(-1)) and the vermicomposting bins (4.8 mg m(-2) h( -1)). The vermicomposting bins had lower N(2)O emission rates (1.2 mg m(-2) h(- 1)) than the others (1.5-1.6 mg m(-2) h( -1)). Total GHG emissions including both N(2)O and CH(4) were 463, 504 and 694 mg CO(2)-e m(- 2) h(-1) for vermicomposting, aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion, respectively, with N(2)O contributing >80% in the total budget. The GHG emissions varied substantially with time and were regulated by temperature, moisture content and the waste properties, indicating the potential to mitigate GHG emission through proper management of the composting systems. In comparison with other mainstream municipal waste management options including centralized composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, landfilling and incineration, home composting has the potential to reduce GHG emissions through both lower on-site emissions and the minimal need for transportation and processing. On account of the lower cost, the present results suggest that home composting provides an effective and feasible supplementary waste management method to a centralized facility in particular for cities with lower population density such as the Australian cities.

  10. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  11. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

    Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and

  12. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    PubMed

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer.

  13. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S S; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md Ahsan; Goswami, L; Sahariah, B; Bhattacharyya, P; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition.

  14. Degradation of typical antibiotics during human feces aerobic composting under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Honglei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Qian; Jiang, Shanqing

    2016-08-01

    Four typical antibiotics were added to human feces for aerobic composting using batch reactors with sawdust as the bulk matrix. Under three composting temperatures (room temperature, 35 ± 2 °C and 55 ± 2 °C), decreases in the extractable concentrations of antibiotics in the compost were monitored for 20 days. As a result, the removals of extractable tetracycline and chlortetracycline were found to be more temperature-dependent than the removals of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin. However, more than 90 % of all of the extractable antibiotics were removed at 55 ± 2 °C. Three specific experiments were further conducted to identify the possible actions for antibiotic removal, including self-degradation in aqueous solution, composting with a moist sterile sawdust matrix without adding feces and composting with human feces and moist sterile sawdust. As a result, it was found that the removal of tetracycline and chlortetracycline was mainly due to chemical degradation in water, whereas the removal of sulfadiazine was mainly attributed to adsorption onto sawdust particles. The microbial activity of compost varied with temperature to a certain extent, but the differences were insignificant among different antibiotics. Although microbial action is important for organic matter decomposition, its contribution to antibiotic degradation was small for the investigated antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin, which was degraded by up to 20 % due to microbial action.

  15. Effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus on cow manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenjie; Zhang, Fabao; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Xie, Kaizhi; Huang, Xu; Huang, Qiaoyi

    2011-06-01

    A simulated aerobic composting experiment was used to explore the effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus during six manure composting treatments. The addition of sulphur led to a decrease of the pH level within the range 6-6.3, which was lower than the control treatment (CK). The concentration of ammonium nitrogen in T1 (0.25% sulphur), T2 (0.5% sulphur), T3 (0.25% sulphur + T. thioparus) and T4 (0.5% sulphur + T. thioparus) were much higher than the ammonium N in CK. The results indicated that addition of sulphur could increase the concentration of ammonium N and reduce loss of nitrogen. However, excess sulphur had a negative effect on temperature and GI. Addition of T. thioparus could increase concentration of available S, alleviate these negative influences and reduce compost biological toxicity.

  16. Determination of degradation of radioactivity and its kinetics in aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ipek, Ubeyde; Obek, Erdal; Akca, Lütfi; Arslan, E Işil; Hasar, Halil; Dogru, Mahmut; Baykara, Oktay

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the kinetics of disappearance of radioactivity in aerobic composting was investigated. For this purpose, compost materials were prepared by mixing sugar beet wastes, wine factory wastes (grape wastes), straw and biological treatment sludge in different amounts. While alpha-radioactivity was not initially detected in all composting materials, the composting materials had some beta-radioactivity. In the mixtures of sugar beet wastes--straw-biological treatment sludge (1), sugar beet wastes-wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (II) and wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (III), the beta-radioactivity reduced by 82%, 58%, 85% respectively of initial values after 52 d. The beta-radioactivity degradation in the composting process could be represented by first-order kinetics and reaction rate constants of mixtures of I, II and III were k = 0.0693 d(-1) (R2 - 0.84), k = 0.0453 d(-1) (R2 = 0.98), k = 0.0234 d(-1) (R2 = 0.97), respectively.

  17. Skycrapper: an above-ground aerobic and solar-assisted composting toilet. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-10

    The Skycrapper is a waterless alternative to the flush toilet: it is a simply built aerobic and solar-assisted composting toilet. The structure can be built by one person using common carpenter's tools and from materials available at most building supply stores. The particular architectural style of this prototype cost approximately $1500 in new materials and took 323 hours of design/construction time. Construction was completed in April 1981 and the toilet has been in use since, with the first cycle of composted products having been removed in January 1982. Solar heating data show that in the winter months at this 39/sup 0/N. latitude the interior daytime temperatures rose to an average 50/sup 0/F above the outdoor temperature; while at night the indoor temperatures remained 15/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/F above the outdoor temperatures. The resulting final composted product comprised of a beginning mix of approximately 2/3 sawdust and 1/3 excrement plus paper was without any visible sign of either paper or feces, its appearance being that of a dark crumbly sawdust/humus mix. Never throughout the entire cycle were any foul odors detected associated with anaerobic decomposition. Laboratory analysis for coliform bacteria indicative of raw feces revealed a dramatic reduction in their number from a mid-cycle sample to a final composted product. Further experiments and fine-tuning of the composting process in this toilet are continuing.

  18. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    elimination of methane production and acceleration of waste decomposition. In the first phase of this project a 12-acre module that contains a 9.5-acre anaerobic cell and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell has been constructed and filled with over 220,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Water and leachate addition began in April 2002 and to date less than 200,000 gallons of liquid has been added to the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell. The waste filling phase of the aerobic cell was completed in June of 2002 and a 12-inches soil cover and 12-inches of greenwaste compost cover was placed on top of the cell. A vacuum will be applied to the piping within the waste to draw air through the landfill. Instrumentations have been installed to monitor the following parameters: waste temperature, moisture, leachate volumes, leachate hydraulic head over the primary liner, leachate composition, gas volumes and composition. A supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed to monitor and control the operation of the bioreactor cells. Waste samples were taken from each cell for laboratory testing in early June 2002.

  19. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens.

  20. Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang; Ma, Hongrui

    2011-04-01

    Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the bacterial community diversity in treatment with bamboo charcoal was greater than that of the control. Both results demonstrated that amendment with bamboo charcoal can increase microorganism population and microorganism community diversity in a sludge composting system. Moreover, the results of FTIR spectroscopy disclosed that aerobic composting can promote the formation of surface acid groups on bamboo charcoal. These surface acid groups may deprotonate and react with NH4+ to form stable complexes. Therefore, the increase of functional groups accompanied with greater assimilation of nitrogen by microorganisms could reduce nitrogen loss in sludge composting.

  1. Composting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  2. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism.

  3. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  4. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  5. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  6. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  7. Effects of the feeding ratio of food waste on fed-batch aerobic composting and its microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Pan, Songqing; Zhang, Zhaoji; Lin, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    To determine the suitable feeding ratio for fed-batch aerobic composting, four fermenters were operated by adding 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of food waste every day. The results showed that the 5% and 10% treatments were able to maintain continuous thermophilic conditions, while the 15% treatment performed badly in regard to composting temperature, which was probably due to the negative effects of excessive moisture on microbial activity. As composting proceeded, both the 5% and the 10% treatments reached maturity and achieved weight losses of approximately 65%. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of the community structure. The communities sampled at the thermophilic phases had high similarity and relatively low diversity, while species diversity increased in the maturity phase. This study was devoted to optimizing the fed-batch composting process and assessing bacterial communities, both of which were supplied as a reference for practical application.

  8. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  9. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-11-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase.

  10. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  11. Removal of polychlorinated dioxins by semi-aerobic fed-batch composting with biostimulation of "Dehalococcoides".

    PubMed

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kaiya, Shinichi; Futamata, Hiroyuki; Hiraishi, Akira

    2010-03-01

    A semi-aerobic, mesophilic, fed-batch composting (FBC) reactor loaded with household garbage was used to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The reactor was packed with woodchips as the solid matrix and PCDD/F-contaminated soil or flyash and then operated at a waste-loading rate of 0.5 kg (wet wt) day(-1). All congeners of PCDD/Fs (initial concentration, 200-830 pmol g(-1) [dry wt]) were totally reduced during the over period of operation, with a half reduction time of 4 months. Direct cell counting and respiratory quinone profiling showed that the reactors at the fully acclimated stage harbored a high population density of bacteria (10(11) g(-1) [dry wt]) with members of the Actinobacteria predominating. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the population of "Dehalococcoides" and its phylogenetic relatives of Chloroflexi as the possible dechlorinators varied between at the order of 10(7) to 10(8) g(-1) (dry wt). A "Dehalococcoides"-containing dechlorinating culture from the soil-treating reactor was successfully enriched with a model PCDD/F compound, fthalide. 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR-denaturated gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analyses showed that this culture comprised at least three major phylogenetic groups of bacteria, Acidaminobacter, "Dehalococcoides," and Rhizobium. These results suggest that the semi-aerobic FBC process is applicable for the bioremediation of PCDD/Fs and possibly other haloorganic compounds with the biostimulation of "Dehalococcoides" and its relatives as the potent dechlorinators.

  12. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Kevin A; Pennington, Judith C; Kennedy, Kay R; Cox, Larry G; Hayes, Charolett A; Porter, Beth E

    2008-04-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench-scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually presentwherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway.

  13. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  14. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2015-07-15

    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified.

  15. Influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and NH3 emissions during aerobic composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Guoxue; Gu, Jun; Wang, Guiqin; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Difang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and ammonia (NH3) emissions during kitchen waste composting. Aerobic composting of kitchen waste and cornstalks was conducted at a ratio of 85:15 (wet weight basis) in 60L reactors for 30days. The gas emissions were analyzed with force aeration at rates of 0.1 (A1), 0.2 (A2) and 0.3 (A3) L (kgDMmin)(-1), respectively. Results showed that VSCs emission at the low aeration rate (A1) was more significant than that at other two rates (i.e., A2 and A3 treatment), where no considerable emission difference was observed. On the other hand, NH3 emission reduced as the aeration rate decreased. It is noteworthy that the aeration rate did not significantly affect the compost quality. These results suggest that the aeration rate of 0.2L (kgDMmin)(-1) may be applied to control VSCs and NH3 emissions during kitchen waste composting.

  16. Effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, R; Gibbs, P; Burchett, S; Misselbrook, T

    2004-01-01

    Cattle manure from stock bedded on straw was aerobically composted under ambient conditions, turning with either a tractor-mounted front-end loader or a rear discharge manure spreader. Three composting experiments, each of approximately four months duration, were conducted to investigate the effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure. Manure stacks of 12-15 m(3) initial volume were constructed in separate 5 x 5 m concrete compartments. Experiment 1 (January-April 1999) compared manure heaps turned once (T1) or three times (T3) using a front-end loader with an unturned static (S) control manure stack. Experiment 2 (June-September 1999) compared the same treatments as Experiment 1. Experiment 3 (September-December 1999) compared T1 and T3 turning regimes using a front end loader with turning by a rear-discharge spreader (TR1 and TR1T2) for more effective aeration of the manure. Turning took place at 6 weeks for the one turn treatments, and after 2, 6 and 10 weeks for the three turn treatments. Leachate losses were dominated by NH(4)-N during the first three weeks of composting, after which time NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in leachates were approximately the same, in the range 0-20 mg N l(-1). The concentrations of both NH4-N and NO3-N in leachate were higher after turning. Molybdate-reactive P concentrations in leachate tended not to be significantly influenced by turning regime. Gaseous losses of NH3 and N2O rose quickly during the initial phases of composting, peaking at 152 g N t(-1) d(-1) for the T3 treatment. Mean NH3 emission rate (25-252 g N t(-1) d(-1)) for the first two weeks of Experiment 2 conducted during the period June-September were an order of magnitude greater (1-10 g N t(-1) d(-1)) than Experiment 3, conducted during the colder, wetter autumn period (September-December). Nitrous oxide emission rates ranged between 1-14 g N t(-1) d(-1) and showed little

  17. Composting: Fast 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  18. Use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust as adsorbents of ammoniacal nitrogen in aerobic composting process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tian-Jue; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Dan-Lian; Yu, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun; Dai, Fang; Huang, Guo-He

    2007-03-22

    Three kinds of adsorbents-potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sawdust and mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust were added respectively into composting to investigate their adsorption effect on ammonia. The experimental results showed that all the adsorbents could restrain ammonia volatilizing, with the sorption of potassium dihydrogen phosphate adsorbents being the best of all, the sorption of mixture adsorbent with potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust being the second and the sorption of sawdust adsorbent being the last. Therefore, the total nitrogen loss ratios respectively reduced from 38% to 13%, 15% and 21% after adding these three kinds of adsorbents into composting. However, potassium dihydrogen phosphate produced negative influence on composting properties as its supplemented amount exceeded a quantity basis equivalent to 18% of total nitrogen in the composting, for example: pH value had been lessened, microorganism activity reduced, which finally resulted in the reduction of biodegradation ratio of organic matter. But it did not result in these problems when using the mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and sawdust as adsorbent, in which the amount of potassium dihydrogen phosphate was under a quantity basis equivalent to 6% of total nitrogen in the composting. Moreover, the mixture adsorbent produced better adsorption effect on ammonia, and raised biodegradation ratio of organic matter from 26% to 33%.

  19. Ozone oxidation and aerobic biodegradation with spent mushroom compost for detoxification and benzo(a)pyrene removal from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Russo, Lara; Rizzo, Luigi; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    The combination of ozonation and spent mushroom compost (SMC)-mediated aerobic biological treatment was investigated in the removal of benzo(a)pyrene from contaminated soil. The performances of the process alone and combined were evaluated in terms of benzo(a)pyrene removal efficiency, mineralization efficiency (as total organic carbon removal), and soil residual toxicity (phytotoxicity to Lepidium Sativum and toxicity to Vibrio fischeri). In spite of the removal efficiency (35%) obtained by SMC-mediated biological process as a stand-alone treatment, the combined process showed a benzo(a)pyrene concentration reduction higher than 75%; the best removal (82%) was observed after 10 min pre-ozonation treatment. In particular, ozonation improved the biodegradability of the contaminant, as confirmed by the increase of CO(2) production (close to 70% compared to the control), mineralization (greater than 60%) and bacterial density (which increased by two orders of magnitude). Moreover, according to phytotoxicity tests on L. Sativum, the aerobic biological process of pre-ozonated soil decreased toxicity. According to the results achieved in the present study, ozonation pre-treatment showed an high potential to overcome the limitation of bioremediation of recalcitrant compound, but it should be carefully operated in order to maximize PAH removal efficiency as well as to minimize soil residual toxicity which can result from the formation of the oxidation intermediates.

  20. Manure phosphorus extractability as affected by aluminum- and iron by-products and aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Dao, T H; Sikora, L J; Hamasaki, A; Chaney, R L

    2001-01-01

    Shifts in manure phosphorus (P) chemical forms and pool sizes induced by water treatment residuals and industrial mineral by-products are largely undefined. We conducted a manure P fractionation study to determine mechanisms of reduction of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in poultry manure upon mineral by-product additions. The effects of composting on the P immobilization efficacy of the by-products were determined using laboratory self-heating composting simulators. The mineral by-products included an aluminum-water treatment residual (Al-WTR) and an iron-rich titanium-processing by-product. The noncomposted manure averaged 0.11 g g(-1) of total P as DRP forms. The by-products significantly reduced manure DRP, by an average of 39 and 48% in the Al- and the Fe-treated manure, respectively. The by-products also reduced the 0.5 M NH4F-extractable phosphorus (FEP) fraction. Shifts in P forms between FEP and 0.1 M NaOH-extractable phosphorus (SHEP) depended upon the Al and Fe contents of the by-products while the combined FEP + SHEP pool remained constant. Phosphate sorption measurements supported the observations that the Fe-rich by-product was more effective at reducing manure DRP and enhancing the formation of SHEP forms at the expense of FEP than the Al-WTR. Composting had no effect on the efficacy of either by-product to reduce DRP. Potential mechanisms of enhanced P stabilization in treated manure upon composting included chemical shifts from the DRP and FEP fractions to the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite extractable P fraction. Thus, the choice of P immobilization agents affected the stability of immobilized P forms and should be taken into consideration in developing manure processing and nutrient stabilization methods.

  1. Effect of biochar on leaching of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from compost in bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hamid; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Flury, Markus

    2015-07-15

    Compost is used in bioretention systems to improve soil quality, water infiltration, and retention of contaminants. However, compost contains dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and phosphorus, all of which can leach out and potentially contaminate ground and surface waters. To reduce the leaching of nutrients and dissolved organic matter from compost, biochar may be mixed into the bioretention systems. Our objective was to test whether biochar and co-composted biochar mixed into mature compost can reduce the leaching of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. There was no significant difference between the effects of biochar and co-composted biochar amendments on nutrient leaching. Further, biochar amendments did not significantly reduce the leaching of dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus as compared to the compost only treatment. The compost-sand mix was the most effective in reducing nitrate and phosphorus leaching among the media.

  2. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  3. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  4. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  5. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  6. Design and construction of a medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric system to assess aerobic biodegradation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Aguirre, Edgar

    A medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric (DMR) system was designed and built to assess the aerobic biodegradation of up to 30 materials in triplicate simultaneously. Likewise, a computer application was developed for rapid analysis of the data generated. The developed DMR system was able to simulate different testing conditions by varying temperature and relative humidity, which are the major exposure conditions affecting biodegradation. Two complete tests for determining the aerobic biodegradation of polymers under composting conditions were performed to show the efficacy and efficiency of both the DMR system and the DMR data analyzer. In both cases, cellulose reached 70% mineralization at 139 and 45 days. The difference in time for cellulose to reach 70% mineralization was attributed to the composition of the compost and water availability, which highly affect the biodegradation rate. Finally, among the tested materials, at least 60% of the organic carbon content of the biodegradable polymers was converted into carbon dioxide by the end of the test.

  7. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds.

  8. Nitrogen dynamics in soil amended with manures composted in dynamic and static systems.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ania; González-Arias, Ander; del Hierro, Oscar; Pinto, Miriam; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia

    2012-10-15

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the stability of three different composts and to study the N dynamics in soil incubated with the composts under laboratory conditions. The composts were produced from sheep manure processed by static pile composting (C1) and from cattle and sheep manure processed by dynamic pile composting (C2 and C3 respectively). Laboratory incubation assays were carried out at 28 °C to determine the amount of N mineralized and N leached under extreme rainfall conditions in the first 30 days after application of doses of each compost equivalent to 170 and 450 kg ha(-1) of N. There were no differences in the values of these parameters in samples of the composts produced by the static (C1) and dynamic (C3) systems, and both composts behaved in the same way when applied to soil. The chemical characteristics of the three final composts, the respiration rates and the lack of stimulation of total microbial biomass indicated that the composts were stable. However, the final C/N ratio was slightly higher in C2 than in C1 and C3 (14 compared with 10 and 11) as was the respiration rate of the high dose of C2 indicating that C2 was more labile, and thus less stable than C1 and C3. Compost C2 generated the highest N mineralization rates after application of different doses (6.5 and 13.1%), as well as the highest N supplying potential (54.7 and 36.2%), and thus the highest rate of mineral N leaching (16.8 and 16.5 mg L(-1) of NO(3)-N), probably as a result of the slight difference in lability. The N release after compost application was very low and thus the leaching potential was also low, indicating that high doses of mature compost (>170 kg ha(-1) of N) could be applied to soil.

  9. Maturity and security assessment of pilot-scale aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Wang, Yao

    2016-03-01

    In this work, penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) and sewage sludge (SWS) were co-composted to analyze the possibility of recycling nutrients in PFDs. The temperature was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days, and the final electrical conductivity (EC), pH and C/N all met the national standards in maturity. A nearly 100% removal of the residual penicillin was achieved, and the seed germination index (GI) increased from 0.02% to 83.54±3.1% by the end of the composting process. However, monitoring the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed that the logarithm of the number of copies of blaTEM increased from 4.17±0.19 at the initial phase to 8.92±0.27 by the end of the composting process, which means that there is a high risk for land use when using PFD compost products.

  10. Investigation and optimization of composting processes--test systems and practical examples

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, I.; Braukmeier, J.; Herrenklage, J.; Leikam, K.; Ritzkowski, M.; Schlegelmilch, M.; Stegmann, R

    2003-07-01

    To determine the optimal course of composting it is useful to carry out experiments. The selection of the right experimental set-up depends on the question of concern. Each set-up is useful for a particular application and has its limits. Two test systems of different scales (up to 1500 ml; up to 100 l) are introduced. The purpose and importance of each system design shall be highlighted by application examples: (1) Suitability of a liquid industrial residue as composting accelerator; (2) Determination of the compost maturity; (3) Behaviour of odor-reducing additives during waste collection and composting; (4) Production of tailor-made compost with respect to Nitrogen (5) Suitability of O{sub 2}-enriched air for acceleration of composting. Small-scale respiration experiments are useful to optimize parameters which have to be adjusted during substrate pre-treatment and composting, with the exception of particle size and temperature, and to reduce the number of variants which have to be investigated in greater detail in larger scale experiments. As all regulation possibilities such as aeration, moistening, turning can be simulated with the technical scale set-up, their complex cooperation can be taken into consideration. Encouraging composting variants can be tested, compared and optimized.

  11. Performance of compostable baby used diapers in the composting process with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Colón, Joan; Mestre-Montserrat, Maria; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    In modern societies, disposable diapers constitute a significant percentage of municipal solid wastes. They have been traditionally landfilled or incinerated as only limited recycling processes are being implemented in some parts of Europe. With the implementation of separated collection systems for the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSWs) and the need to preserve the environment, compostable diapers have appeared in the market to avoid the main environmental impacts associated to non-biodegradable disposable diapers. In this study, a full-scale composting of door-to-door collected OFMSW with a 3% (w/w) of compostable diapers has also been carried out. Previously, lab-scale experiments confirmed that almost 50% of carbon of compostable diapers is emitted as CO2 under aerobic controlled conditions. The results obtained at full-scale demonstrate that both the composting process and the final end product (compost) are not altered by the presence of compostable diapers in crucial aspects such as pathogenic content, stability and elemental composition (including nutrients and heavy metals). The main conclusion of this study is that the collection of the OFMSW with compostable diapers can be a new way to transform this waste into high-quality compost.

  12. Leaching of Particulate and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Compost Applied to Bioretention Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Hamid; Flury, Markus; Mullane, Jessica; Baig, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Compost is used in bioretention systems to improve soil quality, to promote plant growth, and to remove metal contaminants from stormwater. However, compost itself, particularly when applied freshly, can be a source of contamination of the stormwater. To test the potential contamination caused by compost when applied to bioretention systems, we continuously leached a compost column with water under unsaturated conditions and characterized dissolved and particulate organic matter in the leachate. Freshly applied, mature compost leached up to 400 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon and 2,000 mg/L of suspended particulate organic carbon. It required a cumulative water flux of 4,000 mm until concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon declined to levels typical for surface waters. Although, dissolved and particulate organic carbon are not contaminants per se, they can facilitate the movement of metals, thereby enhancing the mobility of toxic metals present in stormwater. Therefore, we recommended that compost is washed before it is applied to bioretention systems. Keywords compost; leachate; alkali extract; dissolved organic carbon; flux

  13. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Jessica M; Flury, Markus; Iqbal, Hamid; Freeze, Patrick M; Hinman, Curtis; Cogger, Craig G; Shi, Zhenqing

    2015-12-15

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle-Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals.

  14. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts.

  15. Nutrient leaching and copper speciation in compost-amended bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Maninder K; Shi, Zhenqing; Flury, Markus

    2016-06-15

    Bioretention systems are designed to remove contaminants from stormwater; however, studies have shown that bioretention systems can export excess nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper when amended with compost. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify removal of nitrates, phosphorus, copper, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from compost-amended bioretention systems, and (2) to investigate the role of DOM on the leaching of copper. Simulated bioretention systems were irrigated with stormwater for seven storms in two-weeks intervals. Leachates were analyzed for nutrients, copper, and DOM. Visual MINTEQ was used to determine the speciation of copper and to quantify interactions of copper with DOM. Results showed that compost-amended bioretention systems were a source of nitrates, phosphorus, and DOM. Nitrate and phosphorus amounts were elevated up to three orders of magnitude in the leachate compared to the stormwater itself. Bioretention systems were a source for copper during the first 3-5 storms, but during later storms, they were a sink for copper. Copper speciation modeling indicated that the majority of dissolved copper was complexed with DOM. Dissolved organic matter thus helps to mobilize copper from the compost, particularly in the first few storms after compost application. However, since copper-DOM complexes are usually much less toxic than free copper ions, we expect that compost amendments may reduce harmful effects of copper on aquatic organisms.

  16. Microbiological biodiversity in poultry and paddy straw wastes in composting systems

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Sunita; Sharma, C.R.; Singh, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Immense quantity of waste is generated in association with poultry meat egg and crop production. The potential risks due to disposal of these wastes are magnified as a result of dense refinement of poultry production and the decreasing amount of land available for waste disposal. The study aims at studying the microbiological biodiversity of poultry waste and paddy straw based co-composting system. The predominant microflora of the poultry manure were bacteria, fungi, enteric bacteria and spore forming bacteria whose population was high at the initiation of composting but decreased significantly as the compost approached maturity. The initial load of inherent enteric groups of bacteria in poultry waste, that also includes some pathogenic ones, is considerably reduced and some new vital groups contributed to compost quality as the microbiological biodiversity sets in the system and becomes stable. Major fraction of nitrogen of poultry waste was subjected to ammonia volatilization and a fraction of it conserved by co-composting it in conjunction with wastes having low nitrogen contents. In the treatment T1 and T5, where poultry manure and paddy straws alone were composted, 60 and 30 percent of organic carbon, respectively, was lost over a period of six months. Whereas in treatments T2,T3 and T4, poultry manure and paddy straw were co-composted in the ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3, respectively, 51.4,45.0 and 37.0 percent of carbon, respectively, was lost during decomposition. The C: N ratio in all the treatments decreased significantly to 18.3 for T1, 24.7 for T2, 27.0 for T3, 34.9 for T4 and 38.5 for T5 at the end of composting period. PMID:24031831

  17. Composting systems for the bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated land

    SciTech Connect

    Semple, K.T.; Fermor, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorophenols are among the most environmentally hazardous and intractable xenobiotic compounds. Particular attention is being paid to pentachlorophenol (PCP). The microflora found in PCP-augmented compost and PCP-contaminated soils from Finland and the US were screened for their putative PCP-degradative abilities using both liquid and solid-state enrichment techniques. These putative degraders were isolated on R8 agar containing PCP. The capabilities of the putative PCP-degrading organisms, several of which are actinomycetes, were characterized in liquid culture using high-performance liquid chromatography and radiorespirometry. These isolated organisms have been found to colonize composts, and radiorespirometric studies are under way using [universally labeled (U)-{sup 14}C]PCP to determine the ability of these composts to mineralize the {sup 14}C-label to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in small-scale composting units. The next stage will investigate mixes of chlorophenol-contaminated soils with enriched composts, thus evaluating the potential to remediate chlorophenol-contaminated soils.

  18. Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Zafar, Urooj; Heyworth, Alan; Brown, Thomas; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Fungi are known to have an important role in the composting process as degraders of recalcitrant materials such as cellulose and lignin. Previous attempts to study the diversity and succession of fungi in compost systems have relied on the use of culture-dependent analyses and low-resolution DNA-fingerprinting techniques, lacking the necessary depth to analyse such a rich ecosystem. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the fungal community composition at the different stages of an in-vessel composting process. A complex succession of fungi was revealed, with 251 fungal OTUs identified throughout the monitoring period. The Ascomycota were the dominant phylum (82.5% of all sequences recovered), followed by the Basidiomycota (10.4%) and the subphylum Mucoromycotina (4.9%). In the starting materials and early stages of the process, yeast species from the Saccharomycetales were abundant, while in latter stages and in the high temperature regions of the pile, fungi from the orders Eurotiales, Sordariales, Mucorales, Agaricales and Microascales were the most prominent. This study provides an improved understanding of the fungal diversity occurring during the composting of municipal solid waste, and this knowledge can lead to the development of more efficient composting practices and a better evaluation of the end-product quality.

  19. The Biodegradation of TNT in Enhanced Soil and Compost Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    WN"a Dat& Mdtteted) INCUPUIY CLASIICATION OF THIS PA*S5WbmDole nff* 20, (Cont’d) resulted. The composting process was examined in bench scale...parti- culates, NO x , and other noxious products which result as air pollutants from this process . The practice of detonation of quantities of... processes (at least in part) Is sanitary landfilling. It was therefore decided to design a series of experiments to simulate the conditions In a

  20. Stormwater Bioretention Systems: Testing the Phosphorus Saturation Index and Compost Feedstocks as Predictive Tools for System Performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sally; Corfman, Amber; Mendrey, Katrina; Kurtz, Kate; Grothkopp, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    A replicated column trial was conducted to evaluate the potential for the phosphorus saturation index (PSI) to predict P movement in bioretention soil mixtures (BSMs). The impact of compost feedstock on BSM performance was also evaluated. Three composts (biosolids/yard, yard/food waste, and manure/sawdust) were each brought to PSI values of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 through the addition of Fe-based water treatment residuals (WTRs) to lower the PSI and P salts to increase the PSI. A synthetic stormwater solution was used for 12 leaching events. The PSI predicted total and dissolved P concentrations in column leachate. All composts removed P at PSI 0.1. All composts were a source of P for the higher PSI values tested, with P concentrations in the leachate decreasing over time. Ammonia and nitrate from all treatments decreased over time, with all treatments showing effective N removal. Copper removal (total and dissolved) was >90% for all treatments, with the highest removal observed at PSI 0.1 for all composts. Zinc removal (total) was also greatest in the 0.1 PSI for all composts. At PSI 0.5 and 1.0, the biosolids/yard compost was less effective than the other materials at removing Zn, with a removal efficiency of approximately 50%. Infiltration rates were similar across all treatments and ranged from 0.44 ± 0.1 cm min in the manure/sawdust at PSI 0.1 to 3.8 ± 2.8 cm min in the food/yard at PSI 1.0. Plant growth in the manure/sawdust compost was reduced in comparison to the other composts tested across all PSI levels. The results of this study indicate that the PSI may be an effective tool for predicting P movement in bioretention systems. Compost feedstock does not indicate the ability of composts to filter contaminants filtration, with all composts tested showing high contaminant removal.

  1. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high.

  2. Theoretical analysis of the kinetic performance of laboratory- and full-scale composting systems.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marco; Silveira, Ana; Antunes, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Composting research at laboratory-scale is critical for the development of optimized full-scale plants. Discrepancies between processes at laboratory-scale and full-scale systems have been investigated in terms of heat balances, but a kinetic analysis of this issue is still missing. In this study, the composting rate at laboratory-scale was, on average, between 1.9 and 5.7 times faster than in full-scale systems for a set of published studies using municipal solid waste, food waste or similar materials. Laboratory-scale performance and full-scale systems were limited to 71 and 46%, respectively, of their maximum potential due to poor management of environmental process conditions far from their optimum. The main limiting environmental factor was found to be moisture content, followed by temperature. Besides environmental factors, waste composition and particle size were identified as factors accounting for kinetic differences between laboratory- and full-scale systems. Overall, this study identifies those factors that affect the kinetics of the composting process most and revealed a significant margin for reducing process time in full-scale composting.

  3. Microbial Abundances Predict Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from a Windrow Composting System.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuqing; Song, Lina; Gao, Xiang; Jin, Yaguo; Liu, Shuwei; Shen, Qirong; Zou, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    Manure composting is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that are two potent greenhouse gases. The CH4 and N2O fluxes are mediated by methanogens and methanotrophs, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in composting manure, respectively, while these specific bacterial functional groups may interplay in CH4 and N2O emissions during manure composting. To test the hypothesis that bacterial functional gene abundances regulate greenhouse gas fluxes in windrow composting systems, CH4 and N2O fluxes were simultaneously measured using the chamber method, and molecular techniques were used to quantify the abundances of CH4-related functional genes (mcrA and pmoA genes) and N2O-related functional genes (amoA, narG, nirK, nirS, norB, and nosZ genes). The results indicate that changes in interacting physicochemical parameters in the pile shaped the dynamics of bacterial functional gene abundances. The CH4 and N2O fluxes were correlated with abundances of specific compositional genes in bacterial community. The stepwise regression statistics selected pile temperature, mcrA and NH4(+) together as the best predictors for CH4 fluxes, and the model integrating nirK, nosZ with pmoA gene abundances can almost fully explain the dynamics of N2O fluxes over windrow composting. The simulated models were tested against measurements in paddy rice cropping systems, indicating that the models can also be applicable to predicting the response of CH4 and N2O fluxes to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and rising temperature. Microbial abundances could be included as indicators in the current carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical models.

  4. Microbial Abundances Predict Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from a Windrow Composting System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuqing; Song, Lina; Gao, Xiang; Jin, Yaguo; Liu, Shuwei; Shen, Qirong; Zou, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    Manure composting is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that are two potent greenhouse gases. The CH4 and N2O fluxes are mediated by methanogens and methanotrophs, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in composting manure, respectively, while these specific bacterial functional groups may interplay in CH4 and N2O emissions during manure composting. To test the hypothesis that bacterial functional gene abundances regulate greenhouse gas fluxes in windrow composting systems, CH4 and N2O fluxes were simultaneously measured using the chamber method, and molecular techniques were used to quantify the abundances of CH4-related functional genes (mcrA and pmoA genes) and N2O-related functional genes (amoA, narG, nirK, nirS, norB, and nosZ genes). The results indicate that changes in interacting physicochemical parameters in the pile shaped the dynamics of bacterial functional gene abundances. The CH4 and N2O fluxes were correlated with abundances of specific compositional genes in bacterial community. The stepwise regression statistics selected pile temperature, mcrA and NH4+ together as the best predictors for CH4 fluxes, and the model integrating nirK, nosZ with pmoA gene abundances can almost fully explain the dynamics of N2O fluxes over windrow composting. The simulated models were tested against measurements in paddy rice cropping systems, indicating that the models can also be applicable to predicting the response of CH4 and N2O fluxes to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and rising temperature. Microbial abundances could be included as indicators in the current carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical models. PMID:28373862

  5. Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities.

  6. A Simulation Study Comparing Incineration and Composting in a Mars-Based Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John; Kang, Sukwon; Cavazzoni, Jim; Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare incineration and composting in a Mars-based advanced life support (ALS) system. The variables explored include waste pre-processing requirements, reactor sizing and buffer capacities. The study incorporates detailed mathematical models of biomass production and waste processing into an existing dynamic ALS system model. The ALS system and incineration models (written in MATLAB/SIMULINK(c)) were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The composting process is modeled using first order kinetics, with different degradation rates for individual waste components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, cellulose and lignin). The biomass waste streams are generated using modified "Eneray Cascade" crop models, which use light- and dark-cycle temperatures, irradiance, photoperiod, [CO2], planting density, and relative humidity as model inputs. The study also includes an evaluation of equivalent system mass (ESM).

