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Sample records for aerobic composting system

  1. Application of aerobic composting system for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Yoshii, Takahiro; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Composting is a classical technique to decompose organic wastes such as animal bodies, straw, paper, raw sludge, and so on. Compared with burning of wastes, the composting method has many advantages. It is an inexpensive and safer method because of its self-heating without spending extra energy resources. It does not emit toxic pollutants such as dioxin, NOx , and SOx . The composting products can be used as organic fertilizers for agricultural production. Composting is a promising way for digesting organic wastes safely on spaceships or manned exploration on extraterrestrial planets. We have developed a small scale high-temperature composter in order to examine its feasobility to operate food waste disposing facility and fertilizer production in space. This composter has a heated reaction vessel containing compost soil (seed bacteria) provided by a compost factory. To determine the optimal condition for its operation, we analyzed the effect of temperature on metabolic activity (CO2 production rate), and water content. The dynamics of microbial community was studied by polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Water content was maintained to a range between 27% and 40% by continuously adding water. The highest CO2 emission was observed at around 70° C. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that the bacterial community of the compost soil is dramatically changed by changing reaction temperature. We will discuss the application of the composter in space in order to establish the closed recycling loop of bio-elements in space agriculture.

  2. Experimental determination of carbon dioxide evolution during aerobic composting of agro-wastes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shilpa; Srivastava, J K

    2012-10-01

    This work aims at optimal composting of agro-wastes like sugarcane bagasse, wood straw and soya husk. A mixture of these substances along with small quantity of food waste as the seed was composted aerobically and carbon dioxide evolved was determined experimentally using a composting system comprising aerobic digester, operating in near-optimal conditions with regard to adequacy of oxygen and temperature in the system. During aerobic composting of agro-waste carbon dioxide is produced due to degradation of different carbon fractions in the substrate. Carbon dioxide production rate, which is a measure of bacterial/fungal activity in composting systems, can be related to various process parameters like different carbon fractions present in the substrate and their reaction rates, progress and termination of compost phenomenon and stabilization of organic matter. This gives a balanced compromise between complexity of mathematical model and extensive experimentation, and can be used for determining optimum conditions for composting. PMID:25151714

  3. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  4. Evolution of heavy metal speciation during the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Ma, Lanlan; Li, Yaqiong; Zheng, Liting

    2007-03-01

    The contents of heavy metals and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system were the major limitation to the application of sewage sludge compost in soil. This study was conducted to determine the evolution of heavy metal speciation in the course of an aerobic composting, and investigate the influence of changes of composting process parameters including pH, temperature and organic matter (OM) content on distribution of heavy metal speciation in composted sludge. The sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier et al. was used in sludge compost to determine the heavy metal speciation. Results showed that, during composting, (1) the contents of the residue fraction for Pb, Zn and Cd were decreased but those for Ni and Cr were increased; the Cu residue fraction was almost constant; (2) the contents of the total mobile fractions (including fractions 1-4) for Zn and Pb were significantly increased, but the increase of those for Cu and Ni were not so remarkable; (3) there were significant degrees of correlation between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected parameters (for example, pH, composting temperature, and OM content). Only the content of the total mobile fractions for Cu could be predictable from its total content. For the prediction of the total mobile fractions of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr, the R(2) value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as pH, temperature and OM content.

  5. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y. . E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

  6. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste. PMID:26574091

  7. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste.

  8. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method. PMID:26409851

  9. Phytotoxicity and speciation of copper, zinc and lead during the aerobic composting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    He, Miao-miao; Tian, Guang-ming; Liang, Xin-qiang

    2009-04-30

    The content and speciation of heavy metals in composted sewage sludge is the main cause of negative impacts on environment and health of animal and human. An aerobic composting procedure was conducted to investigate the influences of some key parameters on phytotoxicity and speciation of Cu, Zn and Pb during sewage sludge composting. The pH value reached the optimal range for development of microorganisms, and content of organic matter (OM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased with the composting age. The total amounts of Cu, Zn and Pb were much lower in the final compost. The results from sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals showed that composting process changed the distribution of five fractions of Cu, Zn and Pb, and reduced the total contents and sum percentages of four mobile fractions (exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CAR), reducible iron and manganese (FeMnOX), and organic matter bound (OMB)), indicating that the metal mobility and phytotoxicity decreased after aerobic composting. The seed germination and root growth of Pakchoi (Brassica Chinensis L.) were enhanced with composting age and reached the highest value at the end of compost. The decrease of OM and DOC was significantly correlated to changes of metal distribution and germination index (GI) of Pakchoi. Only for Cu in the compost, the GI could be predictable from the sum mobile metal fractions (EXCH+CAR+FeMnOX+OMB) (R=-0.814(*)). For Zn and Pb, R value was significantly increased by use of other components, such as pH, OM and DOC, which suggested that the transformation of heavy metal speciation and phytotoxicity of sewage sludge during an aerobic composting was rather strongly dependent on multiple components than a single element.

  10. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  11. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting. PMID:25209736

  12. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

    Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and

  13. Characteristics of nitrogen transformation and microbial community in an aerobic composting reactor under two typical temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Wang, X C; Zhang, H H; Shi, H L; Hu, T; Ngo, H H

    2013-06-01

    Batch experiments were conducted for feces composting using an aerobic composting reactor with sawdust as bulky matrix. In the 14-day composting processes at 35±2 and 55±2°C, compost samples were collected daily and chemical analyses and PCR-DGGE were carried out for investigating the influence of composting temperature on organic decomposition, nitrogen transformation, and microbial communities. At 55±2°C, in addition to a slightly higher COD removal, nitrogen loss was greatly restrained. As organic nitrogen took about 85% of the total nitrogen originated from human feces, the suppression of ammonification process under thermophilic environment might be the main reason for less nitrogen loss at 55±2°C. By PCR-DGGE analysis, the microbial community was found to undergo successions differently at 35±2 and 55±2°C. Certain sequences identified from the compost at 55±2°C represented the microbial species which could perform nitrogen-fixation or sustain a lower pH in the compost so that gaseous ammonia emission was suppressed.

  14. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S S; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md Ahsan; Goswami, L; Sahariah, B; Bhattacharyya, P; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition. PMID:26589098

  15. Effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus on cow manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenjie; Zhang, Fabao; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Xie, Kaizhi; Huang, Xu; Huang, Qiaoyi

    2011-06-01

    A simulated aerobic composting experiment was used to explore the effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus during six manure composting treatments. The addition of sulphur led to a decrease of the pH level within the range 6-6.3, which was lower than the control treatment (CK). The concentration of ammonium nitrogen in T1 (0.25% sulphur), T2 (0.5% sulphur), T3 (0.25% sulphur + T. thioparus) and T4 (0.5% sulphur + T. thioparus) were much higher than the ammonium N in CK. The results indicated that addition of sulphur could increase the concentration of ammonium N and reduce loss of nitrogen. However, excess sulphur had a negative effect on temperature and GI. Addition of T. thioparus could increase concentration of available S, alleviate these negative influences and reduce compost biological toxicity.

  16. Determination of degradation of radioactivity and its kinetics in aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ipek, Ubeyde; Obek, Erdal; Akca, Lütfi; Arslan, E Işil; Hasar, Halil; Dogru, Mahmut; Baykara, Oktay

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the kinetics of disappearance of radioactivity in aerobic composting was investigated. For this purpose, compost materials were prepared by mixing sugar beet wastes, wine factory wastes (grape wastes), straw and biological treatment sludge in different amounts. While alpha-radioactivity was not initially detected in all composting materials, the composting materials had some beta-radioactivity. In the mixtures of sugar beet wastes--straw-biological treatment sludge (1), sugar beet wastes-wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (II) and wine factory wastes (grape wastes)-biological treatment sludge (III), the beta-radioactivity reduced by 82%, 58%, 85% respectively of initial values after 52 d. The beta-radioactivity degradation in the composting process could be represented by first-order kinetics and reaction rate constants of mixtures of I, II and III were k = 0.0693 d(-1) (R2 - 0.84), k = 0.0453 d(-1) (R2 = 0.98), k = 0.0234 d(-1) (R2 = 0.97), respectively.

  17. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    elimination of methane production and acceleration of waste decomposition. In the first phase of this project a 12-acre module that contains a 9.5-acre anaerobic cell and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell has been constructed and filled with over 220,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Water and leachate addition began in April 2002 and to date less than 200,000 gallons of liquid has been added to the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell. The waste filling phase of the aerobic cell was completed in June of 2002 and a 12-inches soil cover and 12-inches of greenwaste compost cover was placed on top of the cell. A vacuum will be applied to the piping within the waste to draw air through the landfill. Instrumentations have been installed to monitor the following parameters: waste temperature, moisture, leachate volumes, leachate hydraulic head over the primary liner, leachate composition, gas volumes and composition. A supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed to monitor and control the operation of the bioreactor cells. Waste samples were taken from each cell for laboratory testing in early June 2002.

  18. Variable effects of oxytetracycline on antibiotic resistance gene abundance and the bacterial community during aerobic composting of cow manure.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Jia-Jun; Yin, Ya-Nan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-09-01

    Livestock manure is often subjected to aerobic composting but little is known about the variation in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting process under different concentrations of antibiotics. This study compared the effects of three concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC; 10, 60, and 200mg/kg) on ARGs and the succession of the bacterial community during composting. Very similar trends were observed in the relative abundances (RAs) of each ARG among the OTC treatments and the control during composting. After composting, the RAs of tetC, tetX, sul1, sul2, and intI1 increased 2-43 times, whereas those of tetQ, tetM, and tetW declined by 44-99%. OTC addition significantly increased the absolute abundances and RAs of tetC and intI1, while 200mg/kg OTC also enhanced those of tetM, tetQ, and drfA7. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments. The highest concentration of OTC had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. In the present study, the succession of the bacterial community appeared to have a greater influence on the variation of ARGs during composting than the presence of antibiotics. Aerobic composting was not effective in reducing most of the ARGs, and thus the compost product should be considered as an important reservoir for ARGs.

  19. Variable effects of oxytetracycline on antibiotic resistance gene abundance and the bacterial community during aerobic composting of cow manure.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Jia-Jun; Yin, Ya-Nan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-09-01

    Livestock manure is often subjected to aerobic composting but little is known about the variation in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting process under different concentrations of antibiotics. This study compared the effects of three concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC; 10, 60, and 200mg/kg) on ARGs and the succession of the bacterial community during composting. Very similar trends were observed in the relative abundances (RAs) of each ARG among the OTC treatments and the control during composting. After composting, the RAs of tetC, tetX, sul1, sul2, and intI1 increased 2-43 times, whereas those of tetQ, tetM, and tetW declined by 44-99%. OTC addition significantly increased the absolute abundances and RAs of tetC and intI1, while 200mg/kg OTC also enhanced those of tetM, tetQ, and drfA7. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments. The highest concentration of OTC had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. In the present study, the succession of the bacterial community appeared to have a greater influence on the variation of ARGs during composting than the presence of antibiotics. Aerobic composting was not effective in reducing most of the ARGs, and thus the compost product should be considered as an important reservoir for ARGs. PMID:27179201

  20. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  1. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively. PMID:22317795

  2. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens.

  3. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens. PMID:25982987

  4. Bioaugmented composting of Jatropha de-oiled cake and vegetable waste under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Shivani; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Balraj; Nain, Lata; Joshi, Monica; Satya, Santosh

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of microbial inoculation in Jatropha cake composting with different vegetable waste. The microbial inoculums composed of fungal strains (Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and bacterial inoculums (Pseudomonas striata as phosphorus solublizer and Azotobacter chroococcum as nitrogen fixer) were added to the compost mixture after the thermophilic phase was over for bioaugmenting of Jatropha cake under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions. Addition of both fungal and bacterial inoculum with mixed substrate (Jatropha cake + vegetable waste) during composting (aerobic and partial anaerobic) showed, better results as compared to compost with only fungal inoculants. Increased enzymatic activity initially, during composting (like dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity and FDA) proved role of inoculated microbes in rapid decomposition. Analysis of compost (with both bacterial and fungal inoculum) showed presence of high humus (12.7%), humic acid (0.5%), fulvic acid (5.68%), soluble protein content and low C/N ratio. Decreased in concentration of extractable metals (Cu, Fe and Mn) were recorded at maturity in all the substrate composts. The C/N ratio was significantly correlated to parameters like humic acid, humus, fulvic acid, protein and also microbial activity parameters. We conclude that the composting of de-oiled Jatropha cake with different vegetables waste could be feasible and sustainable approach in recycling of agricultural and industrial residues in huge quantities.

  5. Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang; Ma, Hongrui

    2011-04-01

    Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the bacterial community diversity in treatment with bamboo charcoal was greater than that of the control. Both results demonstrated that amendment with bamboo charcoal can increase microorganism population and microorganism community diversity in a sludge composting system. Moreover, the results of FTIR spectroscopy disclosed that aerobic composting can promote the formation of surface acid groups on bamboo charcoal. These surface acid groups may deprotonate and react with NH4+ to form stable complexes. Therefore, the increase of functional groups accompanied with greater assimilation of nitrogen by microorganisms could reduce nitrogen loss in sludge composting.

  6. Composting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  7. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism.

  8. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  9. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  10. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  11. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  12. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  13. Influence of aeration on CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions during aerobic composting of a chicken manure and high C/N waste mixture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yujun; Ren, Limei; Li, Guoxue; Chen, Tongbin; Guo, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Co-composting of chicken manure, straw and dry grasses was investigated in a forced aeration system to estimate the effect of aeration rates on NH(3), CH(4) and N(2)O emissions and compost quality. Continuous measurements of gas emissions were carried out and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained using an intermittent-aeration of 30 min on/30 min off at rates of 0.01 (A1), 0.1 (A2) and 0.2 (A3) m(3)min(-1)m(-3). Concentrations of CH(4) and N(2)O at the low aeration rate (A1) were significantly greater than those at the other two rates, but there was no significant difference between the A2 and A3 treatments. CH(4) and N(2)O emissions for this mixture could be controlled when the composting process was aerobic and ammonia emissions were reduced at a lower aeration rate. Comparison of CH(4), N(2)O, NH(3) emissions and compost quality showed that the aeration rate of the A2 treatment was superior to the other two aeration rates. PMID:20888749

  14. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  15. N-15 NMR study of the immobilization of 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in aerobic compost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Kennedy, K.R.; Cox, L.G.; Hayes, C.A.; Porter, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale aerobic windrow composting has been used to bioremediate washout lagoon soils contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6- trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) at several sites within the United States. We previously used 15N NMR to investigate the reduction and binding of T15NT in aerobic bench -scale reactors simulating the conditions of windrow composting. These studies have been extended to 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), which, as impurities in TNT, are usually present wherever soils have been contaminated with TNT. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of laboratory reactions between 4-methyl-3-nitroaniline-15N, the major monoamine reduction product of 2,4DNT, and the Elliot soil humic acid, both in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase, indicated that the amine underwent covalent binding with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic condensation products. Liquid-state 15N NMR analyses of the methanol extracts of 20 day aerobic bench-scale composts of 2,4-di-15N-nitrotoluene and 2,6-di-15N-nitrotoluene revealed the presence of nitrite and monoamine, but not diamine, reduction products, indicating the occurrence of both dioxygenase enzyme and reductive degradation pathways. Solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR analyses of the whole composts, however, suggested that reduction to monoamines followed by covalent binding of the amines to organic matter was the predominant pathway. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2015-07-15

    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified. PMID:25781372

  17. The effects of apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jishao; Huang, Yimei; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Hua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of additives such as apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure composting were investigated in a self-built aerated static box (90 L) by assessing their influences on the transformation of nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous and compost maturity. The results showed that additives all prolonged the thermophilic stage in composting compared to control. Nitrogen losses amounted to 34-58% of the initial nitrogen, in which ammonia volatilization accounted for 0.3-4.6%. Calcium superphosphate was helpful in facilitating composting process as it significantly reduced the ammonia volatilization during thermophilic stage and increased the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorous in compost, but bentonite increased the ammonia volatilization and reduced the total nitrogen concentration. It suggested that calcium superphosphate is an effective additive for keeping nitrogen during swine manure composting. PMID:24928053

  18. Composting: Fast 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  19. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  20. Effect of biochar on leaching of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from compost in bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hamid; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Flury, Markus

    2015-07-15

    Compost is used in bioretention systems to improve soil quality, water infiltration, and retention of contaminants. However, compost contains dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and phosphorus, all of which can leach out and potentially contaminate ground and surface waters. To reduce the leaching of nutrients and dissolved organic matter from compost, biochar may be mixed into the bioretention systems. Our objective was to test whether biochar and co-composted biochar mixed into mature compost can reduce the leaching of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. There was no significant difference between the effects of biochar and co-composted biochar amendments on nutrient leaching. Further, biochar amendments did not significantly reduce the leaching of dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus as compared to the compost only treatment. The compost-sand mix was the most effective in reducing nitrate and phosphorus leaching among the media.

  1. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  2. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  3. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  4. Design and construction of a medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric system to assess aerobic biodegradation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Aguirre, Edgar

    A medium-scale automated direct measurement respirometric (DMR) system was designed and built to assess the aerobic biodegradation of up to 30 materials in triplicate simultaneously. Likewise, a computer application was developed for rapid analysis of the data generated. The developed DMR system was able to simulate different testing conditions by varying temperature and relative humidity, which are the major exposure conditions affecting biodegradation. Two complete tests for determining the aerobic biodegradation of polymers under composting conditions were performed to show the efficacy and efficiency of both the DMR system and the DMR data analyzer. In both cases, cellulose reached 70% mineralization at 139 and 45 days. The difference in time for cellulose to reach 70% mineralization was attributed to the composition of the compost and water availability, which highly affect the biodegradation rate. Finally, among the tested materials, at least 60% of the organic carbon content of the biodegradable polymers was converted into carbon dioxide by the end of the test.

  5. Gas emissions as influenced by home composting system configuration.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José; Daumoin, Mylène

    2013-02-15

    Home composting systems (HC) are known to facilitate municipal solid waste management, but little is known about their environmental impact including their greenhouse gas emissions (GGE). The present research focused on selecting HC configuration producing the least CH(4) and N(2)O. Thus, 4 HC types were used to compost food and yard waste for 150 days and monitored for CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O as of day 15: the wood and plastic bins (WB and PB), the mixed and unmixed ground pile (GPM and GP). Using the same waste recipe, all HC were filled at once (batch fed) to maximize gaseous emissions. Weekly as of day 15, CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) emissions were measured during 2-h sessions using a closed chamber inserted into the compost surface. Monitored compost characteristics indicated little differences over time except for moisture content. From day 15 to 150, CH(4) emissions were not measurable. Generation of N(2)O occurred between day 20 and 120 with PB producing the least because of top and bottom slots providing continuous convective aeration, as compared to the WB with slats over its full height and the naturally aerated mixed and unmixed ground piles. Total N(2)O emissions of 56 kg CO(2)-eq (tonne wet waste treated)(-1) for PB, 75 for GP, 97 for WB and 99 for GPM represented average value for centralized composting facilities. Present and past scientific works suggest the need for more research to establish the combined effect of management and HC configuration on gaseous emissions, with close CH(4) measurements from day 0 to 15.

  6. Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient composting process for the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) using lab-scale systems. We first evaluated the factors affecting the SFDM composting process using different thermophilic phase durations (TPD, 6 or 3days) and aeration rates (AR, 0.4 or 0.2 lmin(-1)kg(-1)-total solid (TS)). Results indicated that a similar volatile total solid (VTS) degradation efficiency (approximately 60%) was achieved with a TPD of 6 or 3days and an AR of 0.4 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called higher AR), and a TPD of 3days resulted in less N loss caused by ammonia stripping. N loss was least when AR was decreased to 0.2 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called lower AR) during the SFDM composting process. However, moisture content (MC) in the composting pile increased at the lower AR because of water production by VTS degradation and less water volatilization. Reduced oxygen availability caused by excess water led to lower VTS degradation efficiency and inhibition of nitrification. Adding sawdust to adjust the C/N ratio and decrease the MC improved nitrification during the composing processes; however, the addition of increasing amounts of sawdust decreased NO3(-) concentration in matured compost. When an improved composting reactor with a condensate removal and collection system was used for the SFDM composting process, the MC of the composting pile was significantly reduced, and nitrification was detected 10-14days earlier. This was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Highly matured compost could be generated within 40-50days. The VTS degradation efficiency reached 62.0% and the final N content, NO3(-) concentration, and germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process were 3.3%, 15.5×10(3)mg kg(-1)-TS, and 112.1%, respectively. PMID:26965212

  7. Biodegradation of methane and halocarbons in simulated landfill biocover systems containing compost materials.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Gitte B; Costa, Giulia; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The attenuation potential of methane (CH(4)) and of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was compared in four types of compost materials using dynamic flow column experiments over a period of 255 d. Garden waste compost mixed with wood chips showed the highest steady-state CH(4) oxidation rate (161 g m(-2) d(-1)), followed by a commercial compost product Supermuld (110 g m(-2) d(-1)). In the column containing the highest fraction of compost (compost/sand mixed in 1:1), CH(4) oxidation declined significantly during the period of operation, probably due to clogging by formation of exopolymeric substances. After 40 d of operation, CH(4) production was observed. All the VOCs tested were degraded. CFC-11 (CCl(3)F) and HCFC-21 (CCl(2)FH) were anaerobically degraded by reductive dechlorination, generating HCFC-31 (CClFH(2)) and HFC-41 (CFH(3)), which were both aerobically degraded in the oxic portion of the columns. Overall, the highest removal of VOCs was observed in the column containing the compost/wood chip mixture. This study demonstrates that biocovers consisting of compost materials have the potential to attenuate trace gas emissions from landfills. PMID:19465711

  8. Bioremediation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-contaminated soils by two different aerated compost systems.

    PubMed

    Breitung, J; Bruns-Nagel, D; Steinbach, K; Kaminski, L; Gemsa, D; von Löw, E

    1996-02-01

    Two composting systems were compared on a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology for degradation or immobilization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in contaminated soils. The first compost was aerated from the beginning whereas the second compost was only aerated after an anaerobic prephase of 65 days. In the first compost system the TNT concentration declined rapidly by 92% but, at the end, TNT could be partially recovered. During the anaerobic prephase of the second compost system, TNT was almost completely converted to aminodinitrotoluenes, which during the subsequent aeration almost entirely disappeared. In addition, the second compost generated less toxic material than the first one as confirmed by inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri. These data show that microbiological TNT-degradation systems can be successfully designed which are prerequisite for an efficient bioremediation of contaminated soils.

  9. Maturity and security assessment of pilot-scale aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Wang, Yao

    2016-03-01

    In this work, penicillin fermentation dregs (PFDs) and sewage sludge (SWS) were co-composted to analyze the possibility of recycling nutrients in PFDs. The temperature was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days, and the final electrical conductivity (EC), pH and C/N all met the national standards in maturity. A nearly 100% removal of the residual penicillin was achieved, and the seed germination index (GI) increased from 0.02% to 83.54±3.1% by the end of the composting process. However, monitoring the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed that the logarithm of the number of copies of blaTEM increased from 4.17±0.19 at the initial phase to 8.92±0.27 by the end of the composting process, which means that there is a high risk for land use when using PFD compost products. PMID:26799590

  10. Design and testing of an experimental in-vessel composting system

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.L.; Glaser, J.A.; Dosani, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Composting has received much attention as a potential technology for treating solid waste. Most of that attention has been focused on treatment of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, yard trimmings, and agricultural wastes. More recently, composting has been investigated as a remediation technology for hazardous wastes. Laboratory and field-scale work has been conducted to determine the fate of pesticides, hydrocarbons, and explosives in the composting environment. Currently, commercial compost operations are operated as black-box systems where optimization is largely achieved through trial and error. Large-scale treatment of hazardous waste will require optimal controls to meet the specified end points. We have designed and tested closed bench-scale compost reactors to evaluate composting processes using contaminated soils. This research program is designed to develop a thorough engineering analysis and optimization of composting as a process to treat soil contaminated with hazardous waste. Bench-scale composters serve as diagnostic tools to predict treatment effectiveness of larger systems. Fully enclosed, insulated reactors permit reliable data collection on microbial population dynamics and fate of toxic chemicals during soil composting. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential use of compost systems in remediation of soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals. We have developed bench-scale composters to model large-scale systems. We are currently studying the ability of compost microorganisms to biodegrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in in-vessel reactors located at the U.S. EPA Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, OH. Soils contaminated with PAHs have been obtained from the Reilly Tar Pit Superfund site in St. Louis Park, MN for use in these studies.

  11. Investigation and optimization of composting processes--test systems and practical examples

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, I.; Braukmeier, J.; Herrenklage, J.; Leikam, K.; Ritzkowski, M.; Schlegelmilch, M.; Stegmann, R

    2003-07-01

    To determine the optimal course of composting it is useful to carry out experiments. The selection of the right experimental set-up depends on the question of concern. Each set-up is useful for a particular application and has its limits. Two test systems of different scales (up to 1500 ml; up to 100 l) are introduced. The purpose and importance of each system design shall be highlighted by application examples: (1) Suitability of a liquid industrial residue as composting accelerator; (2) Determination of the compost maturity; (3) Behaviour of odor-reducing additives during waste collection and composting; (4) Production of tailor-made compost with respect to Nitrogen (5) Suitability of O{sub 2}-enriched air for acceleration of composting. Small-scale respiration experiments are useful to optimize parameters which have to be adjusted during substrate pre-treatment and composting, with the exception of particle size and temperature, and to reduce the number of variants which have to be investigated in greater detail in larger scale experiments. As all regulation possibilities such as aeration, moistening, turning can be simulated with the technical scale set-up, their complex cooperation can be taken into consideration. Encouraging composting variants can be tested, compared and optimized.

  12. Investigation and optimization of composting processes-test systems and practical examples.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Braukmeier, J; Herrenklage, J; Leikam, K; Ritzkowski, M; Schlegelmilch, M; Stegmann, R

    2003-01-01

    To determine the optimal course of composting it is useful to carry out experiments. The selection of the right experimental set-up depends on the question of concern. Each set-up is useful for a particular application and has its limits. Two test systems of different scales (up to 1500 ml; up to 100 l) are introduced. The purpose and importance of each system design shall be highlighted by application examples: (1). Suitability of a liquid industrial residue as composting accelerator; (2). Determination of the compost maturity; (3). Behaviour of odor-reducing additives during waste collection and composting; (4). Production of tailor-made compost with respect to Nitrogen (5). Suitability of O(2)-enriched air for acceleration of composting. Small-scale respiration experiments are useful to optimize parameters which have to be adjusted during substrate pre-treatment and composting, with the exception of particle size and temperature, and to reduce the number of variants which have to be investigated in greater detail in larger scale experiments. As all regulation possibilities such as aeration, moistening, turning can be simulated with the technical scale set-up, their complex cooperation can be taken into consideration. Encouraging composting variants can be tested, compared and optimized.

  13. Diversity and abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea in tropical compost systems

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Dyer, David H.; Hickey, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, and coffee hulls), which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase) and the finished product (mature phase). The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (group I.1b), in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have significant effects on its performance as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities) with nitrification in these systems. PMID:22787457

  14. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Jessica M; Flury, Markus; Iqbal, Hamid; Freeze, Patrick M; Hinman, Curtis; Cogger, Craig G; Shi, Zhenqing

    2015-12-15

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle-Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals. PMID:26282763

  15. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Jessica M; Flury, Markus; Iqbal, Hamid; Freeze, Patrick M; Hinman, Curtis; Cogger, Craig G; Shi, Zhenqing

    2015-12-15

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle-Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals.

  16. Leaching of Particulate and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Compost Applied to Bioretention Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Hamid; Flury, Markus; Mullane, Jessica; Baig, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Compost is used in bioretention systems to improve soil quality, to promote plant growth, and to remove metal contaminants from stormwater. However, compost itself, particularly when applied freshly, can be a source of contamination of the stormwater. To test the potential contamination caused by compost when applied to bioretention systems, we continuously leached a compost column with water under unsaturated conditions and characterized dissolved and particulate organic matter in the leachate. Freshly applied, mature compost leached up to 400 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon and 2,000 mg/L of suspended particulate organic carbon. It required a cumulative water flux of 4,000 mm until concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon declined to levels typical for surface waters. Although, dissolved and particulate organic carbon are not contaminants per se, they can facilitate the movement of metals, thereby enhancing the mobility of toxic metals present in stormwater. Therefore, we recommended that compost is washed before it is applied to bioretention systems. Keywords compost; leachate; alkali extract; dissolved organic carbon; flux

  17. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. PMID:24188923

  18. Nutrient leaching and copper speciation in compost-amended bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Maninder K; Shi, Zhenqing; Flury, Markus

    2016-06-15

    Bioretention systems are designed to remove contaminants from stormwater; however, studies have shown that bioretention systems can export excess nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper when amended with compost. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify removal of nitrates, phosphorus, copper, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from compost-amended bioretention systems, and (2) to investigate the role of DOM on the leaching of copper. Simulated bioretention systems were irrigated with stormwater for seven storms in two-weeks intervals. Leachates were analyzed for nutrients, copper, and DOM. Visual MINTEQ was used to determine the speciation of copper and to quantify interactions of copper with DOM. Results showed that compost-amended bioretention systems were a source of nitrates, phosphorus, and DOM. Nitrate and phosphorus amounts were elevated up to three orders of magnitude in the leachate compared to the stormwater itself. Bioretention systems were a source for copper during the first 3-5 storms, but during later storms, they were a sink for copper. Copper speciation modeling indicated that the majority of dissolved copper was complexed with DOM. Dissolved organic matter thus helps to mobilize copper from the compost, particularly in the first few storms after compost application. However, since copper-DOM complexes are usually much less toxic than free copper ions, we expect that compost amendments may reduce harmful effects of copper on aquatic organisms. PMID:26977536

  19. Microbiological biodiversity in poultry and paddy straw wastes in composting systems.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sunita; Sharma, C R; Singh, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Immense quantity of waste is generated in association with poultry meat egg and crop production. The potential risks due to disposal of these wastes are magnified as a result of dense refinement of poultry production and the decreasing amount of land available for waste disposal. The study aims at studying the microbiological biodiversity of poultry waste and paddy straw based co-composting system. The predominant microflora of the poultry manure were bacteria, fungi, enteric bacteria and spore forming bacteria whose population was high at the initiation of composting but decreased significantly as the compost approached maturity. The initial load of inherent enteric groups of bacteria in poultry waste, that also includes some pathogenic ones, is considerably reduced and some new vital groups contributed to compost quality as the microbiological biodiversity sets in the system and becomes stable. Major fraction of nitrogen of poultry waste was subjected to ammonia volatilization and a fraction of it conserved by co-composting it in conjunction with wastes having low nitrogen contents. In the treatment T1 and T5, where poultry manure and paddy straws alone were composted, 60 and 30 percent of organic carbon, respectively, was lost over a period of six months. Whereas in treatments T2,T3 and T4, poultry manure and paddy straw were co-composted in the ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3, respectively, 51.4,45.0 and 37.0 percent of carbon, respectively, was lost during decomposition. The C: N ratio in all the treatments decreased significantly to 18.3 for T1, 24.7 for T2, 27.0 for T3, 34.9 for T4 and 38.5 for T5 at the end of composting period. PMID:24031831

  20. Microbiological biodiversity in poultry and paddy straw wastes in composting systems

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Sunita; Sharma, C.R.; Singh, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Immense quantity of waste is generated in association with poultry meat egg and crop production. The potential risks due to disposal of these wastes are magnified as a result of dense refinement of poultry production and the decreasing amount of land available for waste disposal. The study aims at studying the microbiological biodiversity of poultry waste and paddy straw based co-composting system. The predominant microflora of the poultry manure were bacteria, fungi, enteric bacteria and spore forming bacteria whose population was high at the initiation of composting but decreased significantly as the compost approached maturity. The initial load of inherent enteric groups of bacteria in poultry waste, that also includes some pathogenic ones, is considerably reduced and some new vital groups contributed to compost quality as the microbiological biodiversity sets in the system and becomes stable. Major fraction of nitrogen of poultry waste was subjected to ammonia volatilization and a fraction of it conserved by co-composting it in conjunction with wastes having low nitrogen contents. In the treatment T1 and T5, where poultry manure and paddy straws alone were composted, 60 and 30 percent of organic carbon, respectively, was lost over a period of six months. Whereas in treatments T2,T3 and T4, poultry manure and paddy straw were co-composted in the ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3, respectively, 51.4,45.0 and 37.0 percent of carbon, respectively, was lost during decomposition. The C: N ratio in all the treatments decreased significantly to 18.3 for T1, 24.7 for T2, 27.0 for T3, 34.9 for T4 and 38.5 for T5 at the end of composting period. PMID:24031831

  1. Applicability of the Charm II system for monitoring antibiotic residues in manure-based composts.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S I; Owens, G; Ok, Y S; Lee, D B; Jeon, W-T; Kim, J G; Kim, K-R

    2011-01-01

    The effluence of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) to aquatic and terrestrial environments is of concern due to the potential adverse effects on human health, such as the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. One of the main pathways for antibiotics to enter the environment is via the application of manure and/or manure-based composts as an alternative organic fertilizer to agricultural lands. While a wide diversity of manure-based composts are produced in Korea, there is currently no regulatory guideline for VA residues. Hence, monitoring and limiting the concentration of VA residues in manure and/or manure-based composts prior to application to the lands is important to mitigate any environmental burden. The current study was conducted to examine the applicability of the Charm II antibiotic test system for monitoring tetracyclines, sulfonamides and macrolides in manure-based composts. The Charm II system was a highly reproducible method for determining whether VA residue concentrations in manure-based compost exceeded specific guideline values. A wide range of manure-based composts and liquid fertilizers commercially available in Korea were examined using the Charm II system to monitor the residues of the target VAs. For this, the guideline concentrations of VA residues (0.8 mg kg(-1) for tetracyclines, 0.2 mg kg(-1) for sulfonamides, and 0.1 mg kg(-1) for macrolides) stated in 'Official Standard of Feeds' under the 'Control of Livestock and Fish Feed Act' in Korea were adopted to establish control points. Of the 70 compost samples examined 12 exceeded 0.8 mg kg(-1) for tetracyclines and 21 exceeded 0.2 mg kg(-1) for sulfonamides. Of the 25 liquid fertilizer samples examined most samples exceeded these prospective guidelines.