  7. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  10. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  11. Effects of different bulking agents on the maturity, enzymatic activity, and microbial community functional diversity of kitchen waste compost.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenwei; Gu, Jie; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-10-01

    Aerobic composting is an effective method for the disposal and utilization of kitchen waste. However, the addition of a bulking agent is necessary during kitchen waste composting because of its high moisture content and low C/N ratio. In order to select a suitable bulking agent, we investigated the influence of leaf litter (LL), sawdust (SD), and wheat straw (WS) on the enzymatic activity, microbial community functional diversity, and maturity indices during the kitchen waste composting process. The results showed that the addition of WS yielded the highest maturity (the C/N ratio decreased from 25 to 13, T value = 0.5, and germination index (GI) = 114.7%), whereas the compost containing SD as a bulking agent had the lowest maturity (GI = 32.4%). The maximum cellulase and urease activities were observed with the WS treatment on day 8, whereas the SD treatment had the lowest cellulase activity and the LL treatment had the lowest urease activity. The compost temperature and microbial activity (as the average well color development) showed that bulking the composts with SD prolonged the composting process. The diversity index based on the community-level physiological profile showed that the composts bulked with LL and WS had greater microbial community functional diversity compared with those bulked with SD. Thus, the maturity indexes and enzymatic activities suggest that WS is a suitable bulking agent for use in kitchen waste composting systems.

  12. Seasonal microbial community dynamics in a flowerpot-using personal composting system for disposal of household biowaste.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Akira Hiraishi; Yamanaka, Yosuke Yamanaka; Narihiro, Takashi

    2000-06-01

    Microbial community dynamics in a flowerpot-using solid biowaste composting (FUSBIC) process were monitored seasonally by quinone profiling and conventional microbiological methods. The FUSBIC system, which consisted of three flowerpots (14 L or 20 L capacity) with 5-6 kg each of a soil-compost mixture (SCM) as the primary reactors, was loaded daily with household biowaste from November 1998 to October 1999. The monthly average waste reduction rate was 88.2% for the 14-L system and 92.5% for the 20-L system on a wet weight basis. The direct total microbial count detected in the 14-L primary reactors ranged from 4.5 to 9.6x10(11) cells.g(-1) of dry wt of SCM, and the viable count of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria recovered on agar plates at 28 degrees C varied from 1.9 to 5.7x10(11) CFU.g(-1) of dry wt. The quinone content of SCM samples from the 14-L and 20-L systems ranged from 160 to 353 nmol.g(-1) of dry SCM. Ubiquinones, unsaturated menaquinones, and partially saturated menaquinones constituted 15.0-36.4, 14.8-22.0, and 41.8-61.6 mol% of the total content, respectively. The major quinone types detected were usually MK-8(H(2)), MK-9(H(2)), and Q-10. Variations in quinone profiles were evaluated numerically by using two parameters, the dissimilarity index (D) and microbial divergence index (MD(q)). The upper limit of seasonal changes in the microbial community structure was about 30% as expressed by D values. The MD(q) values calculated ranged from 18 to 22. A significant positive correlation was found between seasonal temperature and bacterial populations containing partially saturated menaquinones. These results indicated that the FUSBIC system contained highly diverse microbial populations that fluctuated to some extent depending on seasonal temperature. Members of the Actinobacteria were suggested to be the major constituents of the total population present.

  13. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  14. Greenhouse gas emission reduction and environmental quality improvement from implementation of aerobic waste treatment systems in swine farms.

    PubMed

    Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; Vives, C A

    2008-01-01

    Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from implementation of aerobic technology in USA swine farms. Emission reductions were calculated using the approved United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) methodology in conjunction with monitoring information collected during full-scale demonstration of the new treatment system in a 4360-head swine operation in North Carolina (USA). Emission sources for the project and baseline manure management system were methane (CH4) emissions from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during storage and handling of manure in the manure management system. Emission reductions resulted from the difference between total project and baseline emissions. The project activity included an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, treatment of the separated liquid using aerobic biological N removal, chemical disinfection and soluble P removal using lime. The project activity was completed with a centralized facility that used aerobic composting to process the separated solids. Replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology reduced GHG emissions 96.9%, from 4972 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) to 153 tonnes CO2-eq/year. Total net emission reductions by the project activity in the 4360-head finishing operation were 4776.6 tonnes CO2-eq per year or 1.10 tonnes CO2-eq/head per year. The dollar value from implementation of this project in this swine farm was US$19,106/year using current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of US$4/t CO2. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of US$1.75 per finished pig. Thus, GHG emission reductions and credits can help compensate for the

  15. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns.

  16. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  17. Colorado composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.

  18. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  19. Environmental and economic analysis of an in-vessel food waste composting system at Kean University in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Horowitz, Naomi; Casey, Maeve; Jones, Kimmera

    2017-01-01

    A composting system provides many benefits towards achieving sustainability such as, replacing fertilizer use, increasing the quantity of produce sold, and diverting organic wastes from landfills. This study delves into the many benefits a composting system provided by utilizing an established composting system at Kean University (KU) in New Jersey, as a scale project to examine the composters' environmental and economic impacts. The results from the study showed that composting food wastes in an in-vessel composter when compared to typical disposal means by landfilling, had lower impacts in the categories of fossil fuel, GHG emissions, eutrophication, smog formation and respiratory effects; whereas, its had higher impacts in ozone depletion, acidification human health impacts, and ecotoxicity. The environmental impacts were mainly raised from the manufacturing of the composter and the electricity use for operation. Applying compost to the garden can replace fertilizers and also lock carbon and nutrients in soil, which reduced all of the environmental impact categories examined. In particular, the plant growth and use stage reduced up to 80% of respiratory effects in the life cycle of food waste composting. A cost-benefit analysis showed that the composting system could generate a profit of $13,200 a year by selling vegetables grown with compost to the student cafeteria at Kean and to local communities. When educational and environmental benefits were included in the analysis, the revenue increased to $23,550. The results suggest that in-vessel composting and the subsequent usage of a vegetable garden should be utilized by Universities or food markets that generate intensive food wastes across the U.S.

  20. DHA system mediating aerobic and anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol in Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIB 418.

    PubMed Central

    Forage, R G; Lin, E C

    1982-01-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIB 418, the pathways normally responsible for aerobic growth on glycerol and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (the glp system) are superrepressed. However, aerobic growth on glycerol can take place by the intervention of the NAD-linked glycerol dehydrogenase and the ATP-dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase of the dha system normally inducible only anaerobically by glycerol or dihydroxyacetone. Conclusive evidence that the dha system is responsible for both aerobic and anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol was provided by a Tn5 insertion mutant lacking dihydroxyacetone kinase. An enzymatically coupled assay specific for this enzyme was devised. Spontaneous reactivation of the glp system was achieved by selection for aerobic growth on sn-glycerol 3-phosphate or on limiting glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source. However, the expression of this system became constitutive. Aerobic operation of the glp system highly represses synthesis of the dha system enzymes by catabolite repression. Images PMID:6284704

  1. High-rate anaerobic composting with biogas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    DeBaere, L.; Verstraete, W.

    1984-03-01

    In Belgium a novel high rate anaerobic composting process with biogas has been developed as an alternative to aerobic systems, producing a commercial dry compost and 60 to 95 cubic metres methane per ton of municipal solid waste. This is a high value energy source simultaneously yielding a stabilized end product. The process was developed so that digestion could take place at 25 to 35% total solids, thus reducing the amount of water needed to dilute the waste, decreasing the digestor volume and cutting transportation costs. The end product is odorless and stable. High rate anaerobic composting of MSW can be combined with sewage sludge stabilization. Manure, vegetable or fruit wastes can be co-treated in certain proportions as required. About 15 to 20% of the energy produced is transformed into electricity and heat and consumed as the waste disposal plant itself. 120 to 140 US $ worth of methane gas and compost can be produced per cubic metre of reactor per year, making anaerobic composting economically attractive.

  2. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost.

  3. Physical modelling of the composting environment: A review. Part 1: Reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, I.G. . E-mail: ian.mason@canterbury.ac.nz; Milke, M.W.

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, laboratory- and pilot-scale reactors used for investigation of the composting process are described and their characteristics and application reviewed. Reactor types were categorised by the present authors as fixed-temperature, self-heating, controlled temperature difference and controlled heat flux, depending upon the means of management of heat flux through vessel walls. The review indicated that fixed-temperature reactors have significant applications in studying reaction rates and other phenomena, but may self-heat to higher temperatures during the process. Self-heating laboratory-scale reactors, although inexpensive and uncomplicated, were shown to typically suffer from disproportionately large losses through the walls, even with substantial insulation present. At pilot scale, however, even moderately insulated self-heating reactors are able to reproduce wall losses similar to those reported for full-scale systems, and a simple technique for estimation of insulation requirements for self-heating reactors is presented. In contrast, controlled temperature difference and controlled heat flux laboratory reactors can provide spatial temperature differentials similar to those in full-scale systems, and can simulate full-scale wall losses. Surface area to volume ratios, a significant factor in terms of heat loss through vessel walls, were estimated by the present authors at 5.0-88.0 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3} for experimental composting reactors and 0.4-3.8 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3} for full-scale systems. Non-thermodynamic factors such as compression, sidewall airflow effects, channelling and mixing may affect simulation performance and are discussed. Further work to investigate wall effects in composting reactors, to obtain more data on horizontal temperature profiles and rates of biological heat production, to incorporate compressive effects into experimental reactors and to investigate experimental systems employing natural ventilation is suggested.

  4. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage in systems containing compost and limestone: Laboratory and field results

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Pappas, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Passive, down-flow systems, consisting of compost and limestone layers, termed successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS), may be well suited for treatment of mine drainage containing ferric iron and/or aluminum. A column, simulating a SAPS, has been operated in the laboratory for 52 weeks. The 0.16-m diameter column consisted of a 0.30-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost and 0.91 m of free standing water. Actual AMD (pH = 3.02, acidity = 218 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 600 mg/L, Fe = 16.0 mg/L, Mn = 12.1 mg/L, and Al = 17.1 mg/L) was applied to the column at a rate of 3.8 mL/min. Effluent pH has remained above 6.2 (6.2-7.9) in the column system. A SAPS located in Jefferson County, PA has been monitored for the past 4.5 years. The SAPS has an approximate area of 1000 m{sup 2} and contains a 0.4-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.2-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost, and 1.5 m of free standing water. Mine water (acidity = 335 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 1270 mg/L, Fe = 246 mg/L, Mn = 38.4 mg/L, and Al = <0.2 mg/L) flowed into the SAPS at a rate of 140 L/min. Water samples from the field and laboratory systems have been collected at strategic locations on a regular basis and analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, Fe{sup 2+}, total Fe, Mn, Al, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na, Co, Ni, and Zn. Alkalinity has been generated in both field and laboratory systems by a combination of limestone dissolution and sulfate reduction. The column generated an average of 378 mg/L of alkalinity; 74% due to limestone dissolution and 26% due to bacterial reduction of sulfate. The field SAPS generated an average of 231 mg/L of alkalinity and exhibited seasonal trends.

  5. Influence of bulking agents on CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-ping; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guo-xue

    2014-01-01

    Mismanagement of the composting process can result in emissions of CH4, N2O, and NH3, which have caused severe environmental problems. This study was aimed at determining whether CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from composting are affected by bulking agents during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system. Three bulking agents, corn stalks, spent mushroom compost, and sawdust, were used in composting with pig manure in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for more than a month. Gas emissions were measured continuously, and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained. Concentrations of NH3 and N2O from the composting pig manure mixed with corn stalks or sawdust were higher than those from the spent mushroom compost treatment, especially the sawdust treatment, which had the highest total nitrogen loss among the three runs. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which accounts for 11.16% to 35.69% of the initial nitrogen. One-way analysis of variance for NH3 emission showed no significant differences between the corn stalk and sawdust treatments, but a significant difference was noted between the spent mushroom compost and sawdust treatments. The introduction of sawdust reduced CH4 emission more than the corn stalks and spent mushroom compost. However, there were no significant differences among the three runs for total carbon loss. All treatments were matured after 30 d. PMID:24711356

  6. Biocontrol activity and induction of systemic resistance in pepper by compost water extracts against Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki Deok

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effects of water extracts of composts (CWE) from commercial compost facilities for controlling root and foliar infection of pepper plants by Phytophthora capsici. Among 47 CWE tested, CWE from composts Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and population of P. capsici. All selected CWE significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the disease incidence and severity in the seedling and plant assays compared with the controls. However, there were no significant differences in zoospore germination, disease incidence, and disease severity between treatments of untreated, autoclaved, and filtered CWE. In addition, CWE significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed leaf infection of P. capsici through induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants root-drenched with CWE. The tested CWE enhanced the expression of the pathogenesis-related genes, CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, or CaPR-10 as well as beta-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase activities, which resulted in enhanced plant defense against P. capsici in pepper plants. Moreover, the CWE enhanced the chemical and structural defenses of the plants, including H(2)O(2) generation in the leaves and lignin accumulation in the stems. The CWE could also suppress other fungal pathogens (Colletotrichum coccodes in pepper leaves and C. orbiculare in cucumber leaves) through ISR; however, it failed to inhibit other bacterial pathogens (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper leaves and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in cucumber leaves). These results suggest that a heat-stable chemical(s) in the CWE can suppress root and foliar infection by P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these suppressions might result from direct inhibition of development and population of P. capsici for root infection, as well as indirect inhibition of foliar infection through ISR with broad-spectrum protection.

  7. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  8. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  9. Profitability of Cropping Systems Featuring Tillage and Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity rather than profitability is often used to compare agronomic systems. Increasing energy prices will force producers to scrutinize machinery operation and input costs, which will shift emphasis to profitability. The objective of this study was to compare returns to land and management fo...

  10. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  11. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  12. Two-step pilot-scale biofilter system for the abatement of food waste composting emission.

    PubMed

    Galera, Melvin Maaliw; Cho, Eulsaeng; Kim, Yekyung; Farnazo, Danvir; Park, Shin-Jung; Oh, Young-Sook; Park, Jae Kyu; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2008-03-01

    A pilot-scale two-step biofilter system was evaluated in treating food waste composting emission for 220 days. Wood chips were packed at the bottom section while mixture of rock wool and earthworm compost (6% w/v) was packed at the top section. Inlet ammonia concentration was found to be dominant and intermittent. The overall ammonia removal of over 98% was achieved, 70% of which was removed in the wood chip section. The highest ammonia elimination capacity was determined to be 39.43 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h at 99.5% removal efficiency. From biodegradation kinetic analysis, the maximum removal rate, V(m), of the wood chip section was determined to be 200 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and the saturation constant, K(s), 180 mg/m(3). For the rock wool-earthworm cast mixture section, the V(m) was 87 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and K(s) was 87 mg/m(3). Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide and most trace compounds were achieved by the biofilter. Highest hydrogen sulfide elimination rate was 0.22 g-H(2)S/m(3)/h. The biofilter was optimized from 24 to 16 s EBRT with resulting low average pressure drops of 16 and 29 mm H(2)O/m, respectively.

  13. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting.

  14. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended.

  15. Genomics of Aerobic Cellulose Utilization Systems in Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Iain; Abt, Birte; Lykidis, Athanasios; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms. PMID:22723998

  16. Continuous Thermophilic Composting12

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, K. L.

    1962-01-01

    Under complete mixing conditions, aerobic decomposition of mixed organic waste materials has been maintained continuously in the thermophilic phase in a 55-gal rotating drum. Temperatures ranged between 53 and 70 C. Raw material was added daily or every second day in amounts up to 18 lb per 100 lb of decomposing material. The weight of material removed ranged between 42 and 60% of the raw material added. Factors influencing the operation of the composting unit were studied in detail. Images FIG. 2 PMID:13909559

  17. Low-Temperature Effects on Systems for Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soils. Part 1. Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    and Inclined Flow Reactor cepts were developed for composting municipal Systems and industrial solid wastes. These types of solid 1. Tumbling solids...drying windrow or heat dryer rates; final drying may be required may be required in windrow or heat dryer usually required Sensitivity to cold

  18. Effects of composting process on the dissipation of extractable sulfonamides in swine manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Xuelian; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Shen, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of composting on the fate of sulfonamides (SAs) in the manure-straw mixture were explored through a simulation of aerobic composting process. Additionally, factors of temperature and coexistence of heavy metal Cu that might influence the removal efficiency were particularly investigated. As shown in the results, the extractable SAs dissipated rapidly during the composting process. The coexistence of Cu in the composting process might have delayed the decline of SAs, but the drugs could still be completely removed by the end of the composting. In contrast to the thermophilic aerobic composting, extractable SAs in air-temperature-placed mixture dissipated much slower and 1.12-1.56mg/kg could be detected after 35days of incubation. The results confirmed that temperature could influence the dissipation of SAs, which was identified as a more important factor than Cu-coexistence. Hence, thermophilic aerobic composting is an effective process to eliminate VAs before manure land application.

  19. Comparative study on open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion methods for metal determination in shrimp sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Keivan; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini; Bin Abas, Mhd Radzi; Sobhanzadeh, Elham; Low, Kah Hin

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate two different digestion methods for the determination of the total concentration of metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) in shrimp sludge compost. The compost made from shrimp aquaculture sludge co-composted with organic materials (peat, crushed bark and manure) was used as an organic growing medium for crop. Open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion procedures were employed in sample preparation. Various combinations and volumes of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids were evaluated for the efficiency of both methods. A certified reference material (CRM 146) was used in the comparison of these two digestion methods. The results revealed a good agreement between both procedures and the certified valued. The best recoveries were found in the range between 95% and 99% for microwave assisted digestion with a mixture of 2 ml of HF, 6 ml of HNO(3) and 2 ml of HCl. This procedure was recommended as the method for digestion the compost herein based on the recovery analysis and time taken.

  20. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  1. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  2. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  3. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BENCH-SCALE COMPOST TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil bound contamination presents a significant set of problems to those attempting to remediate the soil. Bioremediation has received considerable attention, as a potential answer to the obvious remediation needs. Composting technology represents a promising means to use indigen...

  4. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    PubMed

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system.

  5. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  6. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  7. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiquia, Sonia M.

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

  8. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-06-15

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  9. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  10. Effectiveness of bulking agents for co-composting penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) and sewage sludge in pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Wang, Wenyan; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) has a distinguishing characteristic of the high content of penicillin residue and nutrients. The existing handling of PMD used as feed additive of livestock and poultry is facing a direct challenge of penicillin transportation into environment due to the inadequate absorption through the digestive system. This work aims at examining the feasibility of co-composting of PMD with sewage sludge (SWS) in a pilot-scale system and evaluating the effect of four bulking agents. Seven treatments were co-composted over a 32-day period in 390-L reactors using the same PMD and SWS with different bulking agents, corresponding to the seven formulas (T-1: PMD + SWS + RS; T-2: PMD + SWS + WS; T-3: PMD + SWS + RS + SD; T-4: PMD + SWS + WS + SD; T-5: PMD + SWS + SD; T-6: PMD + SWS + RS + WS; control: PMD + SWS). The parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter (OM), TN, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, pH, EC, penicillin residue, as well as germination index (GI). The results showed that co-composting PMD and SWS with BA is feasible. The highest rate of OM mineralization was observed in T-3, while below 30% for T-2, T-4, and T-5. Furthermore, the SD addition resulted in both the increase in the duration of thermophilic stage and maximum temperature and the decrease in TN losses, particularly in T-3, suggesting that the formula of the T-3 is very suitable option for the co-composting of PMD and SWS.

  11. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  12. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II.

  13. NASA tests composters for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C.

    1997-01-01

    For long term missions, composters may be an integral part of a life support system that provides edible food crops, extracts nutrients from plant biomass and removes contaminants from the recycling stream.

  14. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Srinath R. . E-mail: srinathrangamani@yahoo.com; Bhave, Prashant P. . E-mail: drppbhave@vsnl.net

    2006-07-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  15. Nitrogen removal in an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor combined by aerobic biofiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Jun, H B; Park, S M; Park, J K; Choi, C O; Lee, J S

    2004-01-01

    A new nitrogen removal process (up-flow sludge blanket and aerobic filter, USB-AF) was proposed and tested with real sewage. In the USB reactor, the larger part of influent organic and nitrogen matters were removed, and ammonia was effectively oxidized in the subsequent aerobic filter. The role of the aerobic filter was to convert ammonia into nitrate, an electron acceptor that could convert soluble organic matters into volatile suspended solid (VSS) in the USB. The accumulated as well as influent VSS in the USB was finally degraded to fermented products that were another good carbon source for denitrification. Total COD, settleable COD and soluble COD in the raw sewage were 325, 80 and 140 mg/l, respectively. Most unsettleable COD as well as some SCOD in the influent was successfully removed in the USB. TCOD removal in the anoxic filter was by denitrification with the recycled nitrate. Low COD input to the aerobic filter could increase nitrification efficiency, reduce the start-up period and save the aeration energy in the USB-AF system. About 95% of ammonia was nitrified in the aerobic filter with no relation to the influent ammonia concentration. Denitrification efficiency of the recycled nitrate in the anoxic filter was about 85, 83, and 72% at recycle ratios of 100, 200, and 300%, respectively. T-N removal efficiency was 70% at recycle ratio of 300%.

  16. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  17. Biogas, compost and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wichert, B.; Wittrup, L.; Robel, R.

    1994-08-01

    A pilot project now under development in Folsom, California, incorporates an anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process that could eventually supply enough biogas to a fuel cell. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has two fuel cells in operation and is participating in the research project. Recently, the California Prison Industry Authority (PIA) began operating a processing facility at the Folsom prison, designed for 100 tons/day of mixed waste from the City of Folsom. The 35,000 square foot Correctional Resource Recovery Facility (CRRF) uses minimum security inmates from Folsom`s Return to Custody Facility to manually separate recyclables and compostable materials from the waste stream. The PIA will be using a new technology, high solids anaerobic digestion, to compost the organic fraction (representing approximately 60 to 70 percent of the waste stream). Construction began in June on a 40-foot wide by 120-foot long and 22-foot deep anaerobic digester. Once the vessel is operational in 1995, the composting process and the gradual breakdown of organic material will produce biogas, which SMUD hopes to use to power an adjacent two megawatt fuel cell. The electricity generated will serve SMUD customers, including the waste facility and nearby correctional institutions. 1 fig.

  18. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  19. Nitrogen transformation during organic waste composting by the Rutgers system and its effects on pH, EC and maturity of the composting mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Paredes, C; Bernal, M P

    2001-07-01

    The evolution of the different forms of nitrogen during the composting of several wastes was studied, as well as its relation to the pH, electrical conductivity and parameters of maturity of the composts obtained. Four mixtures were prepared from different organic materials: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, brewery sludge, sorghum bagasse, cotton waste and pine bark. The evolution of the different forms of nitrogen during composting depended on the material which supplied the nitrogen to the mixtures and the organic matter (OM) degradation rate during composting. The greatest concentration of ammonium was observed during the first weeks of composting, coinciding with the most intense period of OM degradation, and ammonium then decreased gradually to reach final values of below 0.04%. The use of urea as a nitrogen source in the mixtures led to high ammonium levels during the first weeks as a result of its rapid hydrolysis. The nitrification process began only when the temperature of the mixtures had dropped below 40 degrees C and its intensity depended on the quantity of ammonium present when the process began. The highest concentrations of NO3-N were always produced at the end of maturation, reaching values of 0.52%, 0.53%, 0.12% and 0.20% in the four mixtures studied. Nitrogen losses during composting depended on the materials used and on the pH values of the mixtures. Mixtures with the highest lignocellulose content showed the lowest losses (below 25%), while those containing municipal solid waste lost more than 40% of the initial content. Statistically significant correlations at a high probability level were found between the NO3-N concentration and pH and electrical conductivity. confirming that nitrification was responsible for the falling pH values and increasing electrical conductivity. The ratio of NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations was shown to be a clear indicator of the maturity of the mixtures during composting, the final values of 0.08, 0.04, 0

  20. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in vitro conidial germination and appressorium formation of the fungal pathogens; however, DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) failed to inhibit the conidial development of the pathogens. Direct treatments of the CWEs and BABA on pepper and cucumber leaves at 1 and 3 days before or after inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed

  1. Bioremediation of storage tank bottom sludge by using a two-stage composting system: Effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition.

    PubMed

    Koolivand, Ali; Rajaei, Mohammad Sadegh; Ghanadzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Hamid; Godini, Kazem

    2017-03-21

    The effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition on the efficiency of a two-stage composting system in removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from storage tank bottom sludge (STBS) was investigated. The system consisted of ten windrow piles as primary composting (PC) followed by four in-vessel reactors as secondary composting (SC). Various initial C/N/P and mixing ratios of STBS to immature compost (IC) were examined in the PC and SC for 12 and 6weeks, respectively. The removal rates of TPH in the two-stage system (93.72-95.24%) were higher than those in the single-stage one. Depending on the experiments, TPH biodegradation fitted to the first- and second-order kinetics with the rate constants of 0.051-0.334d(-1) and 0.002-0.165gkg(-1)d(-1), respectively. The bacteria identified were Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Proteus sp. The study verified that a two-stage composting system is effective in treating the STBS.

  2. Compost and Biological Amendments in Potato Systems: Effects on Soil Properties and Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An interdisciplinary field experiment was conducted at two field sites in Maine to assess the effect of compost and biocontrol agents on potato diseases, insect populations, soil quality, and yield. The two sites were Aroostook Farm (AF, a conventionally managed research site) and Wood Prairie Farm...

  3. Compost and Biological Amendments in Potato Systems: Effects on Soil Microbial Communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The specific objective of this portion of the project is to generate information on microbial populations in amended and nonamended plots at a conventional site and an organic farm. Compost-treated or untreated plots were amended with one of three biocontrol organisms, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderm...

  4. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  5. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  6. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants. PMID:20350306

  7. Effects of bedding type on compost quality of equine stall waste: implications for small horse farms.

    PubMed

    Komar, S; Miskewitz, R; Westendorf, M; Williams, C A

    2012-03-01

    Our objective in this study is to compare 4 of the most common bedding materials used by equine operations on the chemical and physical characteristics of composted equine stall waste. Twelve Standardbred horses were adapted to the barn and surrounding environment for 2 wk before the start of the study. Groups of 3 horses were bedded on 1 of 4 different bedding types (wood shavings, pelletized wood materials, long straw, and pelletized straw) for 16 h per day for 18 d. Stalls were cleaned by trained staff daily, and all contents removed were weighed and stored separately by bedding material on a level covered concrete pad for the duration of the study. Compost piles were constructed using 3 replicate piles of each bedding type in a randomized complete block design. Each pile was equipped with a temperature sensor and data logger. Water was added and piles were turned weekly throughout the 100-d compost process. Initial and final samples were taken, dried, and analyzed for DM mass, OM, inorganic nitrogen (nitrate-N and ammonium-N), electrical conductivity, and soluble (plant-available) nutrients. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure, and means were separated using Fischer's protected LSD test (P < 0.05). No significant temperature differences were observed among the bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in DM mass for each of the 4 bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in OM and C:N ratio for all 4 bedding materials. The composted long straw material had greater concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (P < 0.05), nitrate-N (P < 0.05), and ammonium-N (P < 0.05) than the composted wood shavings. This study demonstrated that incorporating a simple aerobic composting system may greatly reduce the overall volume of manure and yield a material that is beneficial for land application in pasture-based systems. The straw-based materials may be better suited for

  8. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems.

    PubMed

    Bass, Adrian M; Bird, Michael I; Kay, Gavin; Muirhead, Brian

    2016-04-15

    The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO3, NH4 and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO2 was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N2O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N2O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term.

  9. Thermophilic Transformation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Composting Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    labelled, was used to trace these transformations. Thermophilic fungi, actinomycetes ,and bacteria were isolated from both test (1.5% TNT) and control (no...nutrient agar, soy trypticase agar, actinomycete medium, or malt extract agar plates incubated at 550C. Bacterial identifications were accomplished...Co., San Francisco, London. 13 TNT or its metabolites in the test compost extracts indicate the necessity for using 14C-labelled TNT in laboratory

  10. Fate of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in a Simulated Compost System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    of agricultural and other wastes. J. K. R. Gasser, ed., Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, 42-55. Stevenson , F. J. (1989). Humus chemistry...vii 1 Introduction Background and Rationale Composting is generally defined as a microbial process for conversion of organic wastes into humus under...acetonitrile. Organic matter fractionation: Experiment IV. The organic matter frac- tionation procedure was adapted from Stevenson (1989) (Figure 3

  11. The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G

    2007-03-01

    Composting is a natural biological decomposition process that takes place under aerobic and thermophilic conditions. It can be used for the day-to-day management of mortalities on farms and for carcass disposal in emergency animal disease (EAD) outbreaks. In mortality composting, carcasses are placed in piles or bins together with supplemental carbon sources such as sawdust, litter, straw or wood shavings. Composting is particularly suitable for broiler-farm mortalities and litter. In the case of emergency disease outbreaks, composting can be conducted either inside or outside the poultry house following killing. Composting has been successfully employed for emergency disposal of carcasses in a few cases in North America, but research is lacking on the biosecurity of the process. Composting is a well-established pathogen reduction technology, but process management and heterogenous pile conditions pose particular challenges for validating the microbiological safety of mortality composting. This paper reviews the available information on the biosecurity of mortality composting, identifies potential sources of risk, and highlights emerging research needs. Reports to date of the use of composting in EAD outbreaks are also discussed.

  12. Composting barrel for sustainable organic waste management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, Md Azizul; Bushra, Quazi Sifat; Rahman, M H

    2011-12-01

    To ensure quick and uniform aerobic stabilization of biowaste through domestic composting and to prevent malodorous emissions, two modifications were made to a conventional steel barrel composter by: (1) providing 0.0125 m diameter openings throughout the sides and (2) placing a 0.0254 m diameter perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in the middle portion of the barrel. The volume of composting waste before modification of the composting barrel was 40% of the original volume and it was 70%, 4 weeks following the modifications. In addition, the nutrients in the compost were found to be in a more suitable range after modification of the composting barrel. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the compost was in the ideal range of 11-15 in the modified composting reactor but it was quite high (24-25) in the conventional barrel. This modified barrel composting plant proved to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective solution for the management of organic solid waste materials in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries such as Bangladesh.

  13. Survival of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in a nonsupportive gassed transport system.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, A W; Cunningham, P J; Guze, L B

    1976-01-01

    Survival of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in a commercially available, non-supportive, gassed (oxygen-free) transport container (Anaport) was evaluated quantitatively. Saline-suspended obligate anaerobes survived significantly better in the gassed container in aerobic control tubes (P less than 0.025, t test), and counts were virtually unchanged after 8 h of holding. Similarly, initial counts and relative proportions of a mixture of Bacteroides fragilis and Staphylococcus aureus were maintained for 72 h. The value of the gassed transport system was less apparent when microorganisms were suspended in nutrient broth. The major advantage of the gassed transport system appears to be for holding of specimens collected by saline irrigation. PMID:1254710

  14. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  15. Performance assessment of improved composting system for food waste with varying aeration and use of microbial inoculum.

    PubMed

    Manu, M K; Kumar, Rakesh; Garg, Anurag

    2017-03-07

    Wet waste recycling at generation point will alleviate burden on the overflowing waste dumpsites in developing nations. Drum composting is a potential treatment option for such waste at individual or community level. The present study was aimed to produce compost from wet waste (primarily comprising food waste) in composting drums modified for improved natural air circulation. Effect of microbial inoculum and waste turning on composting process was also studied. The final results showed the production of matured and stable compost in the modified drums. Addition of the microbial inoculum resulted in thermophilic phase within a week time. The self-heating test and germination index (>80%) showed the production of non-phytotoxic and mature compost in the modified drums after 60days. The change in microbial population, humic substances and biological parameters (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) during the study is discussed. Moreover, the reduction in waste mass and volume is also reported.

  16. Sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system: carbon and nitrogen transformations and potential ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kulikowska, Dorota; Gusiatin, Zygmunt M

    2015-04-01

    The study examined how aeration rate (AR) in bioreactor (1.0 and 0.5l/min kg dm) at low C/N ratio (ca. 15-16) affected kinetics of organic matter (OM) removal, i.e. rate constant of OM removal (k) and maximum degradation of OM (A) and nitrogen evolution during sewage sludge composting. Moreover, potential ecological risk (Er) based on metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) content was evaluated. The process involved a two-stage system (bioreactor and windrow). In the bioreactor, at higher AR, k and A equaled 0.34 d(-1) and 101.9 g/kg dm, respectively; at lower AR k was 0.38 d(-1), however A 1.4-fold lower. Interestingly, in the windrow, k was much higher (0.086 d(-1)) for the biomass subjected to a lower AR, compared to 0.026 d(-1) at higher AR. Moreover, although at lower AR, k in the windrow was 4.4-fold lower than in the bioreactor, A was 1.15-fold higher. Total N content in mature compost was on the level 23.51-22.35 g/kg dm and metal concentration showed low ecological risk (Er < 16).

  17. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  18. Evaluation of a combined anaerobic and aerobic system for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Vallejo-Rodríguez, R; Méndez-Romero, D C

    2010-03-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic/aerobic (An/Ar) system, comprising an anaerobic filter (AF) coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR), was developed to treat wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The AF operated with organic loadings (OL) from 3.7 to 16.5 kg m(-3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 16 to 72 h. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was between 50 and 81% and was shown to be related inversely to the value of the OL. The production rate of methane was in the region of 411 mL per g of COD removed. On the other hand, the degradation of organic matter (OM) by an aerobic pathway in the SBR followed first-order kinetics with regard to OM concentration; 85% of the remaining OM from the AF was eliminated within 6 h of aeration, and over 95% of total OM was eliminated as COD within 9 h. The optimal treatment conditions in this system were found at OL = 11.0 kg m-3 d(-1) and HRT = 24 h in the AF, whereas the SBR was most efficient at 9 h of aeration.

  19. Evaluation of the slurry management strategy and the integration of the composting technology in a pig farm - Agronomical and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Sáez, José A; Clemente, Rafael; Bustamante, M Ángeles; Yañez, David; Bernal, M Pilar

    2017-05-01

    The changes in livestock production systems towards intensification frequently lead to an excess of manure generation with respect to the agricultural land available for its soil application. However, treatment technologies can help in the management of manures, especially in N-surplus areas. An integrated slurry treatment system based on solid-liquid separation, aerobic treatment of the liquid and composting the solid fraction was evaluated in a pig farm (sows and piglets) in the South of Spain. Solid fraction separation using a filter band connected to a screw press had low efficiency (38%), which was greatly improved incorporating a rotatory sieve (61%). The depuration system was very efficient for the liquid, with total removal of 84% total solids, 87% volatile solids, and 98% phosphorus. Two composting systems were tested through mechanical turning of: 1- a mixture of solid fraction stored for 1 month after solid-liquid separation and cereal straw; 2- recently-separated solid fraction mixed with cotton gin waste. System 2 was recommended for the farm, as it exhibited a fast temperature rise and a long thermophilic phase to ensure compost sanitisation, and high recovery of nutrients (TN 77%, P and K > 85%) and organic matter (45%). The composts obtained were mature, stable and showed a high degree of humification of their organic matter, absence of phytotoxicity and concentrations of nutrients similar to other composts from pig manure or separated slurry solids. However, the introduction of slurry from piglets into the solid-liquid separation system should be avoided in order to reduce the content of Zn in the compost, which lowers its quality. The slurry separation followed by composting of the solid fraction using a passive windrow system, and aeration of the liquid phase, was the most recommendable procedure for the reduction of GHG emissions on the farm.

  20. The aerobic electron transport system of Eikenella corrodens.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Rubén D; Barraza, Beatriz C; Polo, Alma; Sará, Martín; Contreras, Martha; Escamilla, J Edgardo

    2002-10-01

    The respiratory system of the fastidious beta-proteobacterium Eikenella corrodens grown with limited oxygen was studied. Membranes showed the highest oxidase activity with ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) or succinate and the lowest activity with NADH and formate. The presence of a bc1-type complex was suggested by the inhibition exerted by 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HOQNO), myxothiazol, and antimycin A on respiration with succinate and by the effect of the latter two inhibitors on the succinate-reduced difference spectra. Respiration with succinate or ascorbate-TMPD was abolished by low KCN concentrations, suggesting the presence of a KCN-sensitive terminal oxidase. Cytochromes b and c were spectroscopically detected after reduction with physiological or artificial electron donors, whereas type a and d cytochromes were not detected. The CO difference spectrum of membranes reduced by dithionite and its photodissociation spectrum (77 K) suggested the presence of a single CO compound that had the spectral features of a cytochrome o-like pigment. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of membrane haems confirmed the presence of haem B; in contrast, haems A and O were not detected. Peroxidase staining of membrane type c cytochromes using SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of five bands with apparent molecular masses of 44, 33, 30, 26, and 14 kDa. Based on our results, a tentative scheme of the respiratory chain in E. corrodens, comprising (i) dehydrogenases for succinate, NADH, and formate, (ii) a ubiquinone, (iii) a cytochrome bc1, and (iv) a type-cbb' cytochrome c oxidase, is proposed.

  1. Biosolids composting in Davenport, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, R.A.; Williams, T.; Plett, S.

    1996-09-01

    The City of Davenport, Iowa constructed an aerated static pile composting facility to process 28 dry tons per day of dewatered biosolids and 25,000 cubic yards per year of yard wastes. This is the first large totally enclosed aerated static pile biosolids composting facility to be built in several years in the US. Design of the facility was completed in March 1994, construction began in July 1994, with substantial completion of the facility in August 1995. This paper outlines the major operating systems and describes the major components of the facility. The facility processes all of the City`s anaerobically digested biosolids which is currently dewatered by belt filter presses to 20% solids. Yard wastes are used as the primary bulking agent supplemented by wood chips and shredded rubber tires to minimize O and M costs. A mechanized continuous feed mixing system consisting of hoppers, conveyors, and pugmill mixers is used to combine bulk agents with the dewatered biosolids to the desired ratio for composting. Composting and drying of these materials occurs in a totally enclosed pre-fabricated metal building for maximum environmental control and odor control. Multiple aeration stations provide both positive and negative aeration through pre-cast aeration trenches beneath compost piles.

  2. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems.

  3. Measuring aerobic respiration in stream ecosystems using the resazurin-resorufin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GonzáLez-Pinzón, Ricardo; Haggerty, Roy; Myrold, David D.

    2012-09-01

    The use of smart tracers to study hydrologic systems is becoming more widespread. Smart tracers are compounds that irreversibly react in the presence of a process or condition under investigation. Resazurin (Raz) is a smart tracer that undergoes an irreversible reduction to resorufin (Rru) in the presence of cellular metabolic activity. We quantified the relationship between the transformation of Raz and aerobic bacterial respiration in pure culture experiments using two obligate aerobes and two facultative anaerobes, and in colonized surface and shallow (<10 cm) hyporheic sediments using reach-scale experiments. We found that the transformation of Raz to Rru was nearly perfectly (minr2 = 0.986), positively correlated with aerobic microbial respiration in all experiments. These results suggest that Raz can be used as a surrogate to measure respiration in situ and in vivoat different spatial scales, thus providing an alternative to investigate mechanistic controls of solute transport and stream metabolism on nutrient processing. Lastly, a comparison of respiration and mass-transfer rates in streams suggests that field-scale respiration is controlled by the slower of respiration and mass transfer, highlighting the need to understand both biogeochemistry and physics in stream ecosystems.

  4. Azo dye treatment with simultaneous electricity production in an anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor and microbial fuel cell coupled system.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Jun; Han, Song; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-06-01

    A microbial fuel cell and anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor coupled system was used for azo dye degradation with simultaneous electricity production. Electricity was produced during the co-metabolism process of glucose and azo dye. A microorganism cultured graphite-granular cathode effectively decreased the charge transfer resistance of the cathode and yielded higher power density. Operation parameters including glucose concentration and hydraulic retention time were optimized. The results indicated that recovering electricity during a sequential aerobic-anaerobic azo dye treatment process enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and did not decrease azo dye removal. Moreover, UV-vis spectra and GC-MS illustrated that the azo bond was cleaved biologically in the anaerobic chamber and abiotically in the aerobic chamber. The toxic intermediates, aromatic amines, were removed by aerobic treatment. Our work demonstrated that the microbial fuel cell and sequential anode-cathode reactor coupled system could be applied to achieve electricity production with simultaneous azo dye degradation.

  5. Decolorizing and detoxifying textile wastewater, containing both soluble and insoluble dyes, in a full scale combined anaerobic/aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Frijters, C T M J; Vos, R H; Scheffer, G; Mulder, R

    2006-03-01

    The wastewater originating from the bleaching and dyeing processes in the textile factory Ten Cate Protect in Nijverdal (the Netherlands) was successfully treated in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic system. In the system, a combination of an anaerobic 70-m3 fluidized bed reactor and a 450-m3 aerobic basin with integrated tilted plate settlers, 80-95% of the color was removed. The color was largely removed in the preacidification basin and the anaerobic reactor. Color, deriving from both reactive as well as disperse, was anaerobically removed, indicating that these type of dyes were reduced to colorless products. Interestingly, the vat dyes, the anthraquinones and indigoids, which were thought to be removed mainly aerobically, were largely anaerobically decolorized. Apparently the anaerobic system is capable of effectively removing the color of both soluble as insoluble dyes. The treated effluent of the sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment showed no toxicity towards the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fisheri (EC20 (95%) > 45%). Partially bypassing the anaerobic stage resulted in increased toxicity (EC20 (95%) of 9% and 14%) in the effluent of the aerobic treatment and caused significant decrease of color removal. The results of this study show a main contribution of anaerobic treatment in decolorizing and detoxifying the textile wastewater in the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system.

  6. The Bacteriohopanepolyol Inventory of Novel Aerobic Methane Oxidising Bacteria Reveals New Biomarker Signatures of Aerobic Methanotrophy in Marine Systems.

    PubMed

    Rush, Darci; Osborne, Kate A; Birgel, Daniel; Kappler, Andreas; Hirayama, Hisako; Peckmann, Jörn; Poulton, Simon W; Nickel, Julia C; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina; Sidgwick, Frances R; Talbot, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is one of the primary biologic pathways regulating the amount of methane (CH4) released into the environment. AMO acts as a sink of CH4, converting it into carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. It is of interest for (paleo)climate and carbon cycling studies to identify lipid biomarkers that can be used to trace AMO events, especially at times when the role of methane in the carbon cycle was more pronounced than today. AMO bacteria are known to synthesise bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) lipids. Preliminary evidence pointed towards 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol (aminopentol) being a characteristic biomarker for Type I methanotrophs. Here, the BHP compositions were examined for species of the recently described novel Type I methanotroph bacterial genera Methylomarinum and Methylomarinovum, as well as for a novel species of a Type I Methylomicrobium. Aminopentol was the most abundant BHP only in Methylomarinovum caldicuralii, while Methylomicrobium did not produce aminopentol at all. In addition to the expected regular aminotriol and aminotetrol BHPs, novel structures tentatively identified as methylcarbamate lipids related to C-35 amino-BHPs (MC-BHPs) were found to be synthesised in significant amounts by some AMO cultures. Subsequently, sediments and authigenic carbonates from methane-influenced marine environments were analysed. Most samples also did not contain significant amounts of aminopentol, indicating that aminopentol is not a useful biomarker for marine aerobic methanotophic bacteria. However, the BHP composition of the marine samples do point toward the novel MC-BHPs components being potential new biomarkers for AMO.

  7. The Bacteriohopanepolyol Inventory of Novel Aerobic Methane Oxidising Bacteria Reveals New Biomarker Signatures of Aerobic Methanotrophy in Marine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Birgel, Daniel; Kappler, Andreas; Hirayama, Hisako; Peckmann, Jörn; Poulton, Simon W.; Nickel, Julia C.; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina; Sidgwick, Frances R.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is one of the primary biologic pathways regulating the amount of methane (CH4) released into the environment. AMO acts as a sink of CH4, converting it into carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. It is of interest for (paleo)climate and carbon cycling studies to identify lipid biomarkers that can be used to trace AMO events, especially at times when the role of methane in the carbon cycle was more pronounced than today. AMO bacteria are known to synthesise bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) lipids. Preliminary evidence pointed towards 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol (aminopentol) being a characteristic biomarker for Type I methanotrophs. Here, the BHP compositions were examined for species of the recently described novel Type I methanotroph bacterial genera Methylomarinum and Methylomarinovum, as well as for a novel species of a Type I Methylomicrobium. Aminopentol was the most abundant BHP only in Methylomarinovum caldicuralii, while Methylomicrobium did not produce aminopentol at all. In addition to the expected regular aminotriol and aminotetrol BHPs, novel structures tentatively identified as methylcarbamate lipids related to C-35 amino-BHPs (MC-BHPs) were found to be synthesised in significant amounts by some AMO cultures. Subsequently, sediments and authigenic carbonates from methane-influenced marine environments were analysed. Most samples also did not contain significant amounts of aminopentol, indicating that aminopentol is not a useful biomarker for marine aerobic methanotophic bacteria. However, the BHP composition of the marine samples do point toward the novel MC-BHPs components being potential new biomarkers for AMO. PMID:27824887

  8. Successful School Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  9. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  10. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Martins-Pinge, M C

    2011-09-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  11. The potential role of aerobic biological waste treatment in regenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, M. L.; Nafis, D.; Sze, E.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using aerobic biological waste treatment in closed systems. Issues that are addressed in this paper are: (1) how high a degree of material balance is possible, (2) how much might such a system weigh, and (3) how would system closure and weight be affected if animals were included in the system. A computer model has been developed to calculate for different scenarios the compositions and amounts of the streams entering or leaving the waste treatment system and to estimate the launch weight of such a system. A bench scale apparatus has been built to mimic the proposed waste treatment system; the experiments are used to verify model predictions and to improve model parameter estimations.

  12. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M P; Alburquerque, J A; Moral, R

    2009-11-01

    New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.

  13. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils.

  14. Practical Aerobic Oxidations of Alcohols and Amines with Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO and Related Catalyst Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and amine oxidations are common reactions in laboratory and industrial synthesis of organic molecules. Aerobic oxidation methods have long been sought for these transformations, but few practical methods exist that offer advantages over traditional oxidation methods. Recently developed homogeneous Cu/TEMPO (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl) and related catalyst systems appear to fill this void. The reactions exhibit high levels of chemoselectivity and broad functional-group tolerance, and they often operate efficiently at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. These advances, together with their historical context and recent applications, are highlighted in this minireview. PMID:25044821

  15. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  16. Recovery of anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in three anaerobic transport systems.

    PubMed

    Helstad, A G; Kimball, J L; Maki, D G

    1977-06-01

    With aspirated specimens from clinical infections, we evaluated the recovery of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria in three widely used transport systems: (i) aspirated fluid in a gassed-out tube (FGT), (ii) swab in modified Cary and Blair transport medium (SCB), and (iii) swab in a gassed-out tube (SGT). Transport tubes were held at 25 degrees C and semiquantitatively sampled at 0, 2, 24, and 48 h. Twenty-five clinical specimens yielded 75 anaerobic strains and 43 isolates of facultative and 3 of aerobic bacteria. Only one anaerobic isolate was not recovered in the first 24 h, and then, only in the SGT. At 48 h, 73 anaerobic strains (97%) were recovered in the FGT, 69 (92%) in the SCB, and 64 (85%) in the SGT. Two problems hindered the recovery of anaerobes in the SCB and SGT systems: first die-off of organisms, as evidenced by a decrease in colony-forming units of 20 strains (27%) in the SCB and 25 strains (33%) in the SGT, as compared with 7 strains (9%) in the FGT, over 48 h; and second, overgrowth of facultative bacteria, more frequent with SCB and SGT. The FGT method was clearly superior at 48 h to the SCB and SGT systems in this study and is recommended as the preferred method for transporting specimens for anaerobic culture.

  17. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels.

  18. Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle.

  19. Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation.

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from an aerobic granular sludge system treating low-strength ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingming; Yang, Sen; Wang, Mingyu; Wang, Xin-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is a promising technology in wastewater treatment process. Its special microorganism structure could make the emissions of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) more complicated. This study investigated the N2O emissions from a batch-fed aerobic granular sludge system during nitrification of low-strength synthetic ammonium wastewater. The N2O emission was 2.72 ± 0.52% of the oxidized ammonium during the whole anoxic-oxic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) cycle. Under nitrification batch test with sole ammonium substrate (50 mg N/L), N2O emission factor was 1.82% (N2ON/NH4(+)-Nox) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was the responsible microorganism. The presence of high ammonium concentration (or high ammonium oxidation rate (AOR)) and accumulation of nitrite would lead to significant N2O emissions. AOB denitrification pathway was speculated to contribute more to the N2O emissions under nitrification conditions. While under simultaneous nitrification and denitrification condition with carbon source of 500 mg COD/L, the N2O emission factor increased to 2.76%. Both AOB and heterotrophic denitrifiers were responsible for N2O emission and heterotrophic denitrification enhances N2O emission. Step feeding of organic carbon source declined N2O emission factor to 1.60%, which underlined the role of storage substance consumption in N2O generation during denitrification.

  1. Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Hobbs, P J; Mead, A; Dobrovin-Pennington, A

    2002-09-01

    The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H(2)S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples taken from different composting ingredients (r=0.83 and 0.76-0.87, P<0.01, for log(e)-transformed data). Differences in N availability, in terms of NH(3) and N losses during composting, were found between different N sources. Materials in which the N was less available (chipboard and digester wastes, cocoa shells, ammonium sulfate) produced lower mushroom yields than materials in which the N was more readily available (poultry manure, urea, brewers' grains, hop and molasses wastes, cocoa meal). Replacement of poultry manure with the other N sources at 50-100% or wheat straw with rape, bean, or linseed straw in aerated tunnel or windrow composts reduced the OC and emissions of odorous sulfur-containing compounds, but also reduced yield. Urea and cocoa meal may be suitable for "low odor" prewetting of straw, with addition of poultry manure immediately before aerated tunnel composting. Rape straw in compost reduces the formation of anaerobic zones and resulting odorous emissions, since it maintains its structure and porosity better than wheat straw.

  2. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  3. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil.

  4. Prolonged Survival of Campylobacter Species in Bovine Manure Compost

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; McAllister, Tim A.; Larney, Francis J.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of naturally occurring campylobacteria in aerobic compost constructed of manure from beef cattle that were administered chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (AS700) or from cattle not administered antibiotics (control) was examined. Although there were no differences in population sizes of heterotrophic bacteria, the temperature of AS700 compost was more variable and did not become as high as that of control compost. There were significant differences in water content, total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and electrical conductivity but not in the C/N ratio or pH between the two compost treatments. Campylobacteria were readily isolated from pen manure, for up to day 15 from control compost, and throughout the active phase of AS700 compost. Campylobacter DNA (including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and Campylobacter jejuni) was detected over the ca. 10-month composting period, and no reductions in quantities of C. jejuni DNA were observed over the duration of the active phase. The utilization of centrifugation in combination with ethidium monoazide (EMA) significantly reduced (>90%) the amplification of C. jejuni DNA that did not originate from cells with intact cell membranes. No differences were observed in the frequency of Campylobacter DNA detection between EMA- and non-EMA-treated samples, suggesting that Campylobacter DNA amplified from compost was extracted from cells with intact cell membranes (i.e., from viable cells). The findings of this study indicate that campylobacteria excreted in cattle feces persist for long periods in compost and call into question the common belief that these bacteria do not persist in manure. PMID:20023098

  5. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    PubMed

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile.

  6. The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-09-01

    Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended.

  7. Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naser; Clark, Ian; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Shea, Syd; Meier, Sebastian; Qi, Fangjie; Kookana, Rai S; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation.

  8. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  9. Composting Begins at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  10. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  11. Simultaneous removal of COD and ammonium from landfill leachate using an anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Sun, Dezhi; Chung, Jong-Shik

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic arrangement was investigated to treat landfill leachate for simultaneous removal of COD and ammonium. It was found that the anaerobic MBBR played a major role in COD removal due to methanogenesis, and the aerobic MBBR acted as COD-polishing and ammonium removal step. The contribution of the anaerobic MBBR to total COD removal efficiency reached 91% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.08 kgCOD/(m3d), and gradually decreased to 86% when feed OLR was increased to 15.70 kgCOD/(m3d). Because of the complementary function of the aerobic reactor, the total COD removal efficiency of the system had a slight decrease from 94% to 92% even though the feed OLR was increased from 4.08 to 15.70 kgCOD/(m3d). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) had a significant effect on NH+4-N removal; more than 97% of the total NH+4-N removal efficiency could be achieved when the HRT of the aerobic MBBR was more than 1.25 days. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. A decrease in COD removal efficiency of only 7% was observed when the OLR was increased by four times and shock duration was 24 h, and the system could recover the original removal efficiency in 3 days. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0538 gVSS/gCOD rem.

  12. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature.

  13. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  14. Monitoring of Bacillus thermodenitrificans OHT-1 in compost by whole cell hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hatsu, Masahiro; Ohta, Junji; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

    2002-09-01

    Thermophilic aerobic composting is a widely practiced method for the disposal of exhaust materials. We isolated a thermophilic bacteria strain from a compost sample under aerobic conditions at 60 degrees C. On the basis of its 16S rRNA sequence and physiological characteristics, this strain was identified as Bacillus thermodenitrificans OHT-1. An 18-subunit oligonucleotide probe for 16S rRNA, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was developed for the detection of B. thermodenitrificans. Spores and vegetative cells of B. thermodenitrificans OHT-1 were detected in liquid culture and laboratory compost by whole cell hybridization using this oligonucleotide probe. The results obtained by whole cell hybridization were evaluated in growth experiments of B. thermodenitrificans OHT-1 in laboratory compost and were used to enumerate spores and vegetative cells.

  15. Evaluation of specific biological heat potential of oily wastewater in an autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment system.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui Min; Chen, Chang Yu; Wu, Yeong Shing; Lu, Chih Jen

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on the specific biological heat potential (h(b)) of oil and grease wastewaterin an autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment (ATAT) system. A novel experimental device was applied to evaluate h(b) by using heat balance model under steady state. In the study the treatment system was daily fed with realistic and artificial wastewater at 11250 and 17420 mg COD l(-1), respectively. The wastewater was rich in oil and grease at 1220 and 600 mg l(-1), respectively. The sludge retention time (SRT) was controlled at 5 days. The results showed that the average values of h(b) were 3.7 and 3.1 kcal g(-1) COD removed and the true growth yield (Y0) were 0.10 and 0.13 mg MLSS mg(-1) COD for realistic and artificial wastewater respectively. These two systems could maintain reactoroperating temperatures at 43 degrees C and 48 degrees C, respectively. The COD removal efficiency was as high as 90 to 97%. The oil and grease reduction was 68 to 72%. The high organic matter removal capacity and low sludge yield of ATAT process have been demonstrated.

  16. Composting in small laboratory pilots: performance and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, G; Barriuso, E; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M; Houot, S

    2012-02-01

    Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O(2) consumption and CO(2) emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures.

  17. Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni.

  18. Design Of Bioremediation Systems For Groundwater (Aerobic and Anaerobic Plus Representative Case Studies)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioremediation in the subsurface. The basics of aerobic, cometabolic, and anaerobic bioremediation are presented. Case studies from the Delaware Sand & Gravel Superfund Site, Dover Cometabolic Research Project and the SABR...

  19. Rapeseed rotation, compost and biocontrol amendments reduce soilborne diseases and increase tuber yield in conventional and organic potato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three different potential disease-suppressive management practices, including a Brassica napus (rapeseed) green manure rotation crop, a conifer-based compost amendment, and three biological control organisms (Trichoderma virens, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizoctonia solani hypovirulent isolate Rhs1A1)...

  20. System-level approach to studying oxygen stress and acclimation of Shewanella oneidensis to growth under aerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliaev, A.

    2008-12-01

    Systems-level approaches have been proven extremely useful in elucidating the mechanisms involved in stress response and acclimation of microorganisms to different environments. Recent studies of Shewanella oneidensis, a dissimilatory metal reducer catalyzing biogeochemical cycling of Fe and Mn, demonstrate that this facultatively aerobic bacterium is inhibited by high concentrations of oxygen. Physiological and genomic studies demonstrated that growth under aerobic conditions triggers autoaggregation of S. oneidensis leading to significant physiological and morphological changes which are consistent with biofilm mode of growth. Global transcriptome profiling of the aggregates revealed coordinated upregulation of various attachment and adhesion factors which is governed through coordinate regulation by the RpoS, SpoIIA, and Crp transcription factors. The aerobic aggregated cells also revealed increased expression of putative anaerobic electron transfer and homologs of metal reduction genes. The experimental evidence indicates that aggregate formation in S. oneidensis may serve as an alternative or an addition to biochemical detoxification to reduce the oxidative stress associated with production of reactive oxygen species during aerobic metabolism while facilitating the development of hypoxic conditions within the aggregate interior.

  1. The relationship between repeated sprint ability and the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.

    PubMed

    Wadley, G; Le Rossignol, P

    1998-06-01

    A large number of team games require participants to repeatedly produce maximal or near maximal sprints of short duration with brief recovery periods. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test that is specific to the energy demands of Australian Rules football (ARF), and the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Seventeen ARF players participated in the study. Each participant was assessed for VO2 max, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), best 20 m sprint time and RSA. The RSA test involved 12x20 m sprints departing every 20 s. When including the work performed during the time taken to decelerate, the test involved a work to rest ratio of approximately 1:3. Total sprinting time and the percentage decrement of repeated sprinting times were the two derived measures of RSA. The results indicate that the best 20 m sprint time was the only factor to correlate significantly with total sprinting time (r = 0.829, P < 0.001) and percentage decrement (r = -0.722, P < 0.01). VO2 max and AOD were not related to the total sprinting time or the percentage decrement that was produced by the RSA test. This was interpreted to signify that the phosphagen system was the major energy contributor for this test.

  2. Meeting the MSW composting challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hiscock, E. )

    1994-01-01

    A co-composting facility in Sevier County, Tennessee is exceeding all expectations for MSW/sludge processing and for the quality of its product. It's also beating the odor problem that has afflicted other composting operations. In the first six months of 1993, almost 71% of the county's waste stream was recycled. When a planned aluminium/non-ferrous metals recovery system is added to the facility, the diversion due to recycling activities should hit 75%. This has been accomplished while controlling odors and heavy metal levels and elminating toxins, pathogens, leachates, and landfill vector problems. This article presents an overview of the technology selection, plant design, siting, economics, and environmental concerns of the project.

  3. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  4. Combined effects of DOM extracted from site soil/compost and biosurfactant on the sorption and desorption of PAHs in a soil-water system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Huang, Guo-he; An, Chun-jiang; Wei, Jia

    2011-06-15

    The combined effects of DOM and biosurfactant on the sorption/desorption behavior of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in soil water systems were systematically investigated. Two origins of DOMs (extracted from soil and extracted from food waste compost) and an anionic biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) were introduced. The presence of DOM in the aqueous phase could decrease the sorption of PAHs, thus influence their mobility. Desorption enhancement for both PHE and PYR in the system with compost DOM was greater than that in the soil DOM system. This is due to the differences in specific molecular structures and functional groups of two DOMs. With the co-existence of biosurfactant and DOM, partitioning is the predominant process and the desorption extent was much higher than the system with DOM or biosurfactant individually. For PHE, the desorption enhancement of combined DOM and biosurfactant was larger than the sum of DOM or biosurfactant; however desorption enhancement for PYR in the combined system was less than the additive enhancement in two individual system under low PAH concentration. This could be explained as the competition sorption among PAHs, DOM and biosurfactant. The results of this study will help to clarify the transport of petroleum pollutants in the remediation of HOCs-contaminated soils.

  5. Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants

    PubMed Central

    García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

  6. Potential role of compost and green manure amendment to mitigate soil GHGs emissions in Mediterranean drip irrigated maize production systems.

    PubMed

    Forte, Annachiara; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    Organic fertilization can preserve soil organic matter (SOM) and is foreseen as an effective strategy to reduce green house gases (GHGs) emissions in agriculture. However, its effectiveness needs to be clarified under specific climate, crop management and soil characteristics. A field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean drip irrigated maize system to assess the pattern of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in response to the replacement of a typical bare fallow-maize cycle under urea fertilization (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (CONV) with: (i) bare fallow-maize cycles under two doses of compost (COM1 and COM2, 130 and 260 kg N ha(-1) y(-1), respectively) and (ii) a vetch-maize cycle, with vetch incorporation as green manure (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (GMAN). Along the maize period (MP), reduced daily N2O emissions were detected in organic treated soils compared to CONV, mainly in the first stages of the cultivation, thanks to the slow release of available nitrogen from the organic substrates. Cumulative N2O fluxes (kg N2O-N ha(-1)) in MP scored to 0.24, 0.14, 0.12 and 0.085 for CONV, COM1, COM2 and GMAN, respectively, with significantly lower emissions in GMAN respect to CONV. CO2 fluxes partially reflected the ranking observed for maize yields, with cumulated values (Mg CO2-C ha(-1)) of 2.2, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1 for CONV, COM1, COM2 and GMAN, respectively, and significantly lower in COM1 respect to the other treatments. During the fallow period (FP), compared to CONV (0.77 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) and 0.25 kg N2O-N ha(-1)), enhanced GHG fluxes were detected in COM treatments (about 0.90 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) and 0.37 kg N2O-N ha(-1), as averaged values from COM1 and COM2), likely driven by the slow prolonged mineralization of the added organic matter. GMAN showed comparable CO2 (0.82 Mg CO2-C ha(-1)) and N2O emissions (0.30 kg N2O-N ha(-1)), in consequence of restrained post-harvest residual N coupled with the counteracting effect of vetch uptake. Respect to the total yearly GHG

  7. Continuous coculture degradation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Acinetobacter spp. in an aerobic reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.; Focht, D.D. )

    1990-07-01

    A coculture of two Acinetobacter spp. was applied to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls during a 42-day incubation study in a continuous aerobic fixed-bed reactor system, filled with polyurethane foam boards as support for bacterial biofilm development. The reactor was supplied with mineral medium containing 500 ppm sodium benzoate as a growth (primary) substrate, while the incoming airstream was saturated with biphenyl vapors to induce for PCB cometabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain P6. The chlorobenzoates thus generated from 4,4{prime}-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4{prime}-DCBP), 3,4-dichlorobiphenyl (3,4-DCBP), and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl were further metabolized by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1. The chlorobenzoate metabolites, as well as ring-fission product ({lambda}{sub max} = 442 nm) from the PCB congeners, accounted for the degradation of 63% (2.8 mM) of the 4,4{prime}-DCBP, 100% (0.5 mM) of the 3,4-DCBP, and 32% (0.12 mM) of the 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-TCBP, the biofilm responded with a concurrent higher release of chlorobenzoates and chloride through cosubstrate utilization.

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  9. The Science of Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  10. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  11. Copper(I)/ABNO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation: alleviating steric and electronic constraints of Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-10-23

    Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems promote efficient aerobic oxidation of sterically unhindered primary alcohols and electronically activated substrates, but they show reduced reactivity with aliphatic and secondary alcohols. Here, we report a catalyst system, consisting of ((MeO)bpy)Cu(I)(OTf) and ABNO ((MeO)bpy = 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine; ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl), that mediates aerobic oxidation of all classes of alcohols, including primary and secondary allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic alcohols with nearly equal efficiency. The catalyst exhibits broad functional group compatibility, and most reactions are complete within 1 h at room temperature using ambient air as the source of oxidant.

  12. Composting: The next step?

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Composting is a natural process, and is, therefore, as old as the earth. And yet, while composting is growing as a method of solid waste management--for municipal solid waste (MSW), yard waste, sludge, food waste, etc.--in many ways, it is still in its infancy. Like recycling, municipal composting (as opposed to agricultural) existed in various sporadic or fledgling enterprises in years past. But unlike recycling, which can point to a past history of scrap and steel recycling and a nationwide effort during World War II, municipal composting programs of the 1950s and 1960s are either looked on as failures or rural experiments whose example did not transfer well when carried out on a larger scale in metropolitan areas. Today, however, there are an estimated 4,000 + municipal composting facilities in the US, according to various sources, the vast majority of which are dedicated to yard waste. One reason for this is that the concept of composting is easy to understand--reusing of waste in another form rather than discarding it.

  13. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  14. The effects of composting on the nutritional composition of fibrous bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues and its impact on the growth of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, John M.; Lowry, Brett A.; Brown, Paul B.; Beyl, Caula A.; Nyochemberg, Leopold

    2009-04-01

    Utilization of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues as a nutritional source by Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) has proven problematic as a result of high concentrations of fibrous compounds in the plant waste residues. Nutritional improvement of plant waste residues by composting with the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus), and the effects on growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia fed such residues were evaluated. Five Nile tilapia (mean weight = 70.9 ± 3.1 g) were stocked in triplicate aquaria and fed one of two experimental diets, cowpea (CP) and composted cowpea (CCP), twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Composting of cowpea residue resulted in reduced concentrations of nitrogen-free extract, hemi-cellulose and trypsin inhibitor activity, though trypsin inhibitor activity remained high. Composting did not reduce crude fiber, lignin, or cellulose concentrations in the diet. No significant differences ( P < 0.05) were observed in weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate, daily consumption, and food conversion ratio between tilapia fed CP and CCP. These results suggest that P. ostreatus is not a suitable candidate for culture in conjunction with the culture of Nile tilapia. Additional work is needed to determine what, if any, benefit can be obtained from incorporating composted residue as feed for Nile tilapia.

  15. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation.

  16. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  17. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process.

  18. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  19. Composting potential of different inoculum sources in the modified SEBAC system treatment of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Forster-Carneiro, T; Pérez, M; Romero, L I

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the work described here was to analyse the biomethanization process for three types of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using two different inoculum sources in a sequential leach-bed anaerobic reactor under thermophilic (55 degrees C) and dry conditions (20%TS). The OFMSWs studied were: separately collected food waste (SC_OFMSW) from restaurants, synthetic waste (ST_OFMSW) and mechanically selected municipal waste (MS_OFMSW). The inoculum studied were digested mesophilic sludge (SLUDGE) and digested SC_OFMSW. The results show that SLUDGE gave the best performance and this was therefore selected for the rest of the experiments. Three assays were performed to analyse the biomethanization processes of three types of organic waste. The results suggest that all three wastes give rise to an acclimation stage with acidogenic/acetogenic activity between days 5 and 20-30 and a stabilization phase associated with methanogenic activity. In conclusion, a mixture of OFMSW (regardless of its origin) and SWINE arranged in layers in the reactor, as well as SLUDGE used with an inoculum source, enhanced the fast start up phase of a modified sequential leach-bed system under dry thermophilic conditions.

  20. [Technology of composting].

    PubMed

    Jäger, B

    1983-09-01

    The technology of composting must guarantee the material-chemical, biological and physical-technical reaction conditions essential for the rotting process. In this, the constituents of the input material and the C/N ratio play an important role. Maintaining optimum decomposition conditions is rendered difficult by the fact that the physical-technical reaction parameters partly exclude each other. These are: optimum humidity, adequate air/oxygen supply, large active surface, loose structure with sufficient decomposition volume. The processing of the raw refuse required to maintain the physical-technical reaction parameters can be carried out either by the conventional method of preliminary fragmentizing, sieving and mixing or else in conjunction with separating recycling in adapted systems. The latter procedure obviates some drawbacks which mainly result from the high expenditure required for preliminary fragmentation of the raw refuse. Moreover, presorting affords the possibility of reducing the heavy-metal content of the organic composing fraction and this approaches a solution to the noxa disposal problem which at present stands in the way of being accepted as an ecological waste disposal method.

  1. Efficacy of bioconversion of paper mill bamboo sludge and lime waste by composting and vermiconversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, B; Sinha, I; Sharma, P; Goswami, L; Bhattacharyya, P; Gogoi, N; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Paper mill bamboo sludge (PMBS) and Paper mill lime waste (PMLW) are extensively produced as solid wastes in paper mills. Untreated PMBS and PMLW contain substantial amount of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr) in soluble forms. Efficiency of vermiconversion and aerobic composting with these wastes is reported here. Adopted bioconversion systems enhanced the availability of some essential nutrients (N, P, K and Zn) in various combinations of cow dung (CD) with PMBS and PMLW. Colonization of nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria considerably intensified under the vermiconversion system. Moreover, significant metal detoxification occurred due to vermiconversion. Various combinations of bioconverted PMBS and PMLW were applied to tissue cultured bamboo (Bambusa tulda) and chilli (Capsicum annum). Accelerated nutrient uptake coupled with improved soil quality resulted in significant production of chilli. Furthermore, vermiconverted PMBS+CD (1:1) and PMLW+CD (1:3) confirmed as potential enriching substrate for tissue cultured bamboo.

  2. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Faron, Matthew L; Buchan, Blake W; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L; Granato, Paul A; Wilson, Deborah A; Procop, Gary W; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Faron, Matthew L.; Buchan, Blake W.; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L.; Granato, Paul A.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Procop, Gary W.; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26529504

  4. Composting of MSW: Needs, problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is constructed of three complementary sections. The first section discusses the need for composting municipal solid waste (MSW). Too often as scientists and engineers the focus narrows to solve a specific problem within a system or to find the most cost effective solution. One habitually fails to examine concepts holistically due to tight schedules or work backlogs. One understands how things work and gets renumerated by the ability to scale up from the bench or pilot, keep costs down and to troubleshoot cranky processes. Sitting back to understand the reason why something like composting makes sense is a luxury one usually cannot afford. Section two discusses problems specific to MSW composting such as product quality, production stabilization, nuisance odors, and vector attraction. The final segment deals with some solutions to these difficulties.

  5. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure.

  6. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E.; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M.; Houot, S.

    2012-02-15

    compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures.

  7. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Gómez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter–rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near) real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS) models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation—RPD = 2.68), humification ratio (RPD = 2.23), total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07) and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66) with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring. PMID:27854280

  8. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  9. Internal recycle to improve denitrification in a step feed anoxic/aerobic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Boyle, C A; McKenzie, C J; Morgan, S

    2009-01-01

    During periods of low load (weekends and holidays) the Mangere wastewater treatment plant effluent has breached the summer consent conditions for total nitrogen. The purpose of this research was to determine if an internal recycle would improve nitrogen removal in the anoxic/aerobic activated sludge reactors sufficient to meet the summer resource consent standard. The recycle returned nitrate rich mixed liquor from the downstream aerobic zone back to the initial anoxic zone, thus potentially improving denitrification. A full scale trial showed that installation of the internal recycle on each RC would have satisfied the resource consent for total nitrogen in most cases over the three summer resource consent periods since the upgrade. However, further modifications of the internal recycle would be required to ensure that consent conditions were satisfied at all times and to improve the consistency of the results.