  2. Evaluation of the use of PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR for detection of pathogenic bacteria in biosolids from anaerobic digestors and aerobic composters.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Carola; Wuertz, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    A PCR-based method and a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based method were developed for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in organic waste, using Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. In seeded organic waste samples, detection limits of less than 10 cells per g of organic waste were achieved after one-step enrichment of bacteria, isolation, and purification of DNA or RNA before PCR or RT-PCR amplification. To test the reproducibility and reliability of the newly developed methods, 46 unseeded samples were collected from diverse aerobic (composting) facilities and anaerobic digestors and analyzed by both culture-based classical and newly developed PCR-based procedures. No false-positive but some false-negative results were generated by the PCR- or RT-PCR-based methods after one-step enrichment when compared to the classical detection methods. The results indicated that the level of activity of the tested bacteria in unseeded samples was very low compared to that of freshly inoculated cells, preventing samples from reaching the cell density required for PCR-based detection after one-step enrichment. However, for Salmonella spp., a distinct PCR product could be obtained for all 22 nonamended samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the classical detection procedure when a selective two-step enrichment (20 h in peptone water at 37 degrees C and 24 h in Rappaport Vassiliadis medium at 43 degrees C) was performed prior to nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Hence, the classical procedure was shortened, since cell plating and further differentiation of isolated colonies can be omitted, substituted for by highly sensitive and reliable detection based on nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Similarly, 2 of the 22 samples in which Salmonella spp. were detected also tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes according to a two-step enrichment procedure followed by PCR, compared to 3 samples

  3. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain.

  4. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. PMID:20435457

  5. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2005-02-01

    The compost bioreactor ("anaerobic cell") components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This study has

  6. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation. PMID:26341336

  7. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation.

  8. Stormwater Bioretention Systems: Testing the Phosphorus Saturation Index and Compost Feedstocks as Predictive Tools for System Performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sally; Corfman, Amber; Mendrey, Katrina; Kurtz, Kate; Grothkopp, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    A replicated column trial was conducted to evaluate the potential for the phosphorus saturation index (PSI) to predict P movement in bioretention soil mixtures (BSMs). The impact of compost feedstock on BSM performance was also evaluated. Three composts (biosolids/yard, yard/food waste, and manure/sawdust) were each brought to PSI values of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 through the addition of Fe-based water treatment residuals (WTRs) to lower the PSI and P salts to increase the PSI. A synthetic stormwater solution was used for 12 leaching events. The PSI predicted total and dissolved P concentrations in column leachate. All composts removed P at PSI 0.1. All composts were a source of P for the higher PSI values tested, with P concentrations in the leachate decreasing over time. Ammonia and nitrate from all treatments decreased over time, with all treatments showing effective N removal. Copper removal (total and dissolved) was >90% for all treatments, with the highest removal observed at PSI 0.1 for all composts. Zinc removal (total) was also greatest in the 0.1 PSI for all composts. At PSI 0.5 and 1.0, the biosolids/yard compost was less effective than the other materials at removing Zn, with a removal efficiency of approximately 50%. Infiltration rates were similar across all treatments and ranged from 0.44 ± 0.1 cm min in the manure/sawdust at PSI 0.1 to 3.8 ± 2.8 cm min in the food/yard at PSI 1.0. Plant growth in the manure/sawdust compost was reduced in comparison to the other composts tested across all PSI levels. The results of this study indicate that the PSI may be an effective tool for predicting P movement in bioretention systems. Compost feedstock does not indicate the ability of composts to filter contaminants filtration, with all composts tested showing high contaminant removal. PMID:26828165

  9. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high. PMID:26828961

  10. Investigation and optimization of a passively operated compost-based system for remediation of acidic, highly iron- and sulfate-rich industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Dann, Alison L; Cooper, Rodney S; Bowman, John P

    2009-05-01

    A passively operated multi-stage bioremediation system utilizing composted agricultural waste products and an artificial wetland system was found to be effective for purification of acidic, iron- and sulfate-rich waste water derived from titanium mineral processing. The main microbial players involved in the remediation system processes and the dynamics were investigated; mineral processing waste water-filled sludge dams possessed stable microbial communities that included Acidithiobacillus, Desulfurella, and acidophilic, anaerobic fermenters of the order Bacteroidales. These groups were enriched in a subsequent potato waste-based iron mobilization pre-treatment stage. Within downstream reduction treatment stages ("reduction cells"), compost/straw decomposition and associated sulfur/sulfate and iron reduction were carried out by a complex mix of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The efficaciousness of the system without replacement of the compost was found to steadily decline following 2 years of operation and corresponded with the reduction cell communities becoming simultaneously more diverse and homogenous. Microcosm-based experiments demonstrated that operational declines were due to unsustained supply of suitable labile carbon sources combined with spatial heterogeneity within the layered design of the reduction stage of the system resulting in inadequate redox conditions. Temperature was not found to be a critical performance factor in the range of 10-25 degrees C. Application of a combined emulsified oil/molasses amendment was found to be highly effective in promoting a microbial community capable of remediating waste water with high iron and sulfate levels. Acidophilic members of the order Bacteroidales were found to be critical in the investigated remediation system, providing organic donors for subsequent metal and sulfur transformations and could have a broader ecological significance than previously suspected. PMID:19297003

  11. A Simulation Study Comparing Incineration and Composting in a Mars-Based Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John; Kang, Sukwon; Cavazzoni, Jim; Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare incineration and composting in a Mars-based advanced life support (ALS) system. The variables explored include waste pre-processing requirements, reactor sizing and buffer capacities. The study incorporates detailed mathematical models of biomass production and waste processing into an existing dynamic ALS system model. The ALS system and incineration models (written in MATLAB/SIMULINK(c)) were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The composting process is modeled using first order kinetics, with different degradation rates for individual waste components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, cellulose and lignin). The biomass waste streams are generated using modified "Eneray Cascade" crop models, which use light- and dark-cycle temperatures, irradiance, photoperiod, [CO2], planting density, and relative humidity as model inputs. The study also includes an evaluation of equivalent system mass (ESM).

  12. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  13. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  14. Pre-project: Energy out of liquid manure. Extraction of heat out of an aerobic, wet process of composting in order to heat two mansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersson, K. A.

    1981-03-01

    The conditions for the construction of an economical plant of wet composting are considered. Eleven cu. m. oil were saved when 90,000 SEK were invested. By means of a heat pump the temperature was increased to 600 C. The properties of the manure are improved which simplifies the subsequent handling.

  15. Greenhouse gas emission reduction and environmental quality improvement from implementation of aerobic waste treatment systems in swine farms.

    PubMed

    Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; Vives, C A

    2008-01-01

    Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from implementation of aerobic technology in USA swine farms. Emission reductions were calculated using the approved United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) methodology in conjunction with monitoring information collected during full-scale demonstration of the new treatment system in a 4360-head swine operation in North Carolina (USA). Emission sources for the project and baseline manure management system were methane (CH4) emissions from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during storage and handling of manure in the manure management system. Emission reductions resulted from the difference between total project and baseline emissions. The project activity included an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, treatment of the separated liquid using aerobic biological N removal, chemical disinfection and soluble P removal using lime. The project activity was completed with a centralized facility that used aerobic composting to process the separated solids. Replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology reduced GHG emissions 96.9%, from 4972 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) to 153 tonnes CO2-eq/year. Total net emission reductions by the project activity in the 4360-head finishing operation were 4776.6 tonnes CO2-eq per year or 1.10 tonnes CO2-eq/head per year. The dollar value from implementation of this project in this swine farm was US$19,106/year using current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of US$4/t CO2. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of US$1.75 per finished pig. Thus, GHG emission reductions and credits can help compensate for the

  16. Colorado composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.

  17. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. PMID:26445365

  18. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns.

  19. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  20. Physical modelling of the composting environment: A review. Part 1: Reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, I.G. . E-mail: ian.mason@canterbury.ac.nz; Milke, M.W.

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, laboratory- and pilot-scale reactors used for investigation of the composting process are described and their characteristics and application reviewed. Reactor types were categorised by the present authors as fixed-temperature, self-heating, controlled temperature difference and controlled heat flux, depending upon the means of management of heat flux through vessel walls. The review indicated that fixed-temperature reactors have significant applications in studying reaction rates and other phenomena, but may self-heat to higher temperatures during the process. Self-heating laboratory-scale reactors, although inexpensive and uncomplicated, were shown to typically suffer from disproportionately large losses through the walls, even with substantial insulation present. At pilot scale, however, even moderately insulated self-heating reactors are able to reproduce wall losses similar to those reported for full-scale systems, and a simple technique for estimation of insulation requirements for self-heating reactors is presented. In contrast, controlled temperature difference and controlled heat flux laboratory reactors can provide spatial temperature differentials similar to those in full-scale systems, and can simulate full-scale wall losses. Surface area to volume ratios, a significant factor in terms of heat loss through vessel walls, were estimated by the present authors at 5.0-88.0 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3} for experimental composting reactors and 0.4-3.8 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3} for full-scale systems. Non-thermodynamic factors such as compression, sidewall airflow effects, channelling and mixing may affect simulation performance and are discussed. Further work to investigate wall effects in composting reactors, to obtain more data on horizontal temperature profiles and rates of biological heat production, to incorporate compressive effects into experimental reactors and to investigate experimental systems employing natural ventilation is suggested.

  1. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  2. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage in systems containing compost and limestone: Laboratory and field results

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Pappas, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Passive, down-flow systems, consisting of compost and limestone layers, termed successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS), may be well suited for treatment of mine drainage containing ferric iron and/or aluminum. A column, simulating a SAPS, has been operated in the laboratory for 52 weeks. The 0.16-m diameter column consisted of a 0.30-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost and 0.91 m of free standing water. Actual AMD (pH = 3.02, acidity = 218 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 600 mg/L, Fe = 16.0 mg/L, Mn = 12.1 mg/L, and Al = 17.1 mg/L) was applied to the column at a rate of 3.8 mL/min. Effluent pH has remained above 6.2 (6.2-7.9) in the column system. A SAPS located in Jefferson County, PA has been monitored for the past 4.5 years. The SAPS has an approximate area of 1000 m{sup 2} and contains a 0.4-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.2-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost, and 1.5 m of free standing water. Mine water (acidity = 335 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 1270 mg/L, Fe = 246 mg/L, Mn = 38.4 mg/L, and Al = <0.2 mg/L) flowed into the SAPS at a rate of 140 L/min. Water samples from the field and laboratory systems have been collected at strategic locations on a regular basis and analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, Fe{sup 2+}, total Fe, Mn, Al, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na, Co, Ni, and Zn. Alkalinity has been generated in both field and laboratory systems by a combination of limestone dissolution and sulfate reduction. The column generated an average of 378 mg/L of alkalinity; 74% due to limestone dissolution and 26% due to bacterial reduction of sulfate. The field SAPS generated an average of 231 mg/L of alkalinity and exhibited seasonal trends.

  3. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  4. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost. PMID:23947069

  5. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost.

  6. Profitability of Cropping Systems Featuring Tillage and Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity rather than profitability is often used to compare agronomic systems. Increasing energy prices will force producers to scrutinize machinery operation and input costs, which will shift emphasis to profitability. The objective of this study was to compare returns to land and management fo...

  7. Influence of bulking agents on CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-ping; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guo-xue

    2014-01-01

    Mismanagement of the composting process can result in emissions of CH4, N2O, and NH3, which have caused severe environmental problems. This study was aimed at determining whether CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from composting are affected by bulking agents during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system. Three bulking agents, corn stalks, spent mushroom compost, and sawdust, were used in composting with pig manure in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for more than a month. Gas emissions were measured continuously, and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained. Concentrations of NH3 and N2O from the composting pig manure mixed with corn stalks or sawdust were higher than those from the spent mushroom compost treatment, especially the sawdust treatment, which had the highest total nitrogen loss among the three runs. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which accounts for 11.16% to 35.69% of the initial nitrogen. One-way analysis of variance for NH3 emission showed no significant differences between the corn stalk and sawdust treatments, but a significant difference was noted between the spent mushroom compost and sawdust treatments. The introduction of sawdust reduced CH4 emission more than the corn stalks and spent mushroom compost. However, there were no significant differences among the three runs for total carbon loss. All treatments were matured after 30 d. PMID:24711356

  8. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  9. Characterization of a compost biofiltration system degrading dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Ergas, S.J. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Kinney, K.; Fuller, M.E.; Scow, K.M. )

    1994-11-05

    The effects of acclimatization of microbial populations, compound concentration, and media pH on the biodegradation of low concentration dichloromethane emissions in biofiltration systems was evaluated. Greater than 98% removal efficiency was achieved for dichloromethane at superficial velocities from 1 to 15 m[sup 3]/m[sup 2][center dot]min and inlet concentrations of 3 and 50 ppm[sub v]. Although acclimatization of microbial populations to toluene occurred within 2 weeks of operation start-up, initial dichloromethane acclimatization took place over a period of 10 weeks. This period was shortened to 10 days when a laboratory grown consortium of dichloromethane degrading organisms, isolated from a previously acclimatized column, was introduced into fresh biofilter media. The mixed culture consisted of 12 members, which together were able to degrade dichloromethane at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. Only one member of the consortium was able to degrade dichloromethane in pure culture, and the presence of the other members did not affect the rate of biodegradation in solution culture. Although high removal efficiencies for dichloromethane were sustained for more than 4 months in a biofilter column receiving an inlet gas stream with 3 ppm[sub v] of dichloromethane, acidification of the column and resulting decline in performance occurred when a 50-ppm[sub v] inlet concentration was used. A biofilm model incorporating first order biodegradation kinetics provided a good fit to observed concentration profiles, and may prove to be a useful tool for designing biofiltration systems for low concentration VOC emissions.

  10. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  11. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  12. Continuous Thermophilic Composting12

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, K. L.

    1962-01-01

    Under complete mixing conditions, aerobic decomposition of mixed organic waste materials has been maintained continuously in the thermophilic phase in a 55-gal rotating drum. Temperatures ranged between 53 and 70 C. Raw material was added daily or every second day in amounts up to 18 lb per 100 lb of decomposing material. The weight of material removed ranged between 42 and 60% of the raw material added. Factors influencing the operation of the composting unit were studied in detail. Images FIG. 2 PMID:13909559

  13. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended.

  14. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  15. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Iain; Abt, Birte; Lykidis, Athanasios; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  16. Genomics of Aerobic Cellulose Utilization Systems in Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Iain; Abt, Birte; Lykidis, Athanasios; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms. PMID:22723998

  17. Getting the most from compost

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaie, M.

    1994-11-01

    Composting, throughout history, has been one of the oldest, cheapest, and most environmentally friendly waste management tools. Yet, in the modern era, composting on a large scale has run into many economic and operational snags--especially in municipal programs--despite the rosy predictions of the compost industry's waste diversion potential. What has kept this natural, seemingly foolproof municipal waste management method from wholesale success According to many, it is a combination of poor planning, anemic budgets, and a general lack of understanding of the science of composting--understanding that can usually be found in the private sector. ''In my experience, there's a hell of a lot of municipalities doing small operations, but most of the large operations are private,'' says Steve Jones, vice president of DK Recycling Systems, Inc. (Lake Bluff, Ill.), which operates 12 composting facilities in northern Illinois. According to Robert Gillespie, DK's president, the composting success hinges not only on the source of funds, but on the people involved as well. For a composting system to be successful, the designer--either privately or publicly funded--must be sensitive to the biology of composting and how field applications differ from laboratory settings. Some companies compost only leaves, brush and wood, while others also take grass clipping and food wastes.

  18. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. PMID:25203237

  19. Economics and feasibility of co-composting solid waste in McHenry County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, J.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of composting various segments of the waste stream produced in McHenry County, IL. In particular, the study emphasized co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) with septage, co-composting of MSW with septage and sludge, leaf- and yard-waste composting, and composting various animal wastes. In addition to specific analysis of co-composting in McHenry, the report includes chapters on the technical description and implementation of composting, environmental considerations of co-composting, comparisons of different proprietary systems, the economics of composting, and an analysis of compost markets.

  20. Comparative study on open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion methods for metal determination in shrimp sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Keivan; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini; Bin Abas, Mhd Radzi; Sobhanzadeh, Elham; Low, Kah Hin

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate two different digestion methods for the determination of the total concentration of metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) in shrimp sludge compost. The compost made from shrimp aquaculture sludge co-composted with organic materials (peat, crushed bark and manure) was used as an organic growing medium for crop. Open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion procedures were employed in sample preparation. Various combinations and volumes of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids were evaluated for the efficiency of both methods. A certified reference material (CRM 146) was used in the comparison of these two digestion methods. The results revealed a good agreement between both procedures and the certified valued. The best recoveries were found in the range between 95% and 99% for microwave assisted digestion with a mixture of 2 ml of HF, 6 ml of HNO(3) and 2 ml of HCl. This procedure was recommended as the method for digestion the compost herein based on the recovery analysis and time taken.

  1. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  2. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BENCH-SCALE COMPOST TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil bound contamination presents a significant set of problems to those attempting to remediate the soil. Bioremediation has received considerable attention, as a potential answer to the obvious remediation needs. Composting technology represents a promising means to use indigen...

  3. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    PubMed

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system.

  4. Removal of added nitrate in the single, binary, and ternary systems of cotton burr compost, zerovalent iron, and sediment: Implications for groundwater nitrate remediation using permeable reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W

    2007-04-01

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and autotrophic denitrification in the Fe(0) system. Questions arise as whether the more expensive Fe(0) is more effective than the less expensive carbonaceous solid materials for groundwater nitrate remediation, and whether there is any synergistic effect of mixing the two different types of materials. We carried out batch tests to study the nature and rates of removal of added nitrate in the suspensions of single, binary, and ternary systems of cotton burr compost, Peerless Fe(0), and a sediment low in organic carbon. Cotton burr compost acted as both organic carbon source and supporting material for the growth of indigenous denitrifiers. Batch tests showed that cotton burr compost alone removed added nitrate at a greater rate than did Peerless Fe(0) alone on an equal mass basis with a pseudo-first-order rate constant k=0.0830+/-0.0031 h(-1) for cotton burr compost and a k=0.00223+/-0.00022 h(-1) for Peerless Fe(0); cotton burr compost also removed added nitrate at a faster rate than did cotton burr compost mixed with Peerless Fe(0) and/or the sediment. Furthermore, there was no substantial accumulation of ammonium ions in the cotton burr compost system, in contrast to the systems containing Peerless Fe(0) in which ammonium ions persisted as major products of nitrate reduction. It is concluded that cotton burr compost alone may be used as an excellent denitrification medium in a PRB for groundwater nitrate removal. Further study is needed to evaluate performance of its field applications. PMID:17257645

  5. Removal of added nitrate in the single, binary, and ternary systems of cotton burr compost, zerovalent iron, and sediment: Implications for groundwater nitrate remediation using permeable reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W

    2007-04-01

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and autotrophic denitrification in the Fe(0) system. Questions arise as whether the more expensive Fe(0) is more effective than the less expensive carbonaceous solid materials for groundwater nitrate remediation, and whether there is any synergistic effect of mixing the two different types of materials. We carried out batch tests to study the nature and rates of removal of added nitrate in the suspensions of single, binary, and ternary systems of cotton burr compost, Peerless Fe(0), and a sediment low in organic carbon. Cotton burr compost acted as both organic carbon source and supporting material for the growth of indigenous denitrifiers. Batch tests showed that cotton burr compost alone removed added nitrate at a greater rate than did Peerless Fe(0) alone on an equal mass basis with a pseudo-first-order rate constant k=0.0830+/-0.0031 h(-1) for cotton burr compost and a k=0.00223+/-0.00022 h(-1) for Peerless Fe(0); cotton burr compost also removed added nitrate at a faster rate than did cotton burr compost mixed with Peerless Fe(0) and/or the sediment. Furthermore, there was no substantial accumulation of ammonium ions in the cotton burr compost system, in contrast to the systems containing Peerless Fe(0) in which ammonium ions persisted as major products of nitrate reduction. It is concluded that cotton burr compost alone may be used as an excellent denitrification medium in a PRB for groundwater nitrate removal. Further study is needed to evaluate performance of its field applications.

  6. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiquia, Sonia M.

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

  7. Effectiveness of bulking agents for co-composting penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) and sewage sludge in pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Wang, Wenyan; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) has a distinguishing characteristic of the high content of penicillin residue and nutrients. The existing handling of PMD used as feed additive of livestock and poultry is facing a direct challenge of penicillin transportation into environment due to the inadequate absorption through the digestive system. This work aims at examining the feasibility of co-composting of PMD with sewage sludge (SWS) in a pilot-scale system and evaluating the effect of four bulking agents. Seven treatments were co-composted over a 32-day period in 390-L reactors using the same PMD and SWS with different bulking agents, corresponding to the seven formulas (T-1: PMD + SWS + RS; T-2: PMD + SWS + WS; T-3: PMD + SWS + RS + SD; T-4: PMD + SWS + WS + SD; T-5: PMD + SWS + SD; T-6: PMD + SWS + RS + WS; control: PMD + SWS). The parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter (OM), TN, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, pH, EC, penicillin residue, as well as germination index (GI). The results showed that co-composting PMD and SWS with BA is feasible. The highest rate of OM mineralization was observed in T-3, while below 30% for T-2, T-4, and T-5. Furthermore, the SD addition resulted in both the increase in the duration of thermophilic stage and maximum temperature and the decrease in TN losses, particularly in T-3, suggesting that the formula of the T-3 is very suitable option for the co-composting of PMD and SWS.

  8. Effectiveness of bulking agents for co-composting penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) and sewage sludge in pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Wang, Wenyan; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) has a distinguishing characteristic of the high content of penicillin residue and nutrients. The existing handling of PMD used as feed additive of livestock and poultry is facing a direct challenge of penicillin transportation into environment due to the inadequate absorption through the digestive system. This work aims at examining the feasibility of co-composting of PMD with sewage sludge (SWS) in a pilot-scale system and evaluating the effect of four bulking agents. Seven treatments were co-composted over a 32-day period in 390-L reactors using the same PMD and SWS with different bulking agents, corresponding to the seven formulas (T-1: PMD + SWS + RS; T-2: PMD + SWS + WS; T-3: PMD + SWS + RS + SD; T-4: PMD + SWS + WS + SD; T-5: PMD + SWS + SD; T-6: PMD + SWS + RS + WS; control: PMD + SWS). The parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter (OM), TN, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, pH, EC, penicillin residue, as well as germination index (GI). The results showed that co-composting PMD and SWS with BA is feasible. The highest rate of OM mineralization was observed in T-3, while below 30% for T-2, T-4, and T-5. Furthermore, the SD addition resulted in both the increase in the duration of thermophilic stage and maximum temperature and the decrease in TN losses, particularly in T-3, suggesting that the formula of the T-3 is very suitable option for the co-composting of PMD and SWS. PMID:26362639

  9. Comparison of static, in-vessel composting of MSW with thermophilic anaerobic digestion and combinations of the two processes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lee; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    The biological stabilisation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into a form stable enough for land application can be achieved via aerobic or anaerobic treatments. To investigate the rates of degradation (e.g. via electron equivalents removed, or via carbon emitted) of aerobic and anaerobic treatment, OFMSW samples were exposed to computer controlled laboratory-scale aerobic (static in-vessel composting), and anaerobic (thermophilic anaerobic digestion with liquor recycle) treatment individually and in combination. A comparison of the degradation rates, based on electron flow revealed that provided a suitable inoculum was used, anaerobic digestion was the faster of the two waste conversion process. In addition to faster maximum substrate oxidation rates, anaerobic digestion (followed by post-treatment aerobic maturation), when compared to static composting alone, converted a larger fraction of the organics to gaseous end-products (CO2 and CH4), leading to improved end-product stability and maturity, as measured by compost self-heating and root elongation tests, respectively. While not comparable to windrow and other mixed, highly aerated compost systems, our results show that in the thermophilic, in-vessel treatment investigated here, the inclusion of a anaerobic phase, rather than using composting alone, improved hydrolysis rates as well as oxidation rates and product stability. The combination of the two methods, as used in the DiCOM process, was also tested allowing heat generation to thermophilic operating temperature, biogas recovery and a low odour stable end-product within 19 days of operation. PMID:19345576

  10. The Twin Arginine Translocation System Is Essential for Aerobic Growth and Full Virulence of Burkholderia thailandensis

    PubMed Central

    Wagley, Sariqa; Hemsley, Claudia; Thomas, Rachael; Moule, Madeleine G.; Vanaporn, Muthita; Andreae, Clio; Robinson, Matthew; Goldman, Stan; Wren, Brendan W.; Butler, Clive S.

    2014-01-01

    The twin arginine translocation (Tat) system in bacteria is responsible for transporting folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane, and in some bacteria, Tat-exported substrates have been linked to virulence. We report here that the Tat machinery is present in Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis, and we show that the system is essential for aerobic but not anaerobic growth. Switching off of the Tat system in B. thailandensis grown anaerobically resulted in filamentous bacteria, and bacteria showed increased sensitivity to some β-lactam antibiotics. In Galleria mellonella and zebrafish infection models, the Tat conditional mutant was attenuated. The aerobic growth-restricted phenotype indicates that Tat substrates may play a functional role in oxygen-dependent energy conservation. In other bacteria, aerobic growth restriction in Tat mutants has been attributed to the inability to translocate PetA, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein which forms part of the quinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex. Here, we show that PetA is not responsible for aerobic growth restriction in B. thailandensis. However, we have identified an operon encoding 2 proteins of unknown function (BTH_I2176 and BTH_I2175) that play a role in aerobic growth restriction, and we present evidence that BTH_I2176 is Tat translocated. PMID:24214943

  11. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended. PMID:17321124

  12. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  13. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-06-15

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  14. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  15. Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50–100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5 years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585

  16. Enhancement of carbon and nitrogen transformations during composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Abu Qdais, H A; Hamoda, M F

    2004-01-01

    Appropriate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is viewed as an integrated system encompassing waste minimization, recycling, and resource recovery. This has increased the interest in the composting process, in which the biodegradable portion of MSW is biologically converted into a valuable product that can be utilized as a soil conditioner or fertilizer. Effective operation of the composting process can be achieved by determining the optimal conditions for the controlling parameters in order to enhance the biological reactions during composting. Information on biodegradation rates are also essential for process design. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to examine the factors affecting process performance and transformation of essential elements of MSW such as carbon and nitrogen. A pilot study of in-vessel aerobic composting of MSW was carried out and the operating parameters, which affect biodegradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter were studied using a specially designed rotating drum and a carbon-rich MSW. The effects of temperature, moisture content, and air flow rate were examined. The performance of the composting process was evaluated by measuring the carbon and nitrogen content during experiments, each of which lasted for 30 days. The study showed that enhanced transformations of carbon and nitrogen occur at 55 degrees C for temperature, 60% for moisture content, and 10L/kgh for air flow rate using the food-rich MSW generated in the Gulf countries. PMID:15027824

  17. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II.

  18. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II. PMID:23290616

  19. In-vessel composting of household wastes.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Srinath R; Bhave, Prashant P

    2006-01-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  20. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Srinath R. . E-mail: srinathrangamani@yahoo.com; Bhave, Prashant P. . E-mail: drppbhave@vsnl.net

    2006-07-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  1. Isolation of Thermus strains from hot composts (60 to 80 degrees C).

    PubMed Central

    Beffa, T; Blanc, M; Lyon, P F; Vogt, G; Marchiani, M; Fischer, J L; Aragno, M

    1996-01-01

    High numbers (10(7) to 10(10) cells per g [dry weight]) of heterotrophic, gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-sporeforming, aerobic, thermophilic bacteria related to the genus Thermus were isolated from thermogenic composts at temperatures between 65 and 82 degrees C. These bacteria were present in different types of wastes (garden and kitchen wastes and sewage sludge) and in all the industrial composting systems studied (open-air windows, boxes with automated turning and aeration, and closed bioreactors with aeration). Isolates grew fast on a rich complex medium at temperatures between 40 and 80 degrees C, with optimum growth between 65 and 75 degrees C. Nutritional characteristics, total protein profiles, DNA-DNA hybridization (except strain JT4), and restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs (16S rDNAs) showed that Thermus strains isolated from hot composts were closely related to Thermus thermophilus HB8. These newly isolated T. thermophilus strains have probably adapted to the conditions in the hot-compost ecosystem. Heterotrophic, ovalspore-forming, thermophilic bacilli were also isolated from hot composts, but none of the isolates was able to grow at temperatures above 70 degrees C. This is the first report of hot composts as habitats for a high number of thermophilic bacteria related to the genus Thermus. Our study suggests that Thermus strains play an important role in organic-matter degradation during the thermogenic phase (65 to 80 degrees C) of the composting process. PMID:8633870

  2. Biogas, compost and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wichert, B.; Wittrup, L.; Robel, R.

    1994-08-01

    A pilot project now under development in Folsom, California, incorporates an anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process that could eventually supply enough biogas to a fuel cell. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has two fuel cells in operation and is participating in the research project. Recently, the California Prison Industry Authority (PIA) began operating a processing facility at the Folsom prison, designed for 100 tons/day of mixed waste from the City of Folsom. The 35,000 square foot Correctional Resource Recovery Facility (CRRF) uses minimum security inmates from Folsom`s Return to Custody Facility to manually separate recyclables and compostable materials from the waste stream. The PIA will be using a new technology, high solids anaerobic digestion, to compost the organic fraction (representing approximately 60 to 70 percent of the waste stream). Construction began in June on a 40-foot wide by 120-foot long and 22-foot deep anaerobic digester. Once the vessel is operational in 1995, the composting process and the gradual breakdown of organic material will produce biogas, which SMUD hopes to use to power an adjacent two megawatt fuel cell. The electricity generated will serve SMUD customers, including the waste facility and nearby correctional institutions. 1 fig.

  3. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  4. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  5. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  6. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  7. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems.

    PubMed

    Bass, Adrian M; Bird, Michael I; Kay, Gavin; Muirhead, Brian

    2016-04-15

    The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO3, NH4 and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO2 was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N2O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N2O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term.

  8. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems.

    PubMed

    Bass, Adrian M; Bird, Michael I; Kay, Gavin; Muirhead, Brian

    2016-04-15

    The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO3, NH4 and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO2 was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N2O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N2O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term. PMID:26845182

  9. Can pulsed xenon ultraviolet light systems disinfect aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection?

    PubMed

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Villamaria, Frank C; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Brown, Donna S; Liao, I-Chia; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E

    2015-04-01

    Whereas pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection systems are being increasingly used for room disinfection after patient discharge with manual cleaning, their effectiveness in the absence of manual disinfection has not been previously evaluated. Our study indicates that pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light systems effectively reduce aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection. These data are important for hospitals planning to adopt this technology as adjunct to routine manual disinfection.

  10. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants. PMID:20350306

  11. Study on the quality and stability of compost through a Demo Compost Plant.

    PubMed

    Hasan, K M M; Sarkar, G; Alamgir, M; Bari, Q H; Haedrich, G

    2012-11-01

    This study is concerned with the performance of a Demo Compost Plant for the development of acceptable composting technology in Bangladesh. The Demo Compost Plant was setup at the adjacent area of an existing compost plant located at Khulna city in Bangladesh. Four different composting technologies were considered, where Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were used as a raw material for composting, collected from the adjacent areas of the plant. Initially the whole composting system was conducted through two experimental setups. In the 1st setup three different types of aerators (horizontal and vertical passively aerator and forced aerator) were selected. For a necessary observation four piles, using only MSW as the input materials in the first three compost pile, the fourth one was the existing Samadhan's compost pile. Based on the analysis of the experimental findings, the horizontal passively aerated composting technique is suitable for Bangladesh as it had better performance for reducing composting period than that of the others. It was being observed from the quality parameters of compost in the both 1st and 2nd setup that as the waste directly come from kitchen, degradation rate of waste shows a positive result for reducing this waste and there is no possibility of toxic contamination, when it would be used as a soil conditioner. Though there is no significant improvement in the quality of the final product in the 2nd setup as comparing with the 1st setup but it fulfills one of the main objectives of this study is to reduce the whole composting period as well as immediate management of the increasing amount of waste and reducing load on landfill. Selfheating tests reveal that degree of stability of compost with respect to maturation period was remained in the acceptable level, which was further accelerated due to the use of organic additives. PMID:22763048

  12. Effects of bedding type on compost quality of equine stall waste: implications for small horse farms.

    PubMed

    Komar, S; Miskewitz, R; Westendorf, M; Williams, C A

    2012-03-01

    Our objective in this study is to compare 4 of the most common bedding materials used by equine operations on the chemical and physical characteristics of composted equine stall waste. Twelve Standardbred horses were adapted to the barn and surrounding environment for 2 wk before the start of the study. Groups of 3 horses were bedded on 1 of 4 different bedding types (wood shavings, pelletized wood materials, long straw, and pelletized straw) for 16 h per day for 18 d. Stalls were cleaned by trained staff daily, and all contents removed were weighed and stored separately by bedding material on a level covered concrete pad for the duration of the study. Compost piles were constructed using 3 replicate piles of each bedding type in a randomized complete block design. Each pile was equipped with a temperature sensor and data logger. Water was added and piles were turned weekly throughout the 100-d compost process. Initial and final samples were taken, dried, and analyzed for DM mass, OM, inorganic nitrogen (nitrate-N and ammonium-N), electrical conductivity, and soluble (plant-available) nutrients. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure, and means were separated using Fischer's protected LSD test (P < 0.05). No significant temperature differences were observed among the bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in DM mass for each of the 4 bedding materials. The composting process resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in OM and C:N ratio for all 4 bedding materials. The composted long straw material had greater concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (P < 0.05), nitrate-N (P < 0.05), and ammonium-N (P < 0.05) than the composted wood shavings. This study demonstrated that incorporating a simple aerobic composting system may greatly reduce the overall volume of manure and yield a material that is beneficial for land application in pasture-based systems. The straw-based materials may be better suited for

  13. The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G

    2007-03-01

    Composting is a natural biological decomposition process that takes place under aerobic and thermophilic conditions. It can be used for the day-to-day management of mortalities on farms and for carcass disposal in emergency animal disease (EAD) outbreaks. In mortality composting, carcasses are placed in piles or bins together with supplemental carbon sources such as sawdust, litter, straw or wood shavings. Composting is particularly suitable for broiler-farm mortalities and litter. In the case of emergency disease outbreaks, composting can be conducted either inside or outside the poultry house following killing. Composting has been successfully employed for emergency disposal of carcasses in a few cases in North America, but research is lacking on the biosecurity of the process. Composting is a well-established pathogen reduction technology, but process management and heterogenous pile conditions pose particular challenges for validating the microbiological safety of mortality composting. This paper reviews the available information on the biosecurity of mortality composting, identifies potential sources of risk, and highlights emerging research needs. Reports to date of the use of composting in EAD outbreaks are also discussed.