  10. Development of Effective Aerobic Cometabolic Systems for the In Situ Transformation of Problematic Chlorinated Solvent Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    microorganism, Burkholderia cepacia ENV435 was reported by Steffan et al (1999). In that work, groundwater contaminated with 1000-2500 µg/L...aerobic cometabolism of TCE could be accomplished through bioaugmentation of a genetically modified strain of Burkholderia cepacia G4 (McCarty et al...Enhancement of Trichlorethylene Degradation in Aquifer Microcosms Bioagumented with Wild Type and Genetically Altered Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4

  11. Biochar increases plant available water in a sandy soil under an aerobic rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Meinke, H.

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 t ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields at 2 and 3 years after application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each t ha-1 of biochar amendment at 2 and 3 years after application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an increase in overall porosity of the sandy soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5% and 1.6% for each t ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under water limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  12. A complete mass balance of a complex combined anaerobic/aerobic municipal source-separated waste treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pognani, Michele; Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2012-05-01

    In this study a combined anaerobic/aerobic full-scale treatment plant designed for the treatment of the source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was monitored over a period of one year. During this period, full information was collected about the waste input material, the biogas production, the main rejects and the compost characteristics. The plant includes mechanical pre-treatment, dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion, tunnel composting system and a curing phase to produce compost. To perform the monitoring of the entire plant and the individual steps, traditional chemical methods were used but they present important limitations in determining the critical points and the efficiency of the stabilization of the organic matter. Respiration indices (dynamic and cumulative) allowed for the quantitative calculation of the efficiency of each treatment unit. The mass balance was calculated and expressed in terms of Mgy(-1) of wet (total) matter, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Results show that during the pre-treatment step about 32% of the initial wet matter is rejected without any treatment. This also reduces the biodegradability of the organic matter that continues to the treatment process. About 50% of the initial nitrogen and 86.4% of the initial phosphorus are found in the final compost. The final compost also achieves a high level of stabilization with a dynamic respiration index of 0.3±0.1g O(2) per kg of total solids per hour, which implies a reduction of 93% from that of the raw OFMSW, without considering the losses of biodegradable organic matter in the refuse (32% of the total input). The anaerobic digestion process is the main contributor to this stabilization.

  13. Genotoxicity of the extracts from the compost of the organic and the total municipal garbage using three plant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G L; Rodriguez, D M; Maruri, A B

    1999-05-19

    The production of compost is one of the alternatives for the disposal of non-hazardous solid wastes. Compost is used in agriculture and gardening as fertilizer. In the State of Queretaro, Mexico, there is a project to produce compost from the municipal garbage which could be used as a fertilizer. The presence of mutagenic compounds in the compost could be a major disadvantage for the selection of this alternative. For the above reason, this study was initiated as a pilot project to determine the potential mutagenic activity in the compost using three plant bioassays: Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN), Tradescantia stamen hair mutations (Trad-SHM) and Allium root anaphase aberrations (AL-RAA). Compost was produced using both aerobic and anaerobic processes from either organic waste (from the residential area) or from the total components of the municipal garbage. Extractions from the compost were done using distilled water and organic solvents and shaking the sample for about 12 h under relatively low temperatures (15-20 degrees C). Plant cuttings of Tradescantia or the roots of Allium were treated by submerging them in the extracts. Three replicates of each sample were analyzed in each one of the three bioassays. As expected the samples of compost from the total garbage showed a higher genetoxicity than those from organic waste. In conclusion, there are some substances present in the compost capable of inducing genotoxicity in the plant assays and therefore there must be some restrictions for its use as a fertilizer.

  14. Effects of Copper Addition on Copper Resistance, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and intl1 during Swine Manure Composting

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Wen; Zhang, Kaiyu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao

    2017-01-01

    Copper is one of the most abundant heavy metals present in swine manure. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerobic composting system was amended with Cu at three levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg-1, i.e., control, Cu200, and Cu2000 treatments, respectively) to determine its effect on the fate of copper resistance genes [copper resistance genes (CRGs): pcoA, cusA, copA, and tcrB], antibiotic resistance genes [antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): erm(A) and erm(B)], and intl1. The results showed that the absolute abundances of pcoA, tcrB, erm(A), erm(B), and intl1 were reduced, whereas those of copA and cusA increased after swine manure composting. Redundancy analysis showed that temperature significantly affected the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1. The decreases in CRGs, ARGs, and intI1 were positively correlated with the exchangeable Cu levels. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments, where the high concentration of copper had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. Network analysis determined that the co-occurrence of CRGs, ARGs, and intI1, and the bacterial community were the main contributors to the changes in CRGs, ARG, and intl1. Thus, temperature, copper, and changes in the bacterial community composition had important effects on the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1 during manure composting in the presence of added copper. PMID:28316595

  15. Effects of Copper Addition on Copper Resistance, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and intl1 during Swine Manure Composting.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Wen; Zhang, Kaiyu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao

    2017-01-01

    Copper is one of the most abundant heavy metals present in swine manure. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerobic composting system was amended with Cu at three levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg(-1), i.e., control, Cu200, and Cu2000 treatments, respectively) to determine its effect on the fate of copper resistance genes [copper resistance genes (CRGs): pcoA, cusA, copA, and tcrB], antibiotic resistance genes [antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): erm(A) and erm(B)], and intl1. The results showed that the absolute abundances of pcoA, tcrB, erm(A), erm(B), and intl1 were reduced, whereas those of copA and cusA increased after swine manure composting. Redundancy analysis showed that temperature significantly affected the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1. The decreases in CRGs, ARGs, and intI1 were positively correlated with the exchangeable Cu levels. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments, where the high concentration of copper had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. Network analysis determined that the co-occurrence of CRGs, ARGs, and intI1, and the bacterial community were the main contributors to the changes in CRGs, ARG, and intl1. Thus, temperature, copper, and changes in the bacterial community composition had important effects on the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1 during manure composting in the presence of added copper.

  16. Investigation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor/ Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (AFBR/MMBR) System for Treatment of Currant Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    JAFARI, Jalil; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; NABIZADEH, Ramin; FARROKHI, Mehrdad; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaerobic treatment methods are more suitable for the treatment of concentrated wastewater streams, offer lower operating costs, the production of usable biogas product. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR)-Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) in series arrangement to treat Currant wastewater. Methods: The bed materials of AFBR were cylindrical particles made of PVC with a diameter of 2–2.3 mm, particle density of 1250 kg/m3. The volume of all bed materials was 1.7 liter which expanded to 2.46 liters in fluidized situation. In MBBR, support media was composed of 1.5 liters Bee-Cell 2000 having porosity of 87% and specific surface area of 650m2/m3. Results: When system operated at 35 ºC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved to 98% and 81.6% for organic loading rates (OLR) of 9.4 and 24.2 g COD/l.d, and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 48 and 18 h, in average COD concentration feeding of 18.4 g/l, respectively. Conclusion: The contribution of AFBR in total COD removal efficiency at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.4 g COD/l.d was 95%, and gradually decreased to 76.5% in OLR of 24.2 g COD/l.d. Also with increasing in organic loading rate the contribution of aerobic reactor in removing COD gradually decreased. In this system, the anaerobic reactor played the most important role in the removal of COD, and the aerobic MBBR was actually needed to polish the anaerobic treated wastewater. PMID:26056640

  17. Estimation of maturity of compost from food wastes and agro-residues by multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Chikae, Miyuki; Ikeda, Ryuzoh; Kerman, Kagan; Morita, Yasutaka; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2006-11-01

    The composting process of food wastes and tree cuttings was examined on four composting types composed from two kinds of systems and added mixture of microorganisms. The time courses of 32 parameters in each composting type were observed. The efficient composting system was found to be the static aerated reactor system in comparison with the turning pile one. Using the multiple regression analysis of all the data (159 samples) obtained from this study, some parameters were selected to predict the germination index (GI) value, which was adopted as a marker of compost maturity. For example, using the regression model generated from pH, NH(4)(+) concentration, acid phosphatase activity, and esterase activity of water extracts of the compost, GI value was expressed by the multi-linear regression equation (p<0.0001). High correlations between the measured GI value and the predicted one were made in each type of compost. As a result of these observations, the compost maturity might be predicted by only sensing of the water extract at the composting site without any requirements for a large-size equipment and skill, and this prediction system could contribute to the production of a stable compost in wide-spread use for the recycling market.

  18. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    PubMed

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils.

  19. Characterization and treatment of Denizli landfill leachate using anaerobic hybrid/aerobic CSTR systems.

    PubMed

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Leachate generated in municipal solid waste landfill contains large amounts of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the scope of the study, characterization and anaerobic/aerobic treatability of leachate from Denizli (Turkey) Sanitary Landfill were investigated. Time-based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored during a one-year period. In characterization study; chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen, NH4-N, BOD5/COD ratio, suspended solid, inert COD, anaerobic toxicity assay and heavy metals concentrations in leachate were monitored. Average COD, BOD and NH4-N concentration in leachate were measured as 18034 mg/l, 11504 mg/l and 454 mg/l, respectively. Generally, pollution parameters in leachate were higher in summer and relatively lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. For treatment of leachate, two different reactors, namely anaerobic hybrid and aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) having effective volumes of 17.7 and 10.5 litres, respectively, were used. After 41 days of start-up period, leachate was loaded to hybrid reactor at 10 different organic loading rates (OLRs). OLR was increased by increasing COD concentrations. COD removal efficiency of hybrid reactor was carried out at a maximum of 91%. A percentage of 96% of residual COD was removed in the aerobic reactor. NH4-N removal rate in CSTR was quite high. In addition, high methane content was obtained as 64% in the hybrid reactor. At the end of the study, after 170 operation days, it can be said that the hybrid reactor and CSTR were very effective for leachate treatment.

  20. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  1. Systemic dexamethasone and its effect on normal aerobic bacterial flora of cow.

    PubMed

    Kojouri, Gholam-Ali; Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-06-15

    This study was carried out on 17 Holestein, heifers, aged between 1 to 2 years for determining the normal aerobic bacterial flora and their changes after dexamethasone injection. Swab samples were taken from eye, ear, pharynx and vagina before and 5 days after twice dexamethasone treatment. Results indicated that Bacillus cereus and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis had higher frequency of isolations than the other bacterial flora in eye, ear and pharynx. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated with considerable frequency from vagina. Klebsiella pneumoniae was also isolated from pharynx and its frequency was increased significantly after dexamethasone injection (p < 0.05).

  2. Aerobic Activity in the Healthy Elderly Is Associated with Larger Plasticity in Memory Related Brain Structures and Lower Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Kärgel, Christian; Müller, Bernhard W.; Rasche, Ina; Genius, Just; Bus, Boudewijn; Maderwald, Stefan; Norris, David G.; Wiltfang, Jens; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities decline over the time course of our life, a process, which may be mediated by brain atrophy and enhanced inflammatory processes. Lifestyle factors, such as regular physical activities have been shown to counteract those noxious processes and are assumed to delay or possibly even prevent pathological states, such as dementing disorders. Whereas the impact of lifestyle and immunological factors and their interactions on cognitive aging have been frequently studied, their effects on neural parameters as brain activation and functional connectivity are less well studied. Therefore, we investigated 32 healthy elderly individuals (60.4 ± 5.0 SD; range 52–71 years) with low or high level of self-reported aerobic physical activity at the time of testing. A higher compared to a lower level in aerobic physical activity was associated with an increased encoding related functional connectivity in an episodic memory network comprising mPFC, thalamus, hippocampus precuneus, and insula. Moreover, encoding related functional connectivity of this network was associated with decreased systemic inflammation, as measured by systemic levels of interleukin 6. PMID:28082894

  3. Nutrient dynamics and decomposition rates during composting of sulphitation pressmud by different methods.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R; Kumar, Narendra; Tyagi, A K

    2007-07-01

    Decomposition rates and nutrient contents of sulphitation pressmud (SPM), either alone or by mixing with cow dung and rice straw, under the aerobic (heap and NADEP), anaerobic (pit) and vermicomposting methods were compared. Loss in Organic C and C/N ratios of the decomposing materials indicated the heap and NADEP methods faster for the composting of SPM alone and SPM + cow dung and vermicomposting method for SPM + rice straw registering significant reductions in Organic C ranging from 45.0 to 61.0% from the respective decomposing materials at termination time (119 days). The heap and NADEP methods recorded C/N ratio of SPM alone as low as 11 and 12 and SPM + cow dung as 12.0 and 13.9 at termination stage. Vermicomposting method brought the C/N ratio of SPM + rice straw to 16.4 as compared to 18.6 to 29.8 with the other methods. Irrespective of the composting methods, CO2 evolution from the decomposing materials was higher in early period (up to 28 days). Among methods, NADEP and heap methods recorded more CO2 evolution in early period while vermicomposting method showed more CO2 evolution at the later intervals in comparison to the other methods. Nutrient content in the decomposing materials at different intervals depended on their initial contents. Total N in the composts were statistically comparable, however, the composts of SPM alone recorded relatively more N than SPM + cow dung and SPM + rice-straw prepared by the respective methods. Total P and K contents of the composts increased with time irrespective of the composting methods. Composts of SPM alone recorded significantly more total P than SPM + cow dung and SPM + rice straw at 62, 91 and 119 days while SPM + rice straw recorded more total K than the composts of other materials. Total P in the composts did not differ with the composting methods, but total K in composts of SPM alone was relatively more with heap and NADEP methods, in SPM + cow dung with pit method and in SPM + rice straw by vermicomposting

  4. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part II. The application of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) to produce high biomass of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792.

    PubMed

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-07-03

    This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system using the application of an experimental design via central composite design (CCD). The acidic whey obtained from lactic acid fermentation by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum sp. TISTR 2265 was fed into the bioreactor of the aerobic SBR in an appropriate ratio between acidic whey and cheese whey to produce an acidic environment below 4.5 and then was used to support the growth of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 by inhibiting bacterial contamination. At the optimal condition for a high yield of biomass production, the system was run with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days, a solid retention time (SRT) of 8.22 days, and an acidic whey concentration of 80% feeding. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 25,230 mg/L to 6,928 mg/L, which represented a COD removal of 72.15%. The yield of biomass production and lactose utilization by Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 were 13.14 g/L and 33.36%, respectively, with a long run of up to 180 cycles and the pH values of effluent were rose up to 8.32 without any pH adjustment.

  5. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    PubMed

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (<10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment.

  6. [Degradation Characteristics of Three Aniline Compounds in Simulated Aerobic Sewage Treat System].

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Chen, Guo-song; Shi, Li-li; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    The removal rates of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) were tested by employing a simulation method of aerobic biochemical sewage treatment technology in this study. The results showed that when HRT was 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, the removal rates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were 70.2%, 80.3% and 88.3%, the removal rates of 4-nitroaniline were 48%, 64.7% and 75%; and the removal rates of 4-isopropyl aniline were 66%, 76% and 91%, respectively. It was concluded that increasing HRT could promote the removal rates of DOC and aniline chemicals. In contrast, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was difficult to be removed. The removal rates were less than 20% under all tested conditions. The kinetics analysis showed that the biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline in aerobic activated sewage (3 g x L(-1)) accorded with the first order kinetics and the regression coefficients were > 0.95. The half-life time of biodegradation was 6.01 h, 16.16 h, 123.75 h, respectively. In general, functional groups such as isopropyl had a positive effect on the biodegradation of aniline chemicals, whereas substituents such as nitro group and chlorine atom had an inhibitory effect.

  7. Biodegradation of poly(butylene succinate) powder in a controlled compost at 58°C evaluated by naturally-occurring carbon 14 amounts in evolved CO(2) based on the ISO 14855-2 method.

    PubMed

    Kunioka, Masao; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro

    2009-11-20

    The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 degrees C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled "Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions-Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide-Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test". The evolved CO(2) was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)(2) solution. The trapped BaCO(3) was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the (14)C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO(2) (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO(2) amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO(2).

  8. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  9. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented.

  10. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting.

  11. Planktonic and sediment-associated aerobic methanotrophs in two seep systems along the North American margin.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Patricia L; Ussler, William; Orphan, Victoria J

    2008-07-01

    Methane vents are of significant geochemical and ecological importance. Notable progress has been made toward understanding anaerobic methane oxidation in marine sediments; however, the diversity and distribution of aerobic methanotrophs in the water column are poorly characterized. Both environments play an essential role in regulating methane release from the oceans to the atmosphere. In this study, the diversity of particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) and 16S rRNA genes from two methane vent environments along the California continental margin was characterized. The pmoA phylotypes recovered from methane-rich sediments and the overlying water column differed. Sediments harbored the greatest number of unique pmoA phylotypes broadly affiliated with the Methylococcaceae family, whereas planktonic pmoA phylotypes formed three clades that were distinct from the sediment-hosted methanotrophs and distantly related to established methanotrophic clades. Water column-associated phylotypes were highly similar between field sites, suggesting that planktonic methanotroph diversity is controlled primarily by environmental factors rather than geographical proximity. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes from methane-rich waters did not readily recover known methanotrophic lineages, with only a few phylotypes demonstrating distant relatedness to Methylococcus. The development of new pmo primers increased the recovery of monooxygenase genes from the water column and led to the discovery of a highly diverged monooxygenase sequence which is phylogenetically intermediate to Amo and pMMO. This sequence potentiates insight into the amo/pmo superfamily. Together, these findings lend perspective into the diversity and segregation of aerobic methanotrophs within different methane-rich habitats in the marine environment.

  12. Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Purulent Clinical Specimens Maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Hudspeth, Marie K.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and the Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul transport was assessed. Of 54 anaerobes, 53 were recovered after 4 h, and 52 were recovered after 24 h, from both systems. After 48 h, 45 and 50 were recovered from the two systems, respectively. PMID:10655410

  13. Successful bioremediation with compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    An Air Force Base has begun using a composting process developed by a private company to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons on site. In the process, a layer of compost is placed on top of the sealer to prevent accidental damage by the equipment. Then a layer of contaminated soil is applied, followed by another layer of compost and a final layer of turkey manure supplied by a local farmer on top. Two passes are made with the Scat to provide thorough mixing. Different techniques were examined to turn volumes of the material and it was found that this equipment works very well for smaller batches. After mixing, materials are covered with a gray, vinyl-coated nylon cover to protect the pile from the elements and encourage bacterial growth. The tarp is tied to eyelets inserted every five feet along the curb of the treatment area. Although not specifically developed for hazardous materials, PXS has piloted the process to handle PCBs, trichlorethylene, benzopyrene and other chemicals found around wood preservative plants, manufactured gas plants and military installations. It is seen that they are all degraded: first the white rot degrades them and then the bacteria metabolizes them.

  14. Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: process dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cofie, Olufunke; Kone, Doulaye; Rothenberger, Silke; Moser, Daya; Zubruegg, Chris

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the potentials and performance of combined treatment of faecal sludge (FS) and municipal solid waste (SW) through co-composting. The objectives were to investigate the appropriate SW type, SW/FS mixing ratio and the effect of turning frequency on compost maturity and quality. Solid waste (SW, as market waste, MW, or household waste, HW) was combined with dewatered FS in mixing ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 by volume and aerobically composted for 90 days. Four composting cycles were monitored and characterised to establish appropriate SW type and mixing ratio. Another set of five composting cycles were monitored to test two different turning frequencies: (i) once in 3-4 days during the thermophilic phase and 10 days during maturation phase and (ii) once in every 10 days throughout the composting period. Samples were taken at every turning and analysed for total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Temperature, C/N ratio, NO(3)-N/NH(4)-N ratio and cress planting trials were chosen as maturity indicators. Result showed a preference of MW over HW and mixing ratio of 2:1 over 3:1. There was no significant effect of different turning frequencies on the temperature changes and the quality of mature compost. The final product contained C/N ratio of 13 and NO(3)/NH(4)-ratio of about 7.8, while TVS was about 21% TS and the NH(4)-N content was reduced to 0.01%. A co-composting duration of 12 weeks was indicated by the cress test to achieve a mature and stable product. The turning frequency of 10 days is recommended as it saves labour and still reaches safe compost with fairly high nutrient content.

  15. Pre-processing technologies to prepare solid waste for composting

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, M.

    1996-09-01

    The organic constituents of municipal solid waste can be converted into compost for use as a safe, beneficial soil amendment, conserving landfill space. The solid waste must first be processed to remove contaminants and prepare the organics for composting. This paper describes five different preprocessing systems, covering a broad range of technical approaches. Three are described briefly; two, from projects managed by the author, are presented as more detailed case histories: (1) a pilot study at a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) plant in Hartford, Connecticut and (2) a solid waste composting facility in East Hampton, New York. Materials flow diagrams and mass balances are presented for each process, showing that 100 tons of solid waste will yield 32 to 44 tons of compost, requiring disposal of 3 to 10 tons of metal, grit, and glass and 16 to 40 tons of light residue that can be landfilled or used as RDF.

  16. Systems Characterization of Temperature, Ph and Electrical Conductivity in Aerobic Biodegradation of Wheat Biomass at Differing Mixing Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, M.; Trotman, A.; Aglan, H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to observe and relate the rate of mixing to pH and electrical conductivity in an aerobic, continuously stirred bioreactor. The objective is to use data collected from successive experiments as a means of a system characterization. Tests were conducted to obtain these data using a continuously stirred 20 L Cytostir glass reaction vessel as a bioreactor operated without built-in temperature or pH control. The tests were conducted on the lab bench at ambient temperatures. The substrate in the bioreactor was ground wheat biomass obtained from the Biomass Production Chamber at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In this study, the data reflect characteristics of the native (uninoculated) systems as well as inoculated systems. In the native systems, it was found that pi levels became stable after approximately 2 to 3 days. The electrical conductivity levels for the native systems tended to decrease over time. In contrast, ion activity was increased after the introduction of bacteria into the system. This could be correlated with the release of nutrients, due to the activity of the bacteria. Also, there were slight increases in pH in the inoculated system, a result which is expected for a system with no active pr controls. The data will be used to test a mathematical model in an automated system.

  17. Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Leone, Anna; Iovieno, Paola; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of some trace elements in two different types of Mediterranean soils were studied in order to evaluate the possible long-term contamination following compost amendments. Total and available (DTPA-extractable) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined. The study was carried out on two agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), a Sandy Loam Calcaric Cambisol (SG) and a Clay Gleyc Luvisol (CO), during 3 years of organic amendment with compost. The compost, produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and urban yard trimmings, in accordance with the Italian law for agricultural use, was applied at annually rates of 15, 30, and 45 t ha(-1) (on dry weight basis). Wide variations in total and available Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were observed over time, but appeared to be in many cases unrelated to the treatments, occurring also in control plots. After 3 years of compost application the amended SG soil showed the highest and significant increase in total Cd and Zn concentrations; in addition, the available Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations increased in accordance with the compost rates. The CO soil, characterized by a higher clay content, lower organic matter content and lower cation exchange capacity, exhibited a lower increase in available metal fractions. Our findings show that compost amendment affects more the available than the total metal concentrations in the two types of soils studied and thus it is important into legislation that metal "bioavailability" may be considered in defining threshold metal values.

  18. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: fertilizer effect and application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-01

    Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55°C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  19. Validity of COSMED's quark CPET mixing chamber system in evaluating energy metabolism during aerobic exercise in healthy male adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Austin, Melanie D; Dew, Dustin; Utter, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the accuracy of COSMED's Quark cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) metabolic mixing chamber system in measuring metabolic factors during maximal, graded exercise testing. Subjects included 32 physically active men between the ages of 18 and 34 years. During the first test session, subjects were measured for maximal oxygen consumption twice (15 min separation) with the CPET and Douglas bag systems (random order). During the second test session, subjects exercised through four stages of the Bruce treadmill protocol with measurement by the CPET and Douglas bag systems (random order) during steady state at the end of each 3-minute stage. Statistical analysis using a 2 (systems) x 5 (time) repeated measures ANOVA showed that the pattern of change in VO2, VCO2, VE, FeO2, FeCO2, and RER did not differ significantly between CPET and Douglas bag systems. This validation study indicates that the CPET mixing chamber system provides valid metabolic measurements that compare closely with the Douglas bag system during aerobic exercise.

  20. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... clipping bags labeled as “Compostable in California Municipal Yard Trimmings Composting Facilities.” When... compost piles. Yard trimmings programs in many communities compost these bags, but such programs are not... yard trimmings bags only to consumers residing in particular geographic areas served by county...

  1. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... clipping bags labeled as “Compostable in California Municipal Yard Trimmings Composting Facilities.” When... compost piles. Yard trimmings programs in many communities compost these bags, but such programs are not... yard trimmings bags only to consumers residing in particular geographic areas served by county...

  2. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  3. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  4. Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of solid organic wastes on earth and for applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Perez, Javier Christian

    Aerobic biodegradation plays an important role in recycling organic matter and nutrients on earth. It is also a candidate technology for waste processing and resource recovery in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, such as a proposed planetary base on Mars. Important questions are how long should wastes be treated, and what is the quality (stability/maturity) of the product. To address these questions two aerobic composting systems were evaluated. One treated (252 days) horse manure and cranberry fruit in duplicate open windrows (HCC) as a reference earth application. The other was a pilot-scale (330 L) enclosed, in-vessel system treating (162 days) inedible biomass collected from plant growth systems at NASA, amended with food and human wastes simulant for potential space application (ALSC). Samples were taken from both systems over time and product quality assessed with a range of physical, chemical, biological, toxicological, respirometry and plant growth analyses that were developed and standardized. Because plant growth analyses take so long, a hypothesis was that some parameters could be used to predict compost quality and suitability for growing plants. Maximum temperatures in the thermophilic range were maintained for both systems (HCC > 60°C for >129 days, ALSC > 55°C for >40 days. Fecal streptococci were reduced by 4.8 log-units for HCC and 7.8 for ALSC. Volume/mass reductions achieved were 63%/62% for HCC and 79%/67% for ALSC. Phytotoxicity tests performed on aqueous extracts to recover plant nutrients found decreasing sensitivity: arabidopsis > lettuce > tomato > wheat > cucumber, corresponding with seed size and food reserve capacity. The germination index (GI) of HCC increased over composting time indicating decreasing phytotoxicity. However, GIs for ALSC leachate decreased or fluctuated over composting time. Selected samples of HCC at 31, 157 and 252 days alone and combined with promix (1:1), and of ALSC at 7, 14, 21, 28, 40 and 84 days, or fresh

  5. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ogbonna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. POME was initially centrifuged at 4,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was enriched with (NH4)2SO4 (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.25%) to boost its nitrogen content. At optimum pH (pH 4) and temperature (40°C) conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 10,350 to 1,000 mg/L (90.3%) after 7 days. The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2.4 × 106 CFU/mL, while the fungal count was 1.8 × 103 colonies/mL. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged. However, at 75 and 50% POME dilutions, the COD dropped by 52 and 44%, respectively, while the pH increased from 4 to 7.53. POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. PMID:27433536

  6. Sequential extraction of heavy metals during composting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Amir, Soumia; Hafidi, Mohamed; Merlina, Georges; Revel, Jean-Claude

    2005-05-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system. This study was conducted to determine the heavy metal speciation and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium in the course of composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in sewage sludge. Principal physical and chemical properties and FTIR spectroscopical characterization of sludge compost during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. The total metal contents in the final compost were much lower than the limit values of composts to be used as good soil fertilizer. Furthermore, it was observed by using a sequential extraction procedure in sludge compost at different steps of treatment, that a large proportion of the heavy metals were associated to the residual fraction (70-80%) and more resistant fractions to extraction X-NaOH, X-EDTA, X-HNO3 (12-29%). Less than 2% of metals bound to bioavailable fractions X-(KNO3+H2O). Heavy metal distribution and bioavailability show some changes during composting depending on the metal itself and the physico-chemical properties of the medium. Bioavailable fractions of all elements tend to decrease except Ni-H2O. Zn and mainly Cu present more affinity to organic and carbonate fractions. In contrast, Pb is usually preferentially bound to sulfide forms X-HNO3. Nickel shows a significant decrease of organic form. Significant degrees of correlation were found between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected variables (e.g. pH, ash, organic matter, humic substance) during the course of composting. Mobile fractions of metals are poorly predictable from the total content. The R2 value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as the amount of organic matter (OM) and pH.

  7. Characterization of odor emission from alternating aerobic and anoxic activated sludge systems using real-time total reduced sulfur analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Lee, Hyunjoo; Choi, Eunsun; Choi, Il; Shin, Taesub; Im, Hyungjoon; Ahn, Soobin

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of sulfur-containing compounds always generates volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). VSC emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) result in odor complaints from people living nearby. To control odor-causing compounds in WWTPs, it is important to know the odor emission quantity particularly with continuous monitoring. Since modified activated sludge processes always include anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions for nutrient removal, odor emission from these different environmental settings is expected. In this study, continuous monitoring of VSCs from the headspace of an alternating aerobic and anoxic (AAA) activated sludge process via total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzer was performed. There is clear pattern of the initial TRS peak immediately after the initiation of the aeration in the AAA system and TRS concentration begins to drop through the remaining air-on cycle. On the other hand, during the air-off period, TRS concentrations increase with time. In particular, a clear inflection point in the TRS profile could be observed after complete removal of nitrate during air-off, meaning more VSCs formation. Since the highest odor emission occurs after the initiation of aeration, the future control of exhausted air should only deal with air collected during the initial aeration period (e.g., 30min), a similar concept for the treatment of first flush in combined sewer overflow. In addition, application of a control scheme to initiate aeration immediately after denitrification is completed during air-off should be beneficial in reducing odor emission.

  8. Physical analyses of compost from composting plants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barreira, L P; Philippi Junior, A; Rodrigues, M S; Tenório, J A S

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the composting process has shown itself to be an alternative in the treatment of municipal solid wastes by composting plants. However, although more than 50% of the waste generated by the Brazilian population is composed of matter susceptible to organic composting, this process is, still today, insufficiently developed in Brazil, due to low compost quality and lack of investments in the sector. The objective of this work was to use physical analyses to evaluate the quality of the compost produced at 14 operative composting plants in the Sao Paulo State in Brazil. For this purpose, size distribution and total inert content tests were done. The results were analyzed by grouping the plants according to their productive processes: plants with a rotating drum, plants with shredders or mills, and plants without treatment after the sorting conveyor belt. Compost quality was analyzed considering the limits imposed by the Brazilian Legislation and the European standards for inert contents. The size distribution tests showed the influence of the machinery after the sorting conveyer on the granule sizes as well as the inert content, which contributes to the presence of materials that reduce the quality of the final product.

  9. Critical factors and their effects on product maturity in food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    Product maturity represents the efficiency of composting performance, and it calls for high attention in food waste composting. In this study, a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design method combined with well-controlled experiments was introduced to characterize the effects of system factors (i.e., C/N ratio, aeration rate, starting culture amount, and coal ash amendment) on product maturity of food waste composting. The compost maturity was synthetically evaluated by developing a Mamdani fuzzy rule-based inference system. Temperature index, O2 uptake rate, ammonium, OM loss, C/N ratio, and ash content were chosen as indicators of the fuzzy multicriterion maturity evaluation. Evaluation results of compost maturity for the eight experiment runs demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of evaluating the compost maturity in food waste composting. The effect analyses indicated that the starting culture amount and aeration rate contributed the most to the compost maturity in this study. The results could provide decision support for the process control in food waste composting management.

  10. The impact of landfilling and composting on greenhouse gas emissions--a review.

    PubMed

    Lou, X F; Nair, J

    2009-08-01

    Municipal solid waste is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions through decomposition and life-cycle activities processes. The majority of these emissions are a result of landfilling, which remains the primary waste disposal strategy internationally. As a result, countries have been incorporating alternative forms of waste management strategies such as energy recovery from landfill gas capture, aerobic landfilling (aerox landfills), pre-composting of waste prior to landfilling, landfill capping and composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. As the changing global climate has been one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today, there is an increasing need to understand the impact of waste management on greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper serves to provide an overview on the impact of landfilling (and its various alternatives) and composting on greenhouse gas emissions taking into account streamlined life cycle activities and the decomposition process. The review suggests greenhouse gas emissions from waste decomposition are considerably higher for landfills than composting. However, mixed results were found for greenhouse gas emissions for landfill and composting operational activities. Nonetheless, in general, net greenhouse gas emissions for landfills tend to be higher than that for composting facilities.

  11. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-10-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation-reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward “aerobic” composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology.

  12. Composting of de-inking sludge from the recycled paper manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Gea, Teresa; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2005-07-01

    Composting of two different types of sludge from the recycled paper manufacturing industry was carried out at laboratory scale. Physico-chemical sludge (PCS) from the de-inking process and biological sludge (BS) from the wastewater treatment plant were composted and co-composted with and without addition of a bulking material. Despite its poor initial characteristics (relatively high C/N ratio, low organic content and moisture), PCS showed excellent behaviour in the composting process, reaching and maintaining thermophilic temperatures for more than 7 days at laboratory scale, and therefore complete hygienization. Pilot scale composting of PCS was also studied, and a respiratory quotient of 1.19 was obtained, indicating a full aerobic biological process. Respiration tests showed a complete stabilization of the material, with final values of the static respiration index in the range of 1.1 mg O2gTOM(-1)h(-1). Composting is proposed as a suitable technology for the effective recycling of this type of sludge from the recycled paper manufacturing industry.

  13. Modeling a bench-scale alternating aerobic/anoxic activated sludge system for nitrogen removal using a modified ASM1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Noh, Soohong; Colosimo, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), developed by The International Association of Water Pollution Research and Control, was applied to model dynamics of NH4+, and NO3- in a bench scale alternating aerobic-anoxic (AAA) activated sludge system for nitrogen removal. The model was modified by eliminating inert soluble COD (S(I)) and inert particulate COD (X(I)) from the model's state variables as these two variables are not involved in any biological reaction and are not readily measurable with conventional routine COD analysis. It was assumed that the soluble COD and particulate COD of wastewater represent readily biodegradable COD (S(S)) and slowly biodegradable (X(S)) in the model, respectively. In addition, alkalinity was also removed from the model, since alkalinity of an AAA system remains stable due to the cyclic modes of the system. Even with the elimination of the three state variables and the assumption made, the model could reasonably predict the NH4+ and NO3- dynamics of the AAA system, and effluent NH4+ and NO3- concentrations with adjustment of only a few kinetic parameters. Compared to the original ASM1, it is expected that the modified ASM1 presented in this study can be more easily utilized by engineers in designing or operating an AAA system in practice, since it requires simple characterization of wastewater COD.

  14. Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    commercial or field-scale composting system for Type 2 wastes would require, in its early stages , experimental investigation in two broad areas...consists of the alfalfa, straw/ manure , and woodchips storage and/or handling. The alfalfa and straw/ manure are staged in the designated clean area of the...throughput of 300 yd3 per day. 0 No pad is necessary for all alfalfa and straw/ manure storage. These •aaterials will be staged on visqueen (plastic

  15. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  16. Legionella spp. in UK composts--a potential public health issue?