  14. Composting barrel for sustainable organic waste management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, Md Azizul; Bushra, Quazi Sifat; Rahman, M H

    2011-12-01

    To ensure quick and uniform aerobic stabilization of biowaste through domestic composting and to prevent malodorous emissions, two modifications were made to a conventional steel barrel composter by: (1) providing 0.0125 m diameter openings throughout the sides and (2) placing a 0.0254 m diameter perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in the middle portion of the barrel. The volume of composting waste before modification of the composting barrel was 40% of the original volume and it was 70%, 4 weeks following the modifications. In addition, the nutrients in the compost were found to be in a more suitable range after modification of the composting barrel. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the compost was in the ideal range of 11-15 in the modified composting reactor but it was quite high (24-25) in the conventional barrel. This modified barrel composting plant proved to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective solution for the management of organic solid waste materials in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries such as Bangladesh. PMID:20870692

  15. Systematic investigation and microbial community profile of indole degradation processes in two aerobic activated sludge systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiao; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xuwang; Liu, Ziyan; Li, Huijie; Zhang, Zhaojing; Wang, Jingwei; Shen, Wenli; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-01-01

    Indole is widely spread in various environmental matrices. Indole degradation by bacteria has been reported previously, whereas its degradation processes driven by aerobic microbial community were as-yet unexplored. Herein, eight sequencing batch bioreactors fed with municipal and coking activated sludges were constructed for aerobic treatment of indole. The whole operation processes contained three stages, i.e. stage I, glucose and indole as carbon sources; stage II, indole as carbon source; and stage III, indole as carbon and nitrogen source. Indole could be completely removed in both systems. Illumina sequencing revealed that alpha diversity was reduced after indole treatment and microbial communities were significantly distinct among the three stages. At genus level, Azorcus and Thauera were dominant species in stage I in both systems, while Alcaligenes, Comamonas and Pseudomonas were the core genera in stage II and III in municipal sludge system, Alcaligenes and Burkholderia in coking sludge system. In addition, four strains belonged to genera Comamonas, Burkholderia and Xenophilus were isolated using indole as sole carbon source. Burkholderia sp. IDO3 could remove 100 mg/L indole completely within 14 h, the highest degradation rate to date. These findings provide novel information and enrich our understanding of indole aerobic degradation processes. PMID:26657581

  16. Small sewage treatment system with an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic combined biofilter.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Jun, H B; Hong, S P; Kwon, J C

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a small sewage treatment system that could improve nitrogen and BOD5 removal efficiency as well as generate less solid using an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic biofiltration system. Wastewater temperature was in the range of 14-25 degrees C, and hydraulic residual times were 12 h for each reactor. The upflow anaerobic digester equipped with anoxic filter was fed with both raw sewage and recycled effluent from the aerobic filter to induce denitrification and solid reduction simultaneously. In the subsequent aerobic filter, residual organic carbon and ammonia might be oxidized and finally nitrate formed. In the anaerobic reactor, about 71% of influent TCOD was removed by sedimentation of the un-filterable COD at the recycle ratio of 300%. Another 20% of influent TCOD was removed in the anoxic filter by denitrification of the recycled nitrate. After 100 days operation, solid reduction and nitrification efficiency were about 30% and 95%, respectively. Overall removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen (T-N) were above 94% and 70% at the recycle ratio of 300%, respectively. Total wasted solid from the system after 100 days operation was about 316 g, which was only 44% of the solid generated from a controlled activated sludge system operated at sludge retention time of 8 days.

  17. Highly practical copper(I)/TEMPO catalyst system for chemoselective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-10-26

    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O(2) as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488

  18. Asymmetric aerobic oxidative NHC-catalysed synthesis of dihydropyranones utilising a system of electron transfer mediators.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Hammarvid, E; Ta, L; Sundén, H

    2016-10-01

    In the context of green chemistry, the replacement of high molecular weight stoichiometric oxidants with O2 is most desirable but difficult. Here, we report the asymmetric aerobic oxidative synthesis of dihydropyranones. The oxidation is aided by a system of electron transfer mediators and is selective toward the homoenolate. The dihydropyranones can be isolated in high to excellent yields, with high ee (up to 95%). PMID:27604573

  19. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  20. Bioactive Compost - A Value Added Compost with Microbial Inoculants and Organic Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, R.; Subramanian, P.

    A study was conducted in the Department of Environmental Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to transform the normal compost into bioactive compost through the addition of various substrates, which has multiple benefits to the crop system. The key players in this transformation process were Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Phosphobacteria, composted poultry litter, rock phosphate and diluted spent wash. This enrichment process has increased the nutritive value of compost. The highest nitrogen content (1.75%) and phosphorus content (1.16%) was observed in the treatment T5 (compost enriched with composted poultry litter, spent wash, microbial inoculants and rock phosphate). The beneficial microorganism viz., Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Phosphobacteria population were higher in the treatment T5 where all the inputs (composted poultry litter, microbial consortium, rock phosphate and spent wash) were added to the compost. The plant growth promoters viz., IAA and GA content was more in the treatment applied with spent wash and microbial inoculum. Beneficial microorganisms, composted poultry litter, rock phosphate and diluted spent wash contributes maximum level of nutrients and growth promoters to the compost with small expenses.

  1. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production.

  2. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  3. Evaluation of a combined anaerobic and aerobic system for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Vallejo-Rodríguez, R; Méndez-Romero, D C

    2010-03-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic/aerobic (An/Ar) system, comprising an anaerobic filter (AF) coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR), was developed to treat wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The AF operated with organic loadings (OL) from 3.7 to 16.5 kg m(-3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 16 to 72 h. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was between 50 and 81% and was shown to be related inversely to the value of the OL. The production rate of methane was in the region of 411 mL per g of COD removed. On the other hand, the degradation of organic matter (OM) by an aerobic pathway in the SBR followed first-order kinetics with regard to OM concentration; 85% of the remaining OM from the AF was eliminated within 6 h of aeration, and over 95% of total OM was eliminated as COD within 9 h. The optimal treatment conditions in this system were found at OL = 11.0 kg m-3 d(-1) and HRT = 24 h in the AF, whereas the SBR was most efficient at 9 h of aeration. PMID:20426273

  4. A sequential zero valent iron and aerobic biodegradation treatment system for nitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Bell, L S; Devlin, J F; Gillham, R W; Binning, P J

    2003-11-01

    The remediation of nitroaromatic contaminated groundwater is sometimes difficult because nitroaromatic compounds are resistant to biodegradation and, when they do transform, the degradation of the products may also be incomplete. A simple nitroaromatic compound, nitrobenzene, was chosen to assess the feasibility of an in situ multi-zone treatment system at the laboratory scale. The proposed treatment system consists of a zero valent granular iron zone to reduce nitrobenzene to aniline, followed by a passive oxygen release zone for the aerobic biodegradation of the aniline daughter product using pristine aquifer material from Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Borden, Ontario, as an initial microbial source. In laboratory batch experiments, nitrobenzene was found to reduce quickly in the presence of granular iron forming aniline, which was not further degraded but remained partially sorbed onto the granular iron surface. Aniline was found to be readily biodegraded with little metabolic lag under aerobic conditions using the pristine aquifer material. A sequential column experiment, containing a granular iron reducing zone and an aerobic biodegradation zone, successively degraded nitrobenzene and then aniline to below detection limits (0.5 microM) without any noticeable reduction in hydraulic conductivity from biofouling, or through the formation of precipitates.

  5. Effect of composting process on phytotoxicity and speciation of copper, zinc and lead in sewage sludge and swine manure.

    PubMed

    Miaomiao, He; Wenhong, Li; Xinqiang, Liang; Donglei, Wu; Guangming, Tian

    2009-02-01

    The concentration and bioavailability of heavy metals in composted organic wastes have negative environmental impacts following land application. Aerobic composting procedures were conducted to investigate the influences of selected parameters on heavy metal speciation and phytotoxicity. Results showed that both of sewage sludge (SSC) and swine manure (SMC) composting systems decreased the pH, the content of organic matter (OM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and total amounts of Cu, Zn and Pb. Sequential extraction showed that readily extractible fractions of exchangeable and carbonate in Cu and Zn increased during SSC composting but decreased during SMC composting, thus their bioavailability factors (BF) enhanced in SSC but declined in SMC. The fraction of reducible iron and manganese (FeMnOX) of Cu and Zn in SSC and FeMnOX-Cu in SMC decreased, but FeMnOX-Zn in SMC gradually increased in the process of compost. In contrast, the changes of Pb distributions were similar in two organic wastes. Pb was preferentially bound to the residual fraction and its BF decreased. The evolution of heavy metal distributions and BF depended on not only total metal concentrations but also the other properties, such as pH, decomposition of OM and decline of DOC. The germination rate (RSG), root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) of pakchoi (Brassica Chinensis L.) increased during the composting process. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that GI, which could represent phytotoxic behavior to the plants, could be poorly predicted by BF or total amount of metals, i.e., BF-Zn, T-Cu. However, the inclusion of other physicochemical parameters (pH, OM and DOC) could enhance the linear regression significances (R).

  6. Biosolids composting in Davenport, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, R.A.; Williams, T.; Plett, S.

    1996-09-01

    The City of Davenport, Iowa constructed an aerated static pile composting facility to process 28 dry tons per day of dewatered biosolids and 25,000 cubic yards per year of yard wastes. This is the first large totally enclosed aerated static pile biosolids composting facility to be built in several years in the US. Design of the facility was completed in March 1994, construction began in July 1994, with substantial completion of the facility in August 1995. This paper outlines the major operating systems and describes the major components of the facility. The facility processes all of the City`s anaerobically digested biosolids which is currently dewatered by belt filter presses to 20% solids. Yard wastes are used as the primary bulking agent supplemented by wood chips and shredded rubber tires to minimize O and M costs. A mechanized continuous feed mixing system consisting of hoppers, conveyors, and pugmill mixers is used to combine bulk agents with the dewatered biosolids to the desired ratio for composting. Composting and drying of these materials occurs in a totally enclosed pre-fabricated metal building for maximum environmental control and odor control. Multiple aeration stations provide both positive and negative aeration through pre-cast aeration trenches beneath compost piles.

  7. Measuring aerobic respiration in stream ecosystems using the resazurin-resorufin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GonzáLez-Pinzón, Ricardo; Haggerty, Roy; Myrold, David D.

    2012-09-01

    The use of smart tracers to study hydrologic systems is becoming more widespread. Smart tracers are compounds that irreversibly react in the presence of a process or condition under investigation. Resazurin (Raz) is a smart tracer that undergoes an irreversible reduction to resorufin (Rru) in the presence of cellular metabolic activity. We quantified the relationship between the transformation of Raz and aerobic bacterial respiration in pure culture experiments using two obligate aerobes and two facultative anaerobes, and in colonized surface and shallow (<10 cm) hyporheic sediments using reach-scale experiments. We found that the transformation of Raz to Rru was nearly perfectly (minr2 = 0.986), positively correlated with aerobic microbial respiration in all experiments. These results suggest that Raz can be used as a surrogate to measure respiration in situ and in vivoat different spatial scales, thus providing an alternative to investigate mechanistic controls of solute transport and stream metabolism on nutrient processing. Lastly, a comparison of respiration and mass-transfer rates in streams suggests that field-scale respiration is controlled by the slower of respiration and mass transfer, highlighting the need to understand both biogeochemistry and physics in stream ecosystems.

  8. Farmers enter compost business

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    One sixth of Massachusett's six million tons of solid waste can be composted economically. The Department of Food and Agriculture intends to survey and identify the existing and potential markets for compost and their demand characteristics and to promote the use of compost as an environmentally sound alternative to existing uses of synthetic fertilizers and conditioners. Various pilot projects have been set up composting poultry manures, horse manures, fish wastes, shredded newspaper, cheese whey, wood ash, etc.

  9. Sewage sludge composting maintains momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    The number of facilities composting municipal sludge is rising gradually in the U.S. after a dramatic surge between 1983 and 1985. Results of BioCycle's 1986 survey show a total of 178 municipalities and counties that are either operating or constructing plants, or that are in the bid, design, planning, or consideration stages. The total number in 1985 was 173, with four facilities shut down. In 1983, the first year a nationwide survey was conducted, there were 90. The aerated static pile method continues to lead the composting pack, with 53 operating facilities. Windrow composting comes in second, with 21 operating facilities. Five more in-vessel systems went into operation this year, bringing the total to eight. When it comes to facilities on the horizon, however, in-vessel is the category leader: there are 11 in-vessel projects under construction, 11 in the planning, design or bid stages, and 14 under consideration. Conversely, there are eight aerated static pile facilities under construction, 10 in the planning, design and bid stages, and 5.5 under consideration. Windrow composting operations comprise the third largest category, followed by aerated windrow composting.

  10. Azo dye treatment with simultaneous electricity production in an anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor and microbial fuel cell coupled system.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Jun; Han, Song; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-06-01

    A microbial fuel cell and anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor coupled system was used for azo dye degradation with simultaneous electricity production. Electricity was produced during the co-metabolism process of glucose and azo dye. A microorganism cultured graphite-granular cathode effectively decreased the charge transfer resistance of the cathode and yielded higher power density. Operation parameters including glucose concentration and hydraulic retention time were optimized. The results indicated that recovering electricity during a sequential aerobic-anaerobic azo dye treatment process enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and did not decrease azo dye removal. Moreover, UV-vis spectra and GC-MS illustrated that the azo bond was cleaved biologically in the anaerobic chamber and abiotically in the aerobic chamber. The toxic intermediates, aromatic amines, were removed by aerobic treatment. Our work demonstrated that the microbial fuel cell and sequential anode-cathode reactor coupled system could be applied to achieve electricity production with simultaneous azo dye degradation. PMID:20188540

  11. Successful School Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  12. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2′-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  13. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-11-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  14. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils.

  15. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils. PMID:26657371

  16. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  17. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M P; Alburquerque, J A; Moral, R

    2009-11-01

    New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria. PMID:19119002

  18. Rhamnolipid-enhanced aerobic biodegradation of triclosan (TCS) by indigenous microorganisms in water-sediment systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Yan, Jia; Wen, Junjie; Hu, Yongyou; Chen, Yuanbo; Wu, Wenjin

    2016-11-15

    Bioremediation of triclosan (TCS) is a challenge because of its low bioavailability, persistence in the environment and recalcitrance to remediation efforts. Rhamnolipid (RL) was used to enhance TCS biodegradation by indigenous microbes in an aerobic water-sediment system. However, knowledge of the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and environmental factors in an RL-enhanced, TCS-degrading system are lacking. Therefore, in this study, the influence of environmental factors on RL-enhanced biodegradation of TCS was investigated by single factor experiments, and shifts in aerobic TCS-degrading bacterial populations, with and without RL, were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that aerobic biodegradation of TCS was significantly promoted by the addition of RL. Environmental conditions, which included RL addition (0.125-0.5g/L), medium concentrations of TCS (<90μg/g), water disturbance, elevated temperature, ionic strength (0.001-0.1mol/L NaCl) and weak alkaline environments (pH8-9), were monitored. High concentrations of TCS had a remarkable influence on the bacterial community structure, and this influence on the distribution proportion of the main microorganisms was strengthened by RL addition. Alpha-proteobacteria (e.g., Sphingomonadaceae and Caulobacteraceae) might be resistant to TCS or even capable of TCS biodegradation, while Sphingobacteria, Beta- and Delta-proteobacteria were sensitive to TCS toxicity. This research provides ecological information on the degradation efficiency and bacterial community stability in RL-enhanced bioremediation of TCS-polluted aquatic environments. PMID:27476727

  19. Rhamnolipid-enhanced aerobic biodegradation of triclosan (TCS) by indigenous microorganisms in water-sediment systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Yan, Jia; Wen, Junjie; Hu, Yongyou; Chen, Yuanbo; Wu, Wenjin

    2016-11-15

    Bioremediation of triclosan (TCS) is a challenge because of its low bioavailability, persistence in the environment and recalcitrance to remediation efforts. Rhamnolipid (RL) was used to enhance TCS biodegradation by indigenous microbes in an aerobic water-sediment system. However, knowledge of the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and environmental factors in an RL-enhanced, TCS-degrading system are lacking. Therefore, in this study, the influence of environmental factors on RL-enhanced biodegradation of TCS was investigated by single factor experiments, and shifts in aerobic TCS-degrading bacterial populations, with and without RL, were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that aerobic biodegradation of TCS was significantly promoted by the addition of RL. Environmental conditions, which included RL addition (0.125-0.5g/L), medium concentrations of TCS (<90μg/g), water disturbance, elevated temperature, ionic strength (0.001-0.1mol/L NaCl) and weak alkaline environments (pH8-9), were monitored. High concentrations of TCS had a remarkable influence on the bacterial community structure, and this influence on the distribution proportion of the main microorganisms was strengthened by RL addition. Alpha-proteobacteria (e.g., Sphingomonadaceae and Caulobacteraceae) might be resistant to TCS or even capable of TCS biodegradation, while Sphingobacteria, Beta- and Delta-proteobacteria were sensitive to TCS toxicity. This research provides ecological information on the degradation efficiency and bacterial community stability in RL-enhanced bioremediation of TCS-polluted aquatic environments.

  20. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  1. Wastewater treatment from biodiesel production via a coupled photo-Fenton-aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ximena María Vargas; Mejía, Gina Maria Hincapié; López, Kelly Viviana Patiño; Vásquez, Gloria Restrepo; Sepúlveda, Juan Miguel Marín

    2012-01-01

    A coupled system of the photo-Fenton advanced oxidation technique and an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat wastewater from biodiesel production using either palm or castor oil. The photo-Fenton reaction and biological process were evaluated individually and were effective at treating the wastewater; nevertheless, each process required longer degradation times for the wastewater pollutants compared with the coupled system. The proposed coupled photo-Fenton/aerobic SBR system obtained a 90% reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in half of the time required for the biological system individually. PMID:22766873

  2. Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle.

  3. Composting moves west

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.

    1996-05-01

    The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

  4. Biodegradation of azo dyes in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Rajaguru, P; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Subburam, V

    2000-08-01

    A sequential anaerobic aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent-contaminated soil was used to degrade sulfonated azo dyes Orange G (OG), Amido black 10B (AB), Direct red 4BS (DR) and Congo red (CR). Under anaerobic conditions in a fixed-bed column using glucose as co-substrate, the azo dyes were reduced and amines were released by the bacterial biomass. The amines were completely mineralized in a subsequent aerobic treatment using the same isolates. The maximum degradation rate observed in the treatment system for OG was 60.9 mg/l per day (16.99 mg/g glucose utilized), for AB 571.3 mg/l per day (14.46 mg/g glucose utilized), for DR 112.5 mg/l per day (32.02 mg/g glucose utilized) and for CR 134.9 mg/l per day (38.9 mg/g glucose utilized).

  5. Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation.

  6. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  7. Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

  8. Composting: Taking the road less traveled

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, K.A.

    1997-02-01

    Last November, the Composting Council (Alexandria, Va.) brought together companies, federal agencies, universities, recycling and composting organizations, and individuals for its seventh annual conference, entitled Mapping the Future. For communities across the nation wondering how they are going to meet waste diversion goals by the year 2000, the conference focused on new products, innovations, and technology designed to help people have greater success in composting whether in their places of business or in their back yards. Of the many presenters at the conference, this article highlights three: Robert Dow, Mitch Kessler, and Nancy Allen. Although the systems they have developed do not appear, at first glance, to have much in common besides the conference presentations, they all represent how composting in unlikely locations--with unlikely materials or limited resources--can still work.

  9. Composting Begins at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  10. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil. PMID:25940492

  11. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil.

  12. Effect of matured compost as an inoculating agent on odour removal and maturation of vegetable and fruit waste compost.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Kuo, Jong-Tar; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2013-01-01

    The use of matured compost as an inoculation agent to improve the composting of vegetable and fruit wastes in a laboratory-scale composter was evaluated, and the commercial feasibility of this approach in a pilot-scale (1.8 x 10(4) L) composter was subsequently confirmed. The effect of aeration rate on the physico-chemical and biological properties of compost was also studied. Aeration rate affected the fermentation temperature, moisture content, pH, O2 consumption rate, CO2 production rate and the formation of odour. The optimal aeration rate was 2.5 L air/kg dry solid/min. The CO2 production rate approached the theoretical value during composting and was linearly dependent on temperature, indicating that the compost system had good operating characteristics. The inoculation of cellulolytic bacteria and deodorizing bacteria to compost in the pilot-scale composter led to an 18.2% volatile solids loss and a 64.3% volume reduction ratio in 52 h; only 1.5 ppm(v) odour was detected. This is the first study to focus on both operating performance and odour removal in a pilot-scale composter. PMID:23530345

  13. Influence of olive mill wastewater in composting and impact of the compost on a Swiss chard crop and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Paredes, C; Cegarra, J; Bernal, M P; Roig, A

    2005-02-01

    The suitability of olive mill wastewater (OMW) for composting was studied by the addition of this liquid waste to a mixture of cotton gin waste and sewage sludge, and its composting was compared with that of another pile of similar composition, but without olive mill wastewater. Both piles were composted by the Rutgers static pile system in a pilot plant. To study the effects of both composts on plant yield and soil properties, a plot experiment was carried out with Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla). Five treatments were applied: mineral fertiliser and two doses (30 and 60 tons ha(-1)) of both composts. The olive mill wastewater addition produced a compost with lower organic matter and nitrate concentrations, higher electrical conductivity, and a stabilised and humified organic matter similar to that of the compost produced without olive mill wastewater. The olive mill wastewater compost application to soil did not injure plants, producing a similar plant yield to both compost without olive mill wastewater and inorganic fertiliser. Also, the accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metals in plants cultivated with organic or mineral fertilisers did not reveal significant differences. The olive mill wastewater compost application to soil also improved the chemical and physicochemical properties of the soil.

  14. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  15. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  16. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E.; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  17. Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naser; Clark, Ian; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Shea, Syd; Meier, Sebastian; Qi, Fangjie; Kookana, Rai S; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation. PMID:26044389

  18. Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naser; Clark, Ian; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Shea, Syd; Meier, Sebastian; Qi, Fangjie; Kookana, Rai S; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation.

  19. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  20. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  1. Rapeseed rotation, compost and biocontrol amendments reduce soilborne diseases and increase tuber yield in conventional and organic potato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three different potential disease-suppressive management practices, including a Brassica napus (rapeseed) green manure rotation crop, a conifer-based compost amendment, and three biological control organisms (Trichoderma virens, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizoctonia solani hypovirulent isolate Rhs1A1)...

  2. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  3. Evaluation of specific biological heat potential of oily wastewater in an autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment system.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui Min; Chen, Chang Yu; Wu, Yeong Shing; Lu, Chih Jen

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on the specific biological heat potential (h(b)) of oil and grease wastewaterin an autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment (ATAT) system. A novel experimental device was applied to evaluate h(b) by using heat balance model under steady state. In the study the treatment system was daily fed with realistic and artificial wastewater at 11250 and 17420 mg COD l(-1), respectively. The wastewater was rich in oil and grease at 1220 and 600 mg l(-1), respectively. The sludge retention time (SRT) was controlled at 5 days. The results showed that the average values of h(b) were 3.7 and 3.1 kcal g(-1) COD removed and the true growth yield (Y0) were 0.10 and 0.13 mg MLSS mg(-1) COD for realistic and artificial wastewater respectively. These two systems could maintain reactoroperating temperatures at 43 degrees C and 48 degrees C, respectively. The COD removal efficiency was as high as 90 to 97%. The oil and grease reduction was 68 to 72%. The high organic matter removal capacity and low sludge yield of ATAT process have been demonstrated.

  4. Application of a simplified mathematical model to estimate the effect of forced aeration on composting in a closed system.

    PubMed

    Bari, Quazi H; Koenig, Albert

    2012-11-01

    The aeration rate is a key process control parameter in the forced aeration composting process because it greatly affects different physico-chemical parameters such as temperature and moisture content, and indirectly influences the biological degradation rate. In this study, the effect of a constant airflow rate on vertical temperature distribution and organic waste degradation in the composting mass is analyzed using a previously developed mathematical model of the composting process. The model was applied to analyze the effect of two different ambient conditions, namely, hot and cold ambient condition, and four different airflow rates such as 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 m(3) m(-2) h(-1), respectively, on the temperature distribution and organic waste degradation in a given waste mixture. The typical waste mixture had 59% moisture content and 96% volatile solids, however, the proportion could be varied as required. The results suggested that the model could be efficiently used to analyze composting under variable ambient and operating conditions. A lower airflow rate around 1.5-3.0 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) was found to be suitable for cold ambient condition while a higher airflow rate around 4.5-6.0 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) was preferable for hot ambient condition. The engineered way of application of this model is flexible which allows the changes in any input parameters within the realistic range. It can be widely used for conceptual process design, studies on the effect of ambient conditions, optimization studies in existing composting plants, and process control. PMID:22361594

  5. Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni. PMID:24616342

  6. Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni.

  7. Composting in small laboratory pilots: performance and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, G; Barriuso, E; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M; Houot, S

    2012-02-01

    Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O(2) consumption and CO(2) emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures. PMID:21982279

  8. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively. PMID:25481697

  9. The Science of Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  10. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  11. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  12. Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants

    PubMed Central

    García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

  13. Composting: The next step?

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Composting is a natural process, and is, therefore, as old as the earth. And yet, while composting is growing as a method of solid waste management--for municipal solid waste (MSW), yard waste, sludge, food waste, etc.--in many ways, it is still in its infancy. Like recycling, municipal composting (as opposed to agricultural) existed in various sporadic or fledgling enterprises in years past. But unlike recycling, which can point to a past history of scrap and steel recycling and a nationwide effort during World War II, municipal composting programs of the 1950s and 1960s are either looked on as failures or rural experiments whose example did not transfer well when carried out on a larger scale in metropolitan areas. Today, however, there are an estimated 4,000 + municipal composting facilities in the US, according to various sources, the vast majority of which are dedicated to yard waste. One reason for this is that the concept of composting is easy to understand--reusing of waste in another form rather than discarding it.

  14. Copper(I)/ABNO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation: alleviating steric and electronic constraints of Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-10-23

    Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems promote efficient aerobic oxidation of sterically unhindered primary alcohols and electronically activated substrates, but they show reduced reactivity with aliphatic and secondary alcohols. Here, we report a catalyst system, consisting of ((MeO)bpy)Cu(I)(OTf) and ABNO ((MeO)bpy = 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine; ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl), that mediates aerobic oxidation of all classes of alcohols, including primary and secondary allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic alcohols with nearly equal efficiency. The catalyst exhibits broad functional group compatibility, and most reactions are complete within 1 h at room temperature using ambient air as the source of oxidant. PMID:24128057

  15. The effects of composting on the nutritional composition of fibrous bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues and its impact on the growth of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, John M.; Lowry, Brett A.; Brown, Paul B.; Beyl, Caula A.; Nyochemberg, Leopold

    2009-04-01

    Utilization of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues as a nutritional source by Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) has proven problematic as a result of high concentrations of fibrous compounds in the plant waste residues. Nutritional improvement of plant waste residues by composting with the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus), and the effects on growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia fed such residues were evaluated. Five Nile tilapia (mean weight = 70.9 ± 3.1 g) were stocked in triplicate aquaria and fed one of two experimental diets, cowpea (CP) and composted cowpea (CCP), twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Composting of cowpea residue resulted in reduced concentrations of nitrogen-free extract, hemi-cellulose and trypsin inhibitor activity, though trypsin inhibitor activity remained high. Composting did not reduce crude fiber, lignin, or cellulose concentrations in the diet. No significant differences ( P < 0.05) were observed in weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate, daily consumption, and food conversion ratio between tilapia fed CP and CCP. These results suggest that P. ostreatus is not a suitable candidate for culture in conjunction with the culture of Nile tilapia. Additional work is needed to determine what, if any, benefit can be obtained from incorporating composted residue as feed for Nile tilapia.

  16. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  17. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  18. The importance of biological oxidation of iron in the aerobic cells of the Wheal Jane pilot passive treatment system.

    PubMed

    Hall, G; Swash, P; Kotilainen, S

    2005-02-01

    The passive treatment system designed to treat the mine water discharge of the abandoned Wheal Jane tin mine in Cornwall consisted of a sequence of artificial wetland cells, an anaerobic cell and a final series of rock filters. Three systems were operated which differed only in the pre-treatment of the mine water before discharge to the aerobic wetland cells. The aerobic cells were designed to promote aerobic oxidation and precipitation of iron which could exceed a concentration of 100 mg/l in the raw mine water discharge. The largest investment of land area was to the artificial wetland cells and it was important to understand the processes of oxidation and precipitation of iron so that the performance of this aspect the pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) could be managed as efficiently as possible. The generally low pH of the influent mine water and inevitable trend of decreasing pH due to hydrolysis of Fe(III) meant that distinguishing between biotic and abiotic mechanisms was fundamental for further design planning of passive treatment systems. This paper describes these observations. PMID:15680627

  19. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation.

  20. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process.

  1. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process. PMID:26216504

  2. Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System Function and Aerobic Capacity in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hägglund, Harriet; Uusitalo, Arja; Peltonen, Juha E.; Koponen, Anne S.; Aho, Jyrki; Tiinanen, Suvi; Seppänen, Tapio; Tulppo, Mikko; Tikkanen, Heikki O.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has been reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in healthy subjects, but this relationship is unknown in T1D. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in T1D individuals. Ten T1D patients (34 ± 7 years) and 11 healthy control (CON; 31 ± 6 years) age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. ANS function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with a graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to maneuvers in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians) than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05). VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml kg−1 min−1) than in CON (45 ± 9 ml kg−1 min−1, p < 0.05). Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF, and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05) and when analyzing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to maneuvers, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in T1D. PMID:22973238

  3. Biochar composts and composites.

    PubMed

    Ekebafe, Marian Osazoduwa; Ekebafe, Lawrence Olu; Ugbesia, Stella Omozee

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the carbon content of wastes decreases during composting with an increase in the nitrogen content. This indicates that the increased microbial activity in the process results in an increased mineralisation rate of organic nitrogen. A formula containing biochar in the form of terra preta, biochar bokashi, biochar glomalin, biochar hydrogel and biochar mokusaku-eki could further enhance the stability of the system and its effectiveness as a soil ameliorant. It could increase the cation exchange capacity, reuse crop residue, reduce runoff, reduce watering, reduce the quantity of fertiliser increase crop yield, build and multiply soil biodiversity, strengthen and rebuild our soil food web, sequester atmospheric carbon in a carbon negative process, increase soil pH, restructure poor soils, and reduce carbon dioxide/methane/ nitrous oxide/ammonia emissions from gardens and fields. This paper considers these claims and also the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processes. The intention of this overview is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research. PMID:26288918

  4. Does municipal solid waste composting make economic sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Renkow, M.; Rubin, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Currently there is a widespread interest on the part of local governments in incorporating municipal solid waste (MSW) composting into their integrated solid waste management systems. However, there is little information on the costs of MSW composting and how those costs compare with the costs of alternative forms of waste disposal (especially traditional land disposal). This article begins to fill this information gap by reporting the results of a survey of 19 MSW compositing facilities around the US. Results indicate that MSW composting generally costs around $50 per ton, and that very few facilities receive any revenues from the sale of compost to offset operating costs. Additional economic analysis indicates that, at present, MSW composting cannot be justified on financial grounds in most parts of the US, but may be competitive with land disposal where the cost of landfilling is high (such as the north-east).

  5. Composting of MSW: Needs, problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is constructed of three complementary sections. The first section discusses the need for composting municipal solid waste (MSW). Too often as scientists and engineers the focus narrows to solve a specific problem within a system or to find the most cost effective solution. One habitually fails to examine concepts holistically due to tight schedules or work backlogs. One understands how things work and gets renumerated by the ability to scale up from the bench or pilot, keep costs down and to troubleshoot cranky processes. Sitting back to understand the reason why something like composting makes sense is a luxury one usually cannot afford. Section two discusses problems specific to MSW composting such as product quality, production stabilization, nuisance odors, and vector attraction. The final segment deals with some solutions to these difficulties.

  6. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Faron, Matthew L.; Buchan, Blake W.; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L.; Granato, Paul A.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Procop, Gary W.; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26529504

  7. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure. PMID:27189139

  8. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E.; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M.; Houot, S.

    2012-02-15

    compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures.

  9. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  10. Internal recycle to improve denitrification in a step feed anoxic/aerobic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Boyle, C A; McKenzie, C J; Morgan, S

    2009-01-01

    During periods of low load (weekends and holidays) the Mangere wastewater treatment plant effluent has breached the summer consent conditions for total nitrogen. The purpose of this research was to determine if an internal recycle would improve nitrogen removal in the anoxic/aerobic activated sludge reactors sufficient to meet the summer resource consent standard. The recycle returned nitrate rich mixed liquor from the downstream aerobic zone back to the initial anoxic zone, thus potentially improving denitrification. A full scale trial showed that installation of the internal recycle on each RC would have satisfied the resource consent for total nitrogen in most cases over the three summer resource consent periods since the upgrade. However, further modifications of the internal recycle would be required to ensure that consent conditions were satisfied at all times and to improve the consistency of the results.

  11. Biochar increases plant available water in a sandy soil under an aerobic rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Meinke, H.