    PubMed

    Currie, S L; Beattie, T K; Knapp, C W; Lindsay, D S J

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 5 years, a number of cases of legionellosis in Scotland have been associated with compost use; however, studies investigating sources of infection other than water systems remain limited. This study delivers the first comprehensive survey of composts commonly available in the UK for the presence of Legionella species. Twenty-two store-bought composts, one green-waste compost and one home-made compost were tested for Legionella by culture methods on BCYE-α medium, and the findings were confirmed by macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) speciation. Twenty-two of the samples were retested after an enrichment period of 8 weeks. In total, 15 of 24 composts tested positive for Legionella species, a higher level of contamination than previously seen in Europe. Two isolates of Legionella pneumophila were identified, and Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 was found to be one of the most commonly isolated species. L. longbeachae infection would not be detected by routine Legionella urinary antigen assay, so such testing should not be used as the sole diagnostic technique in atypical pneumonia cases, particularly where there is an association with compost use. The occurrence of Legionella in over half of the samples tested indicates that compost could pose a public health risk. The addition of general hygiene warnings to compost packages may be beneficial in protecting public health.

  17. Characters of compost teas from different sources and their suppressive effect on fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Marín, Francisco; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Carretero, Francisco; Gea, Francisco J; Yau, José A; Navarro, María J

    2013-08-01

    Compost teas (CT) are fermented watery extracts of composted materials that are used to control plant diseases and on crop fertilization. In this work, aerated (ACT) and non-aerated compost teas (NCT) were obtained from four different composts: spent mushroom substrate compost, grape marc compost, greenhouse horticultural crop residues compost, and vermicompost. Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis were carried out to determine their properties. In vitro assays were performed to assess their suppressive effect on the mycelial growth of eight fungal phytopathogens. In vivo trials aimed to assess their effect on gummy stem blight (Didymella bryonae) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera fusca) in melon plants. Results showed that ACT and NCT filtrates inhibited the in vitro growth of all tested pathogens while autoclaved CT did not completely lose their inhibitory effect, and CT sterilized by microfiltration had no effect on the pathogen growth. The severity of powdery mildew was highly reduced by ACT and NCT from all sources, though in gummy stem blight assay only a delay in disease development was observed. In general, all compost teas showed a high level of microbial populations and nutrients. Results suggest that the efficacy of ACT and NCT firstly depend on the microbiota present in them. We consider compost teas from the four tested sources as a viable way to manage plant diseases and crop fertilization, throughout its integration in pest management programs and fertirrigation systems under different dilution rates.

  18. Co-variations of bacterial composition and catabolic genes related to PAH degradation in a produced water treatment system consisting of successive anoxic and aerobic units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jian; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; He, Shaowu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zijian; Yang, Min

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of concentration levels of PAHs, community structure, as well as the abundance of PAH-related catabolic genes including upper-pathway dioxygenase genes (nahAc and phnAc) and down-pathway catechol dioxygenase genes (C12O and C23O) in a successive anoxic and aerobic treatment of produced water from the Jidong Oilfield, China. 93% of total PAHs were removed, almost equally contributed by the anoxic and aerobic units. However, PAHs of more than 3 benzene rings remained almost unchanged. The signals for phnAc and C12O were undetectable in this biological system, whereas the existence of nahAc and C23O was confirmed in the system and the copies of the two genes in the aerobic tank were 2 or 3 orders higher than those in the influent water sample. The different behavior of C23O demonstrated that mineralization of PAHs might mainly occur in the aerobic unit. The existence of nahAc and C23O genes in the influent and the high similarity of genotype between the influent and the two sludge samples suggested that bacteria existing in the influent contributed to PAH removal and bacteria harboring PAH catabolic genes were enriched in the sludge.

  19. Bioconversion of rice straw and certain agro-industrial wastes to amendments for organic farming systems: 1. Composting, quality, stability and maturity indices.

    PubMed

    Rashad, Ferial M; Saleh, Walid D; Moselhy, Mohamed A

    2010-08-01

    The microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored for 12 weeks during composting of five piles (1.5 x 1.0 x 0.80 m(3)) containing mainly rice straw, soybean residue and enriched with rock phosphate. Two treatments were inoculated with buffalo's manure or composite inoculum, two were supplemented with vinasse and inoculated with either the composite inoculum or with both, the last one was served as a control. Four typical phases of composting were observed during the bioprocess: short initial mesophilic phase followed by, thermophilic, cooling and maturation phases. Physicochemical changes confirmed the succession of microbial populations depending on the temperature of each phase in all treatments. Intense microbial activities led to organic matter mineralization and simultaneously narrow C/N ratios. Inoculation of composting mixtures enhanced the biodegradation of recalcitrant substances. The duration of exposure to a temperature above 55 degrees C for at least 16 consecutive days was quite enough to sanitize the produced composts. After 84 days, all composts reached maturity as indicated by various parameters.

  20. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The content, behaviour and significance of heavy metals in composted waste materials is important from two potentially conflicting aspects of environmental legislation in terms of: (a) defining end-of-waste criteria and increasing recycling of composted residuals on land and (b) protecting soil quality by preventing contamination. This review examines the effects of heavy metals in compost and amended soil as a basis for achieving a practical and sustainable balance between these different policy objectives, with particular emphasis on agricultural application. All types of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contain more heavy metals than the background concentrations present in soil and will increase their contents in amended soil. Total concentrations of heavy metals in source-segregated and greenwaste compost are typically below UK PAS100 limits and mechanical segregated material can also comply with the metal limits in UK PAS100, although this is likely to be more challenging. Zinc and Pb are numerically the elements present in the largest amounts in MSW-compost. Lead is the most limiting element to use of mechanically-segregated compost in domestic gardens, but concentrations are typically below risk-based thresholds that protect human health. Composted residuals derived from MSW and greenwaste have a high affinity for binding heavy metals. There is general consensus in the scientific literature that aerobic composting processes increase the complexation of heavy metals in organic waste residuals, and that metals are strongly bound to the compost matrix and organic matter, limiting their solubility and potential bioavailability in soil. Lead is the most strongly bound element and Ni the weakest, with Zn, Cu and Cd showing intermediate sorption characteristics. The strong metal sorption properties of compost produced from MSW or sewage sludge have important benefits for the remediation of metal contaminated industrial and urban soils. Compost and sewage sludge

  1. Nitrate capture and slow release in biochar amended compost and soil

    PubMed Central

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Slow release of nitrate by charred organic matter used as a soil amendment (i.e. biochar) was recently suggested as potential mechanism of nutrient delivery to plants which may explain some agronomic benefits of biochar. So far, isolated soil-aged and composted biochar particles were shown to release considerable amounts of nitrate only in extended (>1 h) extractions (“slow release”). In this study, we quantified nitrate and ammonium release by biochar-amended soil and compost during up to 167 h of repeated extractions in up to six consecutive steps to determine the effect of biochar on the overall mineral nitrogen retention. We used composts produced from mixed manures amended with three contrasting biochars prior to aerobic composting and a loamy soil that was amended with biochar three years prior to analysis and compared both to non-biochar amended controls. Composts were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C and 65°C, after sterilization, after treatment with H2O2, after removing biochar particles or without any modification. Soils were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C. Ammonium was continuously released during the extractions, independent of biochar amendment and is probably the result of abiotic ammonification. For the pure compost, nitrate extraction was complete after 1 h, while from biochar-amended composts, up to 30% of total nitrate extracted was only released during subsequent extraction steps. The loamy soil released 70% of its total nitrate amount in subsequent extractions, the biochar-amended soil 58%. However, biochar amendment doubled the amount of total extractable nitrate. Thus, biochar nitrate capture can be a relevant contribution to the overall nitrate retention in agroecosystems. Our results also indicate that the total nitrate amount in biochar amended soils and composts may frequently be underestimated. Furthermore, biochars could prevent nitrate loss from agroecosystems and may be developed into slow-release fertilizers to reduce global N

  2. Integrated thermophilic submerged aerobic membrane bioreactor and electrochemical oxidation for pulp and paper effluent treatment--towards system closure.

    PubMed

    Qu, X; Gao, W J; Han, M N; Chen, A; Liao, B Q

    2012-07-01

    A novel integrated thermophilic submerged aerobic membrane bioreactor (TSAMBR) and electrochemical oxidation (EO) technology was developed for thermomechanical pulping pressate treatment with the aim of system closure. The TSAMBR was able to achieve a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 88.6 ± 1.9-92.3 ± 0.7% under the organic loading rate of 2.76 ± 0.13-3.98 ± 0.23 kg COD/(m(3) d). An optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.1 ± 0.1d was identified for COD removal. Cake formation was identified as the dominant mechanism of membrane fouling. The EO of the TSAMBR permeate was performed using a Ti/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(5)-IrO(2) electrode. After 6-h EO, a complete decolourization was achieved and the COD removal efficiency was increased to 96.2 ± 1.2-98.2 ± 0.3%. The high-quality effluent produced by the TSAMBR-EO system can be reused as process water for system closure in pulp and paper mill.

  3. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  4. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  5. Aerobic and anoxic growth and nitrate removal capacity of a marine denitrifying bacterium isolated from a recirculation aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Borges, Maria-Teresa; Sousa, André; De Marco, Paolo; Matos, Ana; Hönigová, Petra; Castro, Paula M L

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilters used in marine recirculation aquaculture systems need improvements to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. Relatively little is known about biofilter autochthonous population structure and function. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing an autochthonous denitrifying bacterium from a marine biofilter installed at a recirculation aquaculture system. Colonization of four different media in a marine fish farm was followed by isolation of various denitrifying strains and molecular classification of the most promising one, strain T2, as a novel member of the Pseudomonas fluorescens cluster. This strain exhibits high metabolic versatility regarding N and C source utilization and environmental conditions for growth. It removed nitrate through aerobic assimilatory metabolism at a specific rate of 116.2 mg NO(3)-N g dw(-1) h(-1). Dissimilatory NO(3)-N removal was observed under oxic conditions at a limited rate, where transient NO(2)-N formed represented 22% (0.17 mg L(-1)) of the maximum transient NO(2)-N observed under anoxic conditions. Dissimilatory NO(3)-N removal under anoxic conditions occurred at a specific rate of 53.5 mg NO(3)-N g dw(-1) h(-1). The isolated denitrifying strain was able to colonize different materials, such as granular activated carbon (GAC), Filtralite and Bioflow plastic rings, which allow the development of a prototype bioreactor for strain characterization under dynamic conditions and mimicking fish-farm operating conditions.

  6. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a "first line" strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden.

  7. Study of biochemical and microbiological parameters during composting of pine and eucalyptus bark.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Queda, A C; Ribeiro, H M; Ramos, A; Cabral, F

    2007-12-01

    To study the possibility of some residues from pulp and paper industry being used as substrates to produce seedlings in containers, three composting experiments were carried out using eucalyptus bark, pine bark and a mixture (60:40, v:v) of pine bark+eucalyptus bark. Biochemical parameters studied were: acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipase (C10), protease, urease, beta-glucosidase and total cellulases. The microbiological populations of total aerobic bacteria, total fungi, actinomycetes, nitrifying bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and fungi were also evaluated. At the end of the process physicochemical characterization of composts was also performed. Results showed in general that the highest microbiological populations as well as for enzymatic activities occurred during the thermophilic phase (>40 degrees C) of the process. On the other hand and according to the physicochemical characteristics of composts pine bark is the most appropriate material to be used in the formulation of substrates to produce plants in containers.

  8. Dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during mainstream large-scale composting in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianfei; Shen, Xiuli; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2016-11-01

    This study characterized some physicochemical and biological parameters to systematically evaluate the dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that long active phases, low maximum temperatures, low organic matter losses and high pore methane concentrations were observed in different composting layers. Pore oxygen concentrations in the top, middle and bottom layers maintained <5vol.% for 40, 42 and 45days, respectively, which accounted for more than 89% of the whole period. After each mechanical turning, oxygen was consumed at a stable respiration rate to a concentration of 5vol.% in no more than 99min and remained anaerobic in the subsequent static condition. The daily percentage of time under aerobic condition was no more than 14% of a single day. Therefore, improving FAS, adjusting aeration interval or combining turning with forced aeration was suggested to provide sufficient oxygen during composting.

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 9, Appendix G: Composting

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting`s contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  10. Fate of 14C-Pyrene in soil-plant system amended with pig manure compost and Tween 80: a growth chamber study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2008-11-01

    This paper evaluated the effects of a pig manure compost (PMC) and a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 on the fate of 14C-Pyrene (Pyr) in a soil-plant system (Agropyron elongatum). Soils spiked with 14C-4, 5, 9, 10-Pyr were amended with 7.5% (w/w) PMC together with or without 100mgkg(-1) of Tween 80. Unplanted soil without amendments was set as the control. Gas phases of the systems were monitored for 14CO2 over a 60 days period. The impact of PMC and Tween 80 on the apparent loss of the PAH and the distribution of 14C-activity in the systems was studied. 14C-activity associated with different soil fractions was further examined by using methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) fractionation method. The results showed that the addition of PMC could increase the dissipation of Pyr in vegetated soil from 12.1% to 58.7%, while the co-addition of Tween 80 and PMC could further enhance the dissipation to 90.3%. Pyr dissipation in soil was correlated with the mineralization of 14C-Pyr, indicating that Pyr dissipation was mainly due to mineralization. A higher formation of water-extractable metabolites was observed in soil amended with PMC and Tween 80, and this was correlated with a higher biomass accumulation of 14C-activity and higher bound residue formation in the soil. Overall, this study suggested that the co-application of PMC and Tween 80 could improve phytoremediation of Pyr-contaminated soil.

  11. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology.

  12. Characterization of compost biofiltration media.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, B; Ergas, S J; Switzenbaum, M S

    1999-07-01

    The effect of compost quality on performance of biofiltration media was investigated. Three types of compost media were characterized in terms of their key properties, including pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen, moisture content, oxygen uptake rates and heterotrophic and fungal plate counts. Laboratory-scale biofilter columns were each filled with a different compost medium mixed with buffer and a bulking agent. The columns were operated with a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture consisting of ethyl alcohol, butyraldehyde, ethyl acetate, and 1,1-diethoxybutane and subjected to various operating conditions. After 13 months, the columns were sampled and post-characterization of the media was performed. A mixture of biosolids/horse manure compost, which had a high initial microbial activity, had the shortest acclimation period. Best overall performance, however, was observed with yard waste compost, which was the most stable medium. Media hydrophobicity was a key factor in long-term performance. Significant changes in compost structure, moisture content, pH, volatile solids, oxygen uptake rates, and microbial population densities were observed over the course of the study. Analyses of organic nitrogen content showed that significant amounts of nitrogen were not depleted from the media.

  13. Study and assessment of segregated biowaste composting: The case study of Attica municipalities.

    PubMed

    Malamis, D; Bourka, A; Stamatopoulou, Ε; Moustakas, K; Skiadi, O; Loizidou, M

    2016-10-23

    This work aims to assess the operation of the first large scale segregated biowaste composting scheme in Greece to divert Household Food Waste (HFW) from landfill and produce a material which can be recovered and used as compost. The source separation and collection of HFW was deployed in selected areas in Attica Region serving about 3700 households. Sorted HFW is collected & transported to the Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plant in Attica Region that has been designed to produce Compost Like Output (CLO) from mixed MSW. The MBT facility has been adjusted in order to receive and treat aerobically HFW mixed with shredded green waste in a dedicated composting tunnel. The composting process was monitored against temperature, moisture and oxygen content indicating that the biological conditions are sufficiently developed. The product quality was examined and assessed against the quality specifications of EU End of Waste Criteria for biowaste subjected to composting aiming to specify whether the HFW that has undergone recovery ceases to be waste and can be classified as compost. More specifically, the heavy metals concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg) are within the set limits and much lower compared to the CLO material that currently is being produced at the MBT plant. In regard to the hygienic requirements of the product it has been found that the process conditions result in a pathogen free material (i.e. E. Coli and Salmonella) which does not favor the growth of viable weeds and plant propagules, while it acquires sufficient organic matter content for soil fertilization. Noticeable physical impurities (mainly fractions of glass) have been detected exceeding the quality control threshold limit of 0.5% w/w (plastics, metals and glass). The latter is related to the missorted materials and to the limited pre-treatment configurations prior to composting. The above findings indicate that effective source separation of biowaste is prerequisite for

  14. Chemical precipitation for controlling nitrogen loss during composting.

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-Mei; Li, Guo-Xue; Shen, Yun-Jun; Schuchardt, Frank; Lu Peng

    2010-05-01

    Aimed at controlling the nitrogen loss during composting, the mixture of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)( 2)) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) (molar ratio 1:2) were utilized as additives to avoid increasing total salinity. In trial TA, the additives were put into absorption bottles connecting with a gas outlet of fermentor (ex situ method); in trial TB, the additives were directly added to the composting materials (in situ method). During the 26 day composting period, the temperature, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP) and germination index (GI) were measured. The experimental results show that the additives reduced the pH, while NH( 4)(+)-N and TN were obviously improved. NH(4)( +)-N was 11.9 g kg(-1) and 3 g kg(- 1) in amended compost trial (TB) and unamended compost trial (TA), respectively; TN increased from 26.5 g kg(-1) to 40.3 g kg(-1) in TB and increased from 26.5 g kg( -1) to 26.8 g kg(-1) in TA. Analysis of the TOC and carbon mass revealed that absorbents accelerated the degradation of organic matter. The germination index test showed the maturity of TB (102%) was better than TA (82%) in final compost. Furthermore, TP and AP were also obviously improved. X-ray diffraction analysis of precipitation showed that the precipitation in absorption bottle of TA was newberyite (MgHPO( 4) 3H(2)O), however, the crystal in the TB compost was struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4) 6H(2)O: magnesium ammonium phosphate). These results indicated that Mg(OH)(2) and H(3)PO( 4) could reduce the ammonia emission by struvite crystallization reaction. Optimal conditions for struvite precipitation should be determined for different systems.

  15. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  16. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  17. The effect of municipal sludge compost on the mobility and bioavailability of Cd in a sierozem-wheat system in an arid region northwest of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Yang, Yang; Bai, Ying; Huang, Yu; Nan, Zhongren; Zhao, Chuanyan; Ma, Jianmin; Wang, Houcheng

    2016-10-01

    The effect of sewage sludge on the mobility and the bioavailability of trace metals in plant-soil systems have aroused wide interested and been widely explored. Based on a wheat-cultivating experiment, the effect of municipal sludge compost (MSC) on the mobility and bioavailability of Cd in a soil-wheat system was studied. With the application of MSC, soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the soil increased significantly, while concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd) were below the China's minimum thresholds. The application of MSC could improve wheat growth. The application of MSC at the rate of 0.5 % had no significant effect on the chemical fraction distribution of Cd in soil. In two soil treatments, Cd mainly existed in the labile chemical fractions (exchangeable chemical fraction (EXCF) and carbonate chemical fraction (CABF)). However, the application of MSC could reduce accumulation of Cd by wheat. Cd contents in each part of the MSC-applied wheat were significantly less than that of non-MSC-applied wheat. In the tested soils, the extractable concentrations decreased in the order: EDTA > MgCl2 ≈ NH4OAc > DTPA. There were no significant differences between soil treatments in the amounts of extractable Cd when the extraction was done under neutral conditions, although significant differences were observed when the extraction was done under alkaline conditions. In this study, the DTPA extraction procedure provided a good indication of Cd bioavailability. Our results suggest that, in the short term at least, amending soils with MSC may benefit crop dry matter production while not increasing the risk of human exposure to Cd through consumption of wheat grown on MSC-amended soils.

  18. Closing the natural cycles - using biowaste compost in organic farming in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Eva; Rogalski, Wojciech; Maurer, Ludwig; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    One of the basic principles of organic farming - that organic management should fit the cycles and ecological balances in nature - is put into practice in Vienna on a large scale. In Vienna, compost produced from separately collected biowaste and greenwaste is used on more than 1000 ha of organic farmland. These municipally owned farms are managed organically, but are stockless, like the vast majority of farms in the region. The apparent need for a substitute for animal manure triggered the development of an innovative biowaste management. Together with the Municipal Department 48 responsible for waste management, which was keen for the reduction of residual waste, the Municipal Department 49 - Forestry Office and Urban Agriculture and Bio Forschung Austria developed Vienna's biowaste management model. Organic household wastes and greenwastes are source-separated by the urban population and collected in a closely monitored system to ensure high compost quality. A composting plant was constructed which today produces a total of 43000 t compost per year in a monitored open windrow process. The quality of the compost produced conforms to the EU regulation 834/2007. A large part of the compost is used as organic fertilizer on the organic farmland in Vienna, and the remainder is used in arable farming and in viticulture in the region around Vienna and for substrate production. Vienna`s biowaste management-model is operating successfully since the 1980s and has gained international recognition in form of the Best Practice-Award of the United Nations Development Programme. In order to assess the effects of biowaste compost fertilization on crop yield and on the environment, a field experiment was set up near Vienna in 1992, which is now one of the longest standing compost experiments in Europe. The results showed, that the yields increased for 7 - 10 % with compost fertilization compared to the unfertilized control and the nitrogen recovery by crops was between 4 and 6

  19. Assessment and Evaluation of an Integrated Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Sewage Treatment System for the Removal of Enteric Viruses.

    PubMed

    El-Senousy, Waled Morsy; Abou-Elela, Sohair Imam

    2017-02-14

    The capability of a cost-effective and a small size decentralized pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to remove enteric viruses such as rotavirus, norovirus genogroup I (GGI), norovirus genogroup II (GGII), Hepatitis E virus (HEV), and adenovirus was studied. This pilot plant is an integrated hybrid anaerobic/aerobic setup which consisted of anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), biological aerated filter (BAF), and inclined plate settler (IPS). Both the UASB and BAF are packed with a non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF). Results indicated that the overall log10 reductions of enteric viruses' genome copies through the whole system were 3.1 ± 1, 3.3 ± 0.5, and 2.6 ± 0.9 log10 for rotavirus, norovirus GGI, and adenovirus, respectively. Reduction efficiency for both norovirus GGII and HEV after the different treatment steps could not be calculated because there were no significant numbers of positive samples for both viruses. The overall reduction of rotavirus infectious units through the whole system was 2.2 ± 0.8 log10 reduction which is very close to the overall log10 reduction of adenovirus infectious units through the whole system which was 2.1 ± 0.8 log10 reduction. There was no considerable difference in the removal efficiency for different rotavirus G and P types. Adenovirus 41 was the only type detected in the all positive samples. Although the pilot WWTP investigated is cost effective, has a small footprint, does not need a long distance network pipes, and easy to operate, its efficiency to remove enteric viruses is comparable with the conventional centralized WWTPs.

  20. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-12-15

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  2. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, M; Marques, M; Hogland, W; Nammari, D R

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of aerobic degradation with emphasis on the 16 U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), oily sludge generated by a dissolved air flotation flocculation unit of a wastewater treatment plant in a petroleum refinery was amended with remediated oil-contaminated soil and non-mature garden waste compost 40:40:20 (wet weight) respectively. About 21 t of the mixture with a top-layer formed by 30 cm of remediated soil was treated in a 28 m3 air-forced reactor. The PAH concentration was monitored for 370 days. In the top-layer, a reduction of 88 % of the total extractable PAH was measured at day 62 and a final reduction of 93% at day 370. In the mixture, a reduction of 72% in total PAH was measured at day 62, followed by fluctuation in concentration with a final measured reduction of 53% at day 370. The analysis of individual PAH in the mixture suggested that volatilization and biodegradation are the main mechanisms responsible for the reduction of 2 ring PAH and 3-4 ring PAH, respectively. Fluctuation of 5-6 ring PAH concentrations with increase observed at the end of the period might result from a combination of the following: (i) sequestration of large PAH in the organic matrix (reducing bioavailability, biodegradability and eventually, extractability) and desorption as composting progresses; (ii) heterogeneous distribution of the stable large PAH in the mixture, thus affecting sampling. It was concluded that one-time composting in static-aerated biopiles with organic amendments as the sole strategy to treat oily sludge is very effective in reducing the content of 2-4 ring PAH, but it is not effective in reducing the content of 5-6 ring PAHs, even after a relatively long time span (370 d). The concentrations measured in the remediated soil that formed the top layer after 62 days of composting suggests that further relevant reduction of residual PAH (89% of total PAH and 69% of 5-6 ring PAH) can be obtained if the

  3. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  4. Odour in composting processes at pilot scale: monitoring and biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M C; Serrano, A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F

    2014-08-01

    Although odour emissions associated with the composting process, especially during the hydrolytic stage, are widely known, their impact on surrounding areas is not easily quantifiable, For this reason, odour emissions during the first stage ofcomposting were evaluated by dynamic olfactometry at pilot scale in order to obtain results which can be extrapolated to industrial facilities. The composting was carried out in a commercial dynamic respirometer equipped with two biofilters at pilot scale filled with prunings (Populus) and mature compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Given that the highest odour emissions occur in the first stage of the composting process, this stage was carried out in a closed system to better control the odour emissions, whose maximum value was estimated to be 2.78 ouF S-1 during the experiments. Odour concentration, the dynamic respiration index and temperature showed the same evolution during composting, thus indicating that odour could be a key variable in the monitoring process. Other variables such as total organic carbon (CTOC) and pH were also found to be significant in this study due to their influence over odour emissions. The efficiency of the biofilters (empty bed residence time of 86 s) was determined by quantifying the odour emissions at the inlet and outlet of both biofilters. The moisture content in the biofilters was found to be an important variable for improving odour removal efficiency, while the minimum moisture percentage to obtain successful results was found to be 55% (odour removal efficiency of 95%).

  5. Intelligent composting assisted by a wireless sensing network.

    PubMed

    López, Marga; Martinez-Farre, Xavier; Casas, Oscar; Quilez, Marcos; Polo, Jose; Lopez, Oscar; Hornero, Gemma; Pinilla, Mirta R; Rovira, Carlos; Ramos, Pedro M; Borges, Beatriz; Marques, Hugo; Girão, Pedro Silva

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring of the moisture and temperature of composting process is a key factor to obtain a quality product beyond the quality of raw materials. Current methodologies for monitoring these two parameters are time consuming for workers, sometimes not sufficiently reliable to help decision-making and thus are ignored in some cases. This article describes an advance on monitoring of composting process through a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that allows measurement of temperature and moisture in real time in multiple points of the composting material, the Compo-ball system. To implement such measurement capabilities on-line, a WSN composed of multiple sensor nodes was designed and implemented to provide the staff with an efficient monitoring composting management tool. After framing the problem, the objectives and characteristics of the WSN are briefly discussed and a short description of the hardware and software of the network's components are presented. Presentation and discussion of practical issues and results obtained with the WSN during a demonstration stage that took place in several composting sites concludes the paper.

  6. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Sudhir; Subbaiah, K Venkata; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by earthworms which convert the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients, i.e. Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 - 65 tons of wet waste can be collected in a town per day and if this wet waste is converted to quality compost, around 12.30 tons of vermi compost can be generated. If a Municipal Corporation manages this wet waste an income of over (see text symbol) for 0.8 9 crore per anum can be earned which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public.

  7. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow.

  8. Assessment of Composting Feasibility at Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    composting organic matter include the suppression of certain plant diseases , the reduced need for fertilizers and pesticides, the prevention of soil...beautification, and soil enrichment. Composting also helps suppress plant diseases and pests. In addition, compost facilities are not likely to contaminate... compost enriched soil can also help suppress diseases and ward off pests. It destroys disease organisms and creates a nutrient-rich

  9. Effect of inoculation with Penicillium expansum on the microbial community and maturity of compost.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-yuan; Fan, Bing-quan; Hu, Qing-xiu; Yin, Zhong-wei

    2011-12-01

    Compost prepared from wheat straw and cattle/chicken mature was inoculated with the lignocellulolytic fungus, Penicillium expansum. Compared to uninoculated compost, the inoculated compost exhibited a 150% higher germination index, more than 1.2 g kg(-1)-dw of changes in NH(4)(+)-N concentrations, a ca. 12.0% higher humus content and a lignocellulose degradation that proceeded 57.5% faster. Culture-based determinations of microbial populations demonstrated that aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and fungi were about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in inoculated than in uninoculated compost. The number of ammonifying, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrite-oxidizing, denitrifying bacteria and cellulose-decomposing bacteria was 6.1-9.0 log(10) CFU g(-1)-dw, 1.2-4.3 log(10) MPN g(-1)-dw, 3.5-6.8 log(10) MPN g(-1)-dw, 3.58-4.34 log(10) MPN g(-1)-dw, 1.4-3.8 log(10)MPN g(-1)-dw, and 4.2-8.8 log(10) CFU g(-1)-dw higher in the compost inoculated with P. expansum.

  10. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel.

  11. Monitoring of pile composting process of OFMSW at full scale and evaluation of odour emission impact.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M C; Martín, M A; Serrano, A; Chica, A F

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the evolution of odour concentration (ouE/m(3)STP) emitted during the pile composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was monitored by dynamic olfactometry. Physical-chemical variables as well as the respirometric variables were also analysed. The aim of this work was twofold. The first was to determine the relationship between odour and traditional variables to determine if dynamic olfactometry is a feasible and adequate technique for monitoring an aerobic stabilisation process (composting). Second, the composting process odour impact on surrounding areas was simulated by a dispersion model. The results showed that the decrease of odour concentration, total organic carbon and respirometric variables was similar (around 96, 96 y 98% respectively). The highest odour emission (5224 ouE/m(3)) was reached in parallel with the highest microbiological activity (SOUR and OD20 values of 25 mgO2/gVS · h and 70 mgO2/gVS, respectively). The validity of monitoring odour emissions during composting in combination with traditional and respirometric variables was demonstrated by the adequate correlation obtained between the variables. Moreover, the quantification of odour emissions by dynamic olfactometry and the subsequent application of the dispersion model permitted making an initial prediction of the impact of odorous emissions on the population. Finally, the determination of CO2 and CH4 emissions allowed the influence of composting process on carbon reservoirs and global warming to be evaluated.

  12. Effect of light Sphagnum peat on odour formation in the early stages of biowaste composting.

    PubMed

    Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of two bulking materials, Sphagnum peat and pine wood chips, on the early stages of biowaste composting in two pilot-scale processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the formation conditions of malodorous compost gases in the initial phases of the processes. The results showed that gas emission leaving an open windrow and a closed drum composting system contained elevated concentrations of fermentative microbial metabolites when acid Sphagnum peat (pH 3.2) was used as a bulking material. Moreover, the gas emission of the peat amended drum composter contained a high concentration of odour (up to 450,000oum(-3) of air). The highest odour values in the outlet gas of peat amended composts coincided with the elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds such as acetoin and buthanedion. We conclude that the acidifying qualities of composting substrates or bulking material may intensify odour emission from biowaste composts and prolong the early stages of the composting process.

  13. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, P F

    1985-01-01

    Continuously thermophilic composting was examined with a 4.5-liter reactor placed in an incubator maintained at representative temperatures. Feed was a mixture of dried table scraps and shredded newspaper wetted to 55% moisture. One run at 49 degrees C (run A) employed a 1:4 feed-to-compost ratio, while the other runs used a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 50, 55, 60, or 65 degrees C. Due to self-heating, internal temperatures of the composting mass were 0 to 7 degrees C hotter than the incubator. Two full-scale composting plants (at Altoona, Pa., and Leicester, England) were also examined. Plate counts per gram (dry weight) on Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems) with 2% agar ranged from 0.7 X 10(9) to 5.3 X 10(9) for laboratory composting and 0.02 X 10(9) to 7.4 X 10(9) for field composting. Fifteen taxa were isolated, including 10 of genus Bacillus, which dominated all samples except that from run A. Species diversity decreased markedly in laboratory composting at 60 degrees C and above, but was similar for the three runs incubated at 49, 50, and 55 degrees C. The maximum desirable composting temperature based on species diversity is thus 60 degrees C, the same as that previously recommended based on measures of the rate of decomposition. PMID:4083885

  14. Windrow composting as horticultural waste management strategy - A case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Moral, Raúl; Paredes, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    In Ecuador, enormous quantities of vegetable wastes are produced annually from the horticultural industries. Composting can be a feasible treatment to stabilise horticultural wastes and, thus, to improve their properties for use as organic fertilisers. In this study, two different piles were prepared, using laying hen manure and sawdust mixed with broccoli or tomato waste, respectively, and composted by the turned windrow composting system. Throughout the composting process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and physico-chemical and chemical properties and the degree of maturity were determined. Also, principal component analysis was used to interpret the data set of compost characteristics. In both piles, the temperature exceeded 55°C for more than 2weeks, which ensured maximum pathogen reduction. Organic matter (OM) losses followed a first-order kinetic equation in both piles. The final composts showed a suitable degree of stability and maturity and an absence of phytotoxins, as observed in the evolution and final values of the total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (Corg/NT<20), water-soluble organic carbon (Cw<1.7%), germination index (GI>50%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC>67meq (100g OM)(-1)). As well, the evolution of different humification indexes during composting was a good indicator of the OM humification process. The type of vegetable waste used influenced OM and NT mineralisation and the final properties of the composts, showing the mixture with tomato waste a higher fertilising capacity and less environmental problems.

  15. Effectiveness of minimally supervised home aerobic training in patients with systemic rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Daltroy, L H; Robb-Nicholson, C; Iversen, M D; Wright, E A; Liang, M H

    1995-11-01

    The effectiveness of an exercise prescription and unsupervised home exercise programme was tested on 37 subjects with rheumatoid arthritis and 34 with systemic lupus erythematosus. Subjects were randomly assigned to control or stationary bicycling at home, using loaned bicycles. Exercise subjects (with bicycles) did better than controls, but not significantly, on all outcomed measures (exercise tolerance test, fatigue, depression and helplessness) at 3 months. Bicycles were reclaimed at 3 months and all subjects in both groups given instructions for home exercise. Exercise in the second 3 months was predicted primarily by baseline exercise habits and fatigue. It is concluded that although safe, unsupervised home exercise programmes may benefit few patients. Future research should address methods of stimulating and maintaining unsupervised exercise programmes in patients with systemic rheumatic disease.

  16. Characterization of lignocellulosic compositions' degradation during chicken manure composting with added biochar by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Jialiang; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-05-15

    Biorefractory high polymer lignocellulosic compositions may limit rapid composting and stable decomposition. Because their degradation during composting is not well understood, the correlation with microbial community profiles was assessed to reveal degradation mechanism of lignocellulosic compositions. Testing of chicken manure aerobic composting with added biochar was performed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and correlation analysis. Results demonstrated a good composting effect with good dynamic correlation between microbial characteristic (PLFA) and lignocellulosic compositions' degradation ratio. The prediction model for hemicellulose degradation ratio (R(2)=0.97, SEP=3.24) and the prediction model for cellulose degradation ratio (R(3)=0.94, SEP=3.09), built using PLFA 16:0-18:2ω6c and PLFA 18:2ω6c-18:3ω3 as the arguments had good predictive ability. Based on microbial analysis and quantitative characterization of the degradation ratio, the prediction models provided methodological support for delineating the mechanism of lignocellulosic compositions' degradation during chicken manure aerobic composting with added biochar.