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 t ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields at 2 and 3 years after application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each t ha-1 of biochar amendment at 2 and 3 years after application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an increase in overall porosity of the sandy soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5% and 1.6% for each t ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under water limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  12. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation-reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward "aerobic" composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology. PMID:26442637

  13. [Effect of adding amendments on preserving nitrogen during chicken manure and saw composting].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yimei; Qu, Dong; Li, Guoxue

    2003-03-01

    In the automatic aerobic compost device, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of four amendments on inhibition of nitrogen losses during the chicken manure and saw composting. The changes of chemical parameters, temperature, pH, water soluble ammonium and organic nitrogen, total nitrogen and organic carbon with time during the aerobic composting process were investigated. The results suggested that adding four amendments have certain effect on preserve nitrogen and chemical parameters. Treatments added different amendments all decreased the nitrogen losses and increased the decomposition of organic carbon for 40 days-composting. The effect extent of four amendments was adding peat and superphosphate together > adding peat > adding superphosphate > adding zeolite. Especially adding peat and superphosphate together prolonged the high temperature stage 5 days, decreased the pH 0.89 pH unit in the initial stage and 0.44 pH unit in the high temperature stage during composting, and it decreased the nitrogen losses about 65.1% during the composting. PMID:12800680

  14. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  15. Investigation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor/ Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (AFBR/MMBR) System for Treatment of Currant Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    JAFARI, Jalil; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; NABIZADEH, Ramin; FARROKHI, Mehrdad; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaerobic treatment methods are more suitable for the treatment of concentrated wastewater streams, offer lower operating costs, the production of usable biogas product. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR)-Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) in series arrangement to treat Currant wastewater. Methods: The bed materials of AFBR were cylindrical particles made of PVC with a diameter of 2–2.3 mm, particle density of 1250 kg/m3. The volume of all bed materials was 1.7 liter which expanded to 2.46 liters in fluidized situation. In MBBR, support media was composed of 1.5 liters Bee-Cell 2000 having porosity of 87% and specific surface area of 650m2/m3. Results: When system operated at 35 ºC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved to 98% and 81.6% for organic loading rates (OLR) of 9.4 and 24.2 g COD/l.d, and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 48 and 18 h, in average COD concentration feeding of 18.4 g/l, respectively. Conclusion: The contribution of AFBR in total COD removal efficiency at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.4 g COD/l.d was 95%, and gradually decreased to 76.5% in OLR of 24.2 g COD/l.d. Also with increasing in organic loading rate the contribution of aerobic reactor in removing COD gradually decreased. In this system, the anaerobic reactor played the most important role in the removal of COD, and the aerobic MBBR was actually needed to polish the anaerobic treated wastewater. PMID:26056640

  16. Physical Modeling of the Composting Ecosystem †

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, J. A.; Miller, F. C.; Finstein, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A composting physical model with an experimental chamber with a working volume of 14 × 103 cm3 (0.5 ft3) was designed to avoid exaggerated conductive heat loss resulting from, relative to field-scale piles, a disproportionately large outer surface-area-to-volume ratio. In the physical model, conductive flux (rate of heat flow through chamber surfaces) was made constant and slight through a combination of insulation and temperature control of the surrounding air. This control was based on the instantaneous conductive flux, as calculated from temperature differentials via a conductive heat flow model. An experiment was performed over a 10-day period in which control of the composting process was based on ventilative heat removal in reference to a microbially favorable temperature ceiling (temperature feedback). By using the conduction control system (surrounding air temperature controlled), 2.4% of the total heat evolved from the chamber was through conduction, whereas the remainder was through the ventilative mechanisms of the latent heat of vaporization and the sensible temperature increase of air. By comparison, with insulation alone (the conduction control system was not used) conduction accounted for 33.5% of the total heat evolved. This difference in conduction resulted in substantial behavioral differences with respect to the temperature of the composting matrix and the amount of water removed. By emphasizing the slight conduction system (2.4% of total heat flow) as being a better representative of field conditions, a comparison was made between composting system behavior in the laboratory physical model and field-scale piles described in earlier reports. Numerous behavioral patterns were qualitatively similar in the laboratory and field (e.g., temperature gradient, O2 content, and water removal). It was concluded that field-scale composting system behavior can be simulated reasonably faithfully in the physical model. Images PMID:16347903

  17. Complete nitrification-denitrification of swine manure in a full-scale, non-conventional composting system.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    A full-scale composting plant (track type, aerated by screws), treating liquid swine manure (94.8% on mass basis) with straw (<0.8%) and sawdust (4.4%), was monitored. The main objectives were testing the performance of the process and assessing its environmental sustainability. Particular attention was dedicated to verify the possibility that this process could determine significant mass reduction, along with Nitrogen reduction, mainly by denitrification. Emissions were evaluated by measuring NH3, N2O and CH4 (by static chamber), H2S and odor emissions (by dynamic olfactometry). Quality and quantity of inputs and outputs and process parameters (redox, oxygen, and temperature) were monitored. The process produced a mature, highly humified (Humification Index=0.27), solid product with 92.8% mass reduction (mainly evaporation), and nitrogen reduction (85.8% referred to input TN). The process was revealed to be environmentally sustainable: emissions of odors and H2S resulted negligible; emissions of N-N2O represented 0.18% of TN input, while emissions of N-NH3 represented 0.87% of input TN. Microbiological analyses determined the presence of 10(7) CFU/g of bacteria related to N cycle and real time PCR demonstrated the presence in the final product of 4.77 ⋅ 10(7) couples of genes of Bacterial amoA/gTS and 2.46 ⋅ 10(7) couples NosZ/gTS, indicating nitrification and complete denitrification. These results exhibit that nitrification and complete denitrification can efficiently occur in a composting process effectively transforming N2O into N2 as consequence of the optimized alternation of aerated and anoxic phases in the feedstock.

  18. Genotoxicity of the extracts from the compost of the organic and the total municipal garbage using three plant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G L; Rodriguez, D M; Maruri, A B

    1999-05-19

    The production of compost is one of the alternatives for the disposal of non-hazardous solid wastes. Compost is used in agriculture and gardening as fertilizer. In the State of Queretaro, Mexico, there is a project to produce compost from the municipal garbage which could be used as a fertilizer. The presence of mutagenic compounds in the compost could be a major disadvantage for the selection of this alternative. For the above reason, this study was initiated as a pilot project to determine the potential mutagenic activity in the compost using three plant bioassays: Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN), Tradescantia stamen hair mutations (Trad-SHM) and Allium root anaphase aberrations (AL-RAA). Compost was produced using both aerobic and anaerobic processes from either organic waste (from the residential area) or from the total components of the municipal garbage. Extractions from the compost were done using distilled water and organic solvents and shaking the sample for about 12 h under relatively low temperatures (15-20 degrees C). Plant cuttings of Tradescantia or the roots of Allium were treated by submerging them in the extracts. Three replicates of each sample were analyzed in each one of the three bioassays. As expected the samples of compost from the total garbage showed a higher genetoxicity than those from organic waste. In conclusion, there are some substances present in the compost capable of inducing genotoxicity in the plant assays and therefore there must be some restrictions for its use as a fertilizer.

  19. Controlling calcium precipitation in an integrated anaerobic-aerobic treatment system of a "zero-discharge" paper mill.

    PubMed

    van Lier, J B; Boncz, M A

    2002-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry uses significant amounts of water and energy for the paper production process. Closing the water cycles in this industry, therefore, promises large benefits for the environment and has the potential of huge cost savings for the industry. Closing the water cycle on the other hand also introduces problems with process water quality, quality of the end-product and scaling, owing to increased water contamination. An inline treatment system is discussed in which anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors perform a central role for removing both organic and inorganic pollutants from the process water cycle. In the proposed set-up, the organic compounds are converted to methane gas and reused for energy supply, while sulphur compounds are stripped from the process cycle and calcium carbonate is removed by precipitation. Improved control of the treatment system will direct the inorganic precipitates to a location where it does not adversely affect paper production and process water treatment. A simulation program for triggering and controlling CaCO3 precipitation was developed that takes both biological conversions and all relevant chemical equilibria in the system into account. Simulation results are in good agreement with data gathered in a full-scale "zero-emission" paper plant and indicate that control of CaCO3 precipitation can be improved, e.g. in the aerobic post-treatment. Alternatively, a separate precipitation unit could be considered.

  20. Characterization and treatment of Denizli landfill leachate using anaerobic hybrid/aerobic CSTR systems.

    PubMed

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Leachate generated in municipal solid waste landfill contains large amounts of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the scope of the study, characterization and anaerobic/aerobic treatability of leachate from Denizli (Turkey) Sanitary Landfill were investigated. Time-based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored during a one-year period. In characterization study; chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen, NH4-N, BOD5/COD ratio, suspended solid, inert COD, anaerobic toxicity assay and heavy metals concentrations in leachate were monitored. Average COD, BOD and NH4-N concentration in leachate were measured as 18034 mg/l, 11504 mg/l and 454 mg/l, respectively. Generally, pollution parameters in leachate were higher in summer and relatively lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. For treatment of leachate, two different reactors, namely anaerobic hybrid and aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) having effective volumes of 17.7 and 10.5 litres, respectively, were used. After 41 days of start-up period, leachate was loaded to hybrid reactor at 10 different organic loading rates (OLRs). OLR was increased by increasing COD concentrations. COD removal efficiency of hybrid reactor was carried out at a maximum of 91%. A percentage of 96% of residual COD was removed in the aerobic reactor. NH4-N removal rate in CSTR was quite high. In addition, high methane content was obtained as 64% in the hybrid reactor. At the end of the study, after 170 operation days, it can be said that the hybrid reactor and CSTR were very effective for leachate treatment.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J K; Boldrin, A; Christensen, T H; Scheutz, C

    2010-12-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week(-1) and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 °C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH(4)Mg(-1) input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N(2)OMg(-1)ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO(2)-eq.Mg(-1)ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH(4) during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH(4) emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg(-1)ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO(2)-eq.Mg(-1)ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  2. Indicator organisms for assessing sanitization during composting of plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Pietravalle, S; Weekes, R; Henry, C M

    2011-08-01

    The potential for using plant pathogens and seeds as indicator organisms for assessing sanitization of plant wastes during composting was tested in bench-scale flask and large-scale systems. Plasmodiophora brassicae was unsuitable due to high temperature tolerance in dry to moist composts, and detection of viable inoculum post-composting using bioassay plants not corresponding with that using TaqMan® PCR, possibly due to preservation of nucleic acids at elevated temperatures. Several other plant pathogens (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Microdochium nivale, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora nicotianae) were unsuitable due their low temperature tolerance. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae and f.sp. radicis-lycopersici chlamydospores and tomato seeds were suitable indicators due to their moderate temperature tolerance and ease of viability testing post-composting. Abutilon seeds were more tolerant than tomato seeds of compost temperatures ≥52°C but more prone to degradation at lower temperatures and therefore less suitable as indicators. Relationships between compost temperature during exposures of 2-10 days and subsequent viability of the above chlamydospores or seeds enabled the sanitizing effect of composting processes to be predicted within 2-6 days. Plant waste type (woody or vegetable) had a small but significant effect on the relationship for tomato seeds but not for F. oxysporum chlamydospores.

  3. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    PubMed

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils. PMID:27494101

  4. Degradation of typical N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and its formation potential in anoxic-aerobic (AO) activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei; He, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection byproduct. Removal of its potential precursors is considered as an effective method to control NDMA. In this study, four typical NDMA precursors (dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylformamide (DMFA) and dimethylaminobenzene (DMAB)) were selected, and their removal capacities by activated sludge were investigated. Batch experiments indicated that removal of NDMA precursors was better under aerobic condition than anoxic condition; and their specific degradation rates follow the order of DMA > TMA > DMFA > DMAB. In anoxic-aerobic (AO) activated sludge system, the optimal hydraulic retention time and sludge retention time were 10 h and 20 d, respectively, for the removal of both NDMA precursors (four selected NDMA precursors and NDMA formation potential (NDMA FP)) and nutrients. Our results also suggested that there was a positive correlation between NDMA FP and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in wastewater. The removal efficiency of NDMA FP was in the range of 46.8-72.5% in the four surveyed wastewater treatment plants except the one which adopted chemically enhanced primary process. The results revealed that the AO system had the advantage of removing NDMA FP. Our results are helpful for the knowledge of the removals of NDMA precursors during activated sludge treatment processes.

  5. [Effect of bio-charcoal on the trans of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil-plant system with composted sludge application].

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Chen, Ying-xu; Wu, Wei-xiang; Ma, Hong-rui

    2009-08-15

    The effects of bio-charcoal acted as sludge-composting additive on soil characteristics and plant growth were studied. Compared with the treatment of composted sludge without bio-charcoal, soil cation exchange capacity in treatment of composted sludge with bio-charcoal increased over 5% and 10% respectively and soil nitrogen content increased 13% and 18% respectively for two kind soils. The composted sludge with bio-charcoal also resulted in 23% higher enhancement on ryegrass biomass and 8%-10% higher enhancement on ryegrass chlorophyll content. In addition, with the amendment of bio-charcoal, the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in composted sludge was decreased, which resulted in the lower absorption and accumulation of ryegrass to PAHs. Compared with the control, the PAHs concentration in ryegrass amended composted sludge with bio-charcoal decreased 27%-34%. The results indicated that composted sludge with bio-charcoal resulted in much more improvement on the plant growth as well as less negative effect on environment. Therefore, biocharcoal was in favor of the safe land application of sewage sludge.

  6. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    PubMed

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (<10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment.

  7. [Degradation Characteristics of Three Aniline Compounds in Simulated Aerobic Sewage Treat System].

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Chen, Guo-song; Shi, Li-li; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    The removal rates of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) were tested by employing a simulation method of aerobic biochemical sewage treatment technology in this study. The results showed that when HRT was 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, the removal rates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were 70.2%, 80.3% and 88.3%, the removal rates of 4-nitroaniline were 48%, 64.7% and 75%; and the removal rates of 4-isopropyl aniline were 66%, 76% and 91%, respectively. It was concluded that increasing HRT could promote the removal rates of DOC and aniline chemicals. In contrast, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was difficult to be removed. The removal rates were less than 20% under all tested conditions. The kinetics analysis showed that the biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline in aerobic activated sewage (3 g x L(-1)) accorded with the first order kinetics and the regression coefficients were > 0.95. The half-life time of biodegradation was 6.01 h, 16.16 h, 123.75 h, respectively. In general, functional groups such as isopropyl had a positive effect on the biodegradation of aniline chemicals, whereas substituents such as nitro group and chlorine atom had an inhibitory effect.

  8. Occurrence and activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in aerobic activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-03-01

    In the sewage or wastewater treatment plant, biological sulphate reduction can occur spontaneously or be applied beneficially for its treatment. The results of this study can be applied to control SRB in the sewage and WWTP. Therefore, population diversity analyses of SRB for nine activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Netherlands and the effect of long-term (months) oxygen exposures on the SRB activity were carried out. T-RFLP and clone sequencing analyses of winter and summer samples revealed that (1) all WWTP have a similar SRB population, (2) there is no seasonal impact (10-20 °C) on the SRB population present in the WWTP and (3) Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio intestinalis were the most common and dominant SRB species observed in these samples, and origin from the sewage. Short term activity tests demonstrated that SRB were not active in the aerobic WWTP, but while flushed with N2-gas SRB became slightly active after 3 h. In a laboratory reactor at a dissolved oxygen concentration of <2 %, sulphate reduction occurred and 89 % COD removal was achieved. SRB grew in granules, in order to protect themselves for oxygen exposures. SRB are naturally present in aerobic WWTP, which is due to the formation of granules. PMID:25649202

  9. Characterization and open windrow composting of MSW in Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Bhushan; Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, Yukti; Sharma, Yagya

    2013-07-01

    Solid waste is sometimes not suitable for direct land application. Processing solid waste through composting converts it to a humus-containing organic material advantageous for agriculture/horticulture use. Major advantages of composting are stabilization of the wastes; substantially reduced C/N ratio and gas formation, and virtually elimination of odors and pathogens. Composting is accomplished under aerobic conditions developing temperatures of 55 degrees C or above. The windrow technique is simple and accomplished easily with standard equipments. The open windrow composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) in windrows was analyzed in this study for six weeks. The raw MSW was introduced to active composting without any source segregations. The moisture content of the MSW dropped from 58.88% to 48.06% and windrow attained a thermophillic temperature for about two weeks. It was observed that the pH, C/N ratio and temperature variations were comparable to that of traditional windrow composting. The peak temperature recorded was 68 degrees C and temperature remained above 60 degrees C for more than three weeks. The volume reduction was obtained by using one-cu.m. cage. The results indicate that the bulk composting could reduce by about 29% the total mass of the waste.

  10. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  11. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  12. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented.

  13. Compost suppressiveness against Phytophthora capsicion pepper in potting trials.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Marenco, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts has been widely studied. Composts suppressive to soil-borne pathogens have been detected in various cropping systems. Vegetable plants are generally propagated in pots, allowing the use of suppressive substrates to control zoospore-producing pathogens, like Phytophthora sp. The objective of the present work was to assess compost suppressiveness against Phytophthora capsici on pepper (cv. Corno di Toro). A municipal compost showing a good suppressive activity in previous trials on vegetable crops was used. Compost was mixed at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% (v/v) with a commercial peat substrate, used as control. Substrates have been inoculated at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/l with wheat and hemp kernels infested with P. capsici and after one week 10 plants were transplanted for each treatment in 4 trays of 10 liters volume capacity and placed in greenhouse at 20 degrees C. Diseased plants were assessed weekly after transplanting and above-ground biomass of plants was assessed at the end of the trials. Compost applied at 80% significantly controlled the disease at high inoculum density (1 g/l), while at lower inoculums density, 0.25 and 0.5 g/l, reduced compost applications, 40% and 60% respectively, were sufficient to significantly control the disease. The application of compost at 20%, in absence of the pathogen, increased the biomass of pepper plants compared to control. The use of compost based substrates can be a suitable strategy for controlling soil-borne diseases on pepper, but results depends on application rates.

  14. Biodegradation of Poly(butylene succinate) Powder in a Controlled Compost at 58 °C Evaluated by Naturally-Occurring Carbon 14 Amounts in Evolved CO2 Based on the ISO 14855-2 Method

    PubMed Central

    Kunioka, Masao; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 °C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled “Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions—Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide—Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test”. The evolved CO2 was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)2 solution. The trapped BaCO3 was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the 14C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO2 (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO2 amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO2. PMID:20057944

  15. Biodegradation of poly(butylene succinate) powder in a controlled compost at 58°C evaluated by naturally-occurring carbon 14 amounts in evolved CO(2) based on the ISO 14855-2 method.

    PubMed

    Kunioka, Masao; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro

    2009-11-20

    The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 degrees C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled "Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions-Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide-Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test". The evolved CO(2) was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)(2) solution. The trapped BaCO(3) was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the (14)C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO(2) (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO(2) amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO(2).

  16. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting. PMID:25433989

  17. Planktonic and sediment-associated aerobic methanotrophs in two seep systems along the North American margin.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Patricia L; Ussler, William; Orphan, Victoria J

    2008-07-01

    Methane vents are of significant geochemical and ecological importance. Notable progress has been made toward understanding anaerobic methane oxidation in marine sediments; however, the diversity and distribution of aerobic methanotrophs in the water column are poorly characterized. Both environments play an essential role in regulating methane release from the oceans to the atmosphere. In this study, the diversity of particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) and 16S rRNA genes from two methane vent environments along the California continental margin was characterized. The pmoA phylotypes recovered from methane-rich sediments and the overlying water column differed. Sediments harbored the greatest number of unique pmoA phylotypes broadly affiliated with the Methylococcaceae family, whereas planktonic pmoA phylotypes formed three clades that were distinct from the sediment-hosted methanotrophs and distantly related to established methanotrophic clades. Water column-associated phylotypes were highly similar between field sites, suggesting that planktonic methanotroph diversity is controlled primarily by environmental factors rather than geographical proximity. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes from methane-rich waters did not readily recover known methanotrophic lineages, with only a few phylotypes demonstrating distant relatedness to Methylococcus. The development of new pmo primers increased the recovery of monooxygenase genes from the water column and led to the discovery of a highly diverged monooxygenase sequence which is phylogenetically intermediate to Amo and pMMO. This sequence potentiates insight into the amo/pmo superfamily. Together, these findings lend perspective into the diversity and segregation of aerobic methanotrophs within different methane-rich habitats in the marine environment.

  18. Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Leone, Anna; Iovieno, Paola; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of some trace elements in two different types of Mediterranean soils were studied in order to evaluate the possible long-term contamination following compost amendments. Total and available (DTPA-extractable) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined. The study was carried out on two agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), a Sandy Loam Calcaric Cambisol (SG) and a Clay Gleyc Luvisol (CO), during 3 years of organic amendment with compost. The compost, produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and urban yard trimmings, in accordance with the Italian law for agricultural use, was applied at annually rates of 15, 30, and 45 t ha(-1) (on dry weight basis). Wide variations in total and available Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were observed over time, but appeared to be in many cases unrelated to the treatments, occurring also in control plots. After 3 years of compost application the amended SG soil showed the highest and significant increase in total Cd and Zn concentrations; in addition, the available Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations increased in accordance with the compost rates. The CO soil, characterized by a higher clay content, lower organic matter content and lower cation exchange capacity, exhibited a lower increase in available metal fractions. Our findings show that compost amendment affects more the available than the total metal concentrations in the two types of soils studied and thus it is important into legislation that metal "bioavailability" may be considered in defining threshold metal values.

  19. Composting in Prince William County

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.

    1995-10-01

    Hidden in a small industrial corner of Prince Williams County, in Northern Virginia, a composting facility, after its first flourishing year in business, has found itself part of a symbiotic triangle. Along with a landfill and a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant, the composting facility is one of three programs that make up a joint public-private venture and form a interjurisdictional solid waste/refuse exchange agreement. Faced with the prospects of having to close a landfill at the end of the year, a mandate on yard waste collection that was increasing collection tonnage, and no room for further landfill development, Fairfax County, with approximately 900,000 residents, needed help. In a turn-around situation, Prince William County--with approximately 240,000 residents, a low budget, and much space available for development--responded. Together the counties created a solid waste exchange. The basis for the program is a unity between the local governments on some solid waste issues and a composting facility. Composting, specifically yard waste composting, has been among the fastest-growing aspects of waste management. In 1990, the nation was composting 2% of its solid waste. By the end of 1995, according to the US EPA, between 4% and 7% of solid waste will be recovered through composting. The number of yard waste composting facilities operating has increased from 651 in 1988 to more than 3,000 in 1994.

  20. Systems Characterization of Temperature, Ph and Electrical Conductivity in Aerobic Biodegradation of Wheat Biomass at Differing Mixing Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, M.; Trotman, A.; Aglan, H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to observe and relate the rate of mixing to pH and electrical conductivity in an aerobic, continuously stirred bioreactor. The objective is to use data collected from successive experiments as a means of a system characterization. Tests were conducted to obtain these data using a continuously stirred 20 L Cytostir glass reaction vessel as a bioreactor operated without built-in temperature or pH control. The tests were conducted on the lab bench at ambient temperatures. The substrate in the bioreactor was ground wheat biomass obtained from the Biomass Production Chamber at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In this study, the data reflect characteristics of the native (uninoculated) systems as well as inoculated systems. In the native systems, it was found that pi levels became stable after approximately 2 to 3 days. The electrical conductivity levels for the native systems tended to decrease over time. In contrast, ion activity was increased after the introduction of bacteria into the system. This could be correlated with the release of nutrients, due to the activity of the bacteria. Also, there were slight increases in pH in the inoculated system, a result which is expected for a system with no active pr controls. The data will be used to test a mathematical model in an automated system.

  1. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  2. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  3. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system based on suspended ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Gu, Li-Peng; Xu, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel suspended ceramsite was prepared, which has high strength, optimum density (close to water), and high porosity. The ceramsite was used to feed a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) arrangement to treat petroleum refinery wastewater for simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system was varied from 72 to 18 h. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. Compared with the professional emission standard of China, the effluent concentrations of COD and NH3-N in the system could satisfy grade I at HRTs of 72 and 36 h, and grade II at HRT of 18 h. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0575 g suspended solid/g CODremoved. This work demonstrated that the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system using the suspended ceramsite as bio-carrier could be applied to achieving high wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:23656940

  4. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system based on suspended ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Gu, Li-Peng; Xu, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel suspended ceramsite was prepared, which has high strength, optimum density (close to water), and high porosity. The ceramsite was used to feed a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) arrangement to treat petroleum refinery wastewater for simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system was varied from 72 to 18 h. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. Compared with the professional emission standard of China, the effluent concentrations of COD and NH3-N in the system could satisfy grade I at HRTs of 72 and 36 h, and grade II at HRT of 18 h. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0575 g suspended solid/g CODremoved. This work demonstrated that the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system using the suspended ceramsite as bio-carrier could be applied to achieving high wastewater treatment efficiency.

  5. Physical analyses of compost from composting plants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barreira, L P; Philippi Junior, A; Rodrigues, M S; Tenório, J A S

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the composting process has shown itself to be an alternative in the treatment of municipal solid wastes by composting plants. However, although more than 50% of the waste generated by the Brazilian population is composed of matter susceptible to organic composting, this process is, still today, insufficiently developed in Brazil, due to low compost quality and lack of investments in the sector. The objective of this work was to use physical analyses to evaluate the quality of the compost produced at 14 operative composting plants in the Sao Paulo State in Brazil. For this purpose, size distribution and total inert content tests were done. The results were analyzed by grouping the plants according to their productive processes: plants with a rotating drum, plants with shredders or mills, and plants without treatment after the sorting conveyor belt. Compost quality was analyzed considering the limits imposed by the Brazilian Legislation and the European standards for inert contents. The size distribution tests showed the influence of the machinery after the sorting conveyer on the granule sizes as well as the inert content, which contributes to the presence of materials that reduce the quality of the final product. PMID:17855069

  6. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: fertilizer effect and application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-01

    Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55°C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  7. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ogbonna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. POME was initially centrifuged at 4,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was enriched with (NH4)2SO4 (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.25%) to boost its nitrogen content. At optimum pH (pH 4) and temperature (40°C) conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 10,350 to 1,000 mg/L (90.3%) after 7 days. The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2.4 × 106 CFU/mL, while the fungal count was 1.8 × 103 colonies/mL. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged. However, at 75 and 50% POME dilutions, the COD dropped by 52 and 44%, respectively, while the pH increased from 4 to 7.53. POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. PMID:27433536

  8. Sequential extraction of heavy metals during composting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Amir, Soumia; Hafidi, Mohamed; Merlina, Georges; Revel, Jean-Claude

    2005-05-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system. This study was conducted to determine the heavy metal speciation and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium in the course of composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in sewage sludge. Principal physical and chemical properties and FTIR spectroscopical characterization of sludge compost during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. The total metal contents in the final compost were much lower than the limit values of composts to be used as good soil fertilizer. Furthermore, it was observed by using a sequential extraction procedure in sludge compost at different steps of treatment, that a large proportion of the heavy metals were associated to the residual fraction (70-80%) and more resistant fractions to extraction X-NaOH, X-EDTA, X-HNO3 (12-29%). Less than 2% of metals bound to bioavailable fractions X-(KNO3+H2O). Heavy metal distribution and bioavailability show some changes during composting depending on the metal itself and the physico-chemical properties of the medium. Bioavailable fractions of all elements tend to decrease except Ni-H2O. Zn and mainly Cu present more affinity to organic and carbonate fractions. In contrast, Pb is usually preferentially bound to sulfide forms X-HNO3. Nickel shows a significant decrease of organic form. Significant degrees of correlation were found between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected variables (e.g. pH, ash, organic matter, humic substance) during the course of composting. Mobile fractions of metals are poorly predictable from the total content. The R2 value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as the amount of organic matter (OM) and pH.

  9. Composting of municipal and sewage wastes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the composting of sewage and municipal wastes as an alternative to conventional treatments such as landfills. Processing variables are considered, including aeration, heavy-metal cleanup, microbial activity, and temperatures. Applications of this composted product for fertilization of agricultural lands, and productivity measurements of treated soils are considered. Economic comparisons between waste treatment options are examined, and examples are presented for successful sewage and waste composting systems worldwide. Industrial and agricultural waste processing by composting are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of solid organic wastes on earth and for applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Perez, Javier Christian

    Aerobic biodegradation plays an important role in recycling organic matter and nutrients on earth. It is also a candidate technology for waste processing and resource recovery in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, such as a proposed planetary base on Mars. Important questions are how long should wastes be treated, and what is the quality (stability/maturity) of the product. To address these questions two aerobic composting systems were evaluated. One treated (252 days) horse manure and cranberry fruit in duplicate open windrows (HCC) as a reference earth application. The other was a pilot-scale (330 L) enclosed, in-vessel system treating (162 days) inedible biomass collected from plant growth systems at NASA, amended with food and human wastes simulant for potential space application (ALSC). Samples were taken from both systems over time and product quality assessed with a range of physical, chemical, biological, toxicological, respirometry and plant growth analyses that were developed and standardized. Because plant growth analyses take so long, a hypothesis was that some parameters could be used to predict compost quality and suitability for growing plants. Maximum temperatures in the thermophilic range were maintained for both systems (HCC > 60°C for >129 days, ALSC > 55°C for >40 days. Fecal streptococci were reduced by 4.8 log-units for HCC and 7.8 for ALSC. Volume/mass reductions achieved were 63%/62% for HCC and 79%/67% for ALSC. Phytotoxicity tests performed on aqueous extracts to recover plant nutrients found decreasing sensitivity: arabidopsis > lettuce > tomato > wheat > cucumber, corresponding with seed size and food reserve capacity. The germination index (GI) of HCC increased over composting time indicating decreasing phytotoxicity. However, GIs for ALSC leachate decreased or fluctuated over composting time. Selected samples of HCC at 31, 157 and 252 days alone and combined with promix (1:1), and of ALSC at 7, 14, 21, 28, 40 and 84 days, or fresh

  11. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-10-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation-reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward “aerobic” composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology.

  12. The impact of landfilling and composting on greenhouse gas emissions--a review.

    PubMed

    Lou, X F; Nair, J

    2009-08-01

    Municipal solid waste is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions through decomposition and life-cycle activities processes. The majority of these emissions are a result of landfilling, which remains the primary waste disposal strategy internationally. As a result, countries have been incorporating alternative forms of waste management strategies such as energy recovery from landfill gas capture, aerobic landfilling (aerox landfills), pre-composting of waste prior to landfilling, landfill capping and composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. As the changing global climate has been one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today, there is an increasing need to understand the impact of waste management on greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper serves to provide an overview on the impact of landfilling (and its various alternatives) and composting on greenhouse gas emissions taking into account streamlined life cycle activities and the decomposition process. The review suggests greenhouse gas emissions from waste decomposition are considerably higher for landfills than composting. However, mixed results were found for greenhouse gas emissions for landfill and composting operational activities. Nonetheless, in general, net greenhouse gas emissions for landfills tend to be higher than that for composting facilities.

  13. Spatial nitrifications of microbial processes during composting of swine, cow and chicken manure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Li, Xiangkun; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    Composting is a widely-used method to recycle the nutrients in livestock manure for agriculture. The spatial stratifications of microbial processes inside the manure particle that determine organic and nitrogen transformation are virtually unclear. Here, we show the evolution of the interior microenvironment of swine, cow and chicken manure by using microelectrodes during forced-aeration composting. Composting has generally been regarded as an aerobic bioprocess, however, the long-existing of a large anoxic zone inside these manures was confirmed during the active phase in this study. The profile of the oxidation–reduction potential dramatically decreased first and then gradually increased. The spatial difference in the ammonia concentration was not significant, but nitrate concentration continuously decreased with depth. The anoxic condition within the manure particle was demonstrated to be a primary cause of the severe ammonia emission and the long composting period. These founding provided a new insight toward “aerobic” composting process and a sound foundation for the development of efficient composting technology. PMID:26442637

  14. Critical factors and their effects on product maturity in food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    Product maturity represents the efficiency of composting performance, and it calls for high attention in food waste composting. In this study, a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design method combined with well-controlled experiments was introduced to characterize the effects of system factors (i.e., C/N ratio, aeration rate, starting culture amount, and coal ash amendment) on product maturity of food waste composting. The compost maturity was synthetically evaluated by developing a Mamdani fuzzy rule-based inference system. Temperature index, O2 uptake rate, ammonium, OM loss, C/N ratio, and ash content were chosen as indicators of the fuzzy multicriterion maturity evaluation. Evaluation results of compost maturity for the eight experiment runs demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of evaluating the compost maturity in food waste composting. The effect analyses indicated that the starting culture amount and aeration rate contributed the most to the compost maturity in this study. The results could provide decision support for the process control in food waste composting management.

  15. Critical factors and their effects on product maturity in food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    Product maturity represents the efficiency of composting performance, and it calls for high attention in food waste composting. In this study, a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design method combined with well-controlled experiments was introduced to characterize the effects of system factors (i.e., C/N ratio, aeration rate, starting culture amount, and coal ash amendment) on product maturity of food waste composting. The compost maturity was synthetically evaluated by developing a Mamdani fuzzy rule-based inference system. Temperature index, O2 uptake rate, ammonium, OM loss, C/N ratio, and ash content were chosen as indicators of the fuzzy multicriterion maturity evaluation. Evaluation results of compost maturity for the eight experiment runs demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of evaluating the compost maturity in food waste composting. The effect analyses indicated that the starting culture amount and aeration rate contributed the most to the compost maturity in this study. The results could provide decision support for the process control in food waste composting management. PMID:25822329

  16. Reduction of ammonia and volatile organic compounds from food waste-composting facilities using a novel anti-clogging biofilter system.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2011-04-01

    The performance of a pilot-scale anti-clogging biofilter system (ABS) was evaluated over a period of 125days for treating ammonia and volatile organic compounds emitted from a full-scale food waste-composting facility. The pilot-scale ABS was designed to intermittently and automatically remove excess biomass using an agitator. When the pressure drop in the polyurethane filter bed was increased to a set point (50 mm H(2)O m(-1)), due to excess biomass acclimation, the agitator automatically worked by the differential pressure switch, without biofilter shutdown. A high removal efficiency (97-99%) was stably maintained for the 125 days after an acclimation period of 1 week, even thought the inlet gas concentrations fluctuated from 0.16 to 0.55 g m(-3). Due the intermittent automatic agitation of the filter bed, the biomass concentration and pressure drop in the biofilter were maintained within the ranges of 1.1-2.0 g-DCW g PU(-1) and below 50 mm H(2)O m(-1), respectively.