  17. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  18. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  19. On-line estimation of biomass through pH control analysis in aerobic yeast fermentation systems.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A; Castrillo, J I; Teixeira, J A; Ugalde, U

    1998-05-20

    The amount of acid or base consumed in yeast cultures has been recently assigned to the pathway of nitrogen assimilation under respiratory conditions with no contribution by carbon metabolism (Castrillo et al., 1995). In this investigation, experiments under respirofermentative conditions have shown that production or consumption of ethanol does not contribute significantly to the specific rate of proton production (qH+), thus extending the previously obtained relationships for all aerobic conditions in which other major acid/base contributions are not involved. Tests in batch and chemostat culture confirm the validity of qH+ as a formal control parameter in aerobic fermentations.

  20. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  1. Activation of molecular oxygen by infrared laser radiation in pigment-free aerobic systems.

    PubMed

    Krasnovsky, A A; Drozdova, N N; Ivanov, A V; Ambartsumian, R V

    2003-09-01

    With the goal of mimicking the mechanisms of the biological effects of low energy laser irradiation, we have shown that infrared low intensity laser radiation causes oxygenation of the chemical traps of singlet oxygen dissolved in organic media and water saturated by air at normal atmospheric pressure. The photooxygenation rate was directly proportional to the oxygen concentration and strongly inhibited by the singlet oxygen quenchers. The maximum of the photooxygenation action spectrum coincided with the maximum of the oxygen absorption band at 1270 nm. The data provide unambiguous evidence that photooxygenation is determined by the reactive singlet (1)Delta(g )state formed as a result of direct laser excitation of molecular oxygen. Hence, activation of oxygen caused by its direct photoexcitation may occur in natural systems.

  2. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  3. Composting for Biocontained Cattle Mortality Disposal and Associated Greenhouse Gas and Leachate Emissions.

    PubMed

    Gilroyed, Brandon H; Conrad, Cheyenne; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A; Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Composting can be an effective means of biodegrading livestock mortalities in emergency disposal situations, such as disease outbreaks. Within the past decade, our knowledge detailing composting has increased substantially. However, research data linking the environmental impact of composting to atmospheric and terrestrial systems are limited. We investigated composting efficacy, greenhouse gas emissions, and leachate properties from two static compost piles, each containing 16 cattle mortalities, built with either beef manure (BM) or wood shavings (WS) as envelope material. Wood shavings achieved a greater maximum temperature than BM (60 vs. 50°C) and maintained higher temperatures over 200 d ( < 0.001). Greenhouse gas emissions were evaluated using a static chamber and gas chromatography. Emissions of NO ( < 0.001), CH ( < 0.01), and CO ( < 0.05) were lower from WS than BM, resulting in 3-fold lower total CO equivalent emissions. After 250 d of composting, piles were relocated, and soil cores were taken (i) from beneath the piles, (ii) adjacent to the piles where leachate had accumulated, and (iii) in a control zone without compost exposure. Elevated concentrations of ammonium ( < 0.05) and chloride ( < 0.05) were found in soil beneath both BM and WS. Microbial DNA profiles suggested that leachate from BM compost increased bacterial diversity in soil, maintaining a biological soil impact after pile removal. Degradation of bovine mitochondrial DNA fragments was monitored by polymerase chain reaction. Limited migration of genetic bovine material from compost into soil was observed. Based on the mortalities decomposition and leachate contents, both BM and WS are suitable envelope materials for composting.

  4. New specific indicators for qPCR monitoring of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Olivier; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2011-09-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants are an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants and the consequent potential exposure of nearby residents. This inadequate knowledge is partly due to the fact that there is currently no method for specifically tracing these microorganisms in the air. The objective of this study was to validate the use of microbial groups as indicators of composting bioaerosols by comparing their concentration in air samples, whether impacted by composting activity or not. Three potential microbial indicators were chosen among the core species of composting bioaerosols. They belong to the genus Saccharopolyspora, to the Thermoactinomycetaceae and to the fungus Thermomyces. Quantitative PCR systems using TaqMan probes were designed to quantify each of the three phylotypes in air samples collected outdoors in natural environments and at composting plants. Compost-turning operations at industrial plants resulted in an increase in the concentration of the three phylotypes of at least 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the concentration measured in control samples collected upwind, and of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to the background concentration measured in natural environments unaffected by industrial activity. In conclusion, these three thermophilic phylotypes can be used as indicators of airborne microorganisms emitted by industrial composting plants. They may be particularly relevant in studying the dispersal of bioaerosols around composting plants and the exposure of nearby residents. This is the first time that indicators of compost bioaerosols have been validated by comparing their concentrations in impacted samples to their background levels in natural environments.

  5. Co-composting of two-phase olive-mill pomace and poultry manure with tomato harvest stalks.

    PubMed

    Sülük, Kemal; Tosun, İsmail; Ekinci, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored. Compost mass and volume changes were determined at the beginning, during remixings, and at the end of composting. While the stabilization period took less time for the mixtures containing a high amount of poultry manure, the mixtures having the high portion of two-phase olive-mill pomace took a longer time due to the structure of olive stone and its lignin content. Dry matter loss (range: 18.1-34.0%.) in the mixtures increased with an increase in the share of poultry manure and tomato stalks in the initial mixture. OM loss (range: 21.7-46.1%) for tomato stalks (measured separately) during composting increased due to an increase in the ratio of poultry manure in the initial mixtures.

  6. Effects of Cu exposure on enzyme activities and selection for microbial tolerances during swine-manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xuelian; Gao, Min; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A simulated experiment of aerobic composting was conducted on swine manure to evaluate the effects of Cu at two exposure levels (200 and 2000 mg kg(-1), corresponding to low-Cu and high-Cu treatments, respectively) on the activity of microorganisms. In addition, the microbial pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu and co-tolerance to selected antibiotics (tylosin and vancomycin) in the composted products were also investigated using the Biolog Ecoplates™ method. It was demonstrated that the enzymatic activities were significantly inhibited by the high-Cu treatment, with maximal inhibition rates of 56.8% and 65.1% for urease and dehydrogenase, respectively. In response to the PICT test, the IC50 (half-maximal inhibition concentrations) values on the microorganisms in the high-Cu-treated composts were clearly higher than those in the low-Cu-treated and control composts, for the toxicity tests on both Cu and antibiotics, including tylosin and vancomycin. The data demonstrated that high-Cu exposure to the microbial community during the composting not only selected for Cu resistance but also co-selected for antibiotic resistance, which was of significance because the tolerance might be transferred to the soil after the land application of composted manure.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the soil-radish (Raphanus sativus) system with sewage sludge and compost application.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Qi-Tang; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-01

    We studied the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in a latosolic red soil and radish (Raphanus sativus) with application of sewage sludge at rates of 10, 20 and 40 g kg(-1) soil or compost at rate of 10 g kg(-1) soil. In radish the concentrations of individual PAHs and PAEs varied from non-detectable to 803 microg kg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and from non-detectable to 2048 microg kg(-1) d.w., respectively. Compared to the control, higher application rates of sewage sludge resulted in pronounced increases in shoot, root and soil concentrations of PAHs and PAEs. PAE concentrations in radish grown in soil spiked with sludge compost were higher while the PAH concentrations were comparable to those receiving 10 g kg(-1) of sewage sludge. However, the root biomass of radish in soil amended with compost was significantly higher and the shoot-to-root ratio was significantly lower than in the other treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs, the ratio of contaminant concentration in plant tissue to the soil concentration) of di-n-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in both shoots and roots and of total PAH concentrations in roots were less than 1.0, but some BCFs for individual PAHs were high with a maximum value of 80.

  8. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  9. Monitoring operational and leachate characteristics of an aerobic simulated landfill bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Giannis, A; Makripodis, G; Simantiraki, F; Somara, M; Gidarakos, E

    2008-01-01

    Long-term biodegradation of MSW in an aerobic landfill bioreactor was monitored as a function of time during 510 days of operation. Operational characteristics such as air importation, temperature and leachate recirculation were monitored. The oxygen utilization rates and biodegradation of organic matter rates showed that aerobic biodegradation was feasible and appropriate to proceed in aerobic landfill bioreactor. Leachate analyses showed that the aerobic bioreactor could remove above 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and close to 100% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) from leachate. Ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and sulphate (SO4(2-)) concentrations of leachate samples were regularly measured. Results suggest that nitrification and denitrification occurred simultaneously, and the increase in nitrate did not reach the levels predicted stoichiometrically, suggesting that other processes were occurring. Leachate recirculation reduced the concentrations of heavy metals because of the effect of the high pH of the leachate, causing heavy metals to be retained by processes such as sorption on MSW, carbonate precipitation, and hydroxide precipitation. Furthermore, the compost derived from the aerobic biodegradation of the organic matter of MSW may be considered as soil improvement in the agricultural plant production. Bio-essays indicated that the ecotoxicity of leachate from the aerobic bioreactor was not toxic at the end of the experiment. Finally, after 510 days of degradation, waste settlement reached 26% mainly due to the compost of the organic matter.

  10. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  11. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  12. Physical degradation of wheat straw by the in-vessel and windrow methods of mushroom compost production.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G A; McCall, R D; Sharma, H S

    2000-09-01

    Mushroom compost manufacturers in Ireland are moving away from the traditional outdoor phase I windrow method, favouring in-vessel production. Composters and growers have reported better quality compost with faster spawn run and higher yields produced by this process. In the present study, physical examination of samples highlighted differences when comparing the windrow and in-vessel methods of compost production. Observations using scanning electron microscopy suggest that the cuticle of wheat straw from in-vessel production is damaged during phase I, peeling away from the surface in fragments, and exposing the epidermis. Changes in silicon levels on the straw surface acted as a marker for cuticle damage when comparing both composting systems. Cuticle damage may be important during composting and afterwards, as substrate colonisation is faster, and consequently spawn run is shorter. The phase I compost microbial community is altered by the in-vessel technique, producing a predominantly thermophilic bacterial flora in contrast to the mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and fungi found in windrow phase I compost. These differences may be significant in mushroom compost production.

  13. Evaluation of a plastic nonvented aerobic blood culture bottle for use with the BacT/ALERT microbial detection system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J W; Munier, G K; Bostic, G D; Bozigar, P S; Hanna, R

    2002-12-01

    The current BacT/ALERT SA (BTA SA) aerobic blood culture bottle is made from glass, does not require venting, and contains a liquid emulsion sensor (LES). Its performance has been shown to be equivalent to that of the vented standard aerobic culture bottle. A further-improved version of the BTA SA bottle, designated the BacT/ALERT plastic SA (BTA PSA) culture bottle, is made from clear plastic to prevent breakage, does not require venting, and contains a modified LES (LES 2) to reduce the possibility of false positives. The BTA PSA provides a practical alternative to the current glass version of this bottle. The plastic bottle is also comparable to the current glass bottle in transparency and growth performance and additionally minimizes the exposure to infectious agents due to glass bottle breakage.

  14. Biochar increases plant-available water in a sandy loam soil under an aerobic rice crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Marimon, B. H., Jr.; Meinke, H.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields 2 and 3 years after its application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant-available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each Mg ha-1 biochar amendment 2 and 3 years after its application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an effect in overall porosity of the sandy loam soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5 and 1.6% for each Mg ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during the critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under short-term water-limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  15. Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, T; Utkhede, R S; Paul, J W; Punja, Z K

    2000-11-01

    Three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (FORC) on cucumber. Two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (WDS) or vermicomposting (VMC) while the third, obtained from International Bio-Recovery (IBR), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. Three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at varying ratios, and seeded with cucumber cv. Corona. After 14 days of growth in the greenhouse, inoculum of FORC (20 mL of 5 x 10(6) micro-conidia per mL) was applied to each pot at three different times (14, 21, and 35 days). In unamended inoculated pots, the pathogen caused stunted growth and reduced flowers. Amendment of WDS in the potting mix suppressed these symptoms, while VMC and IBR had no effect. All three composts reduced the FORC colony forming units (cfu) at the end of the experiment (10 weeks). There was a large increase of fluorescent bacteria near the vicinity of roots particularly in WDS amended potting mixes. When water extracts of the composts were plated onto acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), only IBR contained a potent thermostable inhibitor to FORC. This inhibitor was removed by activated charcoal but was not partitioned into petroleum ether at acid, basic, or neutral pH. Inhibition of FORC by IBR was not due to electrical conductivity or trace elements in the compost. Contrasting effectiveness of the WDS and VMC made from the same waste suggests that composting method can influence the disease suppression properties of the finished compost.

  16. Microbial inoculum with leachate recirculated cultivation for the enhancement of OFMSW composting.

    PubMed

    Ming, Li; Xuya, Peng; Youcai, Zhao; Wenchuan, Ding; Huashuai, Cai; Guotao, Liu; Zhengsong, Wu

    2008-05-01

    Traditional composting operation may take over 2 weeks for the primary stage. The enhancement of the composting process will shorten the operation time and thus reduce the composting space and production costs. In this work, a microbial inoculum originated from the MSW leachate was used for the enhancement of the biodegradation of organic fractions of MSW (namely OFMSW hereinafter) in the composting process. The leachate generated from OFMSW composting was cultivated in the presence of foreign nutritions of beef extract, peptone, K(2)HPO(4) and CaCO(3), respectively. The rough microbial inoculum was then harvested from the cultivated leachate and employed for the enhancement of OFMSW composting. One percent of the rough inoculum was mixed with 99% of the organic wastes (on wet basis). When the composting process proceeded at Day 7, the leachate thus generated was re-cultivated with the said nutrition and introduced into fresh organic wastes for another 7-day composting; repeating this step and the final generated leachate (namely final inoculum) was used for the fresh organic waste composting process. Seeding effects in terms of composting parameters (temperature, oxygen uptake rate, pH, cellulase, microbial numbers, moisture content, and nitrogen concentrations) were tested and the data were collected as reported in this paper. It was found that the temperature in the composting system seeded with the final inoculum could reach over 55 degrees C for the duration of over 96 h, and the numbers of thermophilic bacteria, actinomyces and molds in the refuse, increased by approximately 100%, 70% and 50%, respectively, after a 20-day primary composting. pH maintained at 7.0 with slight fluctuation, thus facilitating the microbial behaviors of cellulose depletion. Meanwhile, the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and cellulase activity was observed to increase by some 50% and 26%, respectively. The development trend of nitrogen concentrations also indicated that the microorganisms

  17. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation – A review

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Chirjiv K. Apul, Defne S.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Composting toilets can be an alternative to flush based sanitation. • Many different composting toilet designs are available. • Composting is affected by moisture content, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio. • There are many barriers to composting toilets. • Research is needed in science based design of composting toilets. - Abstract: In today’s flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50–60%), temperature (40–65 °C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25–35), pH (5.5–8.0), and porosity (35–50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature–time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and

  18. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  19. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, L.M.; Mourao, I.; Coutinho, J.; Smith, S.R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  20. Survival of Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 during holding of manure-based compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures as influenced by the carbon amendment.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    During the early phases of aerobic composting of animal manures, pathogens are inactivated primarily from the accumulation of heat produced by indigenous microbial activity. When compost materials are not exposed to these lethal temperatures, the required holding time needed to obtain a pathogen-free product that may be applied to fields is unknown. Consequently, a series of studies examined whether the carbon amendment (wheat straw, peanut hulls, rice hulls, and pine needles) added to animal manures affected survival of either Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 during storage of compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures (20 to 40°C). Pathogens consistently survived for longer periods of time in compost mixtures prepared with pine needles than compost mixtures prepared with either of the other three carbon amendments. Pathogen inactivation in wheat straw- or peanut hull-amended compost mixtures was dependent on the target pathogen, moisture level, and storage temperature. Moisture levels in wheat straw-amended compost mixtures stored at 40°C had no effect on inactivation of E. coli O157:H7. In contrast, wheat straw-amended mixtures stored at 30 to 35°C and equilibrated to suboptimal moisture contents (30 to 40%) were less effective for inactivating pathogens compared with drier (25% moisture) or moister (60% moisture) mixtures. In peanut hull-amended compost mixtures, inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 was affected minimally by moisture levels, whereas Salmonella survival increased as the moisture level was decreased. The different inactivation responses of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures prepared with wheat straw or peanut hulls and equilibrated to different moisture levels suggest that there are different mechanisms for inactivation. Hence, developing reliable guidelines relying on time-temperature for holding of compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures will be challenging and, perhaps, not possible.

  1. Use of palm (Poenix dactilyfera L.) fiber and sewage sludge co compost as substrates in soilless crop system.

    PubMed

    Latigui, Ahmed; Choi, Jong Myung; Regagba, Zineb; Allevato, Daniella Meyer; Latigui, Amina

    2013-07-15

    The Co-Compostage (CC) of Palm (Poenix dactylifera L.) Fiber (PF) and Sewage Sludge (SS) at volume rate (1PF/1SS), mixed with Top Soil (TS) have been used as a substrate for cucumber cultivated in soilless crop system. Five substrates with volume ratio T (CC-TS) were tested: T (10-0), T (9-1), T (8-2), T (7-3) and T (6-4). They were compared to peat in nursery and to TS in Cucumis sativus L. crop production. Total porosity, bulk density, moisture content, rate of drainage, pH and electritical conductivity of T (8-2) and T (7-3) were relatively favorable for plant growth. After 45 days of growth and in comparison to peat, T (9-1), T (8-2) and T (7-3) gave the best parameters of root development: volume, architecture, length, number, best seedling growth and a positive correlation (R = 0.751) between root and shoot dry matter. After 120 days, cucumber attained the best root development under T (8-2) and T (7-3). Fruits production of these substrates was 40% higher than those of the control.

  2. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  3. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis. PMID:1886519

  4. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS

  5. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: co-composting versus incorporation.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R; Nason, Mark A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2009-02-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost.

  6. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  7. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H5PMo10V2O40 (PMoV2) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C3N4 and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV2. This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway. PMID:24413448

  8. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H5PMo10V2O40 (PMoV2) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C3N4 and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV2. This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway.

  9. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-13

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C(3)N(4)) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H(5)PMo(10)V(2)O(40) (PMoV(2)) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C(3)N(4) and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV(2). This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway.

  10. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang.

  11. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  12. Biodegradation of paper waste under controlled composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J V López; Larrucea, M Aguilar; Bermúdez, P Arraiza; Chicote, B León

    2009-05-01

    The presence of paper in municipal solid waste (MSW) interferes with the efficiency of composting plants. The compost feedstock to these plants is between 12% and 27% paper on a dry weight basis, with an initial C:N ratio ranging from 32:1 to 57:1. Tests of the last aerobic biodegradability (LAB) of the type of paper present in paper and cardboard packaging were carried out, following UNE-EN 14046 standards. The results obtained, measured through the quantity of CO(2) generated over 45 days, compared with the maximum that could be produced (ThCO(2)), showed that the presence of paper retards, to a great degree, the biodegradation of organic material in general. Specifically, the presence of papers with a degradation D (%) >60% at 45 days (white (W) and recycled paper (R)) could be allowed, but always in proportions that did not exceed 27% in dry weight. These results can be achieved with an industrial level process, pre-treated by trituration.

  13. Aerobic capacity correlates to self-assessed physical function but not to overall disease activity or organ damage in women with systemic lupus erythematosus with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Boström, C; Dupré, B; Tengvar, P; Jansson, E; Opava, C H; Lundberg, I E

    2008-02-01

    The present aim is to investigate the relationships between aerobic capacity and disease activity, organ damage, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and physical activity in 34 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage. Mean age was 51 (SD 10) years, disease duration 17 (SD 11) years. Aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake/VO2 max) was measured with a bicycle ergometer exercise test. Overall disease activity was assessed with Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Disease Activity Index (modified SLE-DAI), overall organ damage with the Systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics/American College of Rheumatology-Damage Index, [SLICC/(ACR)-DI], HRQL with the 36-item Short-form health-survey (SF-36) and physical activity with a self-assessed question. The women who were low-to-moderately physically active had 89-92% (P < or = 0.001) of VO2 max predicted for sedentary women. Maximal oxygen uptake (L/min, mL/min/kg) correlated to SF-36 physical function (rs = 0.49, rs = 0.72) (P < or = 0.01), but not (rs < or = 0.25) to other HRQL scales, overall disease activity or organ damage or physical activity. The correlation between aerobic capacity and physical function and the absence of correlation between aerobic capacity and physical activity, suggest a possible disease-related factor behind the low aerobic capacity. However, with no correlation between aerobic capacity and overall disease activity and organ damage, low physical activity may contribute to the low aerobic capacity in our sample.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  15. Effect of bulking agents on maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guo Xue; Yang, Qing Yuan; Luo, Wen Hai

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of bulking agents on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Three different bulking agents (cornstalks, sawdust, and spent mushroom substrate) were used to compost kitchen waste under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for a 28-d period. A control treatment was also studied using kitchen waste without a bulking agent. During the experiment, maturity indexes such as temperature, pH value, C/N ratio, and germination index were determined, and continuous measurements of leachate and gaseous emissions (CH₄, N₂O, and NH₃) were taken. The results showed that all of the composts with bulking agents reached the required maturity standard, and the addition of spent mushroom substrate gave the highest maturity (C/N ratio decreased from 23 to 16 and germination index increased from 53% to 111%). The bulking agents also reduced leachate production and CH₄ and N₂O emissions, but had little impact on NH3 emissions. Composting with sawdust as a bulking agent was found to emit less total greenhouse gas (33 kg CO₂-eqt(-1) dry matter) than the other treatments.

  16. Straw Compost and Bioremediated Soil as Inocula for the Bioremediation of Chlorophenol-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Laine, M. M.; Jorgensen, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of straw compost and remediated soil as inocula for bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated soil. The in situ biotransformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and mineralization of radiolabeled [U-(sup14)C]PCP by straw compost and remediated soil were studied under field-simulating conditions before and after 3 months of adaptation with PCP in a percolator. After PCP adaptation, the straw compost mineralized up to 56% of the [(sup14)C]PCP. No partial dechlorination of PCP was found. The native straw compost did not mineralize PCP, but partial dechlorination of PCP occurred (i) at pH 8 under near-thermophilic conditions (45(deg)C) and (ii) at pH 7 under aerobic and mesophilic conditions. No biotransformation reactions occurred at room temperature (25(deg)C) at pH 8. Enrichment in the percolator enhanced the mineralization rate of remediated soil to 56% compared with that of the native remediated soil, which mineralized 24% of [(sup14)C]PCP added. Trace amounts of chloroanisoles as the only biotransformation products were detected in PCP-adapted remediated soil. Both inoculants studied here showed effective mineralization of PCP when they were adapted to PCP in the percolator. No harmful side reactions, such as extensive methylation, were observed. PMID:16535304

  17. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  18. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  19. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  20. Current and future North American compost markets

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.

    1995-09-01

    As composting grows in popularity and research continues, the science of composting is becoming better understood. The successful marketing and distribution of composted products, however, is less than an exact science. In order to develop a successful compost marketing program, it is important to understand current and potential compost markets, their specific applications for compost products, their product quality requirements, and their current level of acceptance for specific products. It is also important to understand that specific barriers to market development exist, as do specific challenges. When preparing to approach specific compost markets, we must first consider the characteristics of our particular compost product. The specific chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of a product will affect our ability to market it within specific markets. Producing a product of consistent quality or possessing consistent characteristics will also influence its acceptability within specific markets. The ability to meet other end user requirements, such as providing technical assistance and service, are also factor not often considered. It is necessary to educate end users regarding proper compost use, as well as to address stigmas that may be attached to the product. False marketing barriers, based on regulatory issues, must be removed and market related research and planning must be approached with the same seriousness as design and operational considerations.

  1. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  2. Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Piyush; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7) was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %), anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a level of relatedness of 54.5 %. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) ( = MTCC 9831(T) = MCC 2100(T) = KCTC 13724(T) = CCM 7754(T)).

  3. Effect of phosphogypsum and dicyandiamide as additives on NH3, N20 and CH4 emissions during composting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiming; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Schuchardt, Frank; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Degang

    2013-07-01

    A laboratory scale experiment of composting in a forced aeration system using pig manure with cornstalks was carried out to investigate the effects of both phosphogypsum and dicyandiamide (DCD, C2H4N4) as additives on gaseous emissions and compost quality. Besides a control, there were three amended treatments with different amounts of additives. The results indicated that the phosphogypsum addition at the rate of 10% of mixture dry weight decreased NH3 and CH4 emissions significantly during composting. The addition of DCD at the rate of 0.2% of mixture dry weight together with 10% of phosphogypsum further reduced the N2O emission by affecting the nitrification process. Reducing the phosphogypsum addition to 5% in the presence of 0.2% DCD moderately increased the NH3 emissions but not N2O emission. The additives increased the ammonium content and electrical conductivity significantly in the final compost. No adverse effect on organic matter degradation or the germination index of the compost was found in the amended treatments. It was recommended that phosphogypsum and DCD could be used in composting for the purpose of reducing NH3, CH4 and N2O emissions. Optimal conditions and dose of DCD additive during composting should be determined with different materials and composting systems in further study.

  4. Pilot scale field test for compostable packaging materials in the City of Kassel, Germany.

    PubMed

    Klauss, Matthias; Bidlingmaier, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradable (compostable) packaging materials made from biopolymers (BP) are introduced into the market to reduce the amounts of conventional packaging materials and at the same time be recovered by the municipal organic waste collection system. The processing of this organic waste mixed with biopolymers has been tested in a commercial treatment facility. The safe use of the compost produced from these materials was demonstrated in a full-scale agricultural application test.

  5. Low-Temperature Effects on the Design and Performance of Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    These include TNT, tensively used for municipal , industrial and solid wastes RDX. HMX, tetryl and other compounds. Composting as well as those used for...operation for municipal system containing explosives, caution should be exer- solid wastes is given below since, at that time, it was one cised if any...Los Angeles Orange County Metropolitan Authority nicipal waste composting process performance is cen- in which dewatered municipal sludge was

  6. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobics can reach up to six times the force of gravity, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate ...

  7. A Highly Active System for the Metal-Free Aerobic Photocyanation of Tertiary Amines with Visible Light: Application to the Synthesis of Tetraponerines and Crispine A.

    PubMed

    Orejarena Pacheco, Julio Cesar; Lipp, Alexander; Nauth, Alexander M; Acke, Fabian; Dietz, Jule-Philipp; Opatz, Till

    2016-04-04

    A highly efficient metal-free catalytic system for the aerobic photocyanation of tertiary amines with visible light is reported. The use of air as terminal oxidant offers an improved safety profile compared with pure oxygen, the used compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light sources are highly economical, and no halogenated solvents are required. This system not only proves to be effective for a wide variety of trialkylamines, pharmaceuticals, and alkaloids but remarkably also allows the lowest catalyst loading (0.00001 mol% or 0.1 ppm) ever reported for an organic dye. Bruylants reactions and C-alkylation/decyanations were performed on the obtained α-aminonitriles to demonstrate the postfunctionalization of complex molecules. The catalytic system is furthermore applied in the short and effective syntheses of the alkaloids (±)-crispine A and the tetraponerines T7 and T8.

  8. Complete degradation of the azo dye Acid Orange-7 and bioelectricity generation in an integrated microbial fuel cell, aerobic two-stage bioreactor system in continuous flow mode at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the commercially used model azo dye Acid Orange-7 (AO-7) was fully degraded into less toxic intermediates using an integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC) and aerobic bioreactor system. The integrated bioreactor system was operated at ambient temperature and continuous-flow mode. AO-7 loading rate was varied during experiments from 70gm(-3)day(-1) to 210gm(-3)day(-1). Colour and soluble COD removal rates reached>90% under all AO-7 loading rates. The MFC treatment stage prompted AO-7 to undergo reductive degradation into its constituent aromatic amines. HPLC-MS analysis of metabolite extracts from the aerobic stage of the bioreactor system indicated further oxidative degradation of the resulting aromatic amines into simpler compounds. Bioluminescence based Vibrio fischeri ecotoxicity testing demonstrated that aerobic stage effluent exhibited toxicity reductions of approximately fivefold and ten-fold respectively compared to the dye wastewater influent and MFC-stage effluent.

  9. Mathematical modelling of the composting process: a review.

    PubMed

    Mason, I G

    2006-01-01

    In this paper mathematical models of the composting process are examined and their performance evaluated. Mathematical models of the composting process have been derived from both energy and mass balance considerations, with solutions typically derived in time, and in some cases, spatially. Both lumped and distributed parameter models have been reported, with lumped parameter models presently predominating in the literature. Biological energy production functions within the models included first-order, Monod-type or empirical expressions, and these have predicted volatile solids degradation, oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production, with heat generation derived using heat quotient factors. Rate coefficient correction functions for temperature, moisture, oxygen and/or free air space have been incorporated in a number of the first-order and Monod-type expressions. The most successful models in predicting temperature profiles were those which incorporated either empirical kinetic expressions for volatile solids degradation or CO2 production, or which utilised a first-order model for volatile solids degradation, with empirical corrections for temperature and moisture variations. Models incorporating Monod-type kinetic expressions were less successful. No models were able to predict maximum, average and peak temperatures to within criteria of 5, 2 and 2 degrees C, respectively, or to predict the times to reach peak temperatures to within 8 h. Limitations included the modelling of forced aeration systems only and the generation of temperature validation data for relatively short time periods in relation to those used in full-scale composting practice. Moisture and solids profiles were well predicted by two models, but oxygen and carbon dioxide profiles were generally poorly modelled. Further research to obtain more extensive substrate degradation data, develop improved first-order biological heat production models, investigate mechanistically-based moisture

  10. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  11. Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Moriya, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashita, M.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    A material recycling is one of core issues in engineering for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies such as Mars A new composting system has been developed in Japan which utilizes some thermophilic bacteria to attain higher temperature than normally expected in the ordinary composting system Dead body of rat was found to be eaten up by the thermophilic bacteria under aerated condition and oxidized to carbon dioxide and few other inorganics within two hours Ecology of these composting bacteria is structured on the intensive symbiotic interactions among various species that participate in various reaction networks in a concert Complexity in the composting bacteria might be based on multiple interaction and interdependency among participating species and organisms Species identification and phylogeny of symbiotic bacteria and understanding of their ecology have been made Those bacterial systems are active and durable under temperature high in a range of 80 to 100 r C Biological combustion release heat and temperature goes up when air is fed through the reaction bed Since microbial activity decreases at exceeding temperature and release of heat decreases as well temperature in the reacting bed itself-regulated in the range Even though it should be verified composting bacteria themselves are presumed to be safe for human agricultural plant and animal species Their activity is restricted only to the condition under elevated temperature Their activities depend greatly on their symbiotic partners and extreme environment created by them The

  12. Biological and ecophysiological reactions of white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) grown on sewage sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Bonin, Gilles; Massiani, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of sewage sludge compost on white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) compared with mineral fertilization and control (without any fertilizer) in a greenhouse experiment. The plants grown on the compost-amended soil showed a different growth dynamic: a significant delay in flowering and a bigger root system. Both the compost and the fertilization treatments increased biomass and seed yield. Heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni) distribution within the plant was in the following order: roots > leaves > stems, except for zinc which was homogeneously distributed. The balance of mineral nutrition was not affected by treatments. Zinc was the trace element which was most taken up. Unlike many species of Brassicaceae, white wall rocket is not a hyperaccumulator. Although sewage sludge compost improved plant growth, delay in flowering shows that it is necessary to take precautions when spreading sewage sludge in natural areas.

  13. The use of concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater as a conditioning agent for adjusting acidity and minimizing ammonia volatilization in livestock manure composting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Kong, Haimin; Lu, Beibei; Wang, Jibing; Xie, Yuan; Fang, Ping

    2015-09-15

    In this study, concentrated monosodium glutamate waste (CMGW) was proposed as a conditioning agent to adjust acidity and decrease ammonia (NH3) volatilization in thermophilic aerobic composting based on two incubation experiments. The results showed that with the addition of CMGW, NH3 volatilization of compost mixture under high temperature phase decreased significantly and pH met the current national standard within 5.5-8.5. When CMGW dosage increased to 2% (v/w), the decrease in NH3 volatilization was as high as 78.9%. This effect was enhanced by repeated application of CMGW. Furthermore, although the electrical conductivity increased with the application of CMGW, both the germination index and the microbial respiration of compost mixture implied that CMGW had no negative effects on the maturity of compost, instead, a comprehensive maturity might be accelerated. It was concluded that CMGW was an optional conditioning agent for thermophilic aerobic composting of livestock manure in regards to adjusting acidity and preventing nitrogen loss from NH3 volatilization.

  14. The evaluation of sewage sludge and compost toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens in relation to inorganic and organic contaminants content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2007-12-01

    Sewage sludges and the composts were evaluated chemically and ecotoxicologically to determine their suitability as fertilizers for land application. Four municipal sewage sludges with various properties and pollutant contents were composted in aerobic conditions for 76 days. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (14 from US EPA List) was analyzed in the sewage sludges and composts as well as together with their physico-chemical properties (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium, cations content, cation exchange capacity, total of exchangeable bases). To evaluate the toxicity of the materials, bioassays with crustacean Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracodtoxkit test) were performed. Neither physical-chemical properties nor heavy metal content underwent any significant changes during the composting process. However, composting significantly influenced the range of losses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The magnitude and the ranges of changes in the toxicity H. incongruens were found to be dependent on the tested parameter as well as on sewage sludge type and its dose. It was noted that composting could even increase the toxicity of sewage sludges. Sewage sludge toxicity was mainly determined by the presence of heavy metals, although for some sludges the contribution of organic pollutants as well as the synergistic activity of several factors could not be excluded. According to proposed classification (on the basis of Ostracodtoxkit test) only one sewage sludge/compost was suitable for land application. The studies conducted provide interesting information pointing to the necessity to supplement chemical studies with biological assays.

  15. Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  16. Toxicity assessment of the extract of compost as a final product from Bio-Toilet.

    PubMed

    Kakimolo, T; Imai, Y; Funamizu, N; Takakuwa, T; Kunimoto, M

    2006-01-01

    Bio-Toilet is the name of a dry closet or composting toilet using sawdust as an artificial soil matrix for bioconversion of human excrement into compost. Since feces and urine contain several chemicals such as pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disruptors and they may still remain in compost after biological reaction in the Bio-Toilet, it is required to examine the possibility of soil and/or groundwater pollution by applying compost to a soil system in farmland. In this study, toxicity of Bio-Toilet compost was evaluated by measuring the viability of human neuroblast (NB-1). The bio-assay was applied to the water extract of compost from the Bio-Toilets which are in practical use in Japan. The assay results showed that (1) the extract of feces showed no toxicity, and the extracts of unused sawdust had no or low level toxicity and (2) the extracts of composts had heavier toxicity than unused sawdust. These results implied that some chemicals that have toxicity were generated by biological reactions or accumulated in toilet system. The bioassay results with fractionated organic matter by its molecular weight showed that the small molecular weight fraction had stronger toxicity than other fractions. The effect of inorganic matter on toxicity was examined by comparing the dose-response relationship of the extracts of compost with positive control with 1M of sodium chloride solution. The comparison showed that sodium concentration in the extract was too low to develop the toxicity and the effect of inorganic matter could be neglected in this study.

  17. Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.