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Associated With Lower Aerobic Capacity and Impaired Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yamato, Mayumi; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Suga, Tadashi; Takada, Shingo; Harada, Kuniaki; Morita, Noriteru; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Kikuchi, Yasuka; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Systemic oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We tested the hypothesis that systemic oxidative stress is linked to lower aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction in metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The incremental exercise testing with cycle ergometer was performed in 14 male patients with MetS and 13 age-, sex-, and activity-matched healthy subjects. Systemic lipid peroxidation was assessed by serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and systemic antioxidant defense capacity was assessed by serum total thiols and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). To assess skeletal muscle energy metabolism, we measured high-energy phosphates in the calf muscle during plantar flexion exercise and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) in the resting leg muscle, using 31P- and 1proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. RESULTS Serum TBARS were elevated (12.4 ± 7.1 vs. 3.7 ± 1.1 μmol/L; P < 0.01), and serum total thiols and SOD activity were decreased (290.8 ± 51.2 vs. 398.7 ± 105.2 μmol/L, P < 0.01; and 22.2 ± 8.4 vs. 31.5 ± 8.5 units/L, P < 0.05, respectively) in patients with MetS compared with healthy subjects. Peak VO2 and anaerobic threshold normalized to body weight were significantly lower in MetS patients by 25 and 31%, respectively, and inversely correlated with serum TBARS (r = −0.49 and r = −0.50, respectively). Moreover, muscle phosphocreatine loss during exercise was 1.4-fold greater in patients with MetS (P < 0.05), and IMCL content was 2.9-fold higher in patients with MetS (P < 0.01), indicating impaired skeletal muscle energy metabolism, and these indices positively correlated with serum TBARS (r = 0.45 and r = 0.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Systemic oxidative stress was associated with lower aerobic capacity and impaired skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with MetS. PMID:23393211

  19. Legionella spp. in UK composts--a potential public health issue?

    PubMed

    Currie, S L; Beattie, T K; Knapp, C W; Lindsay, D S J

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 5 years, a number of cases of legionellosis in Scotland have been associated with compost use; however, studies investigating sources of infection other than water systems remain limited. This study delivers the first comprehensive survey of composts commonly available in the UK for the presence of Legionella species. Twenty-two store-bought composts, one green-waste compost and one home-made compost were tested for Legionella by culture methods on BCYE-α medium, and the findings were confirmed by macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) speciation. Twenty-two of the samples were retested after an enrichment period of 8 weeks. In total, 15 of 24 composts tested positive for Legionella species, a higher level of contamination than previously seen in Europe. Two isolates of Legionella pneumophila were identified, and Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 was found to be one of the most commonly isolated species. L. longbeachae infection would not be detected by routine Legionella urinary antigen assay, so such testing should not be used as the sole diagnostic technique in atypical pneumonia cases, particularly where there is an association with compost use. The occurrence of Legionella in over half of the samples tested indicates that compost could pose a public health risk. The addition of general hygiene warnings to compost packages may be beneficial in protecting public health.

  20. Characters of compost teas from different sources and their suppressive effect on fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Marín, Francisco; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Carretero, Francisco; Gea, Francisco J; Yau, José A; Navarro, María J

    2013-08-01

    Compost teas (CT) are fermented watery extracts of composted materials that are used to control plant diseases and on crop fertilization. In this work, aerated (ACT) and non-aerated compost teas (NCT) were obtained from four different composts: spent mushroom substrate compost, grape marc compost, greenhouse horticultural crop residues compost, and vermicompost. Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis were carried out to determine their properties. In vitro assays were performed to assess their suppressive effect on the mycelial growth of eight fungal phytopathogens. In vivo trials aimed to assess their effect on gummy stem blight (Didymella bryonae) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera fusca) in melon plants. Results showed that ACT and NCT filtrates inhibited the in vitro growth of all tested pathogens while autoclaved CT did not completely lose their inhibitory effect, and CT sterilized by microfiltration had no effect on the pathogen growth. The severity of powdery mildew was highly reduced by ACT and NCT from all sources, though in gummy stem blight assay only a delay in disease development was observed. In general, all compost teas showed a high level of microbial populations and nutrients. Results suggest that the efficacy of ACT and NCT firstly depend on the microbiota present in them. We consider compost teas from the four tested sources as a viable way to manage plant diseases and crop fertilization, throughout its integration in pest management programs and fertirrigation systems under different dilution rates.

  1. Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Leone, Anna; Iovieno, Paola; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of some trace elements in two different types of Mediterranean soils were studied in order to evaluate the possible long-term contamination following compost amendments. Total and available (DTPA-extractable) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined. The study was carried out on two agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), a Sandy Loam Calcaric Cambisol (SG) and a Clay Gleyc Luvisol (CO), during 3 years of organic amendment with compost. The compost, produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and urban yard trimmings, in accordance with the Italian law for agricultural use, was applied at annually rates of 15, 30, and 45 t ha(-1) (on dry weight basis). Wide variations in total and available Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were observed over time, but appeared to be in many cases unrelated to the treatments, occurring also in control plots. After 3 years of compost application the amended SG soil showed the highest and significant increase in total Cd and Zn concentrations; in addition, the available Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations increased in accordance with the compost rates. The CO soil, characterized by a higher clay content, lower organic matter content and lower cation exchange capacity, exhibited a lower increase in available metal fractions. Our findings show that compost amendment affects more the available than the total metal concentrations in the two types of soils studied and thus it is important into legislation that metal "bioavailability" may be considered in defining threshold metal values. PMID:20561670

  2. Integrated thermophilic submerged aerobic membrane bioreactor and electrochemical oxidation for pulp and paper effluent treatment--towards system closure.

    PubMed

    Qu, X; Gao, W J; Han, M N; Chen, A; Liao, B Q

    2012-07-01

    A novel integrated thermophilic submerged aerobic membrane bioreactor (TSAMBR) and electrochemical oxidation (EO) technology was developed for thermomechanical pulping pressate treatment with the aim of system closure. The TSAMBR was able to achieve a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 88.6 ± 1.9-92.3 ± 0.7% under the organic loading rate of 2.76 ± 0.13-3.98 ± 0.23 kg COD/(m(3) d). An optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.1 ± 0.1d was identified for COD removal. Cake formation was identified as the dominant mechanism of membrane fouling. The EO of the TSAMBR permeate was performed using a Ti/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(5)-IrO(2) electrode. After 6-h EO, a complete decolourization was achieved and the COD removal efficiency was increased to 96.2 ± 1.2-98.2 ± 0.3%. The high-quality effluent produced by the TSAMBR-EO system can be reused as process water for system closure in pulp and paper mill.

  3. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  4. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  5. Fate of 14C-Pyrene in soil-plant system amended with pig manure compost and Tween 80: a growth chamber study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2008-11-01

    This paper evaluated the effects of a pig manure compost (PMC) and a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 on the fate of 14C-Pyrene (Pyr) in a soil-plant system (Agropyron elongatum). Soils spiked with 14C-4, 5, 9, 10-Pyr were amended with 7.5% (w/w) PMC together with or without 100mgkg(-1) of Tween 80. Unplanted soil without amendments was set as the control. Gas phases of the systems were monitored for 14CO2 over a 60 days period. The impact of PMC and Tween 80 on the apparent loss of the PAH and the distribution of 14C-activity in the systems was studied. 14C-activity associated with different soil fractions was further examined by using methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) fractionation method. The results showed that the addition of PMC could increase the dissipation of Pyr in vegetated soil from 12.1% to 58.7%, while the co-addition of Tween 80 and PMC could further enhance the dissipation to 90.3%. Pyr dissipation in soil was correlated with the mineralization of 14C-Pyr, indicating that Pyr dissipation was mainly due to mineralization. A higher formation of water-extractable metabolites was observed in soil amended with PMC and Tween 80, and this was correlated with a higher biomass accumulation of 14C-activity and higher bound residue formation in the soil. Overall, this study suggested that the co-application of PMC and Tween 80 could improve phytoremediation of Pyr-contaminated soil.

  6. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The content, behaviour and significance of heavy metals in composted waste materials is important from two potentially conflicting aspects of environmental legislation in terms of: (a) defining end-of-waste criteria and increasing recycling of composted residuals on land and (b) protecting soil quality by preventing contamination. This review examines the effects of heavy metals in compost and amended soil as a basis for achieving a practical and sustainable balance between these different policy objectives, with particular emphasis on agricultural application. All types of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contain more heavy metals than the background concentrations present in soil and will increase their contents in amended soil. Total concentrations of heavy metals in source-segregated and greenwaste compost are typically below UK PAS100 limits and mechanical segregated material can also comply with the metal limits in UK PAS100, although this is likely to be more challenging. Zinc and Pb are numerically the elements present in the largest amounts in MSW-compost. Lead is the most limiting element to use of mechanically-segregated compost in domestic gardens, but concentrations are typically below risk-based thresholds that protect human health. Composted residuals derived from MSW and greenwaste have a high affinity for binding heavy metals. There is general consensus in the scientific literature that aerobic composting processes increase the complexation of heavy metals in organic waste residuals, and that metals are strongly bound to the compost matrix and organic matter, limiting their solubility and potential bioavailability in soil. Lead is the most strongly bound element and Ni the weakest, with Zn, Cu and Cd showing intermediate sorption characteristics. The strong metal sorption properties of compost produced from MSW or sewage sludge have important benefits for the remediation of metal contaminated industrial and urban soils. Compost and sewage sludge

  7. Solar energy utilization in composting toilets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kroschel, M.L.

    1981-02-01

    The goal of the study was to utilize solar energy in lieu of electricity to help alleviate the basic problems with compost toilets. Solar devices were first used to improve the performance of existing facilities and additional systems were designed from inception with solar heating and venting systems. Four independent studies were initiated and executed over the two years of the grant period: the design and construction of a solar pasteurization unit for treatment of 55-gal drum waste collection units; retrofit of an existing Clivus Multrum toilet for direct passive solar heat gain; design and construction of an owner-built flow-through compost toilet with a solar hot air heating system for hill side installation; and design and construction of an integrated bathroom facility that included a solar heated flow-through compost toilet with a solar chimney venting system. In general, the use of high temperature solar devices to enhance the biological process of composting within a privy vault was not successful. The compost toilets in the study demonstrated their vulnerability to shock over loading characteristic of public facilities and therefore demonstrated their unsuitability for such applications. However, their performance under more controlled use rates (at or below design maximum) merits further study.

  8. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program.

  9. [Effect of phosphorus recovery on phosphorous bioaccumulation/harvesting in an alternating anaerobic/aerobic biofilter system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun; Tian, Qing; Tang, Man-Lin; Li, Fang

    2014-03-01

    To improve the phosphorus (P) removal/recovery efficiency of a biological P removal system, the study used an alternating anaerobic/aerobic biofilter system to treat synthetic domestic sewage with a low carbon (C) to P ratio. The effects of using periodical carbon source amplification for P recovery on the P removal efficiency and the microbial characteristics within the biofilm were investigated. Intracellular storage polymer dyeing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were employed to characterize the changes of microbial communities in the biofilm during three continuous operation cycles of P bio-accumulating-P recovery (PB-PR). The results showed: through three cycles of operation process of PB-PR, the P removal efficiency of biofilter was increased from 60.3%, 82.9%, 86.6% (before P harvesting) to 87.2%, 91.2%, 93.5% (after P harvesting), respectively; the dominant microbial community morphotypes within the biofilter transformed from big cocci to small cocci, bacilli and filamentous and the group of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) got rising predominance, which was increased from 43% to 70% after three times of PB-PR; the proportion of PAOs in the biofilm increased unceasingly with the height of the up-flow biofilter. The results showed that the periodical carbon source amplification could improve the P removal efficiency of the biofilter and help the PAOs to become the dominant bacteria within the biofilm.

  10. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a "first line" strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden.

  11. European activities on composting of disposable products

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    Review of information reveals that composting has become a very important way of controlling organic wastes in Europe. In particular, source separated organic composting is becoming standard practice in many countries, such as Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland. This high quality compost is generally required in these countries with implementation of stringent regulations on heavy metal levels of the compost. Other countries such as France, Greece, Spain and Italy are currently composting unseparated municipal solid waste to produce low quality, low value compost. 61 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during mainstream large-scale composting in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianfei; Shen, Xiuli; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2016-11-01

    This study characterized some physicochemical and biological parameters to systematically evaluate the dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that long active phases, low maximum temperatures, low organic matter losses and high pore methane concentrations were observed in different composting layers. Pore oxygen concentrations in the top, middle and bottom layers maintained <5vol.% for 40, 42 and 45days, respectively, which accounted for more than 89% of the whole period. After each mechanical turning, oxygen was consumed at a stable respiration rate to a concentration of 5vol.% in no more than 99min and remained anaerobic in the subsequent static condition. The daily percentage of time under aerobic condition was no more than 14% of a single day. Therefore, improving FAS, adjusting aeration interval or combining turning with forced aeration was suggested to provide sufficient oxygen during composting. PMID:27566518

  13. Effect of biomass concentration on methane oxidation activity using mature compost and graphite granules as substrata.

    PubMed

    Xie, S; O'Dwyer, T; Freguia, S; Pikaar, I; Clarke, W P

    2016-10-01

    Reported methane oxidation activity (MOA) varies widely for common landfill cover materials. Variation is expected due to differences in surface area, the composition of the substratum and culturing conditions. MOA per methanotrophic cell has been calculated in the study of natural systems such as lake sediments to examine the inherent conditions for methanotrophic activity. In this study, biomass normalised MOA (i.e., MOA per methanotophic cell) was measured on stabilised compost, a commonly used cover in landfills, and on graphite granules, an inert substratum widely used in microbial electrosynthesis studies. After initially enriching methanotrophs on both substrata, biomass normalised MOA was quantified under excess oxygen and limiting methane conditions in 160ml serum vials on both substrata and blends of the substrata. Biomass concentration was measured using the bicinchoninic acid assay for microbial protein. The biomass normalised MOA was consistent across all compost-to-graphite granules blends, but varied with time, reflecting the growth phase of the microorganisms. The biomass normalised MOA ranged from 0.069±0.006μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h during active growth, to 0.024±0.001μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h for established biofilms regardless of the substrata employed, indicating the substrata were equally effective in terms of inherent composition. The correlation of MOA with biomass is consistent with studies on methanotrophic activity in natural systems, but biomass normalised MOA varies by over 5 orders of magnitude between studies. This is partially due to different methods being used to quantify biomass, such as pmoA gene quantification and the culture dependent Most Probable Number method, but also indicates that long term exposure of materials to a supply of methane in an aerobic environment, as can occur in natural systems, leads to the enrichment and adaptation of types suitable for those conditions. PMID:27515185

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 9, Appendix G: Composting

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting`s contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  15. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology. PMID:24455923

  16. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology.

  17. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  18. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  19. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  20. Composting of solid waste during extended human travel and habitation in space.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J A; Finstein, M S

    1991-10-01

    As part of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long term human travel and habitation in space, the resources in solid waste may be regenerated through the microbiological process of composting. This would release CO2 for photosynthetic uptake while transforming the waste to a smaller volume and weight of stabilized and sanitized compost. To continue the biodegradation and complete the cycling of nutrients, the compost would be incorporated into soil used in growing food crops. To minimize the weight and volume of the composting facility, the rate of the transformation should be maximized. This is realizable through ventilative removal of heat in reference to a biologically favorable temperature ceiling, and maintenance of a thoroughly oxygenated state. A preliminary design for a composting system for use in a spacecraft and/or permanent space station is proposed.

  1. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  2. Closing the natural cycles - using biowaste compost in organic farming in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Eva; Rogalski, Wojciech; Maurer, Ludwig; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    One of the basic principles of organic farming - that organic management should fit the cycles and ecological balances in nature - is put into practice in Vienna on a large scale. In Vienna, compost produced from separately collected biowaste and greenwaste is used on more than 1000 ha of organic farmland. These municipally owned farms are managed organically, but are stockless, like the vast majority of farms in the region. The apparent need for a substitute for animal manure triggered the development of an innovative biowaste management. Together with the Municipal Department 48 responsible for waste management, which was keen for the reduction of residual waste, the Municipal Department 49 - Forestry Office and Urban Agriculture and Bio Forschung Austria developed Vienna's biowaste management model. Organic household wastes and greenwastes are source-separated by the urban population and collected in a closely monitored system to ensure high compost quality. A composting plant was constructed which today produces a total of 43000 t compost per year in a monitored open windrow process. The quality of the compost produced conforms to the EU regulation 834/2007. A large part of the compost is used as organic fertilizer on the organic farmland in Vienna, and the remainder is used in arable farming and in viticulture in the region around Vienna and for substrate production. Vienna`s biowaste management-model is operating successfully since the 1980s and has gained international recognition in form of the Best Practice-Award of the United Nations Development Programme. In order to assess the effects of biowaste compost fertilization on crop yield and on the environment, a field experiment was set up near Vienna in 1992, which is now one of the longest standing compost experiments in Europe. The results showed, that the yields increased for 7 - 10 % with compost fertilization compared to the unfertilized control and the nitrogen recovery by crops was between 4 and 6

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-12-15

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  4. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  5. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow. PMID:26026968

  6. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Sudhir; Subbaiah, K Venkata; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by earthworms which convert the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients, i.e. Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 - 65 tons of wet waste can be collected in a town per day and if this wet waste is converted to quality compost, around 12.30 tons of vermi compost can be generated. If a Municipal Corporation manages this wet waste an income of over (see text symbol) for 0.8 9 crore per anum can be earned which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public. PMID:23741869

  7. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow.

  8. Composting in tandem

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-03-01

    A composting company, a county, and a waste company have formed a symbiotic public/private relationship that is helping to extend the life of the area's landfills, as well as produce a needed product. California state assembly bill 939, passed in 1989, directed local governments to reduce the amount of garbage being landfilled in order to curtail the need for new landfills. Cities and counties in California are now mandated to reduce the volume of their waste stream by 25% by 1995. By the year 2000, the waste stream must be reduced by 50%. And the law has teeth -- to ensure these percentages are met, a $10,000 fine can be imposed for each day a deadline is missed. According to 1990 figures, Sonoma County's well-established recycling programs have been successful at diverting 15% of the county's waste stream from the landfill. Paula Magyari, a waste management specialist with the county Public Works Department, says yard wastes account for 13% of the waste stream in Sonoma County; wood wastes for at least 15%. At 13% and 15%, they are two of the largest components of the waste stream, and, equally important, they represent the portion of the waste stream that is most readily reusable to meet the 25% goal.

  9. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel.

  10. Monitoring of pile composting process of OFMSW at full scale and evaluation of odour emission impact.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M C; Martín, M A; Serrano, A; Chica, A F

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the evolution of odour concentration (ouE/m(3)STP) emitted during the pile composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was monitored by dynamic olfactometry. Physical-chemical variables as well as the respirometric variables were also analysed. The aim of this work was twofold. The first was to determine the relationship between odour and traditional variables to determine if dynamic olfactometry is a feasible and adequate technique for monitoring an aerobic stabilisation process (composting). Second, the composting process odour impact on surrounding areas was simulated by a dispersion model. The results showed that the decrease of odour concentration, total organic carbon and respirometric variables was similar (around 96, 96 y 98% respectively). The highest odour emission (5224 ouE/m(3)) was reached in parallel with the highest microbiological activity (SOUR and OD20 values of 25 mgO2/gVS · h and 70 mgO2/gVS, respectively). The validity of monitoring odour emissions during composting in combination with traditional and respirometric variables was demonstrated by the adequate correlation obtained between the variables. Moreover, the quantification of odour emissions by dynamic olfactometry and the subsequent application of the dispersion model permitted making an initial prediction of the impact of odorous emissions on the population. Finally, the determination of CO2 and CH4 emissions allowed the influence of composting process on carbon reservoirs and global warming to be evaluated. PMID:25572673

  11. Incorporation of inorganic material in anoxic/aerobic-activated sludge system mixed liquor.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, M C; Ubisi, M F; Lakay, M T; Ekama, G A

    2002-12-01

    In the bioreactor of the nitrification denitrification (ND)-activated sludge system, the mixed liquor is made up of organic and inorganic materials. In the current design procedures and simulation models, the influent wastewater characteristics and biological processes that influence the bioreactor mixed liquor organic solids (as volatile suspended solids, VSS, or COD) are explicitly included. However, the mixed liquor total suspended solids (TSS, i.e. organic + inorganic solids) are calculated simply from empirical ratios of VSS/TSS. The TSS concentration is fundamental in the design of secondary settling tanks and waste activated sludge disposal. Clearly, the empirical approach to obtaining an estimate for TSS is not satisfactory within the framework of a fundamentally based model. Accordingly, the incorporation of the inorganic material present in the influent wastewater into ND-activated sludge system mixed liquor was investigated. From an experimental investigation into the distribution of inorganics in the influent, mixed liquor and effluent of a laboratory-scale ND-activated sludge system, it was concluded inter alia that (i) of the total inorganic solids in the influent, only a small fraction (2.8-7.5%) is incorporated into the mixed liquor, (ii) most of the inorganics in the influent (mean 88%) and effluent (mean 98.5%) are in the dissolved form, the balance being particulate, and (iii) the influent and effluent inorganic dissolved solids concentrations are closely equal (mean effluent to influent ratio 100%). Further, a number of models were developed to quantify the mixed liquor inorganic, and, hence, total solids. From an evaluation of these models against the experimental data, it would appear that the best approach to model the incorporation of inorganics into the activated sludge mixed liquor is to follow the concepts and principles used to develop the existing models for organic materials. With this approach, reasonably close correlation between

  12. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting.

    PubMed

    Strom, P F

    1985-10-01

    Continuously thermophilic composting was examined with a 4.5-liter reactor placed in an incubator maintained at representative temperatures. Feed was a mixture of dried table scraps and shredded newspaper wetted to 55% moisture. One run at 49 degrees C (run A) employed a 1:4 feed-to-compost ratio, while the other runs used a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 50, 55, 60, or 65 degrees C. Due to self-heating, internal temperatures of the composting mass were 0 to 7 degrees C hotter than the incubator. Two full-scale composting plants (at Altoona, Pa., and Leicester, England) were also examined. Plate counts per gram (dry weight) on Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems) with 2% agar ranged from 0.7 X 10(9) to 5.3 X 10(9) for laboratory composting and 0.02 X 10(9) to 7.4 X 10(9) for field composting. Fifteen taxa were isolated, including 10 of genus Bacillus, which dominated all samples except that from run A. Species diversity decreased markedly in laboratory composting at 60 degrees C and above, but was similar for the three runs incubated at 49, 50, and 55 degrees C. The maximum desirable composting temperature based on species diversity is thus 60 degrees C, the same as that previously recommended based on measures of the rate of decomposition. PMID:4083885

  13. Windrow composting as horticultural waste management strategy - A case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Moral, Raúl; Paredes, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    In Ecuador, enormous quantities of vegetable wastes are produced annually from the horticultural industries. Composting can be a feasible treatment to stabilise horticultural wastes and, thus, to improve their properties for use as organic fertilisers. In this study, two different piles were prepared, using laying hen manure and sawdust mixed with broccoli or tomato waste, respectively, and composted by the turned windrow composting system. Throughout the composting process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and physico-chemical and chemical properties and the degree of maturity were determined. Also, principal component analysis was used to interpret the data set of compost characteristics. In both piles, the temperature exceeded 55°C for more than 2weeks, which ensured maximum pathogen reduction. Organic matter (OM) losses followed a first-order kinetic equation in both piles. The final composts showed a suitable degree of stability and maturity and an absence of phytotoxins, as observed in the evolution and final values of the total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (Corg/NT<20), water-soluble organic carbon (Cw<1.7%), germination index (GI>50%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC>67meq (100g OM)(-1)). As well, the evolution of different humification indexes during composting was a good indicator of the OM humification process. The type of vegetable waste used influenced OM and NT mineralisation and the final properties of the composts, showing the mixture with tomato waste a higher fertilising capacity and less environmental problems.

  14. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  15. Biodegradation of Reactive blue 13 in a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic fluidized beds system with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L1 capable of degrading the azo textile dye Reactive blue 13, was isolated from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A continuous two-stage anaerobic/aerobic biological fluidized bed system was used to decolorize and mineralize Reactive blue 13. The key factors affecting decolorization were investigated and the efficiency of degradation was also optimized. An overall color removal of 83.2% and COD removal of 90.7% was achieved at pH 7, a residence time of 70 h and a glucose concentration of 2 g/L, HRT=70 h and C(glucose)=2000 mg/L. Oxygen was contributing to blocking the azo bond cleavage. Consequently, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic reactor while partial mineralization was achieved in the aerobic reactor. A possible degradation pathway based on the analysis of intermediates and involving azoreduction, desulfonation, deamination and further oxidation reactions is presented.

  16. [Index of stability and its mechanisms of aerobic granular system using volume-based information entropy].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Ji, Xiao-Qin; Li, Sheng; Xie, Lei; Zhao, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2012-03-01

    Autotrophic nitrification granular sludge was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the information entropy of volume distribution decreased from 2.05 (27 d, granules were firstly observed) to 1.85 (95 d) during granulation period. And the driving force for the decrease of information entropy could be ascribed to the washing out of flocs by means of the hydraulic selection pressure. After the granules formation stage finished, the median settling velocity of the granules system was 6.27 m x h(-1) and the information entropy of volume distribution would not be controlled by the settling velocity selection pressure (6 m x h(-1)). It was found that the size, settling velocity and the volume-based information entropy periodically changed. The mean, minimum and maximum of information entropy were 2.16, 1.79 and 2.63, respectively, during the period from 122 d to 579 d. The mean size varied by the pattern of increase and decrease periodically. The driving force for the fluctuation of the information entropy was the smashing of the larger granular and the volume fragmentation growth, and the volume distribution of the information entropy could well indicate the stability of granular sludge systems.

  17. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. PMID:25078821

  18. Treatment of colour industry wastewaters with concomitant bioelectricity production in a sequential stacked mono-chamber microbial fuel cells-aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey; Fonseka, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    The scalability of any microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based system is of vital importance if it is to be utilized for potential field applications. In this study, an integrated MFC-aerobic bioreactor system was investigated for its scalability with the purpose of treating a simulated dye wastewater and industrial wastewaters originated from textile dyebaths and leather tanning. The influent containing real wastewater was fed into the reactor in continuous mode at ambient temperature. Three MFC units were integrated to act in unison as a single module for wastewater treatment and a continuously stirred aerobic bioreactor operating downstream to the MFC module was installed in order to ensure more complete degradation of colouring agents found in the wastewater. Total colour removal in the final effluent exceeded 90% in all experiments where both synthetic (AO-7 containing) and real wastewater were used as the influent feed. The chemical oxygen demand reduction also exceeded 80% in all experiments under the same conditions. The MFC modules connected in parallel configuration allowed obtaining higher current densities than that can be obtained from a single MFC unit. The maximum current density of the MFC stack reached 1150 mA m(-2) when connected in a parallel configuration. The outcome of this work implies that suitably up-scaled MFC-aerobic integrated bioprocesses could be used for colour industry wastewater treatment under industrially relevant conditions with possible prospects of bioelectricity generation. PMID:26212183

  19. Treatment of colour industry wastewaters with concomitant bioelectricity production in a sequential stacked mono-chamber microbial fuel cells-aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey; Fonseka, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    The scalability of any microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based system is of vital importance if it is to be utilized for potential field applications. In this study, an integrated MFC-aerobic bioreactor system was investigated for its scalability with the purpose of treating a simulated dye wastewater and industrial wastewaters originated from textile dyebaths and leather tanning. The influent containing real wastewater was fed into the reactor in continuous mode at ambient temperature. Three MFC units were integrated to act in unison as a single module for wastewater treatment and a continuously stirred aerobic bioreactor operating downstream to the MFC module was installed in order to ensure more complete degradation of colouring agents found in the wastewater. Total colour removal in the final effluent exceeded 90% in all experiments where both synthetic (AO-7 containing) and real wastewater were used as the influent feed. The chemical oxygen demand reduction also exceeded 80% in all experiments under the same conditions. The MFC modules connected in parallel configuration allowed obtaining higher current densities than that can be obtained from a single MFC unit. The maximum current density of the MFC stack reached 1150 mA m(-2) when connected in a parallel configuration. The outcome of this work implies that suitably up-scaled MFC-aerobic integrated bioprocesses could be used for colour industry wastewater treatment under industrially relevant conditions with possible prospects of bioelectricity generation.

  20. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications. PMID:23369502

  1. In-vessel co-composting of horse stable bedding waste and blood meal at different C/N ratios: process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Zhao, Zhenyong; Karthikeyana, Obuli P; Yu, Shuk Man; Law, Alex C W; Chung, Patricia C P

    2012-12-01

    Abattoir blood meal is rich in nitrogen and its potential as a co-composting material for horse stable bedding waste was evaluated at two C/N ratios -32 (LBM, low blood meal) and 16 (HBM, high blood meal) - to improve the nutrient contents of the final compost. The mix was composted for 7 days in a 10 tonne/day in-vessel composter and cured aerobically. After 56 days ofcomposting, the ammoniacal-N, CO2 evolution rate and C/N ratio of both LBM and HBM were within the guideline values; however, delayed decomposition and lower seed germination index were observed with HBM. In addition, HBM resulted in 84% loss of the initial ammoniacal-N. Almost similar organic decompositions, 62.4% and 59.6% with LBM and HBM, respectively, were achieved. However, a stable compost product can be obtained within 6-7 weeks with LBM, whereas >8 weeks were required for HBM composting. Therefore, co-composting at the C/N ratio of 32 is recommended to achieve odour-free and faster composting. PMID:23437655

  2. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  3. Influence of input material and operational performance on the physical and chemical properties of MSW compost.

    PubMed

    Montejo, C; Costa, C; Márquez, M C

    2015-10-01

    Certain controversy exists about the use of compost from MSW (municipal solid waste) and, specifically, from the organic fraction of MSW that has not been separated at the source. In this case, the final composition of MSW compost is related to the performance of the separation process in MBT (Mechanical and Biological Treatment) plants as well as the composition of raw materials and the particular features of composting systems. In an effort to investigate the quality of MSW compost, 30 samples of this product obtained from 10 different MBT plants were studied. The main physical and chemical properties were analyzed and were compared with the requirements of current legislation. The composting systems used to produce these compost samples were studied and the input materials were characterized. The results reveal that the heavy metal content in MSW compost was below the legal restrictions in all samples but one; however, in most of them the percentage of Pb was high. The fertilizing potential of MSW compost has been demonstrated by its high nutrient concentrations, particularly N, K, P, Ca and Mg. Nevertheless, here the percentage of inert impurities with a size larger than 2 mm, such as plastic or glass, was seen to be excessively high exceeding in some cases the legal limit. The source of such pollution lies in the composting inputs, OFMSW (organic fraction of MSW), which showed high percentages of improper materials such as plastic (9%) or glass (11%). Accordingly, the performance of the sorting stage for the collection of the raw material must be improved, as must the refining process, since this does not remove the necessary amounts of these impurities from the final compost. PMID:26254992

  4. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  5. [Enhanced aerobic degradation of low chlorinated biphenyls by constructing surfactants Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 based system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Han; Ren, Yuan

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that the increasing of water solubility of PCBs can enhance the biodegradation efficiency. The biodegradation system of PCBs by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 in the presence of different surfactants, namely TX-100, Tween 80, RL crude and HPCD were established to investigate the effect of surfactants on the biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds. The results indicated that the water solubility ratios of PCB5 and PCB31 were 54.7%-100%, 59.8%-100%; 10.5%-40.8%, 6.8%-31.6%; 10.3%-19.9%, 3.3%-11.6% and 19.5%-34.2%, 4.2%-10.7%, which were accordingly enhanced by TX-100 (CMC = 194 mg · L(-1)), Tween 80 (CMC =13.1 mg · L(-1)), and RL crude (CMC = 50 mg · L(-1)) with concentrations of 1-7 CMC, respectively and HPCD with concentrations of 500-1,500 mg · L(-1). Moreover, the growth inhibition ratio of B. xenovorans LB400 was 30.3%-45.8% with TX-100 concentration of 1-7 CMC, while it was 10.0%-15.4% for Tween 80 with concentration of 0.1-1 CMC; RL crude could boost the growth of strain LB400 as substrate while HPCD exerted no impact on it. The addition of surfactants can improve the biodegradation ratios of PCB31 (5 mg · L(-1)) by 23.7%-65.5% for TX-100, 14.6%-44.3% for Tween 80, 9.6%- 27.2% for RL crude and 15.3%-20.7% for HPCD depending on the surfactant concentrations, while it had minor effects on the biodegradation ratios of PCB5 (10 mg · L(-1)). It is concluded that the promoting effects of surfactant on PCBs biodegradation are mainly due to the increased concentrations of PCBs-surfactant micelles in aqueous solution and when TX-100 and Tween 80 concentrations are set as 1 and 7 CMC, the biodegradation ratios of PCB31 can achieve 100% and 81.7% , while the growth inhibition ratios of B. xenovorans LB400 are 30.3% and 5.4%, respectively.

  6. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  7. Aerobic biodegradation of [14C] 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in a flow-through soil incubation system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Wang, Ning; Buck, Robert C; Wolstenholme, Barry W; Folsom, Patrick W; Sulecki, Lisa M; Bellin, Cheryl A

    2010-08-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of [1,2-(14)C] 6:2 FTOH [F(CF(2))(6)(14)CH(2)(14)CH(2)OH] in a flow-through soil incubation system is described. Soil samples dosed with [1,2-(14)C] 6:2 FTOH were analyzed by liquid scintillation counting, LC/ARC (liquid chromatography/accurate radioisotope counting), LC/MS/MS, and thermal combustion to account for 6:2 FTOH and its transformation products over 84 d. Half of the [1,2-(14)C] 6:2 FTOH disappeared from soil in 1.3 d, undergoing simultaneous microbial degradation and partitioning of volatile transformation product(s) and the 6:2 FTOH precursor into the air phase. The overall (14)C (radioactivity) mass balance in live and sterile treatments was 77-87% over 84-d incubation. In the live test system, 36% of total (14)C dosed was captured in the airflow (headspace), 25% as soil-bound residues recovered via thermal combustion, and 16% as soil extractable. After 84 d, [(14)C] 5:2 sFTOH [F(CF(2))(5)CH(OH)(14)CH(3)] was the dominant transformation product with 16% molar yield and primarily detected in the airflow. The airflow also contained [1,2-(14)C] 6:2 FTOH and (14)CO(2) at 14% and 6% of total (14)C dosed, respectively. The other significant stable transformation products, all detected in soil, were 5:3 acid [F(CF(2))(5)CH(2)CH(2)COOH, 12%], PFHxA [F(CF(2))(5)COOH, 4.5%] and PFPeA [F(CF(2))(4)COOH, 4.2%]. Soil-bound residues as well as conjugates between fluorinated transformation products and dissolved soil components were only observed in the live test system and absent in the sterile soil, suggesting that such binding and complexation are microbially or enzymatically driven processes. At day 84, 5:3 acid is postulated to be the major transformation product in soil-bound residues, which may not be available for further biodegradation in soil environment.

  8. Odor control in composting plants: results from full-scale experiences.

    PubMed

    Canovai, Alessandro; Valentini, Federico; Manetti, Edoardo; Zagaroli, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    The development and spread of mechanical biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants is often hindered by the problems and concerns arising from emission bad odors. Several technologies are now available to process exhausted air originated from these or similar plants. Exhausted air emissions contain a large amount of organic compounds, most of them in very low concentrations. This determines the advantage in using biological abatement systems (biofilters) instead of physical-chemical treatments. This article describes the operative results obtained in two Italian waste treatment plants, one in Albano, near Rome, and the other in the "ex-Maserati area" of Milan, including (i) the analysis of operational parameters as temperature, pH. humidity, loss of pressure of the biofilter affecting the biofiltration efficiency, for both chemical parameters and odorous compound concentration, measured by means of odor panel evaluation technique and (ii) the efficiency of the biofiltration system for several compounds present in air emissions, analyzing organic substances by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The two plants used similar biofiltration systems except for the material used as biofilter bed. A bioscrubber pretreatment of the air flow coming from the aerobic reactor was tested in the Albano plant for the purpose of reducing the odor concentration of the most impacting flow going to the biofilter.

  9. Solubility of phosphorus and heavy metals in potting media amended with yard waste-biosolids compost.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M K; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Calvert, D V; Yang, X E; Xia, Y P; Wilson, S B

    2004-01-01

    The potential risk of surface and ground water contamination by phosphorus (P) and heavy metals leached from compost-based containerized media has become an environmental concern. Solubility and fractionation of P and heavy metals were evaluated in media containing 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% compost derived from biosolids and yard trimmings for potential impacts on the environment. As compost proportion in peat-based media increased from 0 to 100%, concentrations of total P, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the media increased whereas concentrations of total Co and Cr decreased. Except for Cu, all heavy metals in the water-soluble fraction decreased with increasing compost proportion in the media, because of higher Fe, Al, and Ca concentrations and pH values of the composts than the peat. When the media pH is controlled and maintained at normal range of plant growth (5.5-6.5), leaching of the heavy metals is minimal. Incorporation of compost to the peat-based media also decreased the proportion of total P that was water-soluble. However, concentrations of bioavailable inorganic phosphorus (NaHCO3-IP), readily mineralizable organic phosphorus (NaHCO3-OP), potentially bioavailable inorganic phosphorus (NaOH-IP), and potentially bioavailable organic phosphorus (NaOH-OP) were still higher in the media amended with compost because of higher total P concentration in the compost. Further study is needed to verify if less or no topdressing of chemical P fertilizer should be applied to the compost-amended media to minimize P effect on the environment when compost-amended potting media are used for nursery or greenhouse crop production systems.

  10. Composting for Biocontained Cattle Mortality Disposal and Associated Greenhouse Gas and Leachate Emissions.

    PubMed

    Gilroyed, Brandon H; Conrad, Cheyenne; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A; Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Composting can be an effective means of biodegrading livestock mortalities in emergency disposal situations, such as disease outbreaks. Within the past decade, our knowledge detailing composting has increased substantially. However, research data linking the environmental impact of composting to atmospheric and terrestrial systems are limited. We investigated composting efficacy, greenhouse gas emissions, and leachate properties from two static compost piles, each containing 16 cattle mortalities, built with either beef manure (BM) or wood shavings (WS) as envelope material. Wood shavings achieved a greater maximum temperature than BM (60 vs. 50°C) and maintained higher temperatures over 200 d ( < 0.001). Greenhouse gas emissions were evaluated using a static chamber and gas chromatography. Emissions of NO ( < 0.001), CH ( < 0.01), and CO ( < 0.05) were lower from WS than BM, resulting in 3-fold lower total CO equivalent emissions. After 250 d of composting, piles were relocated, and soil cores were taken (i) from beneath the piles, (ii) adjacent to the piles where leachate had accumulated, and (iii) in a control zone without compost exposure. Elevated concentrations of ammonium ( < 0.05) and chloride ( < 0.05) were found in soil beneath both BM and WS. Microbial DNA profiles suggested that leachate from BM compost increased bacterial diversity in soil, maintaining a biological soil impact after pile removal. Degradation of bovine mitochondrial DNA fragments was monitored by polymerase chain reaction. Limited migration of genetic bovine material from compost into soil was observed. Based on the mortalities decomposition and leachate contents, both BM and WS are suitable envelope materials for composting.

  11. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction.

    PubMed

    Brito, L M; Mourão, I; Coutinho, J; Smith, S R

    2012-07-01

    Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4m(3)h(-1) and 1m(3)h(-1) and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg(-1) dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P<0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH(4)(+) and increased concentrations of NO(3)(-) in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg(-1)) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested. PMID:22521315

  12. New specific indicators for qPCR monitoring of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Olivier; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2011-09-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants are an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants and the consequent potential exposure of nearby residents. This inadequate knowledge is partly due to the fact that there is currently no method for specifically tracing these microorganisms in the air. The objective of this study was to validate the use of microbial groups as indicators of composting bioaerosols by comparing their concentration in air samples, whether impacted by composting activity or not. Three potential microbial indicators were chosen among the core species of composting bioaerosols. They belong to the genus Saccharopolyspora, to the Thermoactinomycetaceae and to the fungus Thermomyces. Quantitative PCR systems using TaqMan probes were designed to quantify each of the three phylotypes in air samples collected outdoors in natural environments and at composting plants. Compost-turning operations at industrial plants resulted in an increase in the concentration of the three phylotypes of at least 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the concentration measured in control samples collected upwind, and of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to the background concentration measured in natural environments unaffected by industrial activity. In conclusion, these three thermophilic phylotypes can be used as indicators of airborne microorganisms emitted by industrial composting plants. They may be particularly relevant in studying the dispersal of bioaerosols around composting plants and the exposure of nearby residents. This is the first time that indicators of compost bioaerosols have been validated by comparing their concentrations in impacted samples to their background levels in natural environments.

  13. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction.

    PubMed

    Brito, L M; Mourão, I; Coutinho, J; Smith, S R

    2012-07-01

    Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4m(3)h(-1) and 1m(3)h(-1) and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg(-1) dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P<0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH(4)(+) and increased concentrations of NO(3)(-) in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg(-1)) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested.

  14. Odors and volatile organics emissions from a commercial composting operation

    SciTech Connect

    Krzymien, M.E.; Day, M.

    1997-12-31

    Working in cooperation with a commercial operator of a composting facility, both compost gas and the solid composting material were sampled at regular time intervals during composting operations. The composting material was transferred to laboratory composters where the composting process continued under laboratory controlled conditions. The gases collected at the composting facility as well as the gases exiting the laboratory composters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor of these gases, based upon detection thresholds, was also evaluated by a panel of volunteers.

  15. Effects of Cu exposure on enzyme activities and selection for microbial tolerances during swine-manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xuelian; Gao, Min; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A simulated experiment of aerobic composting was conducted on swine manure to evaluate the effects of Cu at two exposure levels (200 and 2000 mg kg(-1), corresponding to low-Cu and high-Cu treatments, respectively) on the activity of microorganisms. In addition, the microbial pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu and co-tolerance to selected antibiotics (tylosin and vancomycin) in the composted products were also investigated using the Biolog Ecoplates™ method. It was demonstrated that the enzymatic activities were significantly inhibited by the high-Cu treatment, with maximal inhibition rates of 56.8% and 65.1% for urease and dehydrogenase, respectively. In response to the PICT test, the IC50 (half-maximal inhibition concentrations) values on the microorganisms in the high-Cu-treated composts were clearly higher than those in the low-Cu-treated and control composts, for the toxicity tests on both Cu and antibiotics, including tylosin and vancomycin. The data demonstrated that high-Cu exposure to the microbial community during the composting not only selected for Cu resistance but also co-selected for antibiotic resistance, which was of significance because the tolerance might be transferred to the soil after the land application of composted manure.

  16. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  17. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  18. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  19. Compost improves compacted urban soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban construction sites usually result in compacted soils that limit infiltration and root growth. The purpose of this study was to determine if compost, aeration, and/or prairie grasses can remediate a site setup as a simulated post-construction site (compacted). Five years after establishing the ...

  20. Monitoring operational and leachate characteristics of an aerobic simulated landfill bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Giannis, A; Makripodis, G; Simantiraki, F; Somara, M; Gidarakos, E

    2008-01-01

    Long-term biodegradation of MSW in an aerobic landfill bioreactor was monitored as a function of time during 510 days of operation. Operational characteristics such as air importation, temperature and leachate recirculation were monitored. The oxygen utilization rates and biodegradation of organic matter rates showed that aerobic biodegradation was feasible and appropriate to proceed in aerobic landfill bioreactor. Leachate analyses showed that the aerobic bioreactor could remove above 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and close to 100% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) from leachate. Ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and sulphate (SO4(2-)) concentrations of leachate samples were regularly measured. Results suggest that nitrification and denitrification occurred simultaneously, and the increase in nitrate did not reach the levels predicted stoichiometrically, suggesting that other processes were occurring. Leachate recirculation reduced the concentrations of heavy metals because of the effect of the high pH of the leachate, causing heavy metals to be retained by processes such as sorption on MSW, carbonate precipitation, and hydroxide precipitation. Furthermore, the compost derived from the aerobic biodegradation of the organic matter of MSW may be considered as soil improvement in the agricultural plant production. Bio-essays indicated that the ecotoxicity of leachate from the aerobic bioreactor was not toxic at the end of the experiment. Finally, after 510 days of degradation, waste settlement reached 26% mainly due to the compost of the organic matter.

  1. Evaluation of a plastic nonvented aerobic blood culture bottle for use with the BacT/ALERT microbial detection system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J W; Munier, G K; Bostic, G D; Bozigar, P S; Hanna, R

    2002-12-01

    The current BacT/ALERT SA (BTA SA) aerobic blood culture bottle is made from glass, does not require venting, and contains a liquid emulsion sensor (LES). Its performance has been shown to be equivalent to that of the vented standard aerobic culture bottle. A further-improved version of the BTA SA bottle, designated the BacT/ALERT plastic SA (BTA PSA) culture bottle, is made from clear plastic to prevent breakage, does not require venting, and contains a modified LES (LES 2) to reduce the possibility of false positives. The BTA PSA provides a practical alternative to the current glass version of this bottle. The plastic bottle is also comparable to the current glass bottle in transparency and growth performance and additionally minimizes the exposure to infectious agents due to glass bottle breakage.

  2. Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih-Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-03-01

    Although exercise regimens vary in content and duration, few studies have compared the caloric expenditure of multiple exercise modalities with the same duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure of single sessions of resistance, aerobic, and combined exercise with the same duration. Nine recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 7 years; height: 181.6 ± 7.6 cm; weight: 86.6 ± 7.5 kg) performed the following 4 exercises for 30 minutes: a resistance training session using 75% of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM), an endurance cycling session at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax), an endurance treadmill session at 70% HRmax, and a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on a hydraulic resistance system (HRS) that included repeating intervals of 20 seconds at maximum effort followed by 40 seconds of rest. Total caloric expenditure, substrate use, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Caloric expenditure was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater when exercising with the HRS (12.62 ± 2.36 kcal·min), compared with when exercising with weights (8.83 ± 1.55 kcal·min), treadmill (9.48 ± 1.30 kcal·min), and cycling (9.23 ± 1.25 kcal·min). The average HR was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with the HRS (156 ± 9 b·min), compared with that using weights (138 ± 16 b·min), treadmill (137 ± 5 b·min), and cycle (138 ± 6 b·min). Similarly, the average RPE was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher with the HRS (16 ± 2), compared with that using weights (13 ± 2), treadmill (10 ± 2), and cycle (11 ± 1). These data suggest that individuals can burn more calories performing an HIIT session with an HRS than spending the same amount of time performing a steady-state exercise session. This form of exercise intervention may be beneficial to individuals who want to gain the benefits of both resistance and cardiovascular training but have limited time to dedicate to exercise.

  3. Biochar increases plant-available water in a sandy loam soil under an aerobic rice crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Marimon, B. H., Jr.; Meinke, H.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields 2 and 3 years after its application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant-available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each Mg ha-1 biochar amendment 2 and 3 years after its application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an effect in overall porosity of the sandy loam soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5 and 1.6% for each Mg ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during the critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under short-term water-limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  4. Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, T; Utkhede, R S; Paul, J W; Punja, Z K

    2000-11-01

    Three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (FORC) on cucumber. Two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (WDS) or vermicomposting (VMC) while the third, obtained from International Bio-Recovery (IBR), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. Three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at varying ratios, and seeded with cucumber cv. Corona. After 14 days of growth in the greenhouse, inoculum of FORC (20 mL of 5 x 10(6) micro-conidia per mL) was applied to each pot at three different times (14, 21, and 35 days). In unamended inoculated pots, the pathogen caused stunted growth and reduced flowers. Amendment of WDS in the potting mix suppressed these symptoms, while VMC and IBR had no effect. All three composts reduced the FORC colony forming units (cfu) at the end of the experiment (10 weeks). There was a large increase of fluorescent bacteria near the vicinity of roots particularly in WDS amended potting mixes. When water extracts of the composts were plated onto acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), only IBR contained a potent thermostable inhibitor to FORC. This inhibitor was removed by activated charcoal but was not partitioned into petroleum ether at acid, basic, or neutral pH. Inhibition of FORC by IBR was not due to electrical conductivity or trace elements in the compost. Contrasting effectiveness of the WDS and VMC made from the same waste suggests that composting method can influence the disease suppression properties of the finished compost. PMID:11109490

  5. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, L.M.; Mourao, I.; Coutinho, J.; Smith, S.R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  6. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation – A review

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Chirjiv K. Apul, Defne S.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Composting toilets can be an alternative to flush based sanitation. • Many different composting toilet designs are available. • Composting is affected by moisture content, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio. • There are many barriers to composting toilets. • Research is needed in science based design of composting toilets. - Abstract: In today’s flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50–60%), temperature (40–65 °C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25–35), pH (5.5–8.0), and porosity (35–50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature–time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and

  7. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  8. Survival of Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 during holding of manure-based compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures as influenced by the carbon amendment.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Smith, Chris; Jiang, Xiuping; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    During the early phases of aerobic composting of animal manures, pathogens are inactivated primarily from the accumulation of heat produced by indigenous microbial activity. When compost materials are not exposed to these lethal temperatures, the required holding time needed to obtain a pathogen-free product that may be applied to fields is unknown. Consequently, a series of studies examined whether the carbon amendment (wheat straw, peanut hulls, rice hulls, and pine needles) added to animal manures affected survival of either Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 during storage of compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures (20 to 40°C). Pathogens consistently survived for longer periods of time in compost mixtures prepared with pine needles than compost mixtures prepared with either of the other three carbon amendments. Pathogen inactivation in wheat straw- or peanut hull-amended compost mixtures was dependent on the target pathogen, moisture level, and storage temperature. Moisture levels in wheat straw-amended compost mixtures stored at 40°C had no effect on inactivation of E. coli O157:H7. In contrast, wheat straw-amended mixtures stored at 30 to 35°C and equilibrated to suboptimal moisture contents (30 to 40%) were less effective for inactivating pathogens compared with drier (25% moisture) or moister (60% moisture) mixtures. In peanut hull-amended compost mixtures, inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 was affected minimally by moisture levels, whereas Salmonella survival increased as the moisture level was decreased. The different inactivation responses of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost mixtures prepared with wheat straw or peanut hulls and equilibrated to different moisture levels suggest that there are different mechanisms for inactivation. Hence, developing reliable guidelines relying on time-temperature for holding of compost mixtures at sublethal temperatures will be challenging and, perhaps, not possible.

  9. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  10. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well-determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  11. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis. PMID:1886519

  12. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  13. Composting duck excreta enriched wood shavings: C and N transformations and bacterial pathogen reductions.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Stéphanie; Paré, Théophile; Dinel, Henri; Schnitzer, Morris; Chambers, James R; Jaouich, Alfred

    2002-03-01

    Composting of agricultural and domestic wastes is used increasingly to reduce weight, volume, and odor; destroy animal and plant pathogens; and improve the quality of end-products to be used as soil amendments and growth substrates. The objective of this study was to investigate the transformation of C and N and the survival of bacterial populations and pathogenic bacteria during in-vessel composting of duck excreta enriched wood shavings. Two feedstocks, collected on different dates, were composted (C1 and C2) in an enclosed hall system equipped with an electromechanical turner. Temperature was continuously recorded, whereas moisture content and bacterial counts were determined twice a week. Data showed that, although the N content of C2 was only half of that of C1, both materials were fully biostabilized at the end of the composting period as indicated by extractable lipid ratios. In the compost with the low C/N ratio (C1), all bacterial populations were eliminated, whereas fecal streptococci, total coliforms, and gram-negative bacteria were still present in C2 at the end of the composting period. Our results emphasize that the composting of manures and other organic wastes needs to be properly managed to stabilize C and N and to eliminate or reduce bacterial populations. PMID:11990371

  14. Biochar as a novel niche for culturing microbial communities in composting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daquan; Lan, Yu; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Meng, Jun; Chen, Wenfu

    2016-08-01

    Biochar has been applied as a bulk agent or an additive to compost. The mixture of biochar and compost has been considered to exert synergistic effect as a soil amendment. In a composting system, the macro-porous sites of biochar may act as a novel niche that selects and cultures the microorganisms from the bulk compost. A variety of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) such as aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatics were detected in biochar pellets (BC) pyrolyzed at 100°C. In the mesosphilic phase, the water-soluble carbon (WSC) and water-soluble phenols (WSP) in biochar increased from 2.1 to 26mgkg(-1) and 5.9 to 101μgkg(-1), respectively. These labile carbons however, were subjected to a rapid metabolism over the composting course. We further compared the responses of microbial community in BC to those in the bulk organic matter. Both Shannon-Wiener and Richness indexes of bacterial communities were higher in BC than in the adjacent compost (ADJ) and the bulk organic matter (control). As for fungal communities, the two indexes were higher in BC than ADJ and control only in the mature phase. During the composting course, the bacterial activity was higher than the fungal counterpart in terms of the changes of corresponding biomarkers, glucosamine and muramic acids. The results suggested that the diversified labile carbons sources including VOCs and WSC in BC could influence the structure of microbial community and resulted in an enhanced carbon catabolic capacity. PMID:27184446

  15. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  16. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  17. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  18. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  19. Current and future North American compost markets

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.

    1995-09-01

    As composting grows in popularity and research continues, the science of composting is becoming better understood. The successful marketing and distribution of composted products, however, is less than an exact science. In order to develop a successful compost marketing program, it is important to understand current and potential compost markets, their specific applications for compost products, their product quality requirements, and their current level of acceptance for specific products. It is also important to understand that specific barriers to market development exist, as do specific challenges. When preparing to approach specific compost markets, we must first consider the characteristics of our particular compost product. The specific chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of a product will affect our ability to market it within specific markets. Producing a product of consistent quality or possessing consistent characteristics will also influence its acceptability within specific markets. The ability to meet other end user requirements, such as providing technical assistance and service, are also factor not often considered. It is necessary to educate end users regarding proper compost use, as well as to address stigmas that may be attached to the product. False marketing barriers, based on regulatory issues, must be removed and market related research and planning must be approached with the same seriousness as design and operational considerations.

  20. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  1. Aerobic capacity correlates to self-assessed physical function but not to overall disease activity or organ damage in women with systemic lupus erythematosus with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Boström, C; Dupré, B; Tengvar, P; Jansson, E; Opava, C H; Lundberg, I E

    2008-02-01

    The present aim is to investigate the relationships between aerobic capacity and disease activity, organ damage, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and physical activity in 34 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage. Mean age was 51 (SD 10) years, disease duration 17 (SD 11) years. Aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake/VO2 max) was measured with a bicycle ergometer exercise test. Overall disease activity was assessed with Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Disease Activity Index (modified SLE-DAI), overall organ damage with the Systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics/American College of Rheumatology-Damage Index, [SLICC/(ACR)-DI], HRQL with the 36-item Short-form health-survey (SF-36) and physical activity with a self-assessed question. The women who were low-to-moderately physically active had 89-92% (P < or = 0.001) of VO2 max predicted for sedentary women. Maximal oxygen uptake (L/min, mL/min/kg) correlated to SF-36 physical function (rs = 0.49, rs = 0.72) (P < or = 0.01), but not (rs < or = 0.25) to other HRQL scales, overall disease activity or organ damage or physical activity. The correlation between aerobic capacity and physical function and the absence of correlation between aerobic capacity and physical activity, suggest a possible disease-related factor behind the low aerobic capacity. However, with no correlation between aerobic capacity and overall disease activity and organ damage, low physical activity may contribute to the low aerobic capacity in our sample.

  2. A statistical method for the analysis of nonlinear temperature time series from compost.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shouhai; Clark, O Grant; Leonard, Jerry J

    2008-04-01

    Temperature is widely accepted as a critical indicator of aerobic microbial activity during composting but, to date, little effort has been made to devise an appropriate statistical approach for the analysis of temperature time series. Nonlinear, time-correlated effects have not previously been considered in the statistical analysis of temperature data from composting, despite their importance and the ubiquity of such features. A novel mathematical model is proposed here, based on a modified Gompertz function, which includes nonlinear, time-correlated effects. Methods are shown to estimate initial values for the model parameter. Algorithms in SAS are used to fit the model to different sets of temperature data from passively aerated compost. Methods are then shown for testing the goodness-of-fit of the model to data. Next, a method is described to determine, in a statistically rigorous manner, the significance of differences among the time-correlated characteristics of the datasets as described using the proposed model. An extra-sum-of-squares method was selected for this purpose. Finally, the model and methods are used to analyze a sample dataset and are shown to be useful tools for the statistical comparison of temperature data in composting. PMID:17997302

  3. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned. PMID:19015937

  4. Impact of composting strategies on the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodi; Chen, Tongbin; Yu, Jie; Gao, Ding; Shen, Yujun; Niu, Mingjie; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    Nonylphenol can be present in sewage sludge, and this can limit the use of the sewage sludge to amend soil. Composting is one of the most efficient and economical methods of making sewage sludge stable and harmless. The nonylphenol degradation rates during composting with added bulking agents and with aeration applied were studied. Three organic bulking agents (sawdust, corn stalk, and mushroom residue) were added to sewage sludge, and the effects of the bulking agents used and the amount added on nonylphenol degradation were determined. The highest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (71.6%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% mushroom residue. The lowest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (22.5%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust. The temperature of the composting pile of sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust became too high for nonylphenol to be efficiently degraded, and the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate was lower than was found for sewage sludge containing 10% sawdust. Increasing the ventilating time from 5 to 15 min increased the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate from 19.7 to 41.6%. Using appropriate aerobic conditions facilitates the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge, decreasing the risks posed by sewage sludge applied to land. Adding too much of a bulking agent can decrease the amount of the nonylphenol degraded. Increasing the ventilating time and the amount of air supplied can increase the amount of nonylphenol degraded even if doing so causes the composting pile temperature to remain low.

  5. Straw Compost and Bioremediated Soil as Inocula for the Bioremediation of Chlorophenol-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Laine, M. M.; Jorgensen, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of straw compost and remediated soil as inocula for bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated soil. The in situ biotransformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and mineralization of radiolabeled [U-(sup14)C]PCP by straw compost and remediated soil were studied under field-simulating conditions before and after 3 months of adaptation with PCP in a percolator. After PCP adaptation, the straw compost mineralized up to 56% of the [(sup14)C]PCP. No partial dechlorination of PCP was found. The native straw compost did not mineralize PCP, but partial dechlorination of PCP occurred (i) at pH 8 under near-thermophilic conditions (45(deg)C) and (ii) at pH 7 under aerobic and mesophilic conditions. No biotransformation reactions occurred at room temperature (25(deg)C) at pH 8. Enrichment in the percolator enhanced the mineralization rate of remediated soil to 56% compared with that of the native remediated soil, which mineralized 24% of [(sup14)C]PCP added. Trace amounts of chloroanisoles as the only biotransformation products were detected in PCP-adapted remediated soil. Both inoculants studied here showed effective mineralization of PCP when they were adapted to PCP in the percolator. No harmful side reactions, such as extensive methylation, were observed. PMID:16535304

  6. Effect of bulking agents on maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guo Xue; Yang, Qing Yuan; Luo, Wen Hai

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of bulking agents on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Three different bulking agents (cornstalks, sawdust, and spent mushroom substrate) were used to compost kitchen waste under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for a 28-d period. A control treatment was also studied using kitchen waste without a bulking agent. During the experiment, maturity indexes such as temperature, pH value, C/N ratio, and germination index were determined, and continuous measurements of leachate and gaseous emissions (CH₄, N₂O, and NH₃) were taken. The results showed that all of the composts with bulking agents reached the required maturity standard, and the addition of spent mushroom substrate gave the highest maturity (C/N ratio decreased from 23 to 16 and germination index increased from 53% to 111%). The bulking agents also reduced leachate production and CH₄ and N₂O emissions, but had little impact on NH3 emissions. Composting with sawdust as a bulking agent was found to emit less total greenhouse gas (33 kg CO₂-eqt(-1) dry matter) than the other treatments. PMID:24001663

  7. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  8. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  9. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis. PMID:18338701

  10. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    PubMed

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin.

  11. A Highly Active System for the Metal-Free Aerobic Photocyanation of Tertiary Amines with Visible Light: Application to the Synthesis of Tetraponerines and Crispine A.

    PubMed

    Orejarena Pacheco, Julio Cesar; Lipp, Alexander; Nauth, Alexander M; Acke, Fabian; Dietz, Jule-Philipp; Opatz, Till

    2016-04-01

    A highly efficient metal-free catalytic system for the aerobic photocyanation of tertiary amines with visible light is reported. The use of air as terminal oxidant offers an improved safety profile compared with pure oxygen, the used compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light sources are highly economical, and no halogenated solvents are required. This system not only proves to be effective for a wide variety of trialkylamines, pharmaceuticals, and alkaloids but remarkably also allows the lowest catalyst loading (0.00001 mol% or 0.1 ppm) ever reported for an organic dye. Bruylants reactions and C-alkylation/decyanations were performed on the obtained α-aminonitriles to demonstrate the postfunctionalization of complex molecules. The catalytic system is furthermore applied in the short and effective syntheses of the alkaloids (±)-crispine A and the tetraponerines T7 and T8.

  12. A Highly Active System for the Metal-Free Aerobic Photocyanation of Tertiary Amines with Visible Light: Application to the Synthesis of Tetraponerines and Crispine A.

    PubMed

    Orejarena Pacheco, Julio Cesar; Lipp, Alexander; Nauth, Alexander M; Acke, Fabian; Dietz, Jule-Philipp; Opatz, Till

    2016-04-01

    A highly efficient metal-free catalytic system for the aerobic photocyanation of tertiary amines with visible light is reported. The use of air as terminal oxidant offers an improved safety profile compared with pure oxygen, the used compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light sources are highly economical, and no halogenated solvents are required. This system not only proves to be effective for a wide variety of trialkylamines, pharmaceuticals, and alkaloids but remarkably also allows the lowest catalyst loading (0.00001 mol% or 0.1 ppm) ever reported for an organic dye. Bruylants reactions and C-alkylation/decyanations were performed on the obtained α-aminonitriles to demonstrate the postfunctionalization of complex molecules. The catalytic system is furthermore applied in the short and effective syntheses of the alkaloids (±)-crispine A and the tetraponerines T7 and T8. PMID:26929114

  13. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  14. Complete degradation of the azo dye Acid Orange-7 and bioelectricity generation in an integrated microbial fuel cell, aerobic two-stage bioreactor system in continuous flow mode at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the commercially used model azo dye Acid Orange-7 (AO-7) was fully degraded into less toxic intermediates using an integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC) and aerobic bioreactor system. The integrated bioreactor system was operated at ambient temperature and continuous-flow mode. AO-7 loading rate was varied during experiments from 70gm(-3)day(-1) to 210gm(-3)day(-1). Colour and soluble COD removal rates reached>90% under all AO-7 loading rates. The MFC treatment stage prompted AO-7 to undergo reductive degradation into its constituent aromatic amines. HPLC-MS analysis of metabolite extracts from the aerobic stage of the bioreactor system indicated further oxidative degradation of the resulting aromatic amines into simpler compounds. Bioluminescence based Vibrio fischeri ecotoxicity testing demonstrated that aerobic stage effluent exhibited toxicity reductions of approximately fivefold and ten-fold respectively compared to the dye wastewater influent and MFC-stage effluent.

  15. Three months of regular aerobic exercise in patients with obesity improve systemic subclinical inflammation without major influence on blood pressure and endocrine production of subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Toušková, V; Cinkajzlová, A; Lacinová, Z; Matoulek, M; Zelinka, T; Widimský, J; Mráz, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the effects of regular aerobic exercise on anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters and mRNA expression of selected factors involved in metabolic regulations in subcutaneous adipose tissue of patients with obesity. Fifteen obese women with arterial hypertension underwent a three-month exercise program consisting of 30 min of aerobic exercise 3 times a week. Fifteen healthy lean women with no intervention served as a control group. Obese group underwent anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) biopsy and 24-h blood pressure monitoring at baseline and after three months of exercise, while control group was examined only once. At baseline, obese group had increased SCAT expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines relative to control group. Three months of regular exercise improved anthropometric parameters, decreased CRP, blood glucose and HOMA-IR, while having no significant effect on lipid profile and blood pressure. Gene expressions in SCAT were not affected by physical activity with the exception of increased aquaporin-3 mRNA expression. We conclude that three months of regular exercise decrease systemic subclinical inflammation with only minor influence on the blood pressure and the endocrine function of subcutaneous fat.

  16. Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  17. Compost - Brown gold or toxic trouble ?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  18. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  19. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  20. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  1. Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.

    PubMed

    Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4

  2. Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Moriya, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashita, M.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    A material recycling is one of core issues in engineering for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies such as Mars A new composting system has been developed in Japan which utilizes some thermophilic bacteria to attain higher temperature than normally expected in the ordinary composting system Dead body of rat was found to be eaten up by the thermophilic bacteria under aerated condition and oxidized to carbon dioxide and few other inorganics within two hours Ecology of these composting bacteria is structured on the intensive symbiotic interactions among various species that participate in various reaction networks in a concert Complexity in the composting bacteria might be based on multiple interaction and interdependency among participating species and organisms Species identification and phylogeny of symbiotic bacteria and understanding of their ecology have been made Those bacterial systems are active and durable under temperature high in a range of 80 to 100 r C Biological combustion release heat and temperature goes up when air is fed through the reaction bed Since microbial activity decreases at exceeding temperature and release of heat decreases as well temperature in the reacting bed itself-regulated in the range Even though it should be verified composting bacteria themselves are presumed to be safe for human agricultural plant and animal species Their activity is restricted only to the condition under elevated temperature Their activities depend greatly on their symbiotic partners and extreme environment created by them The

  3. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  6. Behaviour of biodegradable plastics in composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Redemann, K; Stegmann, R

    2005-01-01

    Composting is a preferred treatment strategy for biodegradable plastics (BDPs). In this sense, the collection of BDPs together with organic household wastes is a highly discussed possibility. Under the aspect of the behaviour of BDPs in composting facilities, a telephone survey was carried out with selected composting facility operators. They were interviewed with respect to treated wastes, content of impurities, processes for impurity separation, experiences with biodegradable plastics and assumptions to the behaviour of biodegradable plastics in their facility. Forty percent of the facilities had some experiences with BDPs due to test runs, and also since the occurrence of BDPs in their waste was known. The majority of the operators expressed apprehension regarding an increase of impurities resulting from a combined collection of biowaste and BDPs. In the facilities, measures for the impurity separation from the biowaste were used in common practice - in 33% of the cases, separation of disturbing plastics was done before composting, in 33% after composting, and in 13% before and after composting. The most important separation processes for conventional plastics were sieving and manual sorting. In two cases air classification was also used. When asked about the separation possibility of the conventional but not of the biodegradable plastics in their facilities, the majority of operators were not in a position to comment or they replied that it was not an option. No problems were seen in most cases if the impurity separation follows composting. If impurity separation takes place before composting it was often assumed that the BDPs are mainly separated by sieving. In conclusion, in more than half of the cases, BDPs would not be composted if delivered to a composting facility. Under the actual conditions regarding the collection and the treatment/disposal possibilities, an application of BDPs seems to only be reasonable for clean (i.e., source separated on their own

  7. Phosphorus availability from rock phosphate: Combined effect of green waste composting and sulfur addition.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M A; Ceglie, F G; Aly, A; Mihreteab, H T; Ciaccia, C; Tittarelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Rock phosphate constitutes a natural phosphorus (P) source for organic farming systems, but with a limiting direct agricultural use due to its poor inherent reactivity. Thus, this work studies the effect of the co-composting of rock phosphate with green wastes and elemental sulfur on phosphorus availability. Six composts were prepared combining different green wastes and rock phosphate in three different proportions (0%, 0.27% and 0.54% P fresh mass basis) and elemental sulfur in two proportions (0% and 0.5% S fresh mass basis). During composting, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored, as were physico-chemical and chemical parameters, especially those related to phosphorus. The co-composting of green wastes with rock phosphate improved phosphorus mobilization and also constituted a viable method to manage green wastes, obtaining P-enriched compost for organic farming systems. Sulfur addition favored the composting process and also phosphorus solubilization, especially in the mixture with the lowest proportion of rock phosphate.

  8. Temperature and deactivation of microbial faecal indicators during small scale co-composting of faecal matter.

    PubMed

    Germer, Jörn; Boh, Michael Yongha; Schoeffler, Marie; Amoah, Philip

    2010-02-01

    Small scale co-composting of faecal matter from dry toilet systems with shredded plant material and food waste was investigated in respect to heat development and deactivation of faecal indicators under tropical semiarid conditions. Open (uncovered) co-composting of faecal matter with shredded plant material alone did not generate temperatures high enough (<55 degrees C) to reduce the indicators sufficiently. The addition of food waste and confinement in chambers, built of concrete bricks and wooden boards, improved the composting process significantly. Under these conditions peak temperatures of up to 70 degrees C were achieved and temperatures above 55 degrees C were maintained over 2 weeks. This temperature and time is sufficient to comply with international composting regulations. The reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella senftenberg in test containment systems placed in the core of the compost piles was very efficient, exceeding 5log10-units in all cases, but recolonisation from the cooler outer layers appeared to interfere with the sanitisation efficiency of the substrate itself. The addition of a stabilisation period by extending the composting process to over 4 months ensured that the load of E. coli was reduced to less than 10(3)cfu(-g) and salmonella were undetectable.