    PubMed

    Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4

  18. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  19. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  20. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  1. Compost - Brown gold or toxic trouble ?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  2. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  5. Comparison of two transport systems available in Japan (TERUMO kenkiporter II and BBL Port-A-Cul) for maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Sakizono, Kenji; Kotani, Yoko; Miki, Kanji; Naito, Takuya; Niki, Marie; Miyamoto, Junko; Tamai, Koji; Nagata, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Tachikawa, Ryo; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    The kenkiporter II (KP II) transport system is commonly used in many hospitals in Japan for transporting bacterial specimens to microbiology laboratories. Recently, the BBL Port-A-Cul (PAC) fluid vial became available. However, no reports thus far have compared the effectiveness of these two transport systems. We chose 4 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria as well as 8 anaerobic organisms, and prepared three strains of each bacterium in culture media for placement into PAC and KP II containers. We compared the effectiveness of each transport system for preserving each organism at 6, 24, and 48 h after inoculation at room temperature. Thirty-six strains out of 12 bacteria were used in this study. The PAC system yielded better recovery in quantity of organisms than the KP II system at 6, 24 and 48 h. More strains were significantly recovered with the PAC system than with the KP II at 24 h (36/36 vs. 23/36, P < 0.001) and 48 h (30/36 vs. 12/36, P < 0.001). The PAC system was better in the recovery of viable organisms counted at 24 and 48 h after inoculation compared with the KP II system. The PAC system may be recommended for the transfer of bacterial specimens in clinical settings.

  6. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  7. Behaviour of biodegradable plastics in composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Redemann, K; Stegmann, R

    2005-01-01

    Composting is a preferred treatment strategy for biodegradable plastics (BDPs). In this sense, the collection of BDPs together with organic household wastes is a highly discussed possibility. Under the aspect of the behaviour of BDPs in composting facilities, a telephone survey was carried out with selected composting facility operators. They were interviewed with respect to treated wastes, content of impurities, processes for impurity separation, experiences with biodegradable plastics and assumptions to the behaviour of biodegradable plastics in their facility. Forty percent of the facilities had some experiences with BDPs due to test runs, and also since the occurrence of BDPs in their waste was known. The majority of the operators expressed apprehension regarding an increase of impurities resulting from a combined collection of biowaste and BDPs. In the facilities, measures for the impurity separation from the biowaste were used in common practice - in 33% of the cases, separation of disturbing plastics was done before composting, in 33% after composting, and in 13% before and after composting. The most important separation processes for conventional plastics were sieving and manual sorting. In two cases air classification was also used. When asked about the separation possibility of the conventional but not of the biodegradable plastics in their facilities, the majority of operators were not in a position to comment or they replied that it was not an option. No problems were seen in most cases if the impurity separation follows composting. If impurity separation takes place before composting it was often assumed that the BDPs are mainly separated by sieving. In conclusion, in more than half of the cases, BDPs would not be composted if delivered to a composting facility. Under the actual conditions regarding the collection and the treatment/disposal possibilities, an application of BDPs seems to only be reasonable for clean (i.e., source separated on their own

  8. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation--a review.

    PubMed

    Anand, Chirjiv K; Apul, Defne S

    2014-02-01

    In today's flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50-60%), temperature (40-65°C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25-35), pH (5.5-8.0), and porosity (35-50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature-time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and experience in composting toilet design and operation and program operation.

  9. Evaluation of carbon degradation during co-composting of exhausted grape marc with different biowastes.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F J; Sánchez-Arias, V; Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez, L

    2008-10-01

    In this work the carbon biodegradation of exhausted grape marc (EGM) combined with other organic wastes using the turned pile composting system was studied. Four different piles were made of EGM in Pile 1, EGM mixed with cow manure and straw (CMS) in Pile 2, EGM mixed with municipal solid waste (MSW) in Pile 3 and EGM mixed with grape stalks (GS) in Pile 4. The results obtained were modelled to determine the main kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. Regarding to the rate constants of the composting processes they were increased from 0.033d(-1), the value obtained when EGM was composted alone, to 0.040 and 0.044d(-1) when MSW and GS were added, respectively as co-substrates. However, the addition of CMS reduced the rate constant. About the biodegradable carbon fractions, it was observed that the co-composting reduced significantly the remanent carbon concentration after composting in all the piles whilst increased the readily biodegradable carbon fractions from 35, the value obtained when EGM was composted alone, to 50 and 60%, respectively when MSW or GS were added. As regards the temperature profiles, only Piles 1 and 4 achieved thermal hygienization values and about the nitrogen losses, the lowest percentage of nitrogen loss took place when GS were added, because of its optimum pH and C/N initial ratio. Thus, though any of these wastes could be used for co-composting with EGM, the use of GS as co-substrate and bulking agent for the co-composting process of EGM was recommended.

  10. Efficacy of microorganisms selected from compost to control soil-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens with compost has been widely studied. Compost has been found to be suppressive against several soil-borne pathogens in various cropping systems. However, an increase of some diseases due to compost usage has also been observed, since compost is a product that varies considerably in chemical, physical and biotic composition, and, consequently, also in ability to suppress soil borne diseases. New opportunities in disease management can be obtained by the selection of antagonists from suppressive composts. The objective of the present work was to isolate microorganisms from a suppressive compost and to test them for their activity against soil-borne pathogens. A compost from green wastes, organic domestic wastes and urban sludge's that showed a good suppressive activity in previous trials was used as source of microorganisms. Serial diluted suspensions of compost samples were plated on five different media: selective for Fusarium sp., selective for Trichoderma sp., selective for oomycetes, potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi, lysogeny broth (LB) for isolation of bacteria. In total, 101 colonies were isolated from plates and tested under laboratory conditions on tomato seedlings growing on perlite medium in Petri plates infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and compared to a commercial antagonist (Streptomyces griserovidis, Mycostop, Bioplanet). Among them, 28 showed a significant disease reduction and were assessed under greenhouse condition on three pathosystems: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilica/basil, Phytophthora nicotianae/tomato and Rhizoctonia solani/bean. Fusarium spp. selected from compost generally showed a good disease control against Fusarium wilts, while only bacteria significantly controlled P. nicotianae on tomato under greenhouse conditions. None of the microorganisms was able to control the three soil-borne pathogens together, in particular Rhizoctonia solani. Results

  11. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  12. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil. Technical terminal report

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  13. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  14. Tracking Dynamics of Plant Biomass Composting by Changes in Substrate Structure, Microbial Community, and Enzyme Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Tucker, M. P.; Baker, J. O.; Harris, M.; Luo, Y. H.; Xu, Q.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding, S. Y.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  15. Mathematical model of organic substrate degradation in solid waste windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hadibarata, Tony; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Organic solid waste composting is a complex process that involves many coupled physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. To understand this complexity and to ease in planning, design and management of the composting plant, mathematical model for simulation is usually applied. The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of organic substrate degradation and its performance evaluation in solid waste windrow composting system. The present model is a biomass-dependent model, considering biological growth processes under the limitation of moisture, oxygen and substrate contents, and temperature. The main output of this model is substrate content which was divided into two categories: slowly and rapidly degradable substrates. To validate the model, it was applied to a laboratory scale windrow composting of a mixture of wood chips and dog food. The wastes were filled into a cylindrical reactor of 6 cm diameter and 1 m height. The simulation program was run for 3 weeks with 1 s stepwise. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. The MC and temperature of model simulation were found to be matched with those of experiment, but limited for rapidly degradable substrates. Under anaerobic zone, the degradation of rapidly degradable substrate needs to be incorporated into the model to achieve full simulation of a long period static pile composting. This model is a useful tool to estimate the changes of substrate content during composting period, and acts as a basic model for further development of a sophisticated model.

  16. Multispecies toxicity assessment of compost produced in bioremediation of an explosives-contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Napolitano, G.E.; Wicker, L.F.; Richmond, J.E.; Stewart, A.J.; Kostuk, J.M.; Gibbs, M.H.

    1997-12-01

    A multispecies terrestrial test system was used to assess the environmental effectiveness of composting for bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soils. The assessment involved comparing biological responses, from the individual to the community level, in remediated and reference composts. A 6-month greenhouse study incorporated two soil invertebrate species, three plant species and an associated symbiont, and the naturally occurring complement of soil microorganisms. Measured parameters included growth and reproduction of earthworms and isopods; soil mote diversity; soil lipid class composition as an indicator of soil microbial community structure; plant growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction; and root nodulation and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. Additional short-term toxicity tests of seed germination and earthworm survival were performed to supplement the mesocosm data. Compost prepared from the explosives-contaminated soil inhibited several aspects of plant growth and physiology, but few adverse effects on soil invertebrates were detected. An initial lag in earthworm and isopod reproduction occurred in the reference compost, reflecting some inherent compost differences not associated with contamination, and highlighting the importance and the difficulty of finding appropriate reference soils for assessing hazardous waste sites or remediation technologies. Nonetheless, the results from this study suggested some nonlethal effects from the contaminated-soil compost, primarily to plants. The mesocosm methodology used in this study can bridge the gap between traditional short-term toxicity testing and longer term field assessments, and provide information on ecological effects by explicitly including measurements of multiple species across several levels of ecological organization.

  17. A straw-soil co-composting and evaluation for plant substrate in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quanyong; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Qin, Lifeng

    2013-02-01

    Material closure is important for the establishment of Bioregenerative Life Support System, and many studies have focused on transforming candidate plant residues into plant culture medium. For the limitations of using wheat straw compost as substrate for plant cultivation, a straw-soil co-composting technique was studied. The changes of pH, C/N value, germination index, cellulose, lignin and so on were monitored during the co-composting process. The maturity was evaluated by the C/N value and the germination index. The result showed that after 45 days' fermentation, the straw-soil final co-compost with inoculation (T1) became mature, while the co-compost without inoculation (T0) was not mature. In the plant culture test, the T1 substrate could satisfy the needs for lettuce's growth, and the edible biomass yield of lettuce averaged 74.42 g pot-1 at harvest. But the lettuces in T0 substrate showed stress symptoms and have not completed the growth cycle. Moreover, the results of nitrogen (N) transformation experiment showed that about 10.0% and 3.1% N were lost during the T1 co-composting and plant cultivation, respectively, 23.5% N was absorbed by lettuce, and 63.4% N remained in the T1 substrate after cultivation.

  18. Degradation of greenhouse twines derived from natural fibers and biodegradable polymer during composting.

    PubMed

    Lau, A K; Cheuk, W W; Lo, K V

    2009-01-01

    Commercial composting operations generally do not accept organic wastes with plastic twines from the greenhouse vegetable industry and the bulk of the waste materials ends up in landfills. The objectives of this paper are to identify environmentally compatible substitutes that could replace the current use of petrochemically derived plastic twines in greenhouse vegetable production, thus diverting them from landfills, and to assess the extent of their degradation via composting. Physical properties of the twines, including linear density, percent weight loss and tensile strength were monitored for the biodegradation tests. A pilot-scale composting trial was conducted in an in-vessel composting system. Results showed that the three biodegradable twine materials (cotton, jute and EcoPLA) could degrade readily in a composting environment within a reasonable time frame. Specifically, at the end of 105 days of composting, 85.3%, 84.8% and 81.1% of weight loss was observed for cotton, jute and EcoPLA, respectively. Furthermore, EcoPLA exhibited a slower decline in tensile strength with time, when compared to jute and cotton.

  19. Design of experiment (DOE) based screening of factors affecting municipal solid waste (MSW) composting.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Khoshrooz; Zhang, Baiyu; Lye, Leonard M; Cai, Qinghong; Cao, Tong

    2016-12-01

    A design of experiment (DOE) based methodology was adopted in this study to investigate the effects of multiple factors and their interactions on the performance of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting process. The impact of four factors, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N), moisture content (MC), type of bulking agent (BA) and aeration rate (AR) on the maturity, stability and toxicity of compost product was investigated. The statistically significant factors were identified using final C/N, germination index (GI) and especially the enzyme activities as responses. Experimental results validated the use of enzyme activities as proper indices during the course of composting. Maximum enzyme activities occurred during the active phase of decomposition. MC has a significant effect on dehydrogenase activity (DGH), β-glucosidase activity (BGH), phosphodiesterase activity (PDE) and the final moisture content of the compost. C/N is statistically significant for final C/N, DGH, BGH, and GI. The results provided guidance to optimize a MSW composting system that will lead to increased decomposition rate and the production of more stable and mature compost.

  20. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G

    2009-07-21

    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.

  1. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels. PMID:22490508

  2. Free radicals: how do we stand them? Anaerobic and aerobic free radical (chain) reactions involved in the use of fluorogenic probes and in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Liochev, Stefan I

    2014-01-01

    Biologically significant conclusions have been based on the use of fluorogenic and luminogenic probes for the detection of reactive species. The basic mechanisms of the processes involved have not been satisfactorily elucidated. In the present work, the mechanism of the enzyme and photosensitized oxidation of NAD(P)H by resorufin is analyzed and appears to involve both aerobic and anaerobic free radical chain reactions. There are two major fallouts of this analysis. Many of the conclusions about the participation of radicals based on the use of probes such as resorufin and Amplex red need reevaluation. It is also concluded that anaerobic free radical reactions may be biologically significant, and the possible existence of enzymatic systems to eliminate certain free radicals is discussed.

  3. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio < 15; (b) NH4+-N < 400 mg/kg; (c) CO2-C < 2000 mg CO2-C/kg; (d) dehydrogenase activity < 1 mg TPF/g dry matter; (e) germination index (GI) > 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes.

  4. Microbial Community Structure and Diversity in an Integrated System of Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors and a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Tannery Wastewater in Modjo, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Adey Feleke; Assefa, Fassil; Leta, Seyoum; Stomeo, Francesca; Wamalwa, Mark; Njahira, Moses; Appolinaire, Djikeng

    2014-01-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to elucidate the microbial diversity and structure in the anaerobic-aerobic reactors integrated with a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo town, Ethiopia. The system has been running with removal efficiencies ranging from 94%–96% for COD, 91%–100% for SO42- and S2-, 92%–94% for BOD, 56%–82% for total Nitrogen and 2%–90% for NH3-N. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and microbial community assemblies were determined by analysis of a total of 801 unique clone sequences from all the sites. Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) - based analysis of the sequences revealed highly diverse communities in each of the reactors and the constructed wetland. A total of 32 phylotypes were identified with the dominant members affiliated to Clostridia (33%), Betaproteobacteria (10%), Bacteroidia (10%), Deltaproteobacteria (9%) and Gammaproteobacteria (6%). Sequences affiliated to the class Clostridia were the most abundant across all sites. The 801 sequences were assigned to 255 OTUs, of which 3 OTUs were shared among the clone libraries from all sites. The shared OTUs comprised 80 sequences belonging to Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis, Bacteroidetes and unclassified bacterial group. Significantly different communities were harbored by the anaerobic, aerobic and rhizosphere sites of the constructed wetland. Numerous representative genera of the dominant bacterial classes obtained from the different sample sites of the integrated system have been implicated in the removal of various carbon- containing pollutants of natural and synthetic origins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial community structure in tannery wastewater treatment plant from Ethiopia. PMID:25541981

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of the Vitek MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Gram-Positive Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Bythrow, Maureen; Garner, Omai B.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Jennemann, Rebecca; Lewinski, Michael A.; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A. Brian; Procop, Gary W.; Richter, Sandra S.; Sercia, Linda; Westblade, Lars F.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Branda, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is gaining momentum as a tool for bacterial identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Compared with conventional methods, this technology can more readily and conveniently identify a wide range of organisms. Here, we report the findings from a multicenter study to evaluate the Vitek MS v2.0 system (bioMérieux, Inc.) for the identification of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 1,146 unique isolates, representing 13 genera and 42 species, were analyzed, and results were compared to those obtained by nucleic acid sequence-based identification as the reference method. For 1,063 of 1,146 isolates (92.8%), the Vitek MS provided a single identification that was accurate to the species level. For an additional 31 isolates (2.7%), multiple possible identifications were provided, all correct at the genus level. Mixed-genus or single-choice incorrect identifications were provided for 18 isolates (1.6%). Although no identification was obtained for 33 isolates (2.9%), there was no specific bacterial species for which the Vitek MS consistently failed to provide identification. In a subset of 463 isolates representing commonly encountered important pathogens, 95% were accurately identified to the species level and there were no misidentifications. Also, in all but one instance, the Vitek MS correctly differentiated Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci. The findings demonstrate that the Vitek MS system is highly accurate for the identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23658261

  6. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed, aerobic, and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Lin; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Huang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chien, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study using a combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) and aerobic and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system was undertaken to explore its capability for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater. When the organic loading rate was maintained at 0.26-0.65 kg TMAH m(-3 )d(-1), the UASB reactor removed 70-100% of TMAH through methanogenesis. When the [Formula: see text] -N loading rate was maintained at 0.73-1.4 kg [Formula: see text]-N m(-3 )d(-1), the aerobic reactor oxidized 31-59% of [Formula: see text]-N to [Formula: see text]-N through nitritation. When the nitrogen loading rate was maintained at 0.42-0.75 kg N m(-3 )d(-1), the anoxic reactor removed 27-63% of nitrogen through anammox. The performance data of the combined reactor system agreed well with the stoichiometric relationships of methanogenesis, nitritation, and anammox. The batch studies showed that a higher initial TMAH concentration of up to 2520 mg L(-1) gave a higher methanogenic activity of up to 16 mL CH4 g(-1) VSS d(-1). An increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 500 mg L(-1) gradually decreased the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; whereas an increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 47 mg L(-1) imposed a marked inhibiting effect on the activity of anammox bacteria.

  7. Multicenter evaluation of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Jenna; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Bythrow, Maureen; Garner, Omai B; Ginocchio, Christine C; Jennemann, Rebecca; Lewinski, Michael A; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A Brian; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S; Sercia, Linda; Westblade, Lars F; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Branda, John A

    2013-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is gaining momentum as a tool for bacterial identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Compared with conventional methods, this technology can more readily and conveniently identify a wide range of organisms. Here, we report the findings from a multicenter study to evaluate the Vitek MS v2.0 system (bioMérieux, Inc.) for the identification of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 1,146 unique isolates, representing 13 genera and 42 species, were analyzed, and results were compared to those obtained by nucleic acid sequence-based identification as the reference method. For 1,063 of 1,146 isolates (92.8%), the Vitek MS provided a single identification that was accurate to the species level. For an additional 31 isolates (2.7%), multiple possible identifications were provided, all correct at the genus level. Mixed-genus or single-choice incorrect identifications were provided for 18 isolates (1.6%). Although no identification was obtained for 33 isolates (2.9%), there was no specific bacterial species for which the Vitek MS consistently failed to provide identification. In a subset of 463 isolates representing commonly encountered important pathogens, 95% were accurately identified to the species level and there were no misidentifications. Also, in all but one instance, the Vitek MS correctly differentiated Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci. The findings demonstrate that the Vitek MS system is highly accurate for the identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory setting.

  8. An anoxic-aerobic system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonia in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qifeng; Singh, Vijay P; Fu, Zhimin; Wang, Jing; Hu, La

    2017-03-24

    A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat artificial pretreated coal gasification wastewater that was mainly contained of ammonia and phenol. The efficiency of SBR fed with increasing phenol concentrations (from 150 to 300 mg l(-1)) and the relationship among phenol, nitrogen removal, and the microbial community structure were evaluated. When the phenol feeding concentration was increased to about 300 mg l(-1), the removal efficiency was above 99.0%, demonstrating the robustness of phenol removal capacity. The study showed that most phenol was degraded in anoxic stage. The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and total nitrogen were 98.4 and 81.9%, respectively, with average NH4(+)-N concentration of 107.5 mg l(-1) and COD/N 7.5. Low temperature caused sludge loss that led to the decreased performance. Increasing the temperature could not recover the performance effectively. The data from bacterial analysis revealed that Delftia, Hydrogenophaga, and unclassified Xanthomonadaceae played a significant role in phenol degradation before the temperature increase, while uncultured Syntrophococcus sp. and unclassified Rhodocyclaceae were responsible for phenol degradation after the temperature increase. These results imply that the SBR holds potential for the simultaneous removal of phenolic compounds and nitrogen through aerobic ammonia oxidation and anoxic denitrification with phenol as the co-organic carbon source.

  9. Detection of Bacterial and Yeast Species with the Bactec 9120 Automated System with Routine Use of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Fungal Media▿

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Palmeri, Angelo; Amato, Teresa; Immordino, Rita; Distefano, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2006 and 2007, all blood cultures required by four units at high infective risk and most of those required by other units of the University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy were performed using a Bactec 9120 automated blood culture system with a complete set of Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Mycosis IC/F bottles. The aim of the study was to enable the authors to gain firsthand experience of the culture potentialities of the three different media, to obtain information regarding the overall and specific recovery of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures in the hospital, and to reach a decision as to whether and when to utilize anaerobic and fungal bottles. Although very few bloodstream infections (1.8%) were associated with obligate anaerobes, the traditional routine use of anaerobic bottles was confirmed because of their usefulness, not only in the detection of anaerobes, but also in that of gram-positive cocci and fermentative gram-negative bacilli. In this study, Mycosis IC/F bottles detected 77.4% of all the yeast isolates, 87.0% of yeasts belonging to the species Candida albicans, and 45.7% of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli resistant to chloramphenicol and tobramycin. In order to improve the diagnosis of fungemia in high-risk patients, the additional routine use of fungal bottles was suggested when, as occurred in the intensive-care unit and in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Palermo, high percentages of bloodstream infections are associated with yeasts, and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or multiple bacterial isolates capable of inhibiting yeast growth in aerobic bottles. PMID:18923011

  10. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  11. Assessing risk of solid waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.M.; Razvi, A.S. )

    1987-03-01

    This paper addresses the movement of metals in soils and their accumulation in plants. Research with sewage sludge compost indicates that these risks can be minimized with proper handling and management. The objectives of this study were: (I) to evaluate potential groundwater contamination due to plant nutrients and heavy metals in the compost; and (II) to assess the accumulation of metals in plants grown on compost-amended soil. Data are presented for analyses of nickel, lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in snap beans.

  12. A comparative study of two composts as filter media for the removal of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) by biofiltration: application at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Hort, C; Gracy, S; Platel, V; Moynault, L

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the use of two composts as filter media for the treatment by biofiltration of odors emitted during the aerobic composting of a mixture containing sewage sludge and yard waste. The chemical analysis of the waste gas showed that the malodorous compounds at trace level were the reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) which were dimethyl sulfide (Me(2)S), methanethiol (MeSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Laboratory tests for biofiltration treatment of RSCs were performed in order to compare the properties of two filter media, consisted of a mature compost with yard waste (YW) and a mixture of mature compost with sewage sludge and yard waste (SS/YW). The maximum elimination capacity (EC) values obtained with the YW mature compost as packing material were 12.5 mg m(-3)h(-1) for H(2)S, 7.9 mg m(-3)h(-1) for MeSH and 34 mg m(-3)h(-1) for Me(2)S, and the removal efficiency decreased in the order of: H(2)S>MeSH>Me(2)S. Moreover, the YW compost filter medium had a better behavior than the filter medium based on SS/YW in terms of acclimation of the microbial communities and moisture content. According to these results, a YW mature compost as packing material for an industrial biofilter were designed and this industrial biofilter was found effective under specified conditions (without inoculation and addition of water). The results showed that the maximum EC value of RSCs was 935 mg m(-3)h(-1) (100% removal efficiency, RE) for an inlet loads (IL) between 0 and 1000 mg m(-3)h(-1). Thus, YW compost medium was proven efficient for biofiltration of RSCs both at laboratory and industrial scale.

  13. Novel insights into anoxic/aerobic(1)/aerobic(2) biological fluidized-bed system for coke wastewater treatment by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Ren, Yuan; Feng, Chun-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to investigate the contaminant removal efficiency and fluorescent characteristic variations in a full scale coke wastewater (CWW) treatment plant with a novel anoxic/aerobic(1)/aerobic(2) (A/O(1)/O(2)) process, which combined with internal-loop fluidized-bed reactor. Routine monitoring results indicated that primary contaminants in CWW, such as phenols and free cyanide, were removed efficiently in A/O(1)/O(2) process (removal efficiency reached 99% and 95%, respectively). Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and PARAFAC identified three fluorescent components, including two humic-like fluorescence components (C1 and C3) and one protein-like component (C2). Principal component analysis revealed that C1 and C2 correlated with COD (correlation coefficient (r)=0.782, p<0.01 and r=0.921, p<0.01), respectively) and phenols (r=0.796, p<0.01 and r=0.914, p<0.01, respectively), suggesting that C1 and C2 might be associated with the predominating aromatic contaminants in CWW. C3 correlated with mixed liquor suspended solids (r=0.863, p<0.01) in fluidized-bed reactors, suggesting that it might represent the biological dissolved organic matter. In A/O(1)/O(2) process, the fluorescence intensities of C1 and C2 consecutively decreased, indicating the degradation of aromatic contaminants. Correspondingly, the fluorescence intensity of C3 increased in aerobic(1) stage, suggesting an increase of biological dissolved organic matter.

  14. Biofiltration of isopentane in peat and compost packed beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Govind, R.

    1997-05-01

    Commercially available biofiltration systems have used natural bioactive materials in packed beds due to low media cost and easy availability. Detailed understanding and modeling of biofiltration systems are lacking in existing literature. Experimental studies on the isopentane treatment in air using peat- and compost-packed beds were conducted with inlet isopentane concentrations of 360 to 960 ppmv, and empty-bed gas-phase residence times of 2 to 10 min. High removal efficiencies (>90%) were achieved at low contaminant concentrations (<500 ppmv) and large empty-bed gas-phase residence times (>8 min). For both peat and compost biofilters, there was an optimal water content that gave the highest removal efficiency. For higher water content, mass transfer of isopentane through the liquid phase controlled the biofiltration removal efficiency. At low water content, irreversible changes in the bioactivity of peat and compost occurred, resulting in an irrecoverable loss of removal efficiency. Increases in biofilter bed temperature from 25 to 40 C improved the removal efficiency. A mathematical model incorporating the effect of water content and temperature was developed to describe the packed-bed biofilter performance. Model predictions agreed closely with experimental data.

  15. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation.

  16. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  17. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  18. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water.

  19. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  20. Degradation of the seaweed wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) by a composting process with the inoculation of Bacillus sp. HR6.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Chun; Wei, Jian-He; Maeda, Kenji; Kawai, Hiroshi; Zhou, Qixing; Hosoi-Tanabe, Shoko; Nagata, Shinichi

    2007-06-01

    Disposal of the seaweed wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) by inoculating the halotolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. HR6 was examined in an experimental scale composting system. Strain HR6 was effective in initiating the composting process of wakame, and there was a rapid increase in temperature to over 54.9-55.7 degrees C after 18-20 h. The composting process of wakame could be carried out despite a high NaCl content, 28.2 mg/g, although lower salinity resulted in a shorter lag time and higher weight reduction. In a larger scale composting process with aeration, two peaks of temperature change were found which corresponded well to oxygen consumption and CO2 emission during the process. The pH increased to 8.83 and organic materials were reduced to 93.4% after 72 h. The initial N and C contents were 3.9 and 34.0%, respectively, both of which decreased during the composting process. The changes in the viable cell numbers suggested that strain HR6 predominated before 24 h and other microorganisms including HR6 were present in a mixed state during the later period of composting. The total content of alginate (TA), 32.2% in the initial stage, decreased to 29.2% after 72 h, while water soluble alginate (WSA) increased, indicating that the solubilization and decomposition of alginate had occurred during the composting process.

  1. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  2. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    PubMed Central

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  3. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    PubMed

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  4. How composting affects heavy metal content

    SciTech Connect

    Canarutto, S.; Petruzzelli, G.; Lubrano, L.; Guidi, G.V.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes ways in which a properly conducted composting process can alter the chemical forms of heavy metals and consequently the quality of the compost. This process is of particular interest in the Italian policy of waste management due to the low level of organic matter in Italian agricultural soils. Results of the studies show that the proper process of compost maturation seems to increase the concentrations of humic acids with respect to those of fulvic acids. These variations in the quantity and quality of humic substances influence the speciation of heavy metals with a large part of the metals complexed and reaching the soil in a less mobile form. The distribution of copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead and chromium among humic fractions is compared in two composting procedures.

  5. Characterization of recycled mushroom compost leachate by chemical analysis and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gary; Kilpatrick, Mairead; Sharma, H S Shekhar; Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Hobbs, Phil; Andrews, Fiona; Carmichael, Eugene

    2008-08-13

    Recycled compost leachate (RCL or euphemistically named "goody water") can be a potent source of foul odor on mushroom substrate production sites and contributes to composting smells. A complex mixture of sulfur compounds, fatty acids, and nitrogen containing compounds is responsible for odor production. Fifty samples, collected from 14 compost production sites in Ireland and the U.K. over a 2 year period, were analyzed for chemical properties and by thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) for compositional differences. Results indicated that aerated samples had lower values of electrical conductivity, redox potential, and dry matter content than nonaerated samples and that the higher thermal stability of aerated samples measured by TGA could be attributed to greater mineralization of the substrate due to aerobic processes. The lower temperatures noted for peak evolution of methane, water, and carbon dioxide from TG-MS analysis suggested that a more energetic process had occurred in aerated RCL storage facilities, producing greater decomposition of macromolecules that volatilized at lower temperatures. Chemical composition, thermal stability of the freeze-dried leachate, pyrolysis profiles, and relative amounts of pyrolysis products were all markers of as to how effective control measures could influence RCL quality.

  6. Pressure drop and gas distribution in compost based biofilters: medium mixing and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Revah, S; Noyola, A

    2003-07-01

    The pressure drop and gas distribution in four different filter media for compost biofilters were studied as a function of three superficial loading rates of moist air and by carrying out the filter medium homogenization by mixing. The filter media used were compost, compost with cane bagasse, lava rock and aerobic sludge previously dried to 60% of water content. The pressure drop increased when lava rock and cane bagasse were used as bulking agents. The same trend was observed when water was added to the filter medium. Pressure drop tended to decrease with time as flow channels were formed inthe filter media. Tracer studies were carried out to quantify the gas distribution and the effect of channel formation. For the biofilters submitted to an airflow of 10, 40 and 70 l min(-1), an average normalized time of 0.96, 0.89 and 0.82, respectively were obtained. The results showed that channel formation was increased as the superficial loading rate was also increased. An operational practice that this work proposes and evaluates to improve gas distribution and medium moisture control is to carry out intermittent medium mixing. The medium moisture and void volume achieved under mixing condition were around 50% and 0.40, respectively with an average constant pressure drop of 11, 45 and 78 cm of water m(-1) for air velocities of 75, 300 and 525 m h(-1).

  7. Skin rubdown with a dry towel, 'kanpu-masatsu' is an aerobic exercise affecting body temperature, energy production, and the immune and autonomic nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Takano, Osamu; Tomiyama, Chikako; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Abo, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Skin rubdown using a dry towel (SRDT) to scrub the whole body is a traditional therapy for health promotion. To investigate its mechanism, 24 healthy male volunteers were studied. Body temperature, pulse rate, red blood cells (RBCs), serum levels of catecholamines and cortisol, blood gases (PO(2), sO(2), PCO(2) and pH), lactate and glucose, and the ratio and number of white blood cells (WBCs) were assessed before and after SRDT. After SRDT, pulse rate and body temperature were increased. PO(2), sO(2) and pH were also increased and there was no Rouleaux formation by RBCs. Lactate level tended to increase, whereas that of glucose did not. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels increased, indicating sympathetic nerve (SN) dominance with increase in granulocytes. WBC number and ratio were divided into two groups according to granulocyte ratio (≤ or < 60%) before SRDT: a normal group and a SN group. Only in the SN group did the granulocyte ratio decrease and the lymphocyte ratio and number increase after SRDT. It is suggested that SRDT is a mild aerobic, systemic exercise that might affect the immune system via the autonomic nervous system.

  8. Biodegradability of biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohee, R; Unmar, G D; Mudhoo, A; Khadoo, P

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive control for both mediums. The composting process was monitored in terms of temperature, moisture and volatile solids and the biodegradation of the samples were monitored in terms of mass loss. Monitoring results showed a biodegradation of 27.1% on a dry basis for MB plastic within a period of 72 days of composting. Biodegradability under an anaerobic environment was monitored in terms of biogas production. A cumulative methane gas production of 245 ml was obtained for MB, which showed good degradation as compared to CFP (246.8 ml). However, EPI plastic showed a cumulative methane value of 7.6 ml for a period of 32 days, which was close to the blank (4.0 ml). The EPI plastic did not biodegrade under either condition. The cumulative carbon dioxide evolution after 32 days was as follows: CFP 4.406 cm3, MB 2.198 cm3 and EPI 1.328 cm3. The cumulative level of CO2 varying with time fitted sigmoid type curves with R2 values of 0.996, 0.996 and 0.995 for CFP, MB and EPI, respectively.

  9. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    PubMed Central

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  10. Presence and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves and in soil treated with contaminated compost and irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Anguera, M; Abadias, M

    2012-05-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with produce consumption have brought attention to contaminated compost manure, and polluted irrigation water as potential sources of pathogens for the contamination of these crops. The aim of this study was to determine the potential transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil fertilized with contaminated compost or irrigated with contaminated water to edible parts of lettuce together with its persistence in soil under field conditions in two different seasons (fall and spring). Moreover, its survival on lettuce sprinkled with contaminated irrigation water was evaluated, as well as the prevalence of aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae in control lettuce samples. Four treatments, contaminated compost, surface and sprinkle irrigation with contaminated water and uninoculated pots, were used in this work. Contaminated compost was applied to soil in the pots before lettuce was transplanted and contaminated irrigation water was applied twice and three times on the plants after the seedlings were transplanted, for sprinkle and surface irrigation, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 survived in soil samples for 9 weeks at levels, 4.50 log cfu gdw(-1) (dw, dry weight) in fall and 1.50 log cfu gdw(-1) in spring. The pathogen survives better in fall, indicating an important influence of environmental factors. E. coli O157:H7 population in lettuce leaves after sprinkle irrigation was very high (between 10(3) and 10(6) cfu g(-1)), but decreased to undetectable levels at field conditions. There was also transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil contaminated with compost or irrigated with contaminated water to lettuce leaves, mainly to the outer ones. The mean counts for aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae populations were also influenced by environmental conditions; higher levels were observed under fall conditions than in spring conditions. Contamination of lettuce plants in the field can occur

  11. Potential of olive mill waste and compost as biobased pesticides against weeds, fungi, and nematodes.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, M L; Millner, P D; Meyer, S L F; Roig, A

    2008-07-25

    The phytotoxic and antimicrobial properties of olive mill wastes have been widely investigated and demonstrated over the past decade. However, their potential utilization as biodegradable pesticides against plant pathogens is still poorly understood. In this study, a series of laboratory bioassays was designed to test the inhibitory effects of sterile water extracts of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) and TPOMW composts with different degrees of stabilization on several different plant pathogens. Fungicidal properties of TPOMW extracts, assayed in a microwell assay format, showed that the growth of Phytophthora capsici was consistently and strongly inhibited by all TPOMW extracts diluted 1:10 (w:v). In contrast, suppression of Pythium ultimum and Botrytis cinerea by the extracts was not as strong and depended on the specific TPOMW sample. Mature compost inhibited P. capsici and B. cinerea at dilutions as great as 1:50, w:v. Neither TPOMW nor TPOMW compost extracts were able to inhibit the growth of the basidiomycete root rot agent Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, studies were conducted on the allelopathic effects of TPOMW extracts on seed germination of four highly invasive and globally distributed weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album and Sorghum halepense). Both the TPOMW and immature TPOMW compost extracts substantially inhibited germination of A. retroflexus and S. nigrum, whereas mature composts extracts only partially reduced the germination of S. nigrum. Finally, TPOMW extracts strongly inhibited egg hatch and second-stage juvenile (J2) motility of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. However, only higher concentrations of stage-one and stage-two TPOMW compost extracts exerted a suppressive effect on both J2 motility and on egg hatch. The study shows the high potential of naturally occurring chemicals present in TPOMW and TPOMW composts that should be further investigated as bio-pesticides for their use in sustainable

  12. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    PubMed

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  13. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Climent, A.; Gomis, P.; Martín-Mata, J.; Bustamante, M. A.; Marhuenda-Egea, F. C.; Pérez-Murcia, M. D.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Paredes, C.; Moral, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio. PMID:26418458

  14. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Finstein, M S; Strom, P F; Hogan, J A; Cowan, R M

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  15. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finstein, M. S.; Strom, P. F.; Hogan, J. A.; Cowan, R. M.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  16. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting.