  9. Temperature and deactivation of microbial faecal indicators during small scale co-composting of faecal matter.

    PubMed

    Germer, Jörn; Boh, Michael Yongha; Schoeffler, Marie; Amoah, Philip

    2010-02-01

    Small scale co-composting of faecal matter from dry toilet systems with shredded plant material and food waste was investigated in respect to heat development and deactivation of faecal indicators under tropical semiarid conditions. Open (uncovered) co-composting of faecal matter with shredded plant material alone did not generate temperatures high enough (<55 degrees C) to reduce the indicators sufficiently. The addition of food waste and confinement in chambers, built of concrete bricks and wooden boards, improved the composting process significantly. Under these conditions peak temperatures of up to 70 degrees C were achieved and temperatures above 55 degrees C were maintained over 2 weeks. This temperature and time is sufficient to comply with international composting regulations. The reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella senftenberg in test containment systems placed in the core of the compost piles was very efficient, exceeding 5log10-units in all cases, but recolonisation from the cooler outer layers appeared to interfere with the sanitisation efficiency of the substrate itself. The addition of a stabilisation period by extending the composting process to over 4 months ensured that the load of E. coli was reduced to less than 10(3)cfu(-g) and salmonella were undetectable. PMID:19889525

  10. Phosphorus availability from rock phosphate: Combined effect of green waste composting and sulfur addition.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M A; Ceglie, F G; Aly, A; Mihreteab, H T; Ciaccia, C; Tittarelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Rock phosphate constitutes a natural phosphorus (P) source for organic farming systems, but with a limiting direct agricultural use due to its poor inherent reactivity. Thus, this work studies the effect of the co-composting of rock phosphate with green wastes and elemental sulfur on phosphorus availability. Six composts were prepared combining different green wastes and rock phosphate in three different proportions (0%, 0.27% and 0.54% P fresh mass basis) and elemental sulfur in two proportions (0% and 0.5% S fresh mass basis). During composting, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored, as were physico-chemical and chemical parameters, especially those related to phosphorus. The co-composting of green wastes with rock phosphate improved phosphorus mobilization and also constituted a viable method to manage green wastes, obtaining P-enriched compost for organic farming systems. Sulfur addition favored the composting process and also phosphorus solubilization, especially in the mixture with the lowest proportion of rock phosphate. PMID:27543750

  11. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  12. Evaluation of carbon degradation during co-composting of exhausted grape marc with different biowastes.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F J; Sánchez-Arias, V; Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez, L

    2008-10-01

    In this work the carbon biodegradation of exhausted grape marc (EGM) combined with other organic wastes using the turned pile composting system was studied. Four different piles were made of EGM in Pile 1, EGM mixed with cow manure and straw (CMS) in Pile 2, EGM mixed with municipal solid waste (MSW) in Pile 3 and EGM mixed with grape stalks (GS) in Pile 4. The results obtained were modelled to determine the main kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. Regarding to the rate constants of the composting processes they were increased from 0.033d(-1), the value obtained when EGM was composted alone, to 0.040 and 0.044d(-1) when MSW and GS were added, respectively as co-substrates. However, the addition of CMS reduced the rate constant. About the biodegradable carbon fractions, it was observed that the co-composting reduced significantly the remanent carbon concentration after composting in all the piles whilst increased the readily biodegradable carbon fractions from 35, the value obtained when EGM was composted alone, to 50 and 60%, respectively when MSW or GS were added. As regards the temperature profiles, only Piles 1 and 4 achieved thermal hygienization values and about the nitrogen losses, the lowest percentage of nitrogen loss took place when GS were added, because of its optimum pH and C/N initial ratio. Thus, though any of these wastes could be used for co-composting with EGM, the use of GS as co-substrate and bulking agent for the co-composting process of EGM was recommended.

  13. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation--a review.

    PubMed

    Anand, Chirjiv K; Apul, Defne S

    2014-02-01

    In today's flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50-60%), temperature (40-65°C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25-35), pH (5.5-8.0), and porosity (35-50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature-time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and experience in composting toilet design and operation and program operation.

  14. Efficacy of microorganisms selected from compost to control soil-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens with compost has been widely studied. Compost has been found to be suppressive against several soil-borne pathogens in various cropping systems. However, an increase of some diseases due to compost usage has also been observed, since compost is a product that varies considerably in chemical, physical and biotic composition, and, consequently, also in ability to suppress soil borne diseases. New opportunities in disease management can be obtained by the selection of antagonists from suppressive composts. The objective of the present work was to isolate microorganisms from a suppressive compost and to test them for their activity against soil-borne pathogens. A compost from green wastes, organic domestic wastes and urban sludge's that showed a good suppressive activity in previous trials was used as source of microorganisms. Serial diluted suspensions of compost samples were plated on five different media: selective for Fusarium sp., selective for Trichoderma sp., selective for oomycetes, potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi, lysogeny broth (LB) for isolation of bacteria. In total, 101 colonies were isolated from plates and tested under laboratory conditions on tomato seedlings growing on perlite medium in Petri plates infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and compared to a commercial antagonist (Streptomyces griserovidis, Mycostop, Bioplanet). Among them, 28 showed a significant disease reduction and were assessed under greenhouse condition on three pathosystems: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilica/basil, Phytophthora nicotianae/tomato and Rhizoctonia solani/bean. Fusarium spp. selected from compost generally showed a good disease control against Fusarium wilts, while only bacteria significantly controlled P. nicotianae on tomato under greenhouse conditions. None of the microorganisms was able to control the three soil-borne pathogens together, in particular Rhizoctonia solani. Results

  15. Free radicals: how do we stand them? Anaerobic and aerobic free radical (chain) reactions involved in the use of fluorogenic probes and in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Liochev, Stefan I

    2014-01-01

    Biologically significant conclusions have been based on the use of fluorogenic and luminogenic probes for the detection of reactive species. The basic mechanisms of the processes involved have not been satisfactorily elucidated. In the present work, the mechanism of the enzyme and photosensitized oxidation of NAD(P)H by resorufin is analyzed and appears to involve both aerobic and anaerobic free radical chain reactions. There are two major fallouts of this analysis. Many of the conclusions about the participation of radicals based on the use of probes such as resorufin and Amplex red need reevaluation. It is also concluded that anaerobic free radical reactions may be biologically significant, and the possible existence of enzymatic systems to eliminate certain free radicals is discussed.

  16. Metabarcoding analysis of home composts reveals distinctive fungal communities with a high number of unassigned sequences.

    PubMed

    Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Home composting has been strongly advocated in the UK, Europe and North America to divert organic waste away from conventional waste processing. Despite this, little attention has been given to microbial communities and their diversity in these systems. In this study, we examined the diversity of fungal species in 10 different domestic composts by 454 tag-encoded pyrosequencing. We report the recovery of 478 different molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) from the 10 composts with a mean of 176.7 ± 19.6 MOTUs per compost and a mean of 12.9 ± 3.8 unique MOTUs per sample. Microascales (17.21 %), Hypocreales (16.76 %), Sordariales (14.89 %), Eurotiales (11.25 %) and Mortierellales (7.38 %) were the dominant orders in the community, with Pseudallescheria (9.52 %), Penicillium (8.43 %), Mortierella (3.60 %) and Fusarium (3.31 %) being the most abundant genera. Fungal communities in home composts were substantially different to large-scale commercial composts, with thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi present in much lower numbers. Significantly, 46.2 % of all sequences were identified as uncultured fungi or could not be assigned above the family level, suggesting there are a high number of new genera and species in these environments still to be described. PMID:26243286

  17. Tracking Dynamics of Plant Biomass Composting by Changes in Substrate Structure, Microbial Community, and Enzyme Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Tucker, M. P.; Baker, J. O.; Harris, M.; Luo, Y. H.; Xu, Q.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding, S. Y.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  18. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels. PMID:22490508

  19. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.

    2009-07-01

    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.

  20. Mathematical model of organic substrate degradation in solid waste windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hadibarata, Tony; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Organic solid waste composting is a complex process that involves many coupled physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. To understand this complexity and to ease in planning, design and management of the composting plant, mathematical model for simulation is usually applied. The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of organic substrate degradation and its performance evaluation in solid waste windrow composting system. The present model is a biomass-dependent model, considering biological growth processes under the limitation of moisture, oxygen and substrate contents, and temperature. The main output of this model is substrate content which was divided into two categories: slowly and rapidly degradable substrates. To validate the model, it was applied to a laboratory scale windrow composting of a mixture of wood chips and dog food. The wastes were filled into a cylindrical reactor of 6 cm diameter and 1 m height. The simulation program was run for 3 weeks with 1 s stepwise. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. The MC and temperature of model simulation were found to be matched with those of experiment, but limited for rapidly degradable substrates. Under anaerobic zone, the degradation of rapidly degradable substrate needs to be incorporated into the model to achieve full simulation of a long period static pile composting. This model is a useful tool to estimate the changes of substrate content during composting period, and acts as a basic model for further development of a sophisticated model. PMID:26522660

  1. Multispecies toxicity assessment of compost produced in bioremediation of an explosives-contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Napolitano, G.E.; Wicker, L.F.; Richmond, J.E.; Stewart, A.J.; Kostuk, J.M.; Gibbs, M.H.

    1997-12-01

    A multispecies terrestrial test system was used to assess the environmental effectiveness of composting for bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soils. The assessment involved comparing biological responses, from the individual to the community level, in remediated and reference composts. A 6-month greenhouse study incorporated two soil invertebrate species, three plant species and an associated symbiont, and the naturally occurring complement of soil microorganisms. Measured parameters included growth and reproduction of earthworms and isopods; soil mote diversity; soil lipid class composition as an indicator of soil microbial community structure; plant growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction; and root nodulation and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. Additional short-term toxicity tests of seed germination and earthworm survival were performed to supplement the mesocosm data. Compost prepared from the explosives-contaminated soil inhibited several aspects of plant growth and physiology, but few adverse effects on soil invertebrates were detected. An initial lag in earthworm and isopod reproduction occurred in the reference compost, reflecting some inherent compost differences not associated with contamination, and highlighting the importance and the difficulty of finding appropriate reference soils for assessing hazardous waste sites or remediation technologies. Nonetheless, the results from this study suggested some nonlethal effects from the contaminated-soil compost, primarily to plants. The mesocosm methodology used in this study can bridge the gap between traditional short-term toxicity testing and longer term field assessments, and provide information on ecological effects by explicitly including measurements of multiple species across several levels of ecological organization.

  2. A straw-soil co-composting and evaluation for plant substrate in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quanyong; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Qin, Lifeng

    2013-02-01

    Material closure is important for the establishment of Bioregenerative Life Support System, and many studies have focused on transforming candidate plant residues into plant culture medium. For the limitations of using wheat straw compost as substrate for plant cultivation, a straw-soil co-composting technique was studied. The changes of pH, C/N value, germination index, cellulose, lignin and so on were monitored during the co-composting process. The maturity was evaluated by the C/N value and the germination index. The result showed that after 45 days' fermentation, the straw-soil final co-compost with inoculation (T1) became mature, while the co-compost without inoculation (T0) was not mature. In the plant culture test, the T1 substrate could satisfy the needs for lettuce's growth, and the edible biomass yield of lettuce averaged 74.42 g pot-1 at harvest. But the lettuces in T0 substrate showed stress symptoms and have not completed the growth cycle. Moreover, the results of nitrogen (N) transformation experiment showed that about 10.0% and 3.1% N were lost during the T1 co-composting and plant cultivation, respectively, 23.5% N was absorbed by lettuce, and 63.4% N remained in the T1 substrate after cultivation.

  3. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  4. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil. Technical terminal report

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of the Vitek MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Gram-Positive Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Bythrow, Maureen; Garner, Omai B.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Jennemann, Rebecca; Lewinski, Michael A.; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A. Brian; Procop, Gary W.; Richter, Sandra S.; Sercia, Linda; Westblade, Lars F.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Branda, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is gaining momentum as a tool for bacterial identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Compared with conventional methods, this technology can more readily and conveniently identify a wide range of organisms. Here, we report the findings from a multicenter study to evaluate the Vitek MS v2.0 system (bioMérieux, Inc.) for the identification of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 1,146 unique isolates, representing 13 genera and 42 species, were analyzed, and results were compared to those obtained by nucleic acid sequence-based identification as the reference method. For 1,063 of 1,146 isolates (92.8%), the Vitek MS provided a single identification that was accurate to the species level. For an additional 31 isolates (2.7%), multiple possible identifications were provided, all correct at the genus level. Mixed-genus or single-choice incorrect identifications were provided for 18 isolates (1.6%). Although no identification was obtained for 33 isolates (2.9%), there was no specific bacterial species for which the Vitek MS consistently failed to provide identification. In a subset of 463 isolates representing commonly encountered important pathogens, 95% were accurately identified to the species level and there were no misidentifications. Also, in all but one instance, the Vitek MS correctly differentiated Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci. The findings demonstrate that the Vitek MS system is highly accurate for the identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23658261

  6. Microbial Community Structure and Diversity in an Integrated System of Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors and a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Tannery Wastewater in Modjo, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Adey Feleke; Assefa, Fassil; Leta, Seyoum; Stomeo, Francesca; Wamalwa, Mark; Njahira, Moses; Appolinaire, Djikeng

    2014-01-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to elucidate the microbial diversity and structure in the anaerobic-aerobic reactors integrated with a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo town, Ethiopia. The system has been running with removal efficiencies ranging from 94%–96% for COD, 91%–100% for SO42- and S2-, 92%–94% for BOD, 56%–82% for total Nitrogen and 2%–90% for NH3-N. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and microbial community assemblies were determined by analysis of a total of 801 unique clone sequences from all the sites. Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) - based analysis of the sequences revealed highly diverse communities in each of the reactors and the constructed wetland. A total of 32 phylotypes were identified with the dominant members affiliated to Clostridia (33%), Betaproteobacteria (10%), Bacteroidia (10%), Deltaproteobacteria (9%) and Gammaproteobacteria (6%). Sequences affiliated to the class Clostridia were the most abundant across all sites. The 801 sequences were assigned to 255 OTUs, of which 3 OTUs were shared among the clone libraries from all sites. The shared OTUs comprised 80 sequences belonging to Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis, Bacteroidetes and unclassified bacterial group. Significantly different communities were harbored by the anaerobic, aerobic and rhizosphere sites of the constructed wetland. Numerous representative genera of the dominant bacterial classes obtained from the different sample sites of the integrated system have been implicated in the removal of various carbon- containing pollutants of natural and synthetic origins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial community structure in tannery wastewater treatment plant from Ethiopia. PMID:25541981

  7. Microbial community structure and diversity in an integrated system of anaerobic-aerobic reactors and a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Desta, Adey Feleke; Assefa, Fassil; Leta, Seyoum; Stomeo, Francesca; Wamalwa, Mark; Njahira, Moses; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Appolinaire, Djikeng

    2014-01-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to elucidate the microbial diversity and structure in the anaerobic-aerobic reactors integrated with a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo town, Ethiopia. The system has been running with removal efficiencies ranging from 94%-96% for COD, 91%-100% for SO4(2-) and S(2-), 92%-94% for BOD, 56%-82% for total Nitrogen and 2%-90% for NH3-N. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and microbial community assemblies were determined by analysis of a total of 801 unique clone sequences from all the sites. Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)--based analysis of the sequences revealed highly diverse communities in each of the reactors and the constructed wetland. A total of 32 phylotypes were identified with the dominant members affiliated to Clostridia (33%), Betaproteobacteria (10%), Bacteroidia (10%), Deltaproteobacteria (9%) and Gammaproteobacteria (6%). Sequences affiliated to the class Clostridia were the most abundant across all sites. The 801 sequences were assigned to 255 OTUs, of which 3 OTUs were shared among the clone libraries from all sites. The shared OTUs comprised 80 sequences belonging to Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis, Bacteroidetes and unclassified bacterial group. Significantly different communities were harbored by the anaerobic, aerobic and rhizosphere sites of the constructed wetland. Numerous representative genera of the dominant bacterial classes obtained from the different sample sites of the integrated system have been implicated in the removal of various carbon- containing pollutants of natural and synthetic origins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial community structure in tannery wastewater treatment plant from Ethiopia. PMID:25541981

  8. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed, aerobic, and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Lin; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Huang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chien, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study using a combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) and aerobic and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system was undertaken to explore its capability for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater. When the organic loading rate was maintained at 0.26-0.65 kg TMAH m(-3 )d(-1), the UASB reactor removed 70-100% of TMAH through methanogenesis. When the [Formula: see text] -N loading rate was maintained at 0.73-1.4 kg [Formula: see text]-N m(-3 )d(-1), the aerobic reactor oxidized 31-59% of [Formula: see text]-N to [Formula: see text]-N through nitritation. When the nitrogen loading rate was maintained at 0.42-0.75 kg N m(-3 )d(-1), the anoxic reactor removed 27-63% of nitrogen through anammox. The performance data of the combined reactor system agreed well with the stoichiometric relationships of methanogenesis, nitritation, and anammox. The batch studies showed that a higher initial TMAH concentration of up to 2520 mg L(-1) gave a higher methanogenic activity of up to 16 mL CH4 g(-1) VSS d(-1). An increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 500 mg L(-1) gradually decreased the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; whereas an increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 47 mg L(-1) imposed a marked inhibiting effect on the activity of anammox bacteria.

  9. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio < 15; (b) NH4+-N < 400 mg/kg; (c) CO2-C < 2000 mg CO2-C/kg; (d) dehydrogenase activity < 1 mg TPF/g dry matter; (e) germination index (GI) > 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes. PMID:20000002

  10. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio < 15; (b) NH4+-N < 400 mg/kg; (c) CO2-C < 2000 mg CO2-C/kg; (d) dehydrogenase activity < 1 mg TPF/g dry matter; (e) germination index (GI) > 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes.

  11. Chemical and toxicological testing of composted explosives-contaminating soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Steward, A.J.; Tyndall, R.L.; Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E. )

    1993-06-01

    Static-pile and mechanically stirred composts of explosives-contaminated soil at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA, Umatilla, OR) in a field composting optimization study were characterized chemically and toxicologically. The concentrations of extractable explosives (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in the composts and their aqueous leachates, the mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from the composts, and the toxicity of compost aqueous leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia all decreased considerably with 20 d of composting. After 44 d or 90 d of composting, the toxicity, mutagenicity, and concentrations of extractable explosives decreased more than 90% in some cases. The composting efficiency was generally inversely proportional to the percentage (v/v) of contaminated soil. Composting in static piles was efficient up to about 20% (v/v) of contaminated soil; composting in the mechanically stirred composters was efficient up to about 25% soil. Mechanical composting was more efficient than composting in static piles. The main conclusion of this study is that composting can effectively remediate explosives contaminated soil and sediment. However, low levels of explosives and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable toxicity to Ceriodaphnia may remain after composting. The sources of residual toxicity and mutagenicity and the ultimate fate of the explosives are unknown.

  12. [Process Optimization of Aerobic Granular Sludge Continuous-Flow System for the Treatment of Low COD/N Ratio Sewage].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Xin, Xin; Lu, Hang; Zhu, Liao-dong; Xie, Si-jian; Wu, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The mature aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was inoculated in a continuous-flow joint constructor reactor to treat low chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio sewage. The effects of aeration intensity and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the denitrification and phosphorus removal efficiencies and the granular sludge stabilization were investigated. When the aeration intensity was 300 mL x min(-1) (superficial air upflow velocity of 1.2 cm x s(-1)) and the HRT was 7.5 h, the average removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP were 76.34%, 51.23% and 53.70%, respectively. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was only about 2 000 mg x L(-1), the sludge volume index ( SVI) was below 50 mL x g(-1), and the AGS exhibited complete forms and good settling performances. Additionally, the low COD/N ratios sewage could promote the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS, and the PN proteins in EPS played a pivotal role in the maintenance of AGS stabilization. PMID:26841612

  13. Influence of agricultural wastes and a finished compost on the decomposition of slaughterhouse waste composts.

    PubMed

    Price, G W; Zeng, Jian; Arnold, Paul

    2013-11-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combining agricultural wastes or a finished compost (wheat straw, horse manure and bedding, sheep manure, and a wheat straw-SHW finished compost) as compost feedstocks with cattle slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) on a field-scale. The composts were managed in covered bins over 200 days and physico-chemical parameters related to organic matter bio-degradation were measured over time. Thermophilic temperatures were maintained above 55 °C for 12-46 days to meet the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) guidelines for pathogen control. Final C:N ratios were highest in a horse manure and bedding:SHW compost at 23:1 but ranged from 18.5 to 20.5:1 for the remaining three treatments, representing a wheat straw:SHW compost and different combinations of horse manure and bedding, SHW, and/or sheep manure. Average reduction in mass of total carbon across all the composts in the current study was 54.2%. Maturity tests at the end of the study determined that the CO2-C evolution rate in all compost products was less than 1 mg g(-1) organic matter day(-1) suggesting highly stable final compost products. Compost mass reductions all responded as exponential decay functions with R(2) values ranging from 0.84 to 0.99 regardless of compost feedstock composition. Agricultural by-products and composts are suitable feedstocks for use with SHW to generate a stable final product while meeting regulatory parameters to achieve conventional pathogen control.

  14. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  15. Assessing risk of solid waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.M.; Razvi, A.S. )

    1987-03-01

    This paper addresses the movement of metals in soils and their accumulation in plants. Research with sewage sludge compost indicates that these risks can be minimized with proper handling and management. The objectives of this study were: (I) to evaluate potential groundwater contamination due to plant nutrients and heavy metals in the compost; and (II) to assess the accumulation of metals in plants grown on compost-amended soil. Data are presented for analyses of nickel, lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in snap beans.

  16. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    PubMed

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. PMID:27422047

  17. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation.

  18. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    PubMed

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins.

  19. Biofiltration of isopentane in peat and compost packed beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Govind, R.

    1997-05-01

    Commercially available biofiltration systems have used natural bioactive materials in packed beds due to low media cost and easy availability. Detailed understanding and modeling of biofiltration systems are lacking in existing literature. Experimental studies on the isopentane treatment in air using peat- and compost-packed beds were conducted with inlet isopentane concentrations of 360 to 960 ppmv, and empty-bed gas-phase residence times of 2 to 10 min. High removal efficiencies (>90%) were achieved at low contaminant concentrations (<500 ppmv) and large empty-bed gas-phase residence times (>8 min). For both peat and compost biofilters, there was an optimal water content that gave the highest removal efficiency. For higher water content, mass transfer of isopentane through the liquid phase controlled the biofiltration removal efficiency. At low water content, irreversible changes in the bioactivity of peat and compost occurred, resulting in an irrecoverable loss of removal efficiency. Increases in biofilter bed temperature from 25 to 40 C improved the removal efficiency. A mathematical model incorporating the effect of water content and temperature was developed to describe the packed-bed biofilter performance. Model predictions agreed closely with experimental data.

  20. Novel insights into anoxic/aerobic(1)/aerobic(2) biological fluidized-bed system for coke wastewater treatment by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Ren, Yuan; Feng, Chun-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to investigate the contaminant removal efficiency and fluorescent characteristic variations in a full scale coke wastewater (CWW) treatment plant with a novel anoxic/aerobic(1)/aerobic(2) (A/O(1)/O(2)) process, which combined with internal-loop fluidized-bed reactor. Routine monitoring results indicated that primary contaminants in CWW, such as phenols and free cyanide, were removed efficiently in A/O(1)/O(2) process (removal efficiency reached 99% and 95%, respectively). Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and PARAFAC identified three fluorescent components, including two humic-like fluorescence components (C1 and C3) and one protein-like component (C2). Principal component analysis revealed that C1 and C2 correlated with COD (correlation coefficient (r)=0.782, p<0.01 and r=0.921, p<0.01), respectively) and phenols (r=0.796, p<0.01 and r=0.914, p<0.01, respectively), suggesting that C1 and C2 might be associated with the predominating aromatic contaminants in CWW. C3 correlated with mixed liquor suspended solids (r=0.863, p<0.01) in fluidized-bed reactors, suggesting that it might represent the biological dissolved organic matter. In A/O(1)/O(2) process, the fluorescence intensities of C1 and C2 consecutively decreased, indicating the degradation of aromatic contaminants. Correspondingly, the fluorescence intensity of C3 increased in aerobic(1) stage, suggesting an increase of biological dissolved organic matter.

  1. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... are available. Example 5: A manufacturer sells a disposable diaper that states, “This diaper can be... composting facilities are available as claimed and the manufacturer has substantiation that the diaper can...

  2. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... are available. Example 5: A manufacturer sells a disposable diaper that states, “This diaper can be... composting facilities are available as claimed and the manufacturer has substantiation that the diaper can...

  3. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    PubMed Central

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  4. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    PubMed

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  5. Usability study of a vineyard teleoperated compost spreader.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ester; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Teleoperation has been widely applied in modern industry because of a variety of advantages, such as providing replaceable surrogates for humans in dangerous or difficult working environments over long distances. In this paper, a usability evaluation study of a teleoperation system for a compost spreader robotic machine is presented. The machine has been designed for the application of compost in small and stepping parcels of hilly vineyards. Driving and working tasks can be controlled remotely by a portable piloting unit, reducing the risk for the operator in the event of machine overturning. Participants of the study were asked to perform a series of tasks and sub-tasks and to vocalize their thoughts while working with the machine. The tasks were designed to simulate typical user experience. Once all the tasks were accomplished each participant was asked to fill a questionnaire. The evaluation considered aspects such as learnability, ease of use, understandability, controllability, frustration, mental effort, distraction, clarity of presentation, perceived usefulness, temporal efficiency and machine aesthetic. Results show that usability evaluation helped detecting design deficiencies in the teleoperated compost spreader machine. PMID:22317497

  6. Usability study of a vineyard teleoperated compost spreader.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ester; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Teleoperation has been widely applied in modern industry because of a variety of advantages, such as providing replaceable surrogates for humans in dangerous or difficult working environments over long distances. In this paper, a usability evaluation study of a teleoperation system for a compost spreader robotic machine is presented. The machine has been designed for the application of compost in small and stepping parcels of hilly vineyards. Driving and working tasks can be controlled remotely by a portable piloting unit, reducing the risk for the operator in the event of machine overturning. Participants of the study were asked to perform a series of tasks and sub-tasks and to vocalize their thoughts while working with the machine. The tasks were designed to simulate typical user experience. Once all the tasks were accomplished each participant was asked to fill a questionnaire. The evaluation considered aspects such as learnability, ease of use, understandability, controllability, frustration, mental effort, distraction, clarity of presentation, perceived usefulness, temporal efficiency and machine aesthetic. Results show that usability evaluation helped detecting design deficiencies in the teleoperated compost spreader machine.

  7. Acceleration of Biochar Surface Oxidation during Composting?

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Katja; Fischer, Daniel; Walther, Sabine; Criscuoli, Irene; Favilli, Filippo; Nelle, Oliver; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-22

    Biochar composting experiments were performed to determine whether composting is a suitable method to accelerate biochar surface oxidation for increasing its reactivity. To assess the results, surface properties of Terra Preta (Brazil) and ancient charcoal pit (Northern Italy) biochars were additionally investigated. Calculation of O/C ratios by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated the anticipated increasing values from fresh biochars (0.13) to composted biochars (0.40), and finally charcoal pit biochars (0.54) and ancient Terra Preta biochars (0.64). By means of Fourier transformation infrared microscopy, formation of carboxylic and phenolic groups on biochars surface could be detected. Carboxylic acids of three composted biochars increased up to 14%, whereas one composted biochar showed a 21% lower proportion of carboxylic acids compared to the corresponding fresh biochar. Phenolic groups increased by 23% for the last mentioned biochar, and on all other biochars phenolic groups decreased up to 22%. Results showed that biochar surface oxidation can be accelerated through composting but still far away from ancient biochars. PMID:25802948

  8. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    PubMed Central

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  9. Thermophilic methane production and oxidation in compost.

    PubMed

    Jäckel, Udo; Thummes, Kathrin; Kämpfer, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Methane cycling within compost heaps has not yet been investigated in detail. We show that thermophilic methane oxidation occurred after a lag phase of up to one day in 4-week old, 8-week old and mature (>10-week old) compost material. The potential rate of methane oxidation was between 2.6 and 4.1 micromol CH4(gdw)(-1)h(-1). Profiles of methane concentrations within heaps of different ages indicated that 46-98% of the methane produced was oxidised by methanotrophic bacteria. The population size of thermophilic methanotrophs was estimated at 10(9) cells (gdw)(-1), based on methane oxidation rates. A methanotroph (strain KTM-1) was isolated from the highest positive step of a serial dilution series. This strain belonged to the genus Methylocaldum, which contains thermotolerant and thermophilic methanotrophs. The closest relative organism on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity was M. szegediense (>99%), a species originally isolated from hot springs. The temperature optimum (45-55 degrees C) for methane oxidation within the compost material was identical to that of strain KTM-1, suggesting that this strain was well adapted to the conditions in the compost material. The temperatures measured in the upper layer (0-40 cm) of the compost heaps were also in this range, so we assume that these organisms are capable of effectively reducing the potential methane emissions from compost.

  10. Emission of volatile organic compounds during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitris P; Ham, Robert K; Park, Jae K

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW). A laboratory experiment was conducted using organic components of MSW that were decomposed under controlled aerobic conditions. Mixed paper primarily produced alkylated benzenes, alcohols and alkanes. Yard wastes primarily produced terpenes, alkylated benzenes, ketones and alkanes, while food wastes primarily produced sulfides, acids and alcohols. Among 13 aromatic VOCs found in MSW composting facilities, toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, p-isopropyl toluene, and naphthalene were in the largest amounts. Unseeded mixed paper, seeded mixed paper, seeded yard wastes, unseeded yard wastes, seeded food wastes and unseeded food wastes produced approximately 6.5, 6.1, 2.1, 0.83, 2.5 and 0.33 mg of 13 volatile and semi-volatile aromatic organic compounds combined, respectively, per dry kg. All VOCs were emitted early during the composting process and their production rates decreased with time at thermophilic temperatures.

  11. Use of wastewater and compost extracts as nutrient sources for growing nursery and turfgrass species.

    PubMed

    Michitsch, Robert C; Chong, Calvin; Holbein, Bruce E; Voroney, R Paul; Liu, Hua-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient salts present in liquid by-products following waste treatment are lost resources if not effectively recycled, and can cause environmental problems if improperly disposed. This research compared the growth response and mineral nutrient status of two nursery and two turfgrass species, hydroponically supplied with nutritive by-product extracts derived from anaerobically digested municipal solid waste (MSW) and aerobically composted organic wastes from the mushroom and MSW industries. Forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia 'Lynwood') and weigela (Weigela florida 'Red Prince'), and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), were grown in nutrient solutions/extracts prepared from: (i) half-strength Hoagland's #2 solution (HH; control), (ii) Plant Products liquid fertilizer (PP; g kg(-1): 180 N; 39 P; 224 K), (iii) spent mushroom compost (SMC), (iv) MSW compost (GMC), and (v) intra-process wastewater from the anaerobic digestion of MSW (ADW). Additional nutrient solutions (SMC-A, GMC-A, and ADW-A) were prepared by amending the original solutions with N, P, and/or K to concentrations in HH (mg L(-1): 105 N; 15 P; 118 K). Plants receiving the SMC-A extract grew best or at least as well as those in HH, PP, and the amended GMC-A and ADW-A solutions. This study indicated that, with proper amendments of N, P, K and other nutrients, water-soluble constituents derived from organic waste treatment have potential for use as supplemental nutrient sources for plant production. PMID:17526882

  12. Use of wastewater and compost extracts as nutrient sources for growing nursery and turfgrass species.

    PubMed

    Michitsch, Robert C; Chong, Calvin; Holbein, Bruce E; Voroney, R Paul; Liu, Hua-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient salts present in liquid by-products following waste treatment are lost resources if not effectively recycled, and can cause environmental problems if improperly disposed. This research compared the growth response and mineral nutrient status of two nursery and two turfgrass species, hydroponically supplied with nutritive by-product extracts derived from anaerobically digested municipal solid waste (MSW) and aerobically composted organic wastes from the mushroom and MSW industries. Forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia 'Lynwood') and weigela (Weigela florida 'Red Prince'), and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), were grown in nutrient solutions/extracts prepared from: (i) half-strength Hoagland's #2 solution (HH; control), (ii) Plant Products liquid fertilizer (PP; g kg(-1): 180 N; 39 P; 224 K), (iii) spent mushroom compost (SMC), (iv) MSW compost (GMC), and (v) intra-process wastewater from the anaerobic digestion of MSW (ADW). Additional nutrient solutions (SMC-A, GMC-A, and ADW-A) were prepared by amending the original solutions with N, P, and/or K to concentrations in HH (mg L(-1): 105 N; 15 P; 118 K). Plants receiving the SMC-A extract grew best or at least as well as those in HH, PP, and the amended GMC-A and ADW-A solutions. This study indicated that, with proper amendments of N, P, K and other nutrients, water-soluble constituents derived from organic waste treatment have potential for use as supplemental nutrient sources for plant production.

  13. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  14. Pathogen re-colonization of in-house composted and non-composted broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “In-house” litter composting has been reintroduced to the industry and shown to reduce bacteria by as much as two orders of magnitude. Other industries have demonstrated that pathogens can recolonize a waste-residual when microbial competition has been reduced or inhibited following composting. Po...

  15. Dynamic of functional microbial groups during mesophilic composting of agro-industrial wastes and free-living (N2)-fixing bacteria application.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    Although several reports are available concerning the composition and dynamics of the microflora during the composting of municipal solid wastes, little is known about the microbial diversity during the composting of agro-industrial refuse. For this reason, the first parts of this study included the quantification of microbial generic groups and of the main functional groups of C and N cycle during composting of agro-industrial refuse. After a generalized decrease observed during the initial phases, a new bacterial growth was observed in the final phase of the process. Ammonifiers and (N2)-fixing aerobic groups predominated outside of the piles whereas, nitrate-reducing group increased inside the piles during the first 23days of composting. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), showed an opposite trend of growth since ammonia oxidation decreased with the increase of the nitrite oxidation activity. Pectinolytics, amylolytics and aerobic cellulolytic were present in greater quantities and showed an upward trend in both the internal and external part of the heaps. Several free-living (N2)-fixing bacteria were molecularly identify as belonging especially to uncommon genera of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as Stenotrophomonas, Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes, Achromobacter and Caulobacter. They were investigated for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen to employ as improvers of quality of compost. Some strains of Azotobacter chrococcum and Azotobacter salinestris were also tested. When different diazotrophic bacterial species were added in compost, the increase of total N ranged from 16% to 27% depending on the selected microbial strain being used. Such microorganisms may be used alone or in mixtures to provide an allocation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in soil.

  16. Presence and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves and in soil treated with contaminated compost and irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Anguera, M; Abadias, M

    2012-05-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with produce consumption have brought attention to contaminated compost manure, and polluted irrigation water as potential sources of pathogens for the contamination of these crops. The aim of this study was to determine the potential transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil fertilized with contaminated compost or irrigated with contaminated water to edible parts of lettuce together with its persistence in soil under field conditions in two different seasons (fall and spring). Moreover, its survival on lettuce sprinkled with contaminated irrigation water was evaluated, as well as the prevalence of aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae in control lettuce samples. Four treatments, contaminated compost, surface and sprinkle irrigation with contaminated water and uninoculated pots, were used in this work. Contaminated compost was applied to soil in the pots before lettuce was transplanted and contaminated irrigation water was applied twice and three times on the plants after the seedlings were transplanted, for sprinkle and surface irrigation, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 survived in soil samples for 9 weeks at levels, 4.50 log cfu gdw(-1) (dw, dry weight) in fall and 1.50 log cfu gdw(-1) in spring. The pathogen survives better in fall, indicating an important influence of environmental factors. E. coli O157:H7 population in lettuce leaves after sprinkle irrigation was very high (between 10(3) and 10(6) cfu g(-1)), but decreased to undetectable levels at field conditions. There was also transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from soil contaminated with compost or irrigated with contaminated water to lettuce leaves, mainly to the outer ones. The mean counts for aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae populations were also influenced by environmental conditions; higher levels were observed under fall conditions than in spring conditions. Contamination of lettuce plants in the field can occur

  17. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Climent, A.; Gomis, P.; Martín-Mata, J.; Bustamante, M. A.; Marhuenda-Egea, F. C.; Pérez-Murcia, M. D.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Paredes, C.; Moral, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio. PMID:26418458

  18. Fate of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance during Digestion and Composting: A Review.

    PubMed

    Youngquist, Caitlin P; Mitchell, Shannon M; Cogger, Craig G

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) enter the environment through municipal and agricultural waste streams and pose a potential risk to human and livestock health through either direct exposure to antibiotic-resistant pathogens or selective pressure on the soil microbial community. This review summarizes current literature on the fate of antibiotics, ARB, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during anaerobic digestion and composting of manure and wastewater residuals. Studies have shown that removal of antibiotics varies widely during mesophilic anaerobic digestion, even within the same class of antibiotics. Research on ARB shows a wide range of removal under mesophilic conditions, with nearly complete removal under thermophilic conditions. Research on 16 antibiotics in 11 different studies using both bench-scale and farm-scale composting systems demonstrates that composting significantly reduces levels of extractable antibiotics in livestock manure in nearly all cases. Calculated half-lives ranged from 0.9 to 16 d for most antibiotics. There is more limited evidence that levels of ARB are also reduced by composting. Studies of the fate of ARGs show mixed evidence for removal during both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion and during thermophilic composting. Antibiotic resistance genes are DNA structures, so they may persist until the DNA structure is degraded, yet the bacterium may have been rendered nonviable long before the DNA is completely degraded. Additional research would be of value to determine optimum anaerobic digestion and composting conditions for removal of ARB and to increase understanding of the fate of ARGs during anaerobic digestion and composting. PMID:27065401

  19. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 102 conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5–10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5–2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers. PMID:24368426

  20. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    PubMed

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  1. Quality assessment of composts prepared with olive mill wastewater and agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Hachicha, Salma; Sallemi, Fatma; Medhioub, Khaled; Hachicha, Ridha; Ammar, Emna

    2008-12-01

    The co-composting of solid residue from olive oil production process, exhausted olive cake (EOC), with poultry manure (PM) watered with olive mill wastewater (OMW) was considered as an efficient method for the treatment of olive oil extraction effluent having high organic content including phenolic polluting compounds. The process was carried out by using three aerated windrows of variable compositions. OMW was used continuously during the bio-oxidative period, which lasted three months, to replace water for windrow moistening. The main process parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) were monitored over four months to ascertain the maturity of the compost. The composting process lasted four months during which 26 moistenings of the mixtures were performed with OMW or water to keep moisture within the ideal range of 45-60% (w/w). At the maturity stage, the C/N ratios were less than 16, pH of the resulting products were slightly alkaline (pH=8) and electrical conductivity was relatively high in the OMW mixtures (5.46-5.48 Sm(-1)) when compared with water application. Nitrates increased (0.16-0.42%) and phenol contents were reduced by more than 49%. Mature composts were then used as an amendment for potato production in a field where no inhibitory effect was observed. Potato productivity increased 10-23% as a result of compost application. No noticeable negative impact of OMW on the soil system was observed. Phenolic compound concentrations in the stabilised composts were comparable in the three studied mixtures (different sites) and averaged 0.24%. Considering previous results and this three year study, it has been observed that the benefit of these composts demonstrated the potential sustainable agronomic production of potato while using locally available recycled organic materials.

  2. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    PubMed

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio. PMID:26418458

  3. Potential of olive mill waste and compost as biobased pesticides against weeds, fungi, and nematodes.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, M L; Millner, P D; Meyer, S L F; Roig, A

    2008-07-25

    The phytotoxic and antimicrobial properties of olive mill wastes have been widely investigated and demonstrated over the past decade. However, their potential utilization as biodegradable pesticides against plant pathogens is still poorly understood. In this study, a series of laboratory bioassays was designed to test the inhibitory effects of sterile water extracts of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) and TPOMW composts with different degrees of stabilization on several different plant pathogens. Fungicidal properties of TPOMW extracts, assayed in a microwell assay format, showed that the growth of Phytophthora capsici was consistently and strongly inhibited by all TPOMW extracts diluted 1:10 (w:v). In contrast, suppression of Pythium ultimum and Botrytis cinerea by the extracts was not as strong and depended on the specific TPOMW sample. Mature compost inhibited P. capsici and B. cinerea at dilutions as great as 1:50, w:v. Neither TPOMW nor TPOMW compost extracts were able to inhibit the growth of the basidiomycete root rot agent Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, studies were conducted on the allelopathic effects of TPOMW extracts on seed germination of four highly invasive and globally distributed weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album and Sorghum halepense). Both the TPOMW and immature TPOMW compost extracts substantially inhibited germination of A. retroflexus and S. nigrum, whereas mature composts extracts only partially reduced the germination of S. nigrum. Finally, TPOMW extracts strongly inhibited egg hatch and second-stage juvenile (J2) motility of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. However, only higher concentrations of stage-one and stage-two TPOMW compost extracts exerted a suppressive effect on both J2 motility and on egg hatch. The study shows the high potential of naturally occurring chemicals present in TPOMW and TPOMW composts that should be further investigated as bio-pesticides for their use in sustainable

  4. Exploiting composting biodiversity: study of the persistent and biotechnologically relevant microorganisms from lignocellulose-based composting.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Macarena; López, María J; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Vargas-García, María C; López-González, Juan A; Moreno, Joaquín

    2014-06-01

    The composting ecosystem is a suitable source for the discovery of novel microorganisms and secondary metabolites. This work analyzes the identity of microbial community that persists throughout lignocellulose-based composting, evaluates their metabolic activities and studies the capability of selected isolates for composting bioaugmentation. Bacterial species of the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and fungi of the phylum Ascomycota were ubiquitous throughout the composting. The species Arthrobacter russicus, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Ochrocladosporium frigidarii and Cladosporium lignicola are detected for the first time in this ecosystem. In addition, several bacterial and fungal isolates exhibited a wide range of metabolic capabilities such as polymers (lignocellulose, protein, lipids, pectin and starch) breakdown and phosphate-solubilization that may find many biotechnological applications. In particular, Streptomyces albus BM292, Gibellulopsis nigrescens FM1397 and FM1411, Bacillus licheniformis BT575, Bacillus smithii AT907 and Alternaria tenuissima FM1385 exhibited a great potential as inoculants for composting bioaugmentation.

  5. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  6. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Finstein, M S; Strom, P F; Hogan, J A; Cowan, R M

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined. PMID:11542677

  7. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finstein, M. S.; Strom, P. F.; Hogan, J. A.; Cowan, R. M.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  8. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  9. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting.

  10. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting. PMID:27526207

  11. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on aerobic granulation of algal-bacterial symbiosis system and nutrients removal from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Huang, Wenli; Zhang, Chao; Feng, Sisi; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Sugiura, Norio

    2015-01-01

    The influence of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) (10-50mg/L) on aerobic granulation of algal-bacterial symbiosis system was investigated by using two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Although little adverse effect was observed on their nitritation efficiency (98-100% in both reactors), algal-bacterial granules in the control SBR (Rc) gradually lost stability mainly brought about by algae growth. TiO2-NPs addition to RT was found to enhance the granulation process achieving stable and compact algal-bacterial granules with remarkably improved nitratation thus little nitrite accumulation in RT when influent TiO2-NPs⩾30mg/L. Despite almost similar organics and phosphorus removals obtained in both reactors, the stably high nitratation efficiency in addition to much stable granular structure in RT suggests that TiO2-NPs addition might be a promising remedy for the long-term operation of algal-bacterial granular system, most probably attributable to the stimulated excretion of extracellular polymeric substances and less filamentous TM7.

  12. Biodegradability of biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohee, R; Unmar, G D; Mudhoo, A; Khadoo, P

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive control for both mediums. The composting process was monitored in terms of temperature, moisture and volatile solids and the biodegradation of the samples were monitored in terms of mass loss. Monitoring results showed a biodegradation of 27.1% on a dry basis for MB plastic within a period of 72 days of composting. Biodegradability under an anaerobic environment was monitored in terms of biogas production. A cumulative methane gas production of 245 ml was obtained for MB, which showed good degradation as compared to CFP (246.8 ml). However, EPI plastic showed a cumulative methane value of 7.6 ml for a period of 32 days, which was close to the blank (4.0 ml). The EPI plastic did not biodegrade under either condition. The cumulative carbon dioxide evolution after 32 days was as follows: CFP 4.406 cm3, MB 2.198 cm3 and EPI 1.328 cm3. The cumulative level of CO2 varying with time fitted sigmoid type curves with R2 values of 0.996, 0.996 and 0.995 for CFP, MB and EPI, respectively.

  13. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  14. [Effects of sludge compost used as lawn medium on lawn growth and soil and water environment].

    PubMed

    Jin, Shu-Quan; Zhou, Jin-Bo; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Lin, Bin; Wang, De-Yao

    2013-10-01

    To address effect of the sludge compost-containing medium on the growth of Manila lawn and environment quality, a pot experiment was conducted using six treatments based on contrasting sludge compost addition volume ratios in the soil system (i. e., 0% , 10% , 25% , 50% , 75% and 100%). The results indicated that the growth potential of Manila lawn was increased with increasing sludge compost addition volume ratio. The content of Hg in Manila plant was significantly positively correlated with that in the lawn medium. Although the contents of Cr, Cd and Hg in the lawn medium were synchronously increased with increasing sludge compost addition volume ratio in the soil system, their contents were all lower than the critical levels of third-class standard in the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard. The heavy metal and nitrate concentrations detected in percolating water were significantly positively correlated with those in the lawn medium, respectively. When the sludge compost addition volume ratio was more than 50% in this study, both heavy metal and nitrate concentrations in percolating water would exceed the maximum allowable levels of the National Groundwater Environment Quality Standard.

  15. Decentralised composting of urban waste--an overview of community and private initiatives in Indian cities.

    PubMed

    Zurbrügg, Christian; Drescher, Silke; Patel, Almitra; Sharatchandra, H C

    2004-01-01

    The national waste legislation, introduced in India in 2000, endorses the principle of "Recycle Before Disposal" and clearly stipulates composting as an option for organic waste treatment. It also recommends waste separation as prerequisite for treatment. Although various composting schemes of different scale, type and organisational structure currently exist in the country, a general overview is lacking and very little independent site-specific information is available. This paper presents the results of a study assessing 17 decentralised systems from the cities of Bangalore, Chennai, Pune, and Mumbai. The schemes were classified according to their organisational setup into: (1) citizens' and community initiatives; (2) business and institution initiatives operating on their premises; and (3) small and medium-size private sector initiatives. These categories also coincide with different operational scales. Community initiatives have developed from unreliable collection services, and composting emerged mainly as a spin-off activity from the collection system to reduce waste delivery to the communal containers emptied by the municipal services. The potential to launch and sustain decentralised composting schemes is dependent on the municipal provision of adequate space. This paper summarises further key issues pertaining to the assessed schemes and reveals overall deficiencies in the field of accounting and transparency, composting technique and marketing, as well as municipal authority involvement.

  16. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  17. On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal funus inoculum in compost and vermiculite mixtures: results of on-farm demonstrations and impact of compost microbiological quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability and profitability of many agricultural systems can be enhanced through the utilization of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Inocula are commercially available, but inoculum can also be produced on-farm in mixtures of compost and vermiculite with a nurse host plant. Demon...

  18. Physical Covering to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in Static and Windrow Composting Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of 30-cm covering of finished compost on survival of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in active static and windrow composting systems. Feedstock inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7.41 log CFU/g) and Salmonella (6.46 log CFU/g) were placed in biosentry tubes (7.5 cm di...

  19. Volatile organic compound emissions during the composting of biosolids from a domestic wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C X; Estévez, S L; Giraldo, E

    2002-01-01

    VOCs emitted by two composting static piles of biosolids coming from the "El Salitre" wastewater treatment plant (Bogotá, Colombia) were analysed during the composting process. Each pile in its sampling time was maintained with a different aeration system. The sampling was made using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME); separation and identifications were made using Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds, ketones, mercaptans, alcohols and amines were identified in concentrations greater than the norms stipulated by the EPA for inhalation in humans beings. The emission behavior varied according to the aeration system used.

  20. Aerobic oxidative amidation of aromatic and cinnamic aldehydes with secondary amines by CuI/2-pyridonate catalytic system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingwen; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Ryohei

    2012-10-19

    A simple and convenient CuI/2-pyridonate catalytic system for the oxidative amidation of aldehydes with secondary amines has been developed. With this system, a variety of useful arylamides have been synthesized in moderate to good yields in the presence of small amount of copper catalyst and the pyridonate ligand, generating only water as a coproduct. Synthesis of cinnamamides was also achieved by the reactions of cinnamaldehydes with secondary amines in moderate yields. Air was successfully employed as a green oxidant in this catalytic system, achieving a safe and atom-efficient system for the synthesis of amides. PMID:23006061

  1. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  2. Influence of combined use of iodide and compost on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the influence of adding iodide (KI) and compost in different soil/compost ratios on the efficiency of Hg phytoextraction by Lepidium sativum L. Plant growth and non-enzymatic antioxidants are studied to understand metabolic plant adaptations to Hg stress during soil reclamation and their relations to Hg accumulation. Due to the use of relatively high chelant dosages in current plant-based soil remediation techniques and associated environmental risks, it is necessary to explore alternative approaches to the phytoextraction of Hg from contaminated soils. The results show a coordinated increase in non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants cultivated in growing media containing polluted soil, compost and KI. This indicates that the non-enzymatic antioxidative defence system of L. sativum L. is involved in its strategy to survive conditions of mercury-induced stress. Adding compost and iodide to Hg polluted soil also increases the total accumulation of Hg by L. sativum L. and the translocation of pollutants to aerial plant tissues. Simultaneous application of compost and KI promoted the Hg accumulation by L. sativum L. in a pot experiment.

  3. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kayleigh; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J.; Hanmore, Jillian; Frazee, James; Tong, Anthony Z.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate.

  4. LCA case study on lawn establishment and maintenance with various peat and compost contents in substrates.

    PubMed

    Silvenius, Frans; Niemeläinen, Oiva; Kurppa, Sirpa

    2016-07-01

    The environmental impacts of the establishment and maintenance of lawn, including the production and use of various substrates, were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA). The project focused on comparing substrates with different peat and compost contents using pilot substrates and developed a calculation tool to optimize landscaping from an ecological perspective. The impact categories were climate change, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, and use of primary energy. Life cycle assessment methodology and ISO standards 14040 and 14044 were used. Two thousand tons of substrates per hectare of lawn area were assumed to be needed; this large amount explains the importance of the substrate properties for all of the impact categories. Degradation of peat was the most significant factor of the influence of climate; thus, the most effective means of reducing the impact of landscaping on climate is to replace peat with compost. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were related to the use of compost, but most of these emissions will occur regardless of how the sludge or biowaste is treated. Ammonia emissions from composting were the most important factor for acidification. The significance of fuel consumption by machinery in lawn establishment and mowing was low. The high contents of N and P in compost-based substrates may lead to high nutrient emissions into water systems, which can have significant local impact. The tool helps optimize substrate contents to minimize the environmental effects. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:459-464. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyperthermal composting microorganisms for feasible application in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2013-05-01

    The composting system is the most efficient method for processing organic waste in space; however, the composting activity of microorganisms can be altered by cosmic rays. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation on composting bacteria was investigated. Sequence analyses of amplified 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and amoA genes were used to identify hyperthermal composting microorganisms. The viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera were Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp., and the fungal genera were Metschnikowia bicuspidata and Pichia guilliermondii. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy did not significantly alter the microbial population. Furthermore, amylase and cellulase activities were maintained after high-dose gamma irradiation. Our results show that hyperthermal microorganisms can be used to recycle agricultural and fermented material in space stations and other human-inhabiting facilities on the Moon, Mars, and other planets.

  6. Managing soil nutrients with compost in organic farms of East Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Soil Fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture. Increasing soil organic matter content through the addition of organic amendments has proven to be a valuable practice for maintaining or restoring soil quality. Organic agriculture relies greatly on building soil organic matter with compost typically replacing inorganic fertilizers and animal manure as the fertility source of choice. In Georgia, more and more attention is paid to the development of organic farming, occupying less than 1% of total agricultural land of the country. Due to increased interest towards organic production the question about soil amendments is arising with special focus on organic fertilizers as basic nutrient supply sources under organic management practice. In the frame of current research two different types of compost was prepared and their nutritional value was studied. The one was prepared from organic fraction municipal solid waste and another one using fruit processing residues. In addition to main nutritional properties both composts were tested on heavy metals content, as one of the main quality parameter. The results have shown that concentration of main nutrient is higher in municipal solid waste compost, but it contains also more heavy metals, which is not allowed in organic farming system. Fruit processing residue compost also has lower pH value and is lower in total salt content being is more acceptable for soil in lowlands of East Georgia, mainly characterised by alkaline reaction. .

  7. Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.; Gukert, D. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

  8. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  9. Performance of five Montreal West Island home composters.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    Even if home composting can eliminate municipal organic waste collection, handling and treatment costs, its compost quality requires investigation outside the laboratory. A study was thus conducted to evaluate the influence of the following management practices on the compost quality produced by five backyards home composters in Montreal West Island from June to October 2010: the type and backyard location of the home composter (HC), and the rate and type of organic waste (OW) fed into the home composter. The parameters monitored were compost temperature and final characteristics including trace elements and pathogens. For all HC compost, maximum but not necessarily thermophilic temperatures were highly probable within one week of adding more than 10 kg of OW composed of equal volumes of food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT). Top and bottom HC perforations enhanced convective aeration but concentrated OW decomposition within the bottom layer. Fed an equal volume of FW and YT, the final HC compost had a dry and organic matter content exceeding 30%, and 50%, respectively, and a total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium level of 2, 1 and 3% on a dry matter basis, representing a good quality soil amendment. Clean OW feeding resulted in compost respecting Canadian and European regulations for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, irrespective of the temperature regime. For trace elements, regulatory limits may be exceeded when the home composter is fed ashes and soil. Homeowners must also be careful when applying pesticides to their lawns and gardens and then feeding the residues to the home composter. PMID:23393981

  10. Performance of five Montreal West Island home composters.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    Even if home composting can eliminate municipal organic waste collection, handling and treatment costs, its compost quality requires investigation outside the laboratory. A study was thus conducted to evaluate the influence of the following management practices on the compost quality produced by five backyards home composters in Montreal West Island from June to October 2010: the type and backyard location of the home composter (HC), and the rate and type of organic waste (OW) fed into the home composter. The parameters monitored were compost temperature and final characteristics including trace elements and pathogens. For all HC compost, maximum but not necessarily thermophilic temperatures were highly probable within one week of adding more than 10 kg of OW composed of equal volumes of food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT). Top and bottom HC perforations enhanced convective aeration but concentrated OW decomposition within the bottom layer. Fed an equal volume of FW and YT, the final HC compost had a dry and organic matter content exceeding 30%, and 50%, respectively, and a total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium level of 2, 1 and 3% on a dry matter basis, representing a good quality soil amendment. Clean OW feeding resulted in compost respecting Canadian and European regulations for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, irrespective of the temperature regime. For trace elements, regulatory limits may be exceeded when the home composter is fed ashes and soil. Homeowners must also be careful when applying pesticides to their lawns and gardens and then feeding the residues to the home composter.

  11. Feasibility study of a passive aeration reactor equipped with vertical pipes for compost stabilization of cow manure.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Youssouf Boundou; Kuroda, Masao; Yamada, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Naoko

    2006-10-01

    Pilot-scale composting was carried out with cow manure to evaluate the performances of two passive aeration systems: a conventional passive aeration system equipped with horizontal pipes and an unusual passive aeration method based on air delivery by means of vertical pipes. The effects of both types of passive aeration apparatus were investigated in order to determine the degree of composting rate by continuously monitoring temperature, moisture content, organic matter, electrical conductivity, pH and C/N ratio in the piles. Temperatures in the range of thermophily (55-65 degrees C) were reached in all runs within 1-2 days then lasting for about 1 week, a span long enough for pathogen abatement. Results suggest that passive aeration carried out by vertical pipes is more effective for air delivery into compost piles than conventional passive aeration of air adduction with horizontal pipes. The variation in the number of vertical pipes was revealed to be an important parameter for the control of composting rate and temperature. Composting rates estimated from the heat balance equation were substantially in agreement with those computed through the conversion ratio of total organic matter decrement. The conversion ratios and composting rates obtained in this study using passive aeration with vertical pipes were well aligned with those found using forced air delivery systems.

  12. Feasibility study of a passive aeration reactor equipped with vertical pipes for compost stabilization of cow manure.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Youssouf Boundou; Kuroda, Masao; Yamada, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Naoko

    2006-10-01

    Pilot-scale composting was carried out with cow manure to evaluate the performances of two passive aeration systems: a conventional passive aeration system equipped with horizontal pipes and an unusual passive aeration method based on air delivery by means of vertical pipes. The effects of both types of passive aeration apparatus were investigated in order to determine the degree of composting rate by continuously monitoring temperature, moisture content, organic matter, electrical conductivity, pH and C/N ratio in the piles. Temperatures in the range of thermophily (55-65 degrees C) were reached in all runs within 1-2 days then lasting for about 1 week, a span long enough for pathogen abatement. Results suggest that passive aeration carried out by vertical pipes is more effective for air delivery into compost piles than conventional passive aeration of air adduction with horizontal pipes. The variation in the number of vertical pipes was revealed to be an important parameter for the control of composting rate and temperature. Composting rates estimated from the heat balance equation were substantially in agreement with those computed through the conversion ratio of total organic matter decrement. The conversion ratios and composting rates obtained in this study using passive aeration with vertical pipes were well aligned with those found using forced air delivery systems. PMID:17121117

  13. Carbon dioxide evolution rate as a method to monitor and control an aerobic biological waste treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Shuler, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental system was developed to study the microbial growth kinetic of an undefined mixed culture in an erobic biological waste treatment process. The experimental results were used to develop a mathematical model that can predict the performance of a bioreactor. The bioreactor will be used to regeneratively treat waste material which is expected to be generated during a long term manned space mission. Since the presence of insoluble particles in the chemically undefined complex media made estimating biomass very difficult in the real system, a clean system was devised to study the microbial growth from the soluble substrate.

  14. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of < 30 can be applied as a nitrogen source in EFB co-composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process. PMID:24527651

  15. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  16. Influence of compost covers on the efficiency of biowaste composting process.

    PubMed

    Marešová, Karolina; Kollárová, Mária

    2010-12-01

    The temperature of matured compost is an indicator of feedstock quality and also a good feedback informing about the suitability of an applied technological procedure. Two independent experiments using the technology of windrow composting at open area were conducted with the final goal to evaluate the effect of compost pile covering (in comparison with uncovered piles) on the course of composting process - behaviour of temperature over time and oxygen content. Two types of sheets were used - Top Tex permeable sheet and impermeable polyethylene sheet. The experiment I (summer months) aimed at comparison of efficiency between the Top Tex sheet cover and the uncovered compost piles, while experiment II (autumn months) compared treatments using the Top Tex sheet and polyethylene sheet by contrast. Within the experiment I the composts consisted of cattle slurry and fresh grass matter at a ratio of 1:1, in case of experiment II consisted of pig/cattle manure, fresh grass matter and chipped material at a ratio of about 1:2:1. The obtained data showed no significant differences among the cover treatments according to ANOVA. The only exception was oxygen content in pile 4 (experiment II) under Top Tex sheet, where a markedly higher oxygen content than under polyethylene sheet was measured during the whole composting period. It was the only case where statistical analysis proved a significant difference; the p-value was 0.0002.

  17. Bioavailability of TNT residues in composts of TNT-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, W.G.; Beaman, J.R.; Walters, D.M.; Creasia, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    Composting is being explored as a means to remediate 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soils. This process appears to modify TNT and to bind it to organic matter. The health hazards associated with dusts generated from such materials cannot be predicted without knowing if the association between TNT residues and compost particulate is stable in biological systems. To address this question, single doses of [{sup 14}C]-TNT, soil spiked with [{sup 14C]-TNT, or compost generated with [{sup 14}C]-TNT-spiked soils were administered to rats by intratracheal instillation. The appearance of {sup 14}C in urine and tissues was taken as an indication of the bioavailability of TNT residues from compost particles. In rats instilled with neat [{sup 14}C]-TNT, about 35% of the {sup 14}C dose appeared in urine within 3 d. The {sup 14}C excreted in urine by these rats decreased rapidly thereafter, and was undetectable by 4 wk after treatment. Similar results were obtained with soil-treated rats. In contrast, after treatment with [{sup 14}C]-TNT-labeled compost, only 2.3% of the total {sup 14}C dose appeared in urine during the first 3 d. Low levels of {sup 14}C continued to be excreted in urine from compost-treated rats for more than 6 mo, and the total amount of {sup 14}C in urine was comparable to that in TNT-treated animals. Determination of the radiolabel in tissues showed that {sup 14}C accumulated in the kidneys of rats treated with labeled compost but not in rats treated with [{sup 14}C]-TNT or [{sup 14}C]-TNT-spiked soil. These results indicate that the association between TNT and particulate matter in compost is not stable when introduced into the lungs. Accumulation of {sup 14}C in kidneys suggests the presence of a unique TNT residue in compost-treated rats. The rate of excretion and tissue disposition of {sup 14}}C in rats treated with TNT-spiked soil indicate that TNT in soil is freely available in the lungs. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Efficient synthesis of biazoles by aerobic oxidative homocoupling of azoles catalyzed by a copper(I)/2-pyridonate catalytic system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingwen; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Ryohei

    2011-12-28

    A highly efficient and convenient CuCl/2-pyridonate catalytic system for oxidative homocoupling of azoles affording a biazole product has been developed. With this system, a variety of biazoles have been effectively synthesized in good to excellent yields in the presence of a very small amount of copper catalyst (1.0 mol%). It was feasible to employ air as a green oxidant. PMID:22076830

  19. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  20. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value.

  1. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value. PMID:26708650

  2. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  3. Two-phase olive mill waste composting: community dynamics and functional role of the resident microbiota.

    PubMed

    Federici, Ermanno; Pepi, Milva; Esposito, Alessandro; Scargetta, Silvia; Fidati, Laura; Gasperini, Simone; Cenci, Giovanni; Altieri, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    In this study, physico-chemical modifications and community dynamics and functional role of the resident microbiota during composting of humid husk from a two-phase extraction system (TPOMW) were investigated. High mineralization and humification of carbon, low loss of nitrogen and complete degradation of polyphenols led to the waste biotransformation into a high-quality compost. Viable cell counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the thermophilic phase was characterized by the strongest variations of cell number, the highest biodiversity and the most variable community profiles. The isolation of tannin-degrading bacteria (e.g. Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Kocuria palustris, Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and Rhodococcus rhodochrous) suggested a role of this enzymatic activity during the process. Taken together, the results indicated that the composting process, particularly the thermophilic phase, was characterized by a rapid succession of specialized bacterial populations with key roles in the organic matter biotransformation.

  4. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    PubMed

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling.

  5. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    PubMed

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling. PMID:20615683

  6. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8% and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system.

  7. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting. PMID:27230139

  8. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting.

  9. Sludge Retention Time as a Suitable Operational Parameter to Remove Both Estrogen and Nutrients in an Anaerobic–Anoxic–Aerobic Activated Sludge System

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qingling; Li, Yongmei; Yang, Shijia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen in wastewater are responsible for a significant part of the endocrine-disrupting effects observed in the aquatic environment. The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the removal and fate of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in an anaerobic–anoxic–oxic activated sludge system designed for nutrient removal was investigated by laboratory-scale experiments using synthetic wastewater. With a hydraulic retention time of 8 h, when SRT ranged 10–25 days, E2 was almost completely removed from water, and EE2 removal efficiency was 65%–81%. Both estrogens were easily sorbed onto activated sludge. Distribution coefficients (Kd) of estrogens on anaerobic sludge were greater than those on anoxic and aerobic sludges. Mass balance calculation indicated that 99% of influent E2 was degraded by the activated sludge process, and 1% remained in excess sludge; of influent EE2, 62.0%–80.1% was biodegraded; 18.9%–34.7% was released in effluent; and 0.88%–3.31% remained in excess sludge. Optimal SRT was 20 days for both estrogen and nutrient removal. E2 was almost completely degraded, and EE2 was only partly degraded in the activated sludge process. Residual estrogen on excess sludge must be considered in the sludge treatment and disposal processes. The originality of the work is that removal of nutrients and estrogens were linked, and optimal SRT for both estrogen and nutrient removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system was determined. This has an important implication for the design and operation of full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:23633892

  10. Comparison of the sensitivities of fish, Microtox and Daphnia-magna bioassays to amoxycillin in anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, H; Sponza, D T

    2012-01-01

    In this study the anaerobic treatability of amoxycillin (AMX) was investigated in a laboratory-scale anaerobic multi-chamber bed reactor (AMCBR)/aerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and AMX removal efficiencies were around 94% in the AMCBR reactor at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) between 2.25 and 5.5 days. Decreasing the HRT appeared not to have a significant effect on the performance of the AMCBR up to a HRT of 1.13 days. The maximum methane production rate and methane percentage were around 1,100-1,200 mL/day and 55%, respectively, at HRTs between 2.25 and 5.5 days. The decrease in HRT to 1.5 days decreased slightly the gas productions (1,000 mL/day and 500 mL for total and methane gases) and methane percentage (45%). The AMCBR recovered back to its baseline performance within a couple of days. The acute toxicity of 150 mg/L AMX was monitored with Daphnia magna, Lepistes sp., and Vibrio fischeri acute toxicity tests. The acute toxicity removals were 98, 96 and 96% for V. fischeri, D. magna and Lepistes sp. in the effluent of the sequential system treating 150 mg/L AMX at HRTs of 2.25-5.5 days. Among the trophic organisms used in the acute toxicity tests the most sensitive organism was found to be bacteria (V. fischeri) while the most resistant organism was found to be fish (Lepistes sp.).

  11. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  12. Cultural, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Analyses of Water-Stressed Cells of Actinobacterial Strains Isolated from Compost: Ecological Implications in the Fed-Batch Composting Process.

    PubMed

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kanosue, Yuji; Hiraishi, Akira

    2016-06-25

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of water activity (aw) on the viability of actinobacterial isolates from a fed-batch composting (FBC) process by comparing culturability and stainability with 5-cyano-2,3-ditoryl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). The FBC reactor as the source of these bacteria was operated with the daily loading of household biowaste for 70 d. During this period of composting, aw in the reactor decreased linearly with time and reached approximately 0.95 at the end of operation. The plate counts of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria were 3.2-fold higher than CTC-positive (CTC+) counts on average at the fully acclimated stage (after 7 weeks of operation), in which Actinobacteria predominated, as shown by lipoquinone profiling and cultivation methods. When the actinobacterial isolates from the FBC process were grown under aw stress, no significant differences were observed in culturability among the cultures, whereas CTC stainability decreased with reductions in aw levels. A cDNA microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of a representative isolate showed that many of the genes involved in cellular metabolism and genetic information processing were down-regulated by aw stress. This result was fully supported by a proteomic analysis. The results of the present study suggest that, in low aw mature compost, the metabolic activity of the community with Actinobacteria predominating is temporarily reduced to a level that hardly reacts with CTC; however, these bacteria are easily recoverable by exposure to a high aw culture medium. This may be a plausible reason why acclimated FBC reactors in which Actinobacteria predominate yields higher plate counts than CTC+ counts. PMID:27246805

  13. Cultural, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Analyses of Water-Stressed Cells of Actinobacterial Strains Isolated from Compost: Ecological Implications in the Fed-Batch Composting Process

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kanosue, Yuji; Hiraishi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of water activity (aw) on the viability of actinobacterial isolates from a fed-batch composting (FBC) process by comparing culturability and stainability with 5-cyano-2,3-ditoryl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). The FBC reactor as the source of these bacteria was operated with the daily loading of household biowaste for 70 d. During this period of composting, aw in the reactor decreased linearly with time and reached approximately 0.95 at the end of operation. The plate counts of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria were 3.2-fold higher than CTC-positive (CTC+) counts on average at the fully acclimated stage (after 7 weeks of operation), in which Actinobacteria predominated, as shown by lipoquinone profiling and cultivation methods. When the actinobacterial isolates from the FBC process were grown under aw stress, no significant differences were observed in culturability among the cultures, whereas CTC stainability decreased with reductions in aw levels. A cDNA microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of a representative isolate showed that many of the genes involved in cellular metabolism and genetic information processing were down-regulated by aw stress. This result was fully supported by a proteomic analysis. The results of the present study suggest that, in low aw mature compost, the metabolic activity of the community with Actinobacteria predominating is temporarily reduced to a level that hardly reacts with CTC; however, these bacteria are easily recoverable by exposure to a high aw culture medium. This may be a plausible reason why acclimated FBC reactors in which Actinobacteria predominate yields higher plate counts than CTC+ counts. PMID:27246805

  14. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  15. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan-li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-bin; Wu, Fang-kun; Niu, Ming-jie; Zou, Ke-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Implications: Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index

  16. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  17. How to enhance humification during composting of separately collected biowaste: impact of feedstock and processing.