  17. Pathogen re-colonization of in-house composted and non-composted broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “In-house” litter composting has been reintroduced to the industry and shown to reduce bacteria by as much as two orders of magnitude. Other industries have demonstrated that pathogens can recolonize a waste-residual when microbial competition has been reduced or inhibited following composting. Po...

  18. The Staphylococcus aureus SrrAB Regulatory System Modulates Hydrogen Peroxide Resistance Factors, Which Imparts Protection to Aconitase during Aerobic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mashruwala, Ameya A.; Boyd, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    The SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) positively influences the transcription of genes involved in aerobic respiration in response to changes in respiratory flux. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can arise as a byproduct of spontaneous interactions between dioxygen and components of respiratory pathways. H2O2 damages cellular factors including protein associated iron-sulfur cluster prosthetic groups. We found that a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) is sensitive to H2O2 intoxication. We tested the hypothesis that SrrAB manages the mutually inclusive expression of genes required for aerobic respiration and H2O2 resistance. Consistent with our hypothesis, a ΔsrrAB strain had decreased transcription of genes encoding for H2O2 resistance factors (kat, ahpC, dps). SrrAB was not required for the inducing the transcription of these genes in cells challenged with H2O2. Purified SrrA bound to the promoter region for dps suggesting that SrrA directly influences dps transcription. The H2O2 sensitivity of the ΔsrrAB strain was alleviated by iron chelation or deletion of the gene encoding for the peroxide regulon repressor (PerR). The positive influence of SrrAB upon H2O2 metabolism bestowed protection upon the solvent accessible iron-sulfur (FeS) cluster of aconitase from H2O2 poisoning. SrrAB also positively influenced transcription of scdA (ytfE), which encodes for a FeS cluster repair protein. Finally, we found that SrrAB positively influences H2O2 resistance only during periods of high dioxygen-dependent respiratory activity. SrrAB did not influence H2O2 resistance when cellular respiration was diminished as a result of decreased dioxygen availability, and negatively influenced it in the absence of respiration (fermentative growth). We propose a model whereby SrrAB-dependent regulatory patterns facilitate the adaptation of cells to changes in dioxygen concentrations, and thereby aids in the prevention of H2O2

  19. Composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshu; Sharma, Satyawati

    2002-11-01

    Preliminary studies were conducted on wheat straw to test the technical viability of an integrated system of composting, with bioinoculants and subsequent vermicomposting, to overcome the problem of lignocellulosic waste degradation, especially during the winter season. Wheat straw was pre-decomposed for 40 days by inoculating it with Pleurotus sajor-caju, Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger and Azotobacter chroococcum in different combinations. This was followed by vermicomposting for 30 days. Chemical analysis of the samples showed a significant decrease in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents during pre-decomposition and vermicomposting. The N, P, K content increased significantly during pre-decomposition with bioinoculants. The best quality compost, based on chemical analysis, was prepared where the substrate was treated with all the four bioinoculants together followed by vermicomposting. Results indicated that the combination of both the systems reduced the overall time required for composting and accelerated the composting of ligno-cellulosic waste during the winter season besides producing a nutrient-enriched compost product.

  20. [Effects of sludge compost used as lawn medium on lawn growth and soil and water environment].

    PubMed

    Jin, Shu-Quan; Zhou, Jin-Bo; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Lin, Bin; Wang, De-Yao

    2013-10-01

    To address effect of the sludge compost-containing medium on the growth of Manila lawn and environment quality, a pot experiment was conducted using six treatments based on contrasting sludge compost addition volume ratios in the soil system (i. e., 0% , 10% , 25% , 50% , 75% and 100%). The results indicated that the growth potential of Manila lawn was increased with increasing sludge compost addition volume ratio. The content of Hg in Manila plant was significantly positively correlated with that in the lawn medium. Although the contents of Cr, Cd and Hg in the lawn medium were synchronously increased with increasing sludge compost addition volume ratio in the soil system, their contents were all lower than the critical levels of third-class standard in the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard. The heavy metal and nitrate concentrations detected in percolating water were significantly positively correlated with those in the lawn medium, respectively. When the sludge compost addition volume ratio was more than 50% in this study, both heavy metal and nitrate concentrations in percolating water would exceed the maximum allowable levels of the National Groundwater Environment Quality Standard.

  1. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  2. Composting of spent mushroom compost, carnation wastes, chicken and cattle manures.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Sönmez, Ilker; Yaldiz, Osman; Kaplan, Mustafa

    2008-11-01

    This study has purposed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of used mushroom compost, chicken manure, cattle manure and carnation waste for composting. For this purpose, these materials have been mixed in seven various ratios (R1-R7) and composted in the experimental composting reactors. The highest dry material losses and temperature values have been obtained by the R4 which contains 50% carnation waste, 25% chicken manure and 25% spent mushroom compost. Beside R4, mixtures of R2, R5 and R6 have also provided high process temperature and dry material loss values. The lowest dry material loss and temperature values have been obtained in the R7 which contains only carnation wastes. In the study, it has also seen that FAS (free air space) parameter is effective on the process and must be in the interval of 24-32%.

  3. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  4. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  5. Physical Covering to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in Static and Windrow Composting Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of 30-cm covering of finished compost on survival of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in active static and windrow composting systems. Feedstock inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7.41 log CFU/g) and Salmonella (6.46 log CFU/g) were placed in biosentry tubes (7.5 cm di...

  6. On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal funus inoculum in compost and vermiculite mixtures: results of on-farm demonstrations and impact of compost microbiological quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability and profitability of many agricultural systems can be enhanced through the utilization of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Inocula are commercially available, but inoculum can also be produced on-farm in mixtures of compost and vermiculite with a nurse host plant. Demon...

  7. Changes in enzymatic activity in composts containing chicken feathers.

    PubMed

    Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa

    2009-07-01

    Enzymatic activity, i.e. respiratory activity, dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, caseinian protease activity, BAA protease activity and urease activity, was determined to investigate the process of biochemical transformations and to select enzymatic indices of maturity of composts prepared from feathers and lignocellulose wastes (bark, straw). Composting was conducted for 7 months, with periodic determinations of activity of the enzymes. The study revealed significant differences in the enzymatic activity, related with the duration of composting and with the substrate composition of the composts. Generally, composts enriched with straw were characterised by higher enzymatic activity than composts without any addition of straw. It was found that the activity of such enzymes as cellulase and protease, towards the end of the period of composting decreased and stabilised. The enzymes enumerated can be taken into consideration in estimation of the maturity of composts prepared from feathers and lignocellulose wastes.

  8. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  9. A kinetic analysis of solid waste composting at optimal conditions.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitris P

    2006-01-01

    Six municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste components (food waste, mixed paper, yard waste, leaves, branches, grass clippings) were aerobically decomposed to measure the extent of decomposition under near optimal conditions. Decomposition was characterized by at least two principal stages, for most components, as was indicated by the carbon dioxide production rates. An aerobic biodegradation conceptual model is presented here based on the principle that solids hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step during solid waste composting. The mineralizable solid carbon of each solid waste component was assumed to comprise the readily, the moderately and the slowly (or refractory) hydrolysable carbons, each hydrolyzing at different rates to aqueous (water soluble) carbon. Aqueous carbon mineralizes to CO2 at rapid rates that are not rate-limiting to the process. Solids hydrolysis rate constants were calculated after fitting the experimentally determined carbon dioxide production rate data to model results. Hydrolysis rates for the readily hydrolysable carbon in all components ranged from approximately 0.06 to 0.1 d(-1); hydrolysis rates for the moderately hydrolysable carbon ranged from 0.005 to 0.06 d(-1). Leaves, branches and grass clippings did not have a readily hydrolysable carbon fraction, whilst the leaves and branches had the largest slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions (70%, 82%, respectively, of the total solid organic carbon). Grass and yard waste did not contain slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions. Food waste had the largest readily hydrolysable carbon fraction and produced the highest amount of CO2 among all substrates. Moderately hydrolysable solid carbon fractions ranged from 16% to 90% of the total solid organic carbon for all substrates used.

  10. Bioremediation by composting of heavy oil refinery sludge in semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Marín, José A; Moreno, José L; Hernández, Teresa; García, Carlos

    2006-06-01

    The present work attempts to ascertain the efficacy of low cost technology (in our case, composting) as a bioremediation technique for reducing the hydrocarbon content of oil refinery sludge with a large total hydrocarbon content (250-300 g kg(-1)), in semiarid conditions. The oil sludge was produced in a refinery sited in SE Spain The composting system designed, which involved open air piles turned periodically over a period of 3 months, proved to be inexpensive and reliable. The influence on hydrocarbon biodegradation of adding a bulking agent (wood shavings) and inoculation of the composting piles with pig slurry (a liquid organic fertiliser which adds nutrients and microbial biomass to the pile) was also studied. The most difficult part during the composting process was maintaining a suitable level of humidity in the piles. The most effective treatment was the one in which the bulking agent was added, where the initial hydrocarbon content was reduced by 60% in 3 months, compared with the 32% reduction achieved without the bulking agent. The introduction of the organic fertiliser did not significantly improve the degree of hydrocarbon degradation (56% hydrocarbon degraded). The composting process undoubtedly led to the biodegradation of toxic compounds, as was demonstrated by ecotoxicity tests using luminescent bacteria and tests on plants in Petri dishes.

  11. LCA case study on lawn establishment and maintenance with various peat and compost contents in substrates.

    PubMed

    Silvenius, Frans; Niemeläinen, Oiva; Kurppa, Sirpa

    2016-07-01

    The environmental impacts of the establishment and maintenance of lawn, including the production and use of various substrates, were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA). The project focused on comparing substrates with different peat and compost contents using pilot substrates and developed a calculation tool to optimize landscaping from an ecological perspective. The impact categories were climate change, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, and use of primary energy. Life cycle assessment methodology and ISO standards 14040 and 14044 were used. Two thousand tons of substrates per hectare of lawn area were assumed to be needed; this large amount explains the importance of the substrate properties for all of the impact categories. Degradation of peat was the most significant factor of the influence of climate; thus, the most effective means of reducing the impact of landscaping on climate is to replace peat with compost. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were related to the use of compost, but most of these emissions will occur regardless of how the sludge or biowaste is treated. Ammonia emissions from composting were the most important factor for acidification. The significance of fuel consumption by machinery in lawn establishment and mowing was low. The high contents of N and P in compost-based substrates may lead to high nutrient emissions into water systems, which can have significant local impact. The tool helps optimize substrate contents to minimize the environmental effects. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:459-464. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. On the fate of LAS, NPEOs and DEHP in municipal sewage sludge during composting.

    PubMed

    Pakou, Constantina; Kornaros, Michael; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2009-02-01

    The fate of hydrophobic xenobiotic pollutants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO) and di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during sewage sludge composting was addressed in this work. The experiments were conducted in a fully automated in-vessel autothermal composting system which was fed with a mixture of primary and secondary sludge and manure. The mixture composition was determined to achieve satisfactory humidity, C/N ratio and free air space (FAS). The effect of various parameters, such as the initial xenobiotic concentration, the presence of multiple xenobiotic compounds and the temperature of composting material sustained during the process on the xenobiotics biodegradation kinetics was investigated. It was generally established that significant xenobiotic reduction is achievable through composting under all conditions tested. According to the obtained results, the presence of LAS, NPEO and DEHP even at higher concentrations was not inhibitory to the bioprocess. However, the presence of multiple xenobiotic compounds such as NPEO, NP and DEHP in the sludge can influence LAS removal during LAS composting.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyperthermal composting microorganisms for feasible application in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2013-05-01

    The composting system is the most efficient method for processing organic waste in space; however, the composting activity of microorganisms can be altered by cosmic rays. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation on composting bacteria was investigated. Sequence analyses of amplified 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and amoA genes were used to identify hyperthermal composting microorganisms. The viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera were Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp., and the fungal genera were Metschnikowia bicuspidata and Pichia guilliermondii. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy did not significantly alter the microbial population. Furthermore, amylase and cellulase activities were maintained after high-dose gamma irradiation. Our results show that hyperthermal microorganisms can be used to recycle agricultural and fermented material in space stations and other human-inhabiting facilities on the Moon, Mars, and other planets.

  14. Influence of combined use of iodide and compost on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the influence of adding iodide (KI) and compost in different soil/compost ratios on the efficiency of Hg phytoextraction by Lepidium sativum L. Plant growth and non-enzymatic antioxidants are studied to understand metabolic plant adaptations to Hg stress during soil reclamation and their relations to Hg accumulation. Due to the use of relatively high chelant dosages in current plant-based soil remediation techniques and associated environmental risks, it is necessary to explore alternative approaches to the phytoextraction of Hg from contaminated soils. The results show a coordinated increase in non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants cultivated in growing media containing polluted soil, compost and KI. This indicates that the non-enzymatic antioxidative defence system of L. sativum L. is involved in its strategy to survive conditions of mercury-induced stress. Adding compost and iodide to Hg polluted soil also increases the total accumulation of Hg by L. sativum L. and the translocation of pollutants to aerial plant tissues. Simultaneous application of compost and KI promoted the Hg accumulation by L. sativum L. in a pot experiment.

  15. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kayleigh; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J.; Hanmore, Jillian; Frazee, James; Tong, Anthony Z.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate.

  16. Managing soil nutrients with compost in organic farms of East Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Soil Fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture. Increasing soil organic matter content through the addition of organic amendments has proven to be a valuable practice for maintaining or restoring soil quality. Organic agriculture relies greatly on building soil organic matter with compost typically replacing inorganic fertilizers and animal manure as the fertility source of choice. In Georgia, more and more attention is paid to the development of organic farming, occupying less than 1% of total agricultural land of the country. Due to increased interest towards organic production the question about soil amendments is arising with special focus on organic fertilizers as basic nutrient supply sources under organic management practice. In the frame of current research two different types of compost was prepared and their nutritional value was studied. The one was prepared from organic fraction municipal solid waste and another one using fruit processing residues. In addition to main nutritional properties both composts were tested on heavy metals content, as one of the main quality parameter. The results have shown that concentration of main nutrient is higher in municipal solid waste compost, but it contains also more heavy metals, which is not allowed in organic farming system. Fruit processing residue compost also has lower pH value and is lower in total salt content being is more acceptable for soil in lowlands of East Georgia, mainly characterised by alkaline reaction. .

  17. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  18. Evaluation of sewage sludge, septic waste and sludge compost applications to corn and forage: yields and N, P and K content of crops and soils.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Termeer, W C

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the data from two years of experiments concerned with the application of aerobically-digested sewage sludge, anaerobic lagoon septic sludge, sewage sludge compost or fertilizer to soils for grass forage and feed corn (Zea mays L.) production at two different sites 45 km from Truro, Nova Scotia. Crop yields, plant tissue and Mehlich-1 extractable soil nutrients were evaluated; 15 elements were analyzed in the plant tissue and nine elements in the soil extracts. This paper describes the results of crop yields, plant N, P and K content and Mehlich-1 extractable P and K. The research demonstrated the fertilizer produced higher yields of grass forage than the sludge and the compost but equivalent to the sludge in corn yields. Forage and corn N, P and K contents, however, varied with treatment, crop and year, while the compost-amended soils were highest in extractable nutrients. Both sludges and the compost, therefore, could be effective sources of N, P and K for crop production. Compared to the conventional fertilizer, the nutrient availability from the organic amendments (especially N and P) was considerably lower than the 50% assumed at the start of the experiment; the sludges however, provided higher nutrient availability than the compost.

  19. Two-stage process combines anaerobic and aerobic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kayhanian, M.; Lindenauer, K.; Hardy, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1991-03-01

    The organic fraction of the material diverted from landfills has potential to be utilized as a raw material to be recycled, used for the production of compost, converted to energy in waste-to-energy facilities, or used for the production of other end products. Given the uncertainties concerning the future availability, production costs, and market prices for conventional fuels, any potential source of alternate energy and alternative energy technologies deserve serious consideration. Faced with an uncertain energy future, several European countries have already started using biomass and MSW as a source of energy. An innovative high-solids anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process currently under investigation at the University of California, Davis is as an ideal candidate for processing a large fraction of the organic matter in MSW. The principal advantages of this innovative process which is described and discussed in this paper are: (1) the recovery of biogas that can be used as a fuel for the production of energy, and (2) the production of humus-like material that can be used as a high-quality soil amendment or as boiler fuel. The fact that a liquid waste stream that needs further treatment is not generated in this process is another significant advantage.

  20. Bioavailability of TNT residues in composts of TNT-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, W.G.; Beaman, J.R.; Walters, D.M.; Creasia, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    Composting is being explored as a means to remediate 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soils. This process appears to modify TNT and to bind it to organic matter. The health hazards associated with dusts generated from such materials cannot be predicted without knowing if the association between TNT residues and compost particulate is stable in biological systems. To address this question, single doses of [{sup 14}C]-TNT, soil spiked with [{sup 14C]-TNT, or compost generated with [{sup 14}C]-TNT-spiked soils were administered to rats by intratracheal instillation. The appearance of {sup 14}C in urine and tissues was taken as an indication of the bioavailability of TNT residues from compost particles. In rats instilled with neat [{sup 14}C]-TNT, about 35% of the {sup 14}C dose appeared in urine within 3 d. The {sup 14}C excreted in urine by these rats decreased rapidly thereafter, and was undetectable by 4 wk after treatment. Similar results were obtained with soil-treated rats. In contrast, after treatment with [{sup 14}C]-TNT-labeled compost, only 2.3% of the total {sup 14}C dose appeared in urine during the first 3 d. Low levels of {sup 14}C continued to be excreted in urine from compost-treated rats for more than 6 mo, and the total amount of {sup 14}C in urine was comparable to that in TNT-treated animals. Determination of the radiolabel in tissues showed that {sup 14}C accumulated in the kidneys of rats treated with labeled compost but not in rats treated with [{sup 14}C]-TNT or [{sup 14}C]-TNT-spiked soil. These results indicate that the association between TNT and particulate matter in compost is not stable when introduced into the lungs. Accumulation of {sup 14}C in kidneys suggests the presence of a unique TNT residue in compost-treated rats. The rate of excretion and tissue disposition of {sup 14}}C in rats treated with TNT-spiked soil indicate that TNT in soil is freely available in the lungs. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Carbon dioxide evolution rate as a method to monitor and control an aerobic biological waste treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Shuler, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental system was developed to study the microbial growth kinetic of an undefined mixed culture in an erobic biological waste treatment process. The experimental results were used to develop a mathematical model that can predict the performance of a bioreactor. The bioreactor will be used to regeneratively treat waste material which is expected to be generated during a long term manned space mission. Since the presence of insoluble particles in the chemically undefined complex media made estimating biomass very difficult in the real system, a clean system was devised to study the microbial growth from the soluble substrate.

  2. 7 CFR 2902.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 2902.56 Section 2902.56... Items § 2902.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a protective... procurement preference for qualifying biobased mulch and compost materials. By that date, Federal...

  3. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  4. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  5. Effects of basaltic mineral fines on composting.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Lawrence J

    2004-01-01

    A by-product of the construction aggregate industry is fines or dust that contain trace elements such as zinc and copper and significant amounts of iron, aluminum, silica and potassium. Beneficial uses for these materials have been proposed such as replenishing depleted soils and amendment in mixtures of organic byproducts prior to composting. To evaluate the beneficial uses in composting, outdoor bin studies were conducted using a beef cattle manure, straw and wood chip mixture amended with and without basaltic mineral fines. Temperature differences in composting mixtures of equal volumes, equal moisture and relatively equal material content are considered an indication of differing biological activities [Haug, Compost Engineering Principles and Practice. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI. (1980)]. Temperatures were lower in the mineral fine-treated manure mixture initially. After turning the piles at six weeks, temperatures tended to be higher in the mineral fine amended mixture. Overall, temperatures were not significantly different suggesting that mineral fines amendment does not significantly increase temperature and activity in composting mixtures.

  6. Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.; Gukert, D. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

  7. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  8. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting.

  9. Composting versus vermicomposting: a comparative study of organic matter evolution through straight and combined processes.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; Mendoza-Hernández, Daicy; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Belda, Rosa M

    2012-08-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of an organic waste (tomato crop waste) throughout composting (COM), vermicomposting (VER) and the combination of both processes (C+V) were assessed at five selected stages. COM consisted of a combination of the static Rutgers system with forced aeration and pile turning. For VER Eisenia worms were fed with the raw material. For C+V pre-composted material was added to the worms. Particle size decreased during COM, yet it increased during VER and C+V due to the amalgamation of small particles. pH was alkaline throughout the processes. Heavy irrigation during vermicomposting resulted in greater decrease of EC and greater leaching of organic matter, total nitrogen and most macronutrients in VER and C+V than in COM. Final materials were not phytotoxic but compost could have salinity related problems. Thus, COM, VER and C+V produced treated organic material, which could be suitable for horticultural purposes.

  10. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  11. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  12. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan-li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-bin; Wu, Fang-kun; Niu, Ming-jie; Zou, Ke-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Implications: Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index

  13. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  14. Cultural, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Analyses of Water-Stressed Cells of Actinobacterial Strains Isolated from Compost: Ecological Implications in the Fed-Batch Composting Process

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kanosue, Yuji; Hiraishi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of water activity (aw) on the viability of actinobacterial isolates from a fed-batch composting (FBC) process by comparing culturability and stainability with 5-cyano-2,3-ditoryl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). The FBC reactor as the source of these bacteria was operated with the daily loading of household biowaste for 70 d. During this period of composting, aw in the reactor decreased linearly with time and reached approximately 0.95 at the end of operation. The plate counts of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria were 3.2-fold higher than CTC-positive (CTC+) counts on average at the fully acclimated stage (after 7 weeks of operation), in which Actinobacteria predominated, as shown by lipoquinone profiling and cultivation methods. When the actinobacterial isolates from the FBC process were grown under aw stress, no significant differences were observed in culturability among the cultures, whereas CTC stainability decreased with reductions in aw levels. A cDNA microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of a representative isolate showed that many of the genes involved in cellular metabolism and genetic information processing were down-regulated by aw stress. This result was fully supported by a proteomic analysis. The results of the present study suggest that, in low aw mature compost, the metabolic activity of the community with Actinobacteria predominating is temporarily reduced to a level that hardly reacts with CTC; however, these bacteria are easily recoverable by exposure to a high aw culture medium. This may be a plausible reason why acclimated FBC reactors in which Actinobacteria predominate yields higher plate counts than CTC+ counts. PMID:27246805

  15. Energetics of compost production and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F.; Golueke, C.G.; Savage, G.M.

    1986-09-01

    Developments during the past decade have led to a fairly clear delineation of the role of composting in municipal solid waste (MSW) management. However, before that role can be accepted and implemented on a practical scale, certain important environmental and economic factors must be resolved. Of the economic factors, the energetics of composting in waste management is in urgent need of further elaboration and exploration. This need prompted an attempt on the part of the authors of this paper to resolve basic questions regarding the energetics involved in the production and utilization of compost from urban solid waste and municipal sludges, and peripherally, the applicability of these findings to the management of other wastes (e.g., agricultural). Progress made in pursuing this attempt is described in the present paper.

  16. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Lewis; Pankhurst, Louise; Liu, Jian; Drew, Gillian H; Hayes, Enda T; Jackson, Simon; Longhurst, James; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin.

  17. Indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of industrial scale operating Biowaste Composting Plants.

    PubMed

    Martens, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the

  18. A Study Into the Effects of Various Compost-Potting Soil Mixes in An Effort to Heighten Bio-Productivity and Lower Farm Expenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valva, C.; Zhang, A.; Mahajan, S.; Ammini, K.; Ho, J.; Lo, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Stanford farm is a small, sustainably run farm that prioritizes producing high-quality crops in an environmentally sustainable way. This experiment focuses on the soil used to germinate and cultivate crops in a controlled greenhouse environment. It was conducted with the objective of determining which ratio of compost to potting mix is most favorable in terms of both cost and biological productivity. The five ratios of compost to potting mix were created as follows: (1) 100% compost; (2) 75% compost and 25% potting mix; (3) 50% compost and 50% potting mix; (4) 25% compost and 75% potting mix; and (5) 100% potting mix. Three different crops with distinct needs were used in the experiment: an Indonesian cultivar of Cosmos flowers (Cosmos sp.), a heritage American Corn cultivar (Zea mays), and Ojo de Cabra beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Ten pots of the corn, ten pots of the beans, and ten pots of the cosmos flowers were planted in each of the soil ratios mentioned above. The pots were placed in the greenhouse and watered regularly and equally by the greenhouse watering system. The experiment is ongoing and is not yet completed. However, thus far the results indicate that 75% compost and 25% potting mix is the most favorable ratio; the corn, bean, and cosmos plants grown using this ratio not only had the highest germination rate (90% of corn seeds, 90% of bean seeds, and 100% of cosmos seeds) but also had the highest average upward growth. According to data taken August 3, 2015, the corn plants grown using the 75:25 compost to potting mix ratio were the tallest by an average of 10.67cm, the beans grown in this ratio were tallest by an average of 3.96cm, and the cosmos were tallest by an average of 0.14 cm. As compost is a cheaper alternative to potting mix, using a compost-based soil would save the farm money while also maximizing plant growth.

  19. Nitrification during extended co-composting of extreme mixtures of green waste and solid fraction of cattle slurry to obtain growing media.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Coromina, Narcís; Malińska, Krystyna; Martínez-Farré, F Xavier; López, Marga; Soliva, Montserrat; Marfà, Oriol

    2016-12-01

    Next generation of waste management systems should apply product-oriented bioconversion processes that produce composts or biofertilisers of desired quality that can be sold in high priced markets such as horticulture. Natural acidification linked to nitrification can be promoted during composting. If nitrification is enhanced, suitable compost in terms of pH can be obtained for use in horticultural substrates. Green waste compost (GW) represents a potential suitable product for use in growing medium mixtures. However its low N provides very limited slow-release nitrogen fertilization for suitable plant growth; and GW should be composted with a complementary N-rich raw material such as the solid fraction of cattle slurry (SFCS). Therefore, it is important to determine how very different or extreme proportions of the two materials in the mixture can limit or otherwise affect the nitrification process. The objectives of this work were two-fold: (a) To assess the changes in chemical and physicochemical parameters during the prolonged composting of extreme mixtures of green waste (GW) and separated cattle slurry (SFCS) and the feasibility of using the composts as growing media. (b) To check for nitrification during composting in two different extreme mixtures of GW and SFCS and to describe the conditions under which this process can be maintained and its consequences. The physical and physicochemical properties of both composts obtained indicated that they were appropriate for use as ingredients in horticultural substrates. The nitrification process occurred in both mixtures in the medium-late thermophilic stage of the composting process. In particular, its feasibility has been demonstrated in the mixtures with a low N content. Nitrification led to the inversion of each mixture's initial pH.

  20. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  1. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product.

  2. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw.

  3. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  4. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  5. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents.

  6. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. A major limitation of land application of poultry litter compost is the loss of nitrogen via NH3 volatilization. The present work was conducted to monitor nitrogen availability during composting of poultry litter with natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite. Poultry litter was composted for 100 days using five in-vessel composting simulators with a volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. It was found that natural materials significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. At the end of the process, the control treatment without any natural materials had the lowest rate of total N: 72% of the initial total N was lost from the compost made with no amendment, while 53, 42, 26 and 16% of initial total N was lost from compost containing expandable perlite, expandable vermiculite, pumice and natural zeolite, respectively.

  7. Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic

  8. Influence of free air space on microbial kinetics in passively aerated compost.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shouhai; Clark, O Grant; Leonard, Jerry J

    2009-01-01

    The influence of free air space (FAS) on passively aerated composting has been reported, but the quantitative relationship between FAS and the microbial kinetics in passively aerated compost has not been investigated. This relationship was studied by composting dairy manure and straw in an enclosed, passively aerated, cylindrical vessel. Based on this experimental system, conceptual and numerical models were developed in which the compost bed was considered to consist of layered elements, each being physically and chemically homogeneous. The microbial activity in each layer was represented in order to predict oxygen and substrate consumption and the release of water and heat. Convective transport of air, moisture, and heat through the layers was represented. Microbial growth and substrate consumption rates were described using modified first-order kinetics for each of the mesophilic and thermophilic temperature regimes. The values of the microbial kinetic parameters were adjusted for each layer based on an innovative, non-linear, statistical analysis of temperature histories recorded at different layers in the compost bed during three treatments (i.e., FAS values of 0.45, 0.52, and 0.65). Microbial kinetic rate constants were found to follow a sigmoid relationship with FAS, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.97 for the mesophilic stage and 0.96 for the thermophilic stage. Temperature histories and airflow measurements from a fourth treatment (FAS value of 0.57) were used as an independent check of the model's performance. Simulation results indicate that the model could predict the general trend of temperature development. A plot of the residuals shows that the model is biased, however, possibly because many parameters in the model were not measured directly but instead were estimated from literature. The result from this study demonstrates a new method for describing the relationship between microbial kinetics (k(max)) and substrate FAS, which could be used

  9. Response of compost maturity and microbial community composition to pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soil during composting.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangming; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Li, Hui; Yu, Man; Zhao, Mingjie

    2011-05-01

    Two composting piles were prepared by adding to a mixture of rice straw, vegetables and bran: (i) raw soil free from pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination (pile A) and (ii) PCP-contaminated soil (pile B). It was shown by the results that compost maturity characterized by water soluble carbon (WSC), TOC/TN ratio, germination index (GI) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) was significantly affected by PCP exposure, which resulted in an inferior degree of maturity for pile B. DGGE analysis revealed an inhibited effect of PCP on compost microbial abundance. The bacteria community shifts were mainly consistent with composting factors such as temperature, pH, moisture content and substrates. By contrast, the fungal communities were more sensitive to PCP contamination due to the significant correlation between fungal community shifts and PCP removal. Therefore, the different microbial community compositions for properly evaluating the degree of maturity and PCP contamination were suggested.

  10. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  11. Comparison of aerobically-treated and untreated crop residue as a source of recycled nutrients in a recirculating hydroponic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the growth of potato plants on nutrients recycled from inedible potato biomass. Plants were grown for 105 days in recirculating, thin-film hydroponic systems containing four separate nutrient solution treatments: (1) modified half-strength Hoagland's (control), 2) liquid effluent from a bioreactor containing inedible potato biomass, 3) filtered (0.2 micrometer) effluent, and 4) the water soluble fraction of inedible potato biomass (leachate). Approximately 50% of the total nutrient requirement in treatments 2-4 were provided (recycled) from the potato biomass. Leachate had an inhibitory effect on leaf conductance, photosynthetic rate, and growth (50% reduction in plant height and 60% reduction in tuber yield). Plants grown on bioreactor effluent (filtered or unfiltered) were similar to the control plants. These results indicated that rapidly degraded, water soluble organic material contained in the inedible biomass, i.e., material in leachate, brought about phytotoxicity in the hydroponic culture of potato. Recalcitrant, water soluble organic material accumulated in all nutrient recycling treatments (650% increase after 105 days), but no increase in rhizosphere microbial numbers was observed.

  12. Comparison of aerobically-treated and untreated crop residue as a source of recycled nutrients in a recirculating hydroponic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the growth of potato plants on nutrients recycled from inedible potato biomass. Plants were grown for 105 days in recirculating, thin-film hydroponic systems containing four separate nutrient solution treatments: 1) modified half-strength Hoagland's (control), 2) liquid effluent from a bioreactor containing inedible potato biomass, 3) filtered (0.2 μm) effluent, and 4) the water soluble fraction of inedible potato biomass (leachate). Approximately 50% of the total nutrient requirement in treatments 2 - 4 were provided (recycled) from the potato biomass. Leachate had an inhibitory effect on leaf conductance, photosynthetic rate, and growth (50% reduction in plant height and 60% reduction in tuber yield). Plants grown on bioreactor effluent (filtered or unfiltered) were similar to the control plants. These results indicated that rapidly degraded, water soluble organic material contained in the inedible biomass, i.e., material in leachate, brought about phytotoxicity in the hydroponic culture of potato. Recalcitrant, water soluble organic material accumulated in all nutrient recycling treatments (650% increase after 105 days), but no increase in rhizosphere microbial numbers was observed.

  13. Systems biology defines the biological significance of redox-active proteins during cellulose degradation in an aerobic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey G; Crouch, Lucy; Labourel, Aurore; Forsberg, Zarah; Bukhman, Yury V; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Gilbert, Harry J; Keating, David H

    2014-10-08

    Microbial depolymerization of plant cell walls contributes to global carbon balance and is a critical component of renewable energy. The genomes of lignocellulose degrading microorganisms encode diverse classes of carbohydrate modifying enzymes, although currently there is a paucity of knowledge on the role of these proteins in vivo. We report the comprehensive analysis of the cellulose degradation system in the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus. Gene expression profiling of C. japonicus demonstrated that three of the 12 predicted β-1,4 endoglucanases (cel5A, cel5B, and cel45A) and the sole predicted cellobiohydrolase (cel6A) showed elevated expression during growth on cellulose. Targeted gene disruptions of all 13 predicted cellulase genes showed that only cel5B and cel6A were required for optimal growth on cellulose. Our analysis also identified three additional genes required for cellulose degradation: lpmo10B encodes a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO), while cbp2D and cbp2E encode proteins containing carbohydrate binding modules and predicted cytochrome domains for electron transfer. CjLPMO10B oxidized cellulose and Cbp2D demonstrated spectral properties consistent with redox function. Collectively, this report provides insight into the biological role of LPMOs and redox proteins in cellulose utilization and suggests that C. japonicus utilizes a combination of hydrolytic and oxidative cleavage mechanisms to degrade cellulose.

  14. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    pepton agar, the composts and their water extracts were checked towards their ability to inhibit growth of F. oxysporum. It was shown that three composts - CD, FPM and RD - possessed suppressiveness towards the model phytopathogen. From these three wastes, 28 bacterial and fungal strains were isolated and, in their turn, checked towards their ability to inhibit F. oxysporum. It was demonstrated that five of the isolated strains are highly suppressive to model test-object (the growth area of F. oxysporum did not exceed 30%), six of the stains were moderate suppressive (the growth area of F. oxysporum ranged from 35% to 60%), and other strains did not cause negative effects for the model phytopathogen. Further, we will check the composts and the isolated strains using the model system "soil - tomato plant - phytopathogen". As a result, effective composts and strains will be recommended as agents for biological control of fungal diseases in the region. Besides, the structure